Human Security Approach Of Japan, Europe Union, Canada And Norway Iskender Karakaya Japan And Europe Union

Human Security Approach A) JAPAN HUMAN SECURITY APPROACH Japan is a important country post-Cold War period especially in South Asia. At the same time Japan has indeed been playing a larger human security role in post-Cold War in Southeast Asia. This approach that allows the country to play a more active role without arousing anthipathy domestically and regionally .(PENG ER, 2006) In this article, examines a broader concept of security beyond the tradional approach of state centricity and soverignty, regime security, and utility of military power in inter-state conflict in the international system. There have been two major points in Japan Foreign Policy about human security approach for twenty years. They have given Japan to play active human security role in South Asia. First of all, providing massive financial asistance and currency swap arrangements in the aftermath of the 1997 98 Asian financial crisis to stabilize the regional economies and strengthen social and political stability engaging in peacemaking in Cambodia and Aceh, peacebuilding in East Timor, Aceh and Mindanao, offering financial and medical assistance when East Asia was hit by Sars epidemic and deploying the largest contigent of Japanese troops since the end of World War II for humanitarian assitance to tsunami-stricken in 2005. That peacemaking and post-conflict peacebuilding in certain Southeast countries suffering from domestic ethnic and political conflict enables Japan to play an active political and human security role is a fact which is not ver well known. Besides that, in 1997 Prime Minister Fukuda Takeo articulated the Fukuda Doctrine which codified Japan s intent to be an active political player and partner in Southeast Asian affairs.(SUDO, 1992) Secondly, another turning point of Japan Foreign Policy on human security is First Gulf War of 1991 . Japan was criticized both domestically and internationally for implementing passive checkbook diplomacy. Tokyo was humiliated, which motivated it to play a more active and respected role in international affairs. A broad human security framework that encompasses peacemaking post-conflict peacebuilding and the dispatch of troops for humanitarian relief allows Japan to play a more active international role and hold an honoured place in the world following the First Gulf War fiasco. Human Security Concept According to United Nations Development Program(UNDP) noted that: The concept of security has for too long been interpreted too narrowly: as protection of national interests in foreign policy or as global security from the threat of a nuclear holocaust. It has been related more to nation than people. But now, security symbolize for the people; protection from the threat of disease, hunger, unemployment, crime, social conflict, political repression and environmental hazardous. Now, unlike the Cold War period, many conflicts are within nations rather than between nations.(UNDP, 1994) But concept of the human security is criticized(NEUMAN, 2004) There are two reasons why the idea of human security continues to relevant to theorists and practitioners. First while some analyst perceive that human security is not an analytical useful concept, there are many others who do.(ACHARYA, 2004) Second, certain states and NGOs have found the concept attractive and, as practitioners, sought to operationalize it in the real world regardless of the criricisms levelled against the human security concept. In this perspective Tokyo s diplomacy can be characterized as a middle power focusing on human security. Human Security Approach of Japan

Japan anounced US$43 billion then USA was also announced US$30 billion package for Southeast Asia Countries. In the final report of the Commission on Human Security. Human Security Role of Japan a) Official Development Assistance(ODA) As a region of Southeast Asia receive the largest share of Tokyo s Official Development Assistance(ODA). Japan s greatest diplomatic triumph in Southeast Asia was brokering an agreement between the Co Prime Ministers Hun Sen and Prince Ranariddh when civil war threatened to erupt again in July 1997 after Hun Sen launched a violent coup against Ranariddh. b) Addressing the Asian Financial Crises In 1997 1998 There was a huge financial crisis in Southeast Asia. and their top representatives have made at least 16 speeches specifically on Japan and human security. it has also aided the economic and social development of the region. In this regard Canada may use military intervention for preventing genocide and ethnic cleansing etc. . 2004) Japan has advocated the establishment Commission on Human Security and supported the activities of Commission. So. the key recommendations included the protection of people in violent conflict and establishment human security transition funds for post conflict situations The first Japanese Prime Minister to articulate the concept of human security as a principle in Japanese foreign policy was Prime Minister Obuchi Keizo at the Intellectual Dialogue on Building Asia s Tomorrow in December 1998 in Tokyo. mediation. Japanese prime ministers. Sri Lanka. adopts a broader and more development-oriented notion of human security. which also suggests Japan s willingness to exercise active diplomacy in multilateral arenas such as United Nations. This means Tokyo defines human security gives it the oppurtunity to play a leading role not only in Southeast but also the United Nations. 2006) Since 2003. For instance. The Commission has prepared the final report and presented. Japan also established a Trust Fund for Human Security within the United Nations in March 1999. Between 1998 and 2004. Canada. the attempt to reconcile erstwhile combatants through negotiations and compromises facilirted by the good offices. (AK YAMA.Different countries have different approaches of human security. Tokyo s ODA policy has placed greater emphasis on human security and peacebuilding activities in places such as Afghanistan. Cambodia and East Timor. and the offer of post-conflict reconstruction aid by third parties. There was a political problem in Indonesia. Japan provided important economic aid to Sotheast Asia Countries. As Japan Scholar Akiyama said that The introduction of the concept of human security along with global role making are important functions that the United Nations should play in the post-Cold War world. views human security as preventing physical violence against human beings. is closely associated with post-conflict peacebuilding. given its tradition as one of the largest donors of foreign aid in the world and the already mentioned legacy of history. by advocating the concept of human security. Amongs the people There were many problems such as impoverisment and etc. with its tradition of international peacekeeping. But Japan.(PENG ER. c) Peacekeeping and Peacemaking Diplomacy Peacemaking. While ODA is in Japan s own enlightened self-interest and accords with the interests of its business community. foreign ministers.

organized crimes. . and ground forces). failing states. It has earlier dispatched the SDF to Cambodia. d) Sars and Human Security Approach In February 2003. to the worst hit areas. the Europe Union Council agreed a European Security Strategy(ESS). Cambodia. Thailand. resources. Laos. The death toll was probably around 250.Less successful has been Tokyo s attempts to influence and moderate the military unta of Myanmar in its j incarceration of Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and the suppression of the democratic movement. It argues that Europe needs the capability to make a more active contribution to global security. Canada and Singapore. Tokyo can play a positive role in enhancing human security beyond the traditional confines of the US-Japan Alliance. Tokyo may eventually incorporate UN peacekeeping into its conception of human security. In December 2003. Japan generously offered US$500 million to help tsunami victims. Thailand. Tokyo has channelled energy. and Malaysia but also Sri Lanka and the eastern seaboard of Africa. Tokyo s initiatives in Aceh can be interpreted as seeking to play a larger political role commensurate with its economic status after the First Gulf War fiasco and also a response to China s attempts to strengthen its ties with Southeast Asia. air force. Angola. regional conflicts.000 and many more were displaced after the destruction of their homes. It comprises three elements. its biggest package of natural disaster aid ever. Mozambique. the Japanese economy has turned around since 2002 and this turning(or recovery) will help to its human security role in Southeast Asia. The report proposes a Human Sec uirty Doctrine for Europe. especially Aceh. SARS began to rapidly spread to Hong Kong. Conclusion After the long stagnation. the Philippines. Indonesia. Tokyo s strategy is a calibrated approach ofoffering ODA as a reward to the junta for good behaviour. terorism. Considering SARS a threat to the entire international community including Asia. B) EUROPE UN ON HUMAN SECUR TY APPROACH Human Security Approach has been very important subject for recent years within Europe Union. the Golan Heights. Japan dispatched around a thousand troops (navy. andEast Timor for UN peacekeeping and is likely to do so again if the opportunity arises. There are five key threats for Europe Union. the proliferation of WMD. In Southeast Asia. e) Tsunami and Human Security in Aceh In December 2004 a powerful tsunami struck not only the coasts of Indonesia. In this report is about implementation of the ESS. its largest post-war deployment. Tokyo has offered much Money toward the people of the tsunami.. Vietnam. Despite the present interpretation of Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution which constrains the exercise of military force to address international conflict. and diplomatic capital into peacebuilding in Aceh (Lam 2004). Japan provided approximately 2 billion yen in assistance to China and various Southeast Asian countries (Vietnam. Tokyo has been cutting back on its ODA disbursements due to financial difficulties. and Myanmar). El Salvador. which advocates preventive engagement and effective multilateralism. In recent years.

the European Union security policy should be built on human security and not only state security. These are: · Gravity and urgency of situation. Human beings have a right to live with dignity and security. Guatemala and Palestine. This statement is restated in Universal Decleration of Human Rights and range of human treaties all member of Europe Union have ratified. In practice the enlightened self-interest case for adopting a human security approach comes very close to the moral and legal cases. as well as the securtiy approach of the nation states. East Timor or Sierra Leone. There are some actors that they should be taken into account in order to prioritise certain situations over others. and it is not acceptable that human lives become cheap in desperate situations. . disappreances. These tasks include joint disarmament operations. The examples of first reason are Kosovo. the use of legal instruments. classic military interventions have been aimed at defeating enemy whether the enemy is defined as insurgents or repressive dictators. inhuman and degrading treatment. Articles 55 and 56 of United Nations Charter enjoin states to promote universal respect for. multilateralism. and the appropriate use of force. Secondly. We have seen many activities in these areas that it has been done by Europe Union Countries. First reason is based on morality . Such operations are somewhere between classic peacekeeping and classic military intervention but different from both. humanitarian and rescue tasks. Yugoslavia.000 men and women of whom at least one third would be civillian. which is why this approach should now ne considered as a form of realism. military advice and assistance tasks. There will be Human Security Volunteer Service as well. A human security approach for the Europe Union means that it should contribute to the protection of every individual human being and not focus only on the defence of the Union s borders. These situations fall under the rubric of the Petersberg tasks. slavery and crimes etc. A Human Security Response Force composed of 15. the primacy of human rights. 2004) Human Security Approach and Europe Union b) c) Europe Union Human Security Approach is more similar with the Canadian Human Security Approach freedom from fear . In the new global context. (SOLANO. The third reason for adopting a human security approach is enlightened self-interest . A new legal framework to govern both the decision to intervene and operations on the ground. Of course Europe security policy is grounded in pragmatism. All human life is of equal worth. clear political authority. and oberservance of human rights. included in the Amsterdam Treaty in 1997 and expanded in the new Constitution. There are three reasons why the Europe Union should adopt the a human securtiy concept. A second reason is legal . These are genocide. Firstly.a) There are seven principles. wide-spread or systematic torture. regional focus. agreed by the Western European Union in Bonn in 1992. not just idealism. a bottom-up approach. classic peacekeeping operations were based on the notion of keeping the peace between armed combatants. Human Security Enforcement The report is also containing situations where Europe Union forces might be deployed. conflict prevention and peace-keeping tasks and crisis management.

In the military field. discover mistakes. multilateralism entails a commitment to common ways of working and agreed rules and norm: creating common rules and norms. but its meaning should also trickle down to operational force levels. including local broadcasting and publications. Principle 2: Clear Political Authority The central goal of human security strategy has to be the establishment of legitimate political authortiy capable of upholding human security. risks. Secondly. Thirdly. respond the new intiatives etc. and enforcing the rules. and soldiers and civilians in the field alike. Historic ties and historic responsibilities Public concern and public pressure. When authoritarianism breaks down. the alternatives are international. Principle 4: The bottom-up Approach The bottom-up approach is a method of on-the-job learning. to explain the mission. it refers to the know-how of fighting. the principles should apply to both ends and means. it is about the implementation of strategy and its link with tactics. We understand multilateralism to have a much more comprehensive meaning than acting with a group of states . receive new information. Likewise. politicians in the member states. national and local governance based on consent.· · · · Practically of the mission. In here. solving problems through rules and cooperation. Principle 3: Multilateralism Principles applies first and foremost to the actions of politicians and diplomats. multilateralism also has to include coordination rather than duplication and rivalry. town hall meetings. and question and answer sessions. The ESS rightly places much emphasis on the prevention of crises as opposed to the doctrine of pre-emption . The principles for European security policy should therefore apply to a continuum of phases of varying degrees of violence that always involves elements of both prevention and reconstruction. the focus tends to be on goals. diplomats. Principle 1: The Primacy of human rights The primacy of human rights is what distinguishes the human security approach from traditional state -based approaches. The last sentece means a commitment to work with international institutions and through the procedures of international institutions. . various techniques can be used. chances of success and availability of the other actors. the set of principles proposed below is intended to guide the actions of high-level EU officials. This principle has far-reaching implications for military tactics. Special responsibility for neigbouring countries. or state failure. In discussions about security. The primacy of human rights also implies that those commit gross human rights violations are treated as individual criminals rather than collective enemies. Finally. A) Principles for a New European Security Doctrine The word doctrine tends to mean a body of knowledge that is taught or used for instruction.

demobilisation and reintegration (DDR). The focus of this report is stabilising the situation and dimininhing human insecurity tasks which tend to be described as law and order or public security. an integrated civil military force is most suitable for carrying out human security missions. The force should be roughly the size of a division. This logic should be appreciated by the military. Minumum force suggests for instance that it would be an over-raction to kill someone who threatens violence when an arrest can be made. puts troops at more immediate risk than using overhelming force. the aim should be to protect people and minimise all casualties. and. Because nothing should undermine the inherent right of self-defence. This principle implies that terrorists. human right violators and drug traffickers are subject to legal procedure. Besides. composed of both military and civilians. the importance of a bottom-up approach has been recognised to some extent in recent years. transitional justice. A regional focus is not only an issue for intelligence-gatherers or diplomats. the use of minimal and precise force. they need to be coordinated. and they are not sufficiently linkep up. B) Human Security Response Force Integrated capabilities for integrated tasks Tasks include the (re)establishment of law and order. But it doesnt suggest that the use of force is to be avoided under all circumstances. war criminals. 15. command system We propose the creation of a Human Security Response Force. institution-building. composition. These efforts each fall under a different mission however. making use of various capabilities that already exist within the ESDP framework. A continuos regional focus could instead allow succesful practices to spread quickly from one locality to the next. and so on. Hence. it also has operational implications. Particularly international law as an instrument doesnt pertain just to diplomatic fora and decisions concerning whether to intervene: they are at the core of how operations should be conducted. in the line principle 1. . minimum force is key. Tasks cannot be neatly categorised in seperate boxes. humanitarian aid. Principle 6: Use of legal instruments Use of Law is very important for Europe Union s Human Security Approach .000 personnel. Tasks should be identified and implemented in a holistic way.The bottom-up approach suggests a rethinking of intelligence and communications policy. independent media and education. For these reasons. (primacy of human rights) and principle 6 (legal instruments). On the other hand. of course. There are many efforts in Balkans and Kosovo. the politicians and the general public. In any war. support for civil society. disarmament. Size. The force would be composed of three tiers. Principle 7: Appropriate use of force Classic warfare is between sides. at the same time. Principle 5: Regional Focus Regional focus has a sub-state dimension. reconstruction. All these tasks requirehighly specialised skills.

above nation or homeland maintaining the military spirit of sacrifice. is hindered by the absence of a single and coherent body of international law governing foreign deployments. The report has posited a human security doctrine for Europe. Secondly. deployed personnel should be subject to the domestic law of the host state. particularly transport. empathy and enabling others respect for and knowledge of law. extremely weakness and remained unimplemented today. for both military and civillian use. particulary between human rights and humanitarian law to be understand Conclusion This report has sought to argue that human security is vitally connected to the security of Europeans. The framework would need to encompass the following issues: First of all. international human rights law and international humanitarian law. there is materiel equipment. Training and cultural ethos The new type of human security officer will be highly skilled and flexible about the kinds of tasks that need to be carried out. a new legal framework build on. Mainly. which will require the following elements: putting individual human beings. and that the European Union therefore has a critical interest in developing capabilities to make a contribution to global human security. The proposals seek to improve Europe s capacity for external personnel deployment. individual responsibility. However. an EU legal framework should bring clarity to p ossible conflicts between different forms of international law. operating within international law. discipline and excellence but combining it with the civilian spirit of listening. relating to observation. Secondly. Thirdly. international criminal law. police and aid-workers. The third tier would consist of the remaining 10. legal framework needs to address differences in member states domestic law that could lead to unequal treatment of deployed personnel.The first tier would build on the existing civil-military planning headquarters in Brussels. doctrine is ambitious. . who would be at a lower level of readiness but neverthless could be called on for deployment and who would prediodically train and exercise together. According to my opinion. starting with seven principles that should inform European security policy from the level of politicians to the level of common soldiers. it will need a European capacity to produce two basic types of equipment. heroism. in particular human rights and humanitarian law and general principles of criminal law ewareness of gender dimensions of conflict and intervention Legal Frameork The capacity of the EU to act a norms-promoter . whoever they might be. just like the local population. The second tier would consist of at high level of readiness able to deploy within days. The first is ICT equipment. furthering international law and using legal instruments to enhance security. which needs to be able to operate autonomously. Equipment A human security force relies primarily on smart manpower rather than high-tech gadgetry. information-gathering and telecommunications.000 personel. domestic law of host and sending state. The new units will have to develop a common ethos.

preventing transnational crime is a crucial point for stabilization in both domestic and international politics. security symbolized protection from the threat of disease. Finally. people-centered security policy enhances national and international security. (2) Protection of civilians. On the contrary. (3) Conflict prevention. crime. Canada supports and is active to implement decisions and actions of the United Nations Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee and the G8 Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. hunger. First of all. In this regard. political repression and environmental hazards (UNDP. 1994: 22). In accordance with Canadian approach to human security.Assumption of the structural changes to the EU s foreign policy mechanism provided by the Constitutional Treaty . Canada emphasizes the importance of international framework for counter-terrorism actions. 2000: 13). Canada s Human Security Program was established by Government of Canada to implement Canadian Human Security Approach and focus on challenges to human security in 1999 in accordance with foreign policy priorities of Canada. concept of security broadened. The fight against organised crime has emerged a key priority for Canada in strengthening human security at home and abroad (DFAIT. (4) Governance and accountability. For many of them. (5) Peace support operations. people search for security in their daily lives. social conflict. Canada mentioned this problematique on the agenda of . 2001. human security is not less important than state security.But CT hasn t been accepted yet. There are five foreign policy priorites for advancing human security related to Canadian Approach: (1) Public safety. 2000: 12). This includes traficking in people. This work includes ongoing efforts by Canada and others. drugs. because. the concern of human security is related to putting people first. alleviating humanitarian crises. The concept of security has for too long been interpreted narrowly: as security of territory from external aggression. weapons and other commodities. including p artners in the G-8. A) PUBLIC SAFETY 1) TERRORISM After the event of September 11. such as financial and economic crime (DFAIT. to urge worldwide ratification and adherence to the 12 conventions dealing with a range of terrorist acts (DFAIT. C) CANADIAN APPROACH TO HUMAN SECURITY Canada has taken human security as the paradigm for its foreign policy and has taken a leadership role in operationalizing it (ALKIRE. promotes human development and well-being. In the 21st century. In this regard. 2003: 20). Canada attempts to maintain the framework of human security which is including promoting human rights. What s more. 2000: 13).Canadian counter-terrorism efforts integrates with respect for human rights. Canda aims to build upon and expand the existing international counter-terrorism to address this scourge and the impact it has on people and societies (DFAIT. 1994: 22). In accordance with Canadian human security approach. doctrine shows us Europe Union s Human Security Approach and Initiatives. it was understood that terrorism include boundry. as well as activities that may be indirectly threatening. supporting international peacekeeping and encouraging disarmament. Indeed. this definition points out that there has been state-centered security definition for a long time until at the end of Cold War. and what s more. or as protection of national interests in foreign policy or as global security from the threat of a nuclear holocaust (UNDP. Criminal syndicates have become more sophisticated and are increasingly diversifying into areas of crime that threaten the safety of people (DFAIT. there is gradually a tiny tranperant border between domestic and international politics. 2000: 12). 2000: 12). Canadian approach to human security reflects explicitly the evolution of security as a concern. unemployment. 2) TRANSNATIONAL CRIME The spread of transnational organised crime has a negative effect on globalisation to open borders and to operate markets. Currently.

demobilization and reintegration strategies (CANADA DFAIT. 2002: 6). Canada launched the independent International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) in September 2000 (CANADA DFAIT. 2000: 9). Combatants often deliberately set out to injure. 2002: 6). kill or displace civilians (DFAIT. In this regard. 2001). Canada is assisting efforts all around the world such as helping finalize the Firearms Protocol. Related to this point. Africa and preventing money laundering with the Financial Action Task Force. 2002: 5). 2002: 6). Currently. are often carried out with impunity. focusing on the control of small arms transfers. for complicated power struggles involving opposing warlords or clans (MACRAE. the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force. There is linkage between protection of civilians and humanitarian intervention. In addition. the mass killings in Srebrenica. Canada has taken a three-pronged approach. small arms is the reason for violence and conflicts to get worse. a series of governmental and NGO initiatives have focused on finding common ground on the issue of military intervention for the protection of civilians and Canada is committed to promoting follow-up efforts based on the responsibility to protect within the UN and at a regional level (CANADA DFAIT. 2) THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT After the genocide in Rwanda. smuggling of migrants. and by supporting regional conferences in South America. and East Timor (1264). victimization of civilians in these ty pe of conflicts has increased a lot. C) 1) CONFLICT PREVENTION SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS Small arms are centrol to killing thousands of people each year and the majority civilian people. Despite numerous provisions under international law. In response to this challenge. It was designed to begin building a new global consensus on a human protection role for the international community (CANADA DFAIT. In these new conflicts.the G7 at the Halifax Summit in 1995. B) PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS 1) PROTECTION FOR WAR-AFFECTED POPULATIONS In contemporary armed conflicts. because. Canadian approach related to this sub-topic also includes the link between small arms and gender-based violence and called for international action to address the specific needs of child soldiers. the civilians are not only pawns. including specific references authorizing peacekeepers to intervene where the safety of people was at risk (GOLDBERG/HUBERT. They are the victim of ethnic cleansing and genocide. Then. 2002: 6). 2001: 21). and vehicles. civilian possession and criteria for small arms transfers (CANADA DFAIT. 2002: 5). the transnational criminal aspects of proliferation. and peacebuilding dimensions the latter being generally concerned with the factors that drive demand and that relate to disarmament. Canadian leadership has also resulted in firm commitments to the protection of civilians in Security Council Resolutions on Kosovo (1244). Sierra Leone (1260). it continued with Lyon Group. they are often targets. the Kosovo crisis in 1999 became reason for debate when humanitarian is warranted. Since the Kosovo crisis.General Kofi Annan called for a new international consensus to reconcile the sovereignty of states with the fundamental imperative to protect civilians from massive abuse and suffering (CANADA DFAIT. 2002: 7). Canada differs from Japan. In particular. small arms and public health. Canada will continue to work actively with like-minded partners to advance a people-centred approach to the small arms issue by addressing issues such as security sector reform. UN Secretary. Canada was cenral to negotiating the UN Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime and its three Protocols on traficking in persons. new forms of aggression increasingly victimize civilian populations (DFAIT. and firearms. attacks against civilians. Civilians are always victim of conflicts between clans or ethnic conflicts. Canadian human security approach includes military intervention to prevent ongoing systhematic violations of human rights and to implement peace-making. including humanitarian workers. . and how to authorize and conduct it. Prevention of the spread of small arms need to be implemented global and regional action plans.

Diamaonds are not only one sort of natural resources affecting armed conflict. 2002: 8). 2002: 11). 2002: 11). 2002: 8). crimes against humanity and war crimes. E) 1) PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS WOMEN. security sector reform refers to helping improve the effectiveness. broader international measures are needed to ensure systematic and effective response to other war-related commodities and to the s sophisticated financial networks through which they are laundered (CANADA DFAIT. In addition. (CANADA DFAIT. Canada was the first country in the world to adopt comprehensive implementing legislation (the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act) (CANADA DFAIT. the G8 Africa Action Plan was agreed in Kananaskis in 2002. Canada is absolutely active to establish and participate committees for emphasizing the importance of women in peacebuilding such as assisting women in Afghanistan by the Canadian Committee in the context of broader peacebuilding. the Council adopted Resolution 1325 on Women and Security (CANADA DFAIT. D) GOVERNANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY 1) INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT During past century. 202: 9). 1998 (CANADA DFAIT. Canada played a prominent role in the adaption of the Roma Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC). tropical timber. The individuals played definitely important roles in these conflicts caused the death of thousands of people. The importance of preventation of these types of crimes was supposed to be held accountable. 2002: 9). Canada established partnership with ECOWAS (Canada-Economic Community of West Africa) to give 15 millions dollars to promote community based security in the region. In particular. 2002: 10). Given these economic incentives. frequently through the exploitation of high value resources including diamonds. factions often oppose peace negotiations and prolong wars with tragic implications for civilian populations (CANADA DFAIT. About implementation the Rome Statute. especially in countries emerging from conflict (CANADA DFAIT. there were a lot of conflicts which victimized civilian populations. Ignoring gender dynamics and excluding women from peace negotiations inhibits the implementation of the resulting agreements (CANADA DFAIT. there has been held workshops to inform developing countries to be party of statute. Consequently. The importance of security sector reform aims at protecting the safety of individauls and carrying out their legitimate duties humanely in accordance with the norms of a free and democratic society. Canada seeks to deploy the full and equal participation of women in all dimensions of peacebuilding.2) ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS OF CONFLICT Profit rather than political power is a growing mativation for violence in many contemporary armed conflicts. these conflicts caused ethnic cleansing and genocide. Just over two years later. which was adopted by 120 countries on July 17. 2) SECURITY SECTOR REFORM For Canada. During our tenure on the Security Council. . The ICC has jurisdiction over genocide. especially diamonds in Africa. PEACE AND SECURITY Improving the effectiveness of modern multi-disciplinary peace support operations requires ensuring that the human rights of women and girls are not compromised. 2002: 8). narcotics and humanitarian aid (CANADA DFAIT. affordability and accountability of security institutions abroad. In this regard. including the negotiation and implementation of peace agreements. 2002: 11). Wars create an environment in which some armed groups and other non-state actors seek to accumulate wealth. there is a linkage between armed conflicts and natural resources.

and peace operations (LODGAARD. on limiting the spread of small arms. The origin of the Network has emerged during negotiation of the Ottawa Convention on Antiperlsonnel Landmines. is an to institutionalize a coalition of the willing to motivate internatonal action on a broad range of human security initiatives (SMALL. and on establishing international structures for criminal justice (PETERSEN. the donor group for Palestinians which brings together major donors. international humanitarian law. 2005). In this regard. And. launched in 1998. B) HUMANITARIAN EFFORTS Humanitarian efforts are central to Norwegian foreign policy in accordance with protection of civilians to support peace and reconciliation processes. including child soldiers. with its emphasis on protecting. fostering democracy and good governance to control core elements (landmines. 2003: 21). A) PEACE BUILDING In Norway s Foreign Policy in accordance with human security. now as chair of the AHCL. freedom and human rights everywhere. we played role in the Middle East peace process through the Oslo Channel . There has been the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission headed by Norway and including observers to assist the parties in their efforts to solve problems before witnessing escalating conditions of them. D) NORWEGIAN APPROACH TO HUMAN SECURITY Norway likewise focusses on the freedom from fear aspects of human security. preventing conflict. both at home and abroad. and we were stil engaged in Colombia and Haiti. After signing of the Ottawa Treaty. promoting human rights. We stil play a role in the region. The Human Security Network cooperates with international organization and has persuasive voice how to implement successful human security agenda. Norway is sharing same foreingn policy directions with Canada to persue democracy. and identifies a core agenda of preventive action. the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The UN has a key role in the Government s humanitarian policy. there is a priority on international peace and security peace-helping not making and peace-keeping. After all procedures. human rights. 2001). child labour). small arms and light weapons control. Normay has attempted to involve the peace process between the government of Sri Lanka and the Tamil Tigers for the past years. Canadian and Norwegian foreign ministers thought that partnership could include other issues related to human security. small arms proliferation. In Latin America we were involved in the process in Guatemala. fort he rapid identification and deployment of high calibre experts (CANADA DFAIT. In Asia. Both nations found human security. . Norway and Canada have co-operated closely on trying to solve the problem caused by landmines. political action. strengthening humanitarian law. a Canada-Norway Partnership for Action: The Lysoen Declaration emerged. 2001). gender dimensions in peacebuilding. apart from Sri Lanka we are engaged in Ethiopia/Eritrea in Sudan. THE HUMAN SECURITY NETWORK The Human Security Network. CANADEM is central to deploy experts to contribute to international peace support operations and other field missions. perhaps most notably. to be useful in highlighting new and necessary aspects of security from violent opposition (ALKIRE.2) EXPERT DEPLOYMENT Canada recognizes the need to build capacity. children in armed conflict. the Quartet. rather than a substitute for. 2002: 12). Supporting the Red Cross and NGOs is also an important part of Norway s humanitarian efforts (NORWAY MFA). Partnership agenda embodies enhancing human security. International Criminal Court. Israel and the Palestinians (PETERSEN. 2005). The Government emphasises that humanitarian assistance should be a supplement to.

141-159. no. no. Nobumasa(2004). (Presented to Javier Solana. MACRAE.). MACRAE. Human Security and The New Diplomacy: Protecting People. Rob/HUBERT (eds. PENG ER. Michael (2001). 9)Case Study: The Security Council and the Protection of Civilians. Promoting Peace (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press). First Annual Canada Prize Symposium. Rob (2001). GOLDBERG. MACRAE. MACRAE. Rob/HUBERT (eds. UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (UNDP). 3) PETERSEN. (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies) UNDP (1994). NEUMAN. Elizabeth/HUBERT.) SUDO. Japan s Human Security Role in Southeast Asia .(1994). The Barcelona Report of theStudy Group on Europe s Security Capabilities . No. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press) www. Perspectives on International Peace and Security . Freedom from Fear: Canada s Foreign Policy for Human Security (Canada: DFAIT). 19. Rob/HUBERT (eds. Chapter 2: New Dimensions of Human Security. Freedom from Fear: Canada s foreign policy for human Security (Canada: DFAIT). (Human Development Report.miniatlasofhumansecurity. CANADA DFAIT (2002). Human Security and The New Diplomacy: Protecting People. A Normatively Attractive but Analytically Weak Concept . (Contemporary Southeast Asia Vol 28. Promoting Peace (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press). New Dimensions of Human Security . Edward(2004).info . Human Security and The New Diplomacy: Protecting People. Don (2001). Hiroshima: Institute for Peace Science of Hiroshima University) CANADA DFAIT (2000). 1) Human Security in a Globalized World.). AK YAMA. Barcelona 15 September 2004) ALKIRE. (Oxford: CRISE). (Vancouver: University of British Columbia). A Conceptual Framework for Human Security . 9) Case Study: The Human Security Network. (IPSHU English Research Report Series. The Fukuda Doctrine and ASEAN: New Dimensions in Japanese Foreign Policy . Norway Peace SMALL. Lam(2006). CRISE Working Paper 2. Human Development Report (New York: Oxford): 22-46. 1.SOURCES A HUMAN SECUR TY DOCTR NE FOR EUROPE (2004). Jan (2005). (Security Dialogue 35.). Promoting Peace (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press). Sueo(1992). Sabina (2003). s. Human Security at the Crossroad: Human Security in the Japanese Foreign Policy Context .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful