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Submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for the award of the degree of the


K.BALAJI 081131201026
K.BASKARAN 081131201038
V.DHANASEKAR 081131201054
R.DHIVAKAR 081131201057


REG. NO. :.

SEC : .
Dr. M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute

(Dr. M. G. R. University)
Maduravoyal, Chennai 600 095.
November 2015.
CHENNAI 600 095.


REG. NO. :.

SEC : .


This is to certify that the project work entitled

is a bonafide record of project work done by,
K.BALAJI 081131201026
K.BASKARAN 081131201038
V.DHANAASEKAR 081131201054
R.DHIVAKAR 081131201057

Students of B.Tech, (Mechanical) during the academic year 2014-2015

(Signature of the supervisor) (Signature of the Head of the Department)

Mr. G. Rajamahendran, B.E,(M.E), Professor Mr. M. Ganesan,

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Dr. MGR university, Dr. MGR university

Submitted for the project Viva-Voice Examination held on __________

Internal Examiner External Examiner


We wish to expand our sincere thanks and our whole-hearted gratitude to the

following persons. At the outset, we would like to convey our grateful thanks to our

Chairman Mr. A.C. Shanmugam, our Pro-Chancellor Mr. A.C.S.Arun Kumar, our

Vice-Chancellor Dr.Padmanaban. We profusely thank Prof.Mr. Ganeshan, Head of

the Department, Mechanical Engineering, for his imperceptible guidance and

implications, without which our project would not have been sculpted successfully.

We express our heartfelt thanks to Mr. Rajamahendran, for his invaluable

guidance, utmost patience, inspirational coordination and constant encouragement in
completing this project successfully.

To design and manufacture a working model of Scotch yoke


To get a practical exposure of machine tools and other

manufacturing equipments.

The most important objective function is to minimize the cost and overcome problems

come into small industry for its rate of production

(1) The main objective of this project is to reduce the human effort for machining
various materials.
(2) The basic principles of power driven hacksaw or two way hacksaw is Scotch Yoke
(3) The objective of this project is to save man power and time in cutting materials in
order to achieve high productivity.
(4) By using scotch yoke Mechanism we can operate four hacksaw at same time.
Literature Review:-
Literature Review:-
The vast review of literature will help to understand the concepts, theorems and
different factors affecting the performance of machine:-
3.1 Dharwa Chaitanya Kirtikumar:-
In this paper we study about the designed and developed a multipurpose machine
which does not require electricity for several operations like cutting, grinding, etc. this
is a human powered machine runs on chain drives mainly with human efforts. But if
you wanted to operate this machine by electric power this machine can also does that.
It has some special attachment so use both human power as well as electric power.
The design is idle for use in the developing world because it doesnt require electricity
and can be built using metal base, chain, pulley, rubber belt, foot pedal electric motor,
chain socket.
3.2 R. Subash, K Samuel Jayakaran (2014) :-
In this paper author has designed pedal operated hacksaw machine which can be used
for industrial applications and households needs in which no specific input energy or
power is needed. This project consist of sprocket arrangement, crank and slider
mechanism, and chain drive. In the mechanism, chain derive is directly connected to
the hacksaw for the processing of cutting the wooden blocks. The objective of the
paper is using the conventional mechanical process which plays a vital role. The main
aim is to reduce the human effort for machining various materials such as wooden
blocks, steel, PVC, etc.
3.3 Prof. Nitinchandra, R. Patel, Ravi Thakkar:-
In his paper Material Selection And Testing Of hacksaw Blade Based On
Mechanical Properties stated that the appropriate saw blade must be selected for
better operation and fine cutting by selecting number of teeth per inch. There are four
blades based on materials namely listed below:-
High Carbon Steel
Alloy Steel
Bi-Metallic Strip

High Speed Steel

Out of this four best suitable for cutting hard materials like mild steel bar and
aluminum is bi-metallic blade on the basis of properties of materials, wear resistance
and cutting performance.

It is required to machine the round or square rod on different machines to make

different machine components like shaft, bolts and screws etc. for a mass production
there is need to cut the raw material into number of pieces and this is conventionally
perform on a power hack saw or simple hack saw machine which consume more time.
To achieve this process within a less time the dual hack saw using scotch yoke
mechanism is developed.

This project proposes the model of two way hacksaw machine which is
able to cut two pieces (may be of same or different material) simultaneously with a
very less time consumption. The model using DC motor for its operation. Conversion
of rotary motion of dc motor into reciprocating motion is obtained by using scotch
yoke mechanism . This model can perform a cutting operation on two different
components of different material simultaneously. It becomes very useful in industry
due to its efficiency, reliability and compatibility.

Optimum selection of cutting conditions importantly contribute to the increase of

productivity by minimization of production time and the associated costs, therefore
utmost attention is paid to this problem in this contribution. Time is the most
important parameter in any operation and all the manufacturing firms aim at producing
a product in minimum time to reach the customer quickly and enhance the customer
satisfaction. This can be achieved by using optimization techniques. The success of an
optimization technique does not lie in its complexity but the time in which it provides
a solution to the manufacturing firms.

To convert rotary motion into Reciprocatory motion in a simple

harmonic manner.

To build a working model which can be fabricated easily using

the available tools and machinery.

The Scotch yoke is a mechanism for converting the linear motion of a

slider into rotational motion or vice-versa. The piston or other
reciprocating part is directly coupled to a sliding yoke with a slot that
engages a pin on the rotating part. The shape of the motion of the
piston is a pure sine wave over time given a constant rotational speed.

This mechanism is an inversion of the double slider crank

mechanism. The inversion is obtained by fixing either the link 1 or
link 3. In Fig, link 1 is fixed. In this mechanism, when the link 2
(which corresponds to crank) rotates about B as centre, the link 4
(which corresponds to a frame) reciprocates. The fixed link 1
guides the frame.

Other inversions of the double slider crank mechanism include

Oldham coupling and elliptical trammel.


This linkage is being called by a Scotsman in 1869 a "crank and

slot-headed sliding rod But now it is known as a Scotch yoke
because, in America at least, a "Scotch" was a slotted bar that
was slipped under a collar on a string of well-drilling tools to
support them while a section was being added
In 1940 Russell Bourke applied this mechanism to the internal
combustion engine called Bourke 30 engine

Suppose crankshaft is rotating

at an angular velocity .

If r is the radius of the crank then,
Tangential velocity, v= r.

From the mechanism we have the following relation;

Component of tangential velocity in Y-direction is given by;

u = Reciprocating velocity of U-Slot.

If is the angle made by the tangential velocity with X-Axis at any

point of time,

Component of tangential velocity in Y direction is u = rsin.

u = v.sin

So, velocity of U-Slot= rsin.

As a result, Velocity of U-Slot is a sine function of .

Now as we know, is directly proportional to time. This implies velocity

of U-Slot is a sine function of time. Hence, the motion of U-Slot is a
simple harmonic motion.

Advantage of SHM

The sinusoidal motion, cosinusoidal velocity, and sinusoidal

acceleration (assuming constant angular velocity) results in smoother
operation of the mechanism.
IIn mechanical construction, the means employed to transmit and modify motion in a
machine or any assemblage of mechanical parts. The chief characteristic of the
mechanism of a machine is that all members have constrained motion; i.e., the parts
can move only in a determinate manner relative to one anotherIn

Scotch Yoke Mechanism

The Scotch yoke is a mechanism for converting the linear motion of a slider into rotational
motion or vice-versa. The piston or other reciprocating part is directly coupled to a sliding yoke with
a slot that engages a pin on the rotating part. The shape of the motion of the piston is a pure sine
wave over time given a constant rotational speed.

Figure 1.1 Sectional view of Scotch yoke mechanism

m , the
Figure 1Front view of Scotch Yoke Mechanism construction

means employed to
transmit and modify
motion in a machine or any
assemblage of mechanical
parts. The chief
characteristic of the
mechanism of a machine is
that ALL
This unit consists of following parts ;
1. 24VDC motor with built in gear box
2. 24 VDC power supply
3. Two numbers of hacksaw with blade
4. Crank disc with motor coupler
5. Yoke
6. M.S. Fabricated stand
This DC motor is shunt type 24V DC motor. This motor is having built in type speed
reduction gear box unit. It has high torque and low speed capacity. The electrical
supply to the motor is from 24V DC power supply. The DC Motor drives the Crank
wheel mechanism.

2. 24 VDC power supply

e., A 12 0 -12 V AC step down transformer is used to stepdown 230V AC to

12V AC or 24 V AC .This 24V AC supply is converted to 24V DC using four

rectifier diodes. .This voltage is used for supply for the DC motor.

When AC is applied to the primary winding of the power transformer, it can

either be stepped down or stepped up depending on the value of DC needed. In our

circuit the transformer of 230V/12-0-12V is used to perform the step down operation

where a 230V AC appears as 24V AC across the secondary winding. Apart from

stepping down voltages, it gives isolation between the power source and power supply



In the power supply unit, rectification is normally achieved using a solid state

diode. Diode has the property that will let the electron flow easily in one direction at

proper biasing condition. As AC is applied to the diode, electrons only flow when the

anode and cathode is negative. Reversing the polarity of voltage will not permit
electron flow. A commonly used circuit for supplying large amounts of DCpower is

the bridge rectifier. A bridge rectifier of four diodes (4 x IN4007) are used to achieve

full wave rectification. Two diodes will conduct during the negative cycle and the

other two will conduct during the positive half cycle, and only one diode conducts. At

the same time one of the other two diodes conducts for the negative voltage that is

applied from the bottom winding due to the forward bias for that diode. In this circuit

due to positive half cycle D1 & D2 will conduct to give 0.8V pulsating DC. The DC

output has a ripple frequency of 100Hz. Since each alteration produces a resulting

output pulse, frequency = 2 x 50 Hz. The output obtained is not a pure DC and

therefore filtration has to be done.

The DC voltage appearing across the output terminals of the bridge rectifier will

be somewhat less than 90% of the applied rms value. Normally one alteration of the

input voltage will reverse the polarities. Opposite ends of the transformer will

therefore always be 180 degree out of phase with each other. For a positive cycle, two

diodes are connected to the positive voltage at the top winding.


Filter circuits which is usually capacitor acting as a surge arrester always follow
the rectifier unit. This capacitor is also called as a decoupling capacitor
3. Two numbers of hacksaw with blade
The sawing machine is a machine tool designed to cut material to a desired length or
contour. It functions by drawing a blade containing cutting teeth through the work piece. The sawing
machine is faster and easier than hand sawing and is used principally to produce an accurate square
or mitered cut on the work piece.

The power hacksaw and the handsaw are two common types of sawing machines used to cut metal in
the machine shop .The power hacksaw uses a reciprocating (back and forth) cutting action similar to
the one used in a hand hacksaw. The power hacksaw is used for square or angle cutting of stock, The
band saw uses a continuous band blade. A drive wheel and an idler wheel support and drive the

Fig 11 Hacksaw

The selections of the blade depend upon the materials which have to cut by the
hacksaw. These blades are ideal to use when the work is held securely and the blade is not subjected
to bending and twisting stresses. They hold the edge when cutting hard to machine Alloys,
maintaining straightness of the cut. The blades are uniformly hardened throughout.
The most common blade is the 12 inch or 300 mm length. Hacksaw blades have two
holes near the ends for mounting them in the saw frame and the 12 inch / 300 mm dimension refers
to the center to center distance between these mounting holes.
12 Inch Blade
Hole to Hole: 11 7/8 inches / 300 mm
Overall blade length: 12 3/8 inches / 315 mm (not tightly controlled)
Mounting Hole diameter: 9/64 to 5/32 inch / 3.5 to 4 mm (not tightly controlled)
Blade Width: 7/16 to 33/64 inch / 11 to 13 mm (not tightly controlled)
Blade Thickness: 0.020 to 0.027 inches / 0.5 to 0.70 mm (varies with tooth pitch and other factors)
The hacksaw is used to cut steel and other metals. It can also be used to cut plastics,
although it is not normally used to cut Woods. It is sometimes called an adjustable hacksaw because
the length of the frame can be altered to hold blades of Different sizes. Blades are supplied in two
lengths, 250mm and 300mm. If the adjusting screw is unscrewed, the frame can Be pushed into the
handle so that the smaller blades fit the hacksaw. Blades are also described by the number of teeth
per inch (TPI). Blades very fine.

4. crank disc with motor coupler and yoke

The scotch yoke mechanism is constructed with iron bars. Here the crank is made in
some length and the yoke is also made using the same material. It is noted that the
minimum length of the yoke should be double the length of the crank. The crank and
yoke is connected with a pin. Iron bars are welded to both sides of the yoke to get the
reciprocating motion. The yoke with the iron bars is fixed on the base stand board
with the help of sleeve bush . Now the crank is welded to the end of the shaft of the
motor. Now the pin on the crank is connected to the yoke. The pin used to connect
yoke and crank is a bolt.

6.M.S. Fabricated stand

The M.S.Stand is shown in figure. It is made in L angle channel 3mm thickness and
600 mm height. The scotch yoke mechanismwith hacksaw units are is mounted at the


Crank disc

When the power is supplied to the 24v Dc motor, shaft and crank attached to
the shaft start rotating. As the crank rotates the pin slides inside the yoke and also
moves the yoke forward. When the crank rotates through in clockwise direction the
yoke will get a displacement in the forward direction. The maximum displacement
will be equal to the length of the crank. When the crank completes the next of rotation
the yoke comes back to its initial position. For the next of rotation, yoke moves in the
backward direction. When the crank completes a full rotation the yoke moves back to
the initial position..

The yoke is connected to reciprocating rod with hacksaw frame on both sides. Two
hacksaw frames are reciprocated to cut the PVC tube which is screwed in the table.

The advantages compared to a standard crankshaft and connecting rod

setup are:

High torque output with a small cylinder size.

Fewer moving parts.
Smoother operation.
Higher percentage of the time spent at top dead centre (dwell)
improving engine efficiency.
In an engine application, elimination of joint typically served by a
wrist pin, and near elimination of piston skirt and cylinder
scuffing, as side loading of piston due to sine of connecting rod
angle is eliminated.

Time saving as compared to manual and single way hacksaw machine.

No input power is required.

At a single point of time it can able to cut more than one job of any required

It is easily portable.

The disadvantages are:

Rapid wear of the slot in the yoke caused by sliding friction and
high contact pressures.
Lesser percentage of the time spent at bottom dead centre
reducing blow down time for two stroke engines.
The shape of the motion of the piston is a pure sine wave over time
given a constant rotational speed.
1. Cutting of two metal piece at the same time.
2. Cutting of wooden workpieces.
3. Cutting of plastic materials and PVC pipes.

Materials Dimensions
Mild steel plates 1. 25 mmX25mm x 3 mm
L angle

2. 50 mm x 2.5 mm

Mild Steel Rod 1. 10 mm

2. 20 mm

Mild steel hollow pipe 12 mm (internal)

14 mm (external)

Mild steel square pipe 25 mm x 25 mm (external)

Thickness-2 mm

1. Lathe Machine

2. Drilling machine

3. Grinding machine

4. Power tools

5. Power Hacksaw

Electric arc welding machine


Good science project does not stop with building a motor. It is very important to
measure different electrical and mechanical parameters of your motor and calculate
unknown values using the following helpful formulas.

We will use the International System of Units (SI). This is modern metric system that
is officially accepted in electrical engineering in the USA.

One of the most important laws of physics is the fundamental Ohms Law. It states
that current through the conductor is directly proportional to applied voltage and is
expressed as:

where I current, measured in amperes (A);
V applied voltage, measured in volts (V);
R resistance, measured in ohms ().

This formula could be used in many cases. You may calculate the resistance of your
motor by measuring the consumed current and applied voltage. For any given
resistance (in the motors it is basically the resistance of the coil) this formula explains
that the current can be controlled by applied voltage.

The consumed electrical power of the motor is defined by the following formula:

Pin = I * V
where Pin input power, measured in watts (W);
I current, measured in amperes (A);
V applied voltage, measured in volts (V).
Motors supposed to do some work and two important values define how powerful the
motor is. It is motor speed and torque the turning force of the motor. Output
mechanical power of the motor could be calculated by using the following formula:

Pout = *
where Pout output power, measured in watts (W);
torque, measured in Newton meters (Nm);
angular speed, measured in radians per second (rad/s).
It is easy to calculate angular speed if you know rotational speed of the motor in rpm:

= rpm * 2 / 60
where angular speed, measured in radians per second (rad/s);
rpm rotational speed in revolutions per minute;
mathematical constant pi (3.14).
60 number of seconds in a minute.

If the motor has 100% efficiency all electrical power is converted to mechanical
energy. However such motors do not exist. Even precision made small industrial
motors such as one we use as a generator in generator kit have maximum efficiency of
50-60%. Motors built from our kits usually have maximum efficiency of about 15%
(see Experiments section on how we estimated this).
Dont be disappointed with 15% maximum efficiency. All our kits are intended for
education and not designed for real applications. This efficiency is not bad at all it is
actually much better than most of other self made designs on Internet can provide. The
motors have enough torque and speed to do all kinds of experiments and calculations.

Measuring the torque of the motor is a challenging task. It requires special expensive
equipment. Therefore we suggest calculating it.
Efficiency of the motor is calculated as mechanical output power divided by electrical
input power:

E = Pout / Pin

Pout = Pin * E
after substitution we get

* rpm * 2 / 60 = I * V * E
and the formula for calculating torque will be

= (I * V * E *60) / (rpm * 2)
Connect the motor to the load. Using the motor from generator kit is the best way to
do it. Why do you need to connect the motor to the load? Well, if there is no load
there is no torque.

Measure current, voltage and rpm. Now you can calculate the torque for this load at
this speed assuming that you know efficiency of the motor.

Our estimated 15% efficiency represents maximum efficiency of the motor which
occurs only at a certain speed. Efficiency may be anywhere between zero and the
maximum; in our example below 1000 rpm may not be the optimal speed so the for
the sake of calculations you may use 10% efficiency (E = 0.1).

Example: speed is 1000 rpm, voltage is 6 Volts, and current is 220 mA (0.22 A):

= (0.22 * 6 * 0.1 * 60) / (1000 * 2 * 3.14) = 0.00126 Nm

As the result is small usually it is expressed in milliNewton meters (mNm). There is
1000 mNm in 1 Nm, so the calculated torque is 1.26 mNm. It could be also
converted further to still common gram force centimeters (g-cm) by multiplying the
result by 10.2, i.e. the torque is 12.86 g-cm.

In our example input electrical power of the motor is 0.22 A x 6 V = 1.32 W, output
mechanical power is 1000 rpm x 2 x 3.14 x 0.00126 Nm /60 = 0.132 W.

Motor torque changes with the speed. At no load you have maximum speed and zero
torque. Load adds mechanical resistance. The motor starts to consume more current to
overcome this resistance and the speed decreases. If you increase the load at some
point motor stops (this is called stall). When it occurs the torque is at maximum and it
is called stall torque. While it is hard to measure stall torque without special tools you
can find this value by plotting speed-torque graph. You need to take at least two
measurements with different loads to find the stall torque.

How accurate is the torque calculation? While voltage, current and speed could be
accurately measured, efficiency of the motor may not be correct. It depends on the
accuracy of your assembly, sensor position, friction, alignment of the motor and
generator axles etc. If you want to get meaningful numbers you might use a second
generator kit as explained in Torque and Efficiency Calculation section.
Speed, torque, power and efficiency of the motors are not constant values. Usually the
manufacturer provides the following data in a table like this one (sample data from
one of the motors used in generator kit):
Also the manufacturers usually provide power curves for the motor at nominal

These curves are generated by plotting motor speed, consumed current, and efficiency
as functions of the motor torque. Sometimes there might be also a curve representing
mechanical output power.

As you can see from the graph speed and current are linear functions of torque so you
might need only two measurements to draw these graphs. Efficiency and power will
need more data. Usually for small motors maximum power is at 50% of stall torque
(approximately 50% of no load speed). Maximum efficiency may be 10-30% of motor
stall torque (70-90% of no load speed).

While it is technically better to follow the same format and create similar curves for
your motor it is not absolutely necessary for a good science project. You may take all
measurements, calculate unknown values and plot the graphs where for example speed
and torque are represented as functions of applied voltage or current etc.



It is an inversion of double slider crank mechanism

The Scotch yoke is a mechanism for converting the linear motion of a slider into
rotational motion or vice-versa. The piston or other
reciprocating part is directly coupled to a sliding
yoke with a slot that
engages a pin on the
rotating part. The shape of the motion of the piston
is a pure sine wave over time given a constant
rotational speed.fig 1.1 illustrates a simple scotch
yolk mechanism

Comparison of scotch yolk with Slider crank mechansim

The advantages compared to a standard crankshaft and connecting rod setup are:

Fewer moving parts.

Smoother operation.
Higher percentage of the time spent at top dead center (dwell) improving
theoretical engine efficiency of constant volume combustion cycles, though
actual gains have not been demonstrated.
In an engine application, elimination of joint typically served by a wrist pin, and
near elimination of piston skirt and cylinder scuffing, as side loading of piston
due to sine of connecting rod angle is eliminated.


This setup is most commonly used in control valve actuators in high pressure oil
and gas pipelines.
It has been used in various internal combustion engines, such as the Bourke
engine, SyTech engine, stirling,and many hot air engines and steam engines.
Refer to fig 1.2
Experiments have shown that extended dwell time will not work well with
constant volume combustion (Otto, Bourke or similar) cycles.Gains might be
more apparent using a stratified direct injection (diesel or similar) cycle to
reduce heat losses.
3.1 Types of Hacksaw Machine

(1) Light duty hacksaw machine.

(2) Hydraulic hacksaw machine.

(3) Power hacksaw machine.

(4) Circular band hacksaw machine.

(5) Horizontal swing type band saw machine.

(6) Band hacksaw machine.

(7) Jigsaw machine.

(8) Universal type circular hacksaw machine.

(9) Double column band saw machine.

(10) Chain saw circular machine.

3.1.1 Light duty hacksaw machine

Your quest for finest quality hydraulic hacksaw machine ends with us. We are
recognized as one of the chief power hacksaw machine manufacturers of India. The
hacksaw machine manufactured by us is used at length in number of industries.

Fig 3.1.1 Light duty hacksaw machine

Features of Light Duty Hacksaw Machine

(1) A quality Self-Centering Vice with perfect grip.

(2) Gear and hydraulic are oil submerged.

(3) Full function coolant pump with fitting.

(4) Rigid and heavy M.S. fabricated body.

3.1.2 Hydraulic Hacksaw Machine

We supply a huge collection of precisely-engineered hydraulic hacksaw

machinewhich is very effective in performing a series of cutting operations in
workshops with its easy automation.

Acclaimed among the established hacksaw machine suppliers, we offer these

machines in different cutting capacities, sizes, models etc. As per the needs and
specifications of our end customers.

Fig 3.1.2 Hydraulic hacksaw machine

Features of Hydraulic Hacksaw Machine

(1) High productivity.

(2) Corrosion-resistance.

(3) Trouble free service.

(4) Optimum performance.

(5) Long lasting.

3.1.3 Power Hacksaw Machine

Power hacksaw machine fabricated by us is precision engineered so as to meet

themodern demands of several industries. Due to their smooth & swift functioning
ability they are able to operate in a spontaneous way which aids the worker in
consistently carrying his work with ultimate efficiency.

Fig 3.1.3 Power hacksaw machine

Features of Power Hacksaw Machine

(1) Fine cutting.

(2) Longer service life.

(3) Self lubrication.

(4) Infinitely variable feed rate.

(5) Cutting arm of high tension bearing capacity.

3.1.4 Circular Band Saw Hacksaw Machine

Supreme efficiency and long term durability are blended in Circular Band
SawMachine provided by us. Being durable and rendering unparalleled service, band
saw machine manufactured by us is gaining lot of popularity in appreciation of
customer's requirement. We offer circular band saw machines in varied sizes ranging
from 10' to 14'.

Fig 3.1.4 Circular band saw hacksaw machine

Types of Band Saw Machines

(1) Double column construction horizontal band saw machines.
(2) Vertical Band Saw Machines.
(3) Circular Sawing Machines.

Features of Circular Band Saw Hacksaw Machine

(1) LM Guide way 1000 meter length.
(2) Ball screw.
(3) Servo motor.
(4) S.S. Fabricator safety cover.
(5) Harden plate for griping the job.

3.1.5 Horizontal Swing Type Band saw Machine

Horizontal swing type band saw is manufactured by us in integral front and rear
bed design. The entire assortment of these machines has large cross section of swing
frame and ensures high speed productivity. All these horizontal swing type band saw
machines are widely demanded in engineering industries for various cutting

Fig 3.1.5 Horizontal sawing type band saw hacksaw machine

Features of Horizontal Swing Type Band saw Machine

(1) High speed.

(2) Heavy duty.

(3) High productivity.

(4) Integral front & rear bed design.

(5) Large cross section of swing frame.

3.1.6 Band Hacksaw Machine

Very useful for preparing specimen of big size in anatomy and meat
departments. Fitted with large moving table and extension table operated on four ball-
bearing rollers.

Used extensively in the meat packing, and wholesale fish industry, for handling
swordfish and large halbutes etc.

Fig 3.1.6 Band hacksaw machine

Features of Band Hacksaw Machine

(1) Cast iron table with trunnion system.

(2) Tool holder for easy handling of tools.

(3) Enclosed cabinet support for storage of extra blades.

(4) Adjustable blade guide bearings.

(5) Heavy-duty fence with resaw bar and others.

3.1.7 Jigsaw Machine

The top maker of jig saws is Skill, A jig saw is both versatile and very safe to
use. Ajigsaw combines the functions of band saw, a router, circular saw, and a scroll
saw into one portable tool.

There are both corded jig saws and cordless jig saws - each offering its
advantagesand disadvantages.

The corded jig saws are extremely convenient in remote areas and are best
suited to cut wood and wood products. They are available from 12 to 18 volts and
higher voltage equates to a battery that lasts longer.

Fig 3.1.7 Jigsaw machine

Features of Jigsaw Machine

(1) Sturdy model and Vibration free.
(2) Graded heavy duty casting body.
(3) Totally dust proof oil immersed.
(4) Gear box and main parts made of alloy steel.
(5) Easy & smooth trouble free operation.

3.1.8 Universal Type Circular Hacksaw Machine

Universal Type Circular Saw machines which are used for paneling, cutting or ripping

It is generally utilized in projects where fast straight cuts of respective precision

are needed through heavier material.

This wonderful circular saw machine is available in two different ways which
are automatic circular saw and semi-automatic circular saw.

Fig 3.1.8 Universal type circular hacksaw machine

Features of Universal Type Circular Hacksaw Machine

(1) Fast straight cuts of respective precision.
(2) It is also available in automatic circular saw and semi-automatic circular saw.
3.1.9 Double Column Band Saw Machine

Double Column Band Saw Machine is equipped with rigid chrome plated
double column, separate electrical panel, infinitely variable feed with flow control
valves and power driven wire brush.

The range of band saw machine is hydraulically operated dual clamping system.
Its application is used in engineering industry and construction industry.

Fig 3.1.9 Double column band saw machine

Features of Double Column Band Saw Machine

(1) Automatic height control.
(2) Power driven chip brush for chip removal.
(3) Manual band tension.
(4) Split front vice.
(5) Complete hydraulic.
(6) Length setting can be done.
(7) Complete electrical system integrated.
(8) Complete coolant system integrated.
3.1.10 Chain Saw Circular Machine

Available with us is an extensive range of Chain Saw Machines. Manufactured

using high quality raw material, which facilitates fabrication of high quality products,
our range is ideal for square whole operation.

Chain Saw Machines is specially designed for square hole in wood for doors
and windows. This machine is used for mass production of square hole operation.

Fig 3.1.10 Chain saw circular machine

Features of Chain Saw Circular Machine

(1) Highly efficient.
(2) Easy to operate.
(3) Accurate dimension.

3.2 Construction of Hacksaw Machine

Hacksaw Machines offered by us are used for metal cutting ranging from
transportable model to giant size machine. Owing to smooth & speedy functioning
abilities, these hacksaw machines operations spontaneously for aiding the worker in
consistently carrying his work with ultimate competence.

Fig 3.2 Construction of hacksaw machine

(a) Bed: -The bed is available as a single piece casting. It has wide rigid casting for
the collection of coolant, swarf and also houses the V-belt device.

(b) Saw Frame: - The rigid saw frame ensures a square & parallel cut & the cut takes
place on the backward pull stroke. To prevent the wear of the blade, it is hydraulically
lifted out of contact with work place on the forward stroke up.
There are two type of saw frame:
Solid frame
Adjustable frame

(1) Solid Frame: - In this type, only one particular standard length of blade can be
used with this frame.

Fig 3.2.1 Solid frame

(2) Adjustable Frame: - In this type different standard lengths of blades can be fitted
to this frame.
Fig 3.2.2 Adjustable frame

(c) The Drive: - The drive is attached through V-Pulleys with provision to adjust the
complete tension of the V-Belts. The shafts are fitted with ball bearings and taper and
ball bearings to eliminate friction.

(d) Speed: - Specific speeds have been provided for different kind of metals in order
to make it suitable. High speed for metals like mild steel, brass, copper etc. and low
speed for cast iron.

(e) Feed saw: - Two levers are provided to hydraulically control the Feed Saw at the
dash-pot. One controls the rate of feed and the other enables the bow slide to be raised
or lowered and after the completion of the cut, the motor gets automatically switched

(f) Vice: - The vice is rigid construction. It has two jaws, one jaw remains fixed and
the other is adjusted according to the size of the material to be cut.

(g) Coolant: - A coolant tank is enclosed within the base of machines with constant
speed to supply continuous cooling to the saw blade.
(h) Electricals: - A Push button starter is fitted with an adjustable trip mechanism that
helps in stopping the machine soon when the blade is clear from the work at extra cost.

Features of Hacksaw Machine

Power efficiency.
High productivity.
Superb performance.
High operational fluency.
Sturdy and robust design.

3.3 Hacksaw Blades

The hacksaw blade consists of different parts:

2 pin holes
Center line
Back edge

Fig 3.3 Hacksaw blade

3.3.1 Characteristics of Hacksaw Blade

The hacksaw blade has 2 main characteristics:

(1) Teeth pitch which is the number of teeth per 25 mm.

Fig 3.3.1 Teeth pitch

(2) Blade length which is the length between the centers of its pin holes.

From above discussion we conclude that model of two way hack saw is helpful to
overcome the problems of conventional hack saw with high efficiency its easy to
operate and simple in construction.
By increasing the motor power and dimensions of eccentric cam the size of material to
be cut can be increased.
By using limit switches or sensors Automatic feeding mechanism for material can be
Automatic lifting up mechanism for frame when cutting operation can be by using
hydraulic piston and cylinder.

The scotch yoke mechanism is made and its advantages and disadvantages are
discussed. Its motion characteristics are studied. It is concluded that this mechanism is
a good choice to convert rotating motion into reciprocating motion because of fewer
moving parts and smoother operation. It can be used in direct injection engines like
diesel engines, hot air engines.

In this project report we provide an overview of the issues concerning different

aspects of machines using scotch yoke mechanism .The project report focus on the
principle of scotch yoke mechanism and its application.

1. MECHANICS OF MATERIALS - Fourth Edition in SI Units

Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf
(1) Build a power hacksaw with vise, Authors: - Vincent Gingery

(2) D.V.Sabarinanda, Siddhartha, B. SushilKrishnana, T.Mohanraj , Design and Fabrication

Of Automated Hacksaw Machine, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,

Engineering and Technology, ISSN (Online):

2319-8753, volume 3, April 2014.

(3) R. Subhash, C.M. Meenakshi, K. SamuelJayakaran, C. Venkateswaran, R. Sasidharan,

Fabrication pedal powered hacksaw using dual

(4) Prof. Nitinchandra R. Patel, Mohammad A.Vasanwala, Balkrushna B. Jani, Ravi Thakkar,

Miteshkumar D. Rathwa,Material selection and testing of hacksaw blade based on mechanical

Properties, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology,

ISSN: 2319-8753, volume 2, Issue 6, June 2013.