Spring 2004

Kasetsart University

INDT0204: Welding

Types of Welding
• Fusion Welding (Chap. 27)
– Oxyfuel Gas Welding – Arc-Welding Processes • Consumable-Electrode • Nonconsumable-Electrode – Others • Electron-Beam Welding • Laser-Beam Welding

• Solid State Welding (Chap. 28)
– – – – Cold Welding Ultrasonic Welding Friction Welding Resistance Welding • Spot Welding • Seam Welding • High Frequency Welding • Projection Welding – Explosion Welding – Diffusion Bonding

Dr.Peerapong Triyacharoen

Department of Materials Engineering

12

Kasetsart University

INDT0204: Welding

Oxyfuel Gas Welding (OFW)
• Uses acetylene fuel (C2H2), known as oxyacetylene welding

Dr.Peerapong Triyacharoen

Department of Materials Engineering

13

Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 15 .Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Torch Used in OFW Dr.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 14 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Arc-Welding Processes • Consumable-Electrode – – – – – Shielded Metal-Arc Welding Submerged Arc Welding Gas Metal-Arc Welding Flux-Cored Arc Welding Electrogas Welding • Nonconsumable-Electrode – Gas Tungsten Arc-Welding – Plasma-Arc Welding Dr.

The unfused flux is recovered and reused. because the electrode is in the shape of a stick).Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 16 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Submerged Arc Welding Figure 27. Figure 27.Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Shielded Metal-Arc Welding Figure 27.4 Schematic illustration of the shielded metal-arc welding process.5 Schematic illustration of the shielded metal-arc welding operations (also known as stick welding. Dr.7 Schematic illustration of the submerged-arc welding process and equipment. About 50% of all large-scale industrial welding operations use this process.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 17 . Dr.

formerly known as MIG (for metal inert gas) welding. Dr. 27. This operation is similar to gas metal-arc welding.8. showing in Fig. Dr.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 18 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Flux-Cored Arc Welding Figure 27.Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Gas Metal-Arc Welding : Ar. He.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 19 .10 Schematic illustration of the flux-cored arc-welding process. CO2 Figure 27.8 Schematic illustration of the gas metal-arc welding process.

13 The gas tungsten-arc welding process.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 21 .Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Electrogas Welding • For welding the edges of sections vertically in one pass. and (b) side view showing molding shoes on both sides Dr.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 20 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Gas Tungsten-Arc Welding Figure 27. Dr. Figure 27. formerly known as TIG (for tungsten inert gas) welding.14 Equipment for gas tungsten-arc welding operations. with the pieces placed edge to edge Electrogas welding using flux-cored electrode wire: (a) front view with molding shoe removed for clarity.

15 Two types of plasma-arc welding processes: (a) transferred.Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Plasma-Arc Welding Figure 27. (b) nontransferred.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 23 . Deep and narrow welds can be made by this process at high welding speeds.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 22 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Other Fusion Welding Processes • Electron-Beam Welding – Heat is generated by high-velocity narrow-beam electrons. Dr. • Laser-Beam Welding – Utilizes a high-power laser beam as the source of heat Dr.

1 Joining process Shielded metal-arc Submerged arc Gas metal-arc Gas tungsten-arc Flux-cored arc Oxyfuel Operation Manual Automatic Semiautomatic or automatic Manual or automatic Semiautomatic or automatic Manual Advantage Portable and flexible High deposition Most metals Most metals High deposition Portable and flexible Most metals Skill level required High Low to medium Low to high Low to high Low to high High Medium to high Welding position All Flat and horizontal All All All All All Current type ac.Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Summary: Fusion Welding TABLE 27. Semiautomatic Laser-beam or automatic * 1. 5. lowest. dc ac.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 25 . Dr.1 Schematic illustration of the roll bonding. or cladding. dc dc ac. process Dr. highest.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 24 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Cold Welding Figure 28. dc dc — — Distortion* 1 to 2 1 to 2 2 to 3 2 to 3 1 to 3 2 to 4 3 to 5 Cost of equipment Low Medium Medium to high Medium Medium Low High Electron-beam.

and (b) close-up of weld area Dr.Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Ultrasonic Welding Ultrasonic welding (USW): (a) general setup for a lap joint. flash begins to form. (2) Right-hand component is brought into contact under an axial force. (3) Axial force is increased. Dr. (4) Left-hand component stops rotating. weld is completed. The flash can subsequently be removed by machining or grinding.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 27 .3 (a) Sequence of operations in the friction welding process: (1) Left-hand component is rotated at high speed.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 26 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Friction Welding (a) (b) Figure 28. (b) Shape of fusion zone in friction welding. as a function of the force applied and the rotational speed.

(d) Resistance-welded gasoline tank. This is one of the most commonly used process in sheetmetal fabrication and in automotive-body assembly. (b) Cross-section of a spot weld.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 28 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Resistance Seam Welding Figure 28. (c) Roll spot welds.5 (a) Sequence in resistance spot welding.Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Resistance Spot Welding Figure 28. Dr. showing the weld nugget and the indentation of the electrode on the sheet surfaces. (b) Overlapping spots in a seam weld. Dr.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 29 .9 (a) Seamwelding process in which rotating rolls act as electrodes.

Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 30 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Resistance Projection Welding Figure 28. (b) A welded bracket. (e) Resistance-projection-welded grills. Dr. (c) and (d) Projection welding of nuts or threaded bosses and studs.Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding High-Frequency Resistance Welding Dr.11 (a) Schematic illustration of resistance projection welding.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 31 .

Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Flash Welding Figure 28.12 (a) Flash-welding process for end-to-end welding of solid rods or tubular parts.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 32 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Stud Welding Figure 28. (b) and (c) Typical parts made by flash welding. which is used for welding bars. (d) Design Guidelines for flash welding. Dr.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 33 . threaded rods. and various fasteners onto metal plates.13 The sequence of operations in stud welding. Dr.

Dr. (c) titanium (top piece) on low-carbon steel (bottom).17 The sequence of operations in the fabrication of various structures by diffusion bonding and then superplastic forming of (originally) flat sheets. (d) Incoloy 800 (an iron-nickel-based alloy) on low-carbon steel.Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Explosion Welding (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 28.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 35 . (c) and (d) Cross-sections of explosionwelded joints.15 Schematic illustration of the explosion welding process: (a) constant interface clearance gap and (b) angular interface clearance gap.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 34 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Diffusion Bonding/Superplastic Forming Figure 28. Dr.

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