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Spring 2004

Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding

Types of Welding
• Fusion Welding • Solid State Welding (Chap.
(Chap. 27) 28)
– Oxyfuel Gas Welding – Cold Welding
– Arc-Welding Processes – Ultrasonic Welding
• Consumable-Electrode – Friction Welding
• Nonconsumable-Electrode – Resistance Welding
– Others • Spot Welding
• Electron-Beam Welding • Seam Welding
• Laser-Beam Welding • High Frequency Welding
• Projection Welding
– Explosion Welding
– Diffusion Bonding

Dr.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 12

Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding

Oxyfuel Gas Welding (OFW)
• Uses acetylene fuel (C2H2), known as oxyacetylene welding

Dr.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 13

Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 14 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Arc-Welding Processes • Consumable-Electrode • Nonconsumable-Electrode – Shielded Metal-Arc Welding – Gas Tungsten Arc-Welding – Submerged Arc Welding – Plasma-Arc Welding – Gas Metal-Arc Welding – Flux-Cored Arc Welding – Electrogas Welding Dr.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 15 . Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Torch Used in OFW Dr.

because the electrode is in the shape of a stick).4 Schematic illustration of the shielded metal-arc welding process.7 Schematic illustration of the submerged-arc welding process and equipment. Dr. The unfused flux is recovered and reused. Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Shielded Metal-Arc Welding Figure 27. Figure 27.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 16 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Submerged Arc Welding Figure 27.5 Schematic illustration of the shielded metal-arc welding operations (also known as stick welding.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 17 . About 50% of all large-scale industrial welding operations use this process. Dr.

Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 18 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Flux-Cored Arc Welding Figure 27. showing in Fig. CO2 Figure 27. Dr. Dr. This operation is similar to gas metal-arc welding. formerly known as MIG (for metal inert gas) welding.8. He. 27.8 Schematic illustration of the gas metal-arc welding process. Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Gas Metal-Arc Welding : Ar.10 Schematic illustration of the flux-cored arc-welding process.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 19 .

and (b) side view showing molding shoes on both sides Dr. Figure 27.13 The gas tungsten-arc welding process. Dr.14 Equipment for gas tungsten-arc welding operations. Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Electrogas Welding • For welding the edges of sections vertically in one pass. formerly known as TIG (for tungsten inert gas) welding. with the pieces placed edge to edge Electrogas welding using flux-cored electrode wire: (a) front view with molding shoe removed for clarity.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 21 .Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 20 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Gas Tungsten-Arc Welding Figure 27.

Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 23 . Deep and narrow welds can be made by this process at high welding speeds. Dr. (b) nontransferred. • Laser-Beam Welding – Utilizes a high-power laser beam as the source of heat Dr.15 Two types of plasma-arc welding processes: (a) transferred. Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Plasma-Arc Welding Figure 27.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 22 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Other Fusion Welding Processes • Electron-Beam Welding – Heat is generated by high-velocity narrow-beam electrons.

Semiautomatic Most metals Medium All — 3 to 5 High Laser-beam or automatic to high * 1.1 Schematic illustration of the roll bonding.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 24 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Cold Welding Figure 28. dc 2 to 3 Medium automatic high Flux-cored arc Semiautomatic High Low to All dc 1 to 3 Medium or automatic deposition high Oxyfuel Manual Portable and High All — 2 to 4 Low flexible Electron-beam. 5.1 Skill level Welding Current Cost of Joining process Operation Advantage required position type Distortion* equipment Shielded metal-arc Manual Portable and High All ac. process Dr. Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Summary: Fusion Welding TABLE 27. dc 1 to 2 Low flexible Submerged arc Automatic High Low to Flat and ac. lowest. Dr.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 25 . highest. or cladding. dc 1 to 2 Medium deposition medium horizontal Gas metal-arc Semiautomatic Most metals Low to All dc 2 to 3 Medium to or automatic high high Gas tungsten-arc Manual or Most metals Low to All ac.

3 (a) Sequence of operations in the friction welding process: (1) Left-hand component is rotated at high speed. Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Ultrasonic Welding Ultrasonic welding (USW): (a) general setup for a lap joint. weld is completed. (b) Shape of fusion zone in friction welding. (3) Axial force is increased.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 26 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Friction Welding (a) (b) Figure 28. as a function of the force applied and the rotational speed. flash begins to form.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 27 . and (b) close-up of weld area Dr. The flash can subsequently be removed by machining or grinding. (4) Left-hand component stops rotating. Dr. (2) Right-hand component is brought into contact under an axial force.

This is one of the most commonly used process in sheet- metal fabrication and in automotive-body assembly. (c) Roll spot welds. showing the weld nugget and the indentation of the electrode on the sheet surfaces.5 (a) Sequence in resistance spot welding.9 (a) Seam- welding process in which rotating rolls act as electrodes. Dr. (d) Resistance-welded gasoline tank.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 28 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Resistance Seam Welding Figure 28. (b) Overlapping spots in a seam weld.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 29 . Dr. (b) Cross-section of a spot weld. Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Resistance Spot Welding Figure 28.

11 (a) Schematic illustration of resistance projection welding. (b) A welded bracket.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 30 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Resistance Projection Welding Figure 28.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 31 . (c) and (d) Projection welding of nuts or threaded bosses and studs. (e) Resistance-projection-welded grills. Dr. Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding High-Frequency Resistance Welding Dr.

which is used for welding bars. Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Flash Welding Figure 28.13 The sequence of operations in stud welding. threaded rods. Dr. (b) and (c) Typical parts made by flash welding.12 (a) Flash-welding process for end-to-end welding of solid rods or tubular parts. (d) Design Guidelines for flash welding. and various fasteners onto metal plates.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 32 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Stud Welding Figure 28.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 33 . Dr.

(c) and (d) Cross-sections of explosion- welded joints. Dr. (c) titanium (top piece) on low-carbon steel (bottom). Dr.15 Schematic illustration of the explosion welding process: (a) constant interface clearance gap and (b) angular interface clearance gap.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 35 .17 The sequence of operations in the fabrication of various structures by diffusion bonding and then superplastic forming of (originally) flat sheets. (d) Incoloy 800 (an iron-nickel-based alloy) on low-carbon steel.Peerapong Triyacharoen Department of Materials Engineering 34 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Diffusion Bonding/Superplastic Forming Figure 28. Spring 2004 Kasetsart University INDT0204: Welding Explosion Welding (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 28.