Hybrid MLI

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Hybrid MLI

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Y. Liu and F.L. Luo

Abstract: The application of trinary hybrid multilevel inverter in synchronous static compensation

(STATCOM) with unbalanced voltages is investigated. Beneting from trinary hybrid topology of

the inverter, the cost of STATCOM is reduced because of not only fewer switching components

but also reduced cost of cooling systems and DC capacitors. The combination of vector control

based on synchronous frame and staircase modulation is used in the STATCOM system presented

to regulate reactive power or balance bus voltages under balanced or unbalanced conditions. To

achieve this control aim, a new method based on the comparison of reference amplitudes and

reference signals is presented. The performance of the proposed control strategy is conrmed by

simulation and experiment.

a/b/c A-phase/B-phase/C-phase in ABC frame

Symbols with subscripts or superscripts abc ABC frame

Symbols a/b a axis/b axis in ab frame

CAP capacitor ab ab frame

HB H-bridge d+/q+ d+ axis/q+ axis in dq+ frame

i/i/I instantaneous value/vector of instantaneous dq+ dq+ frame

values/phasor of current d/q d axis/q axis in dq frame

M modulation index dq dq frame

S signal I, II serial number of H-bridges

SC switching component 1,2,3,4 serial number of switches or switching angles

SF switching function +/ positive sequence/negative sequence

SS switching signal * reference value

T transformation matrix

U unit voltage Other symbols

v/v/V instantaneous value/vector of instantaneous ABS function of absolute value

values/phasor of voltage Bb bipolar binary function

g instantaneous variable Bu unipolar binary function

FC function of comparing and keeping

Subscripts represent positions FSS function of switching signals

A arm of H-bridge MAX selecting the one with maximum value

B bus connected with STATCOM NL number of levels

C output of STATCOM TSA table of theoretical switching angles

D DC capacitor, diode WB width of band

G GTO dk kth nal switching angle

H output of H-bridge e regulation factor

I interface between STATCOM and bus fk kth theoretical switching angle

L load y phase angle in vector transformation

P output of power control module o radian frequency

S voltage source of distribution system j phase angle

U output of unbalanced voltage control 7v7 amplitude of v, which is a vector

module 7w71 amplitude of fundamental component of w,

which is a periodical variable

7w7n amplitude of nth order harmonic of w, which is

r IEE, 2005 a periodical variable

IEE Proceedings online no. 20045257

doi:10.1049/ip-epa:20045257

Paper rst received 9th December 2004 and in nal revised form 17th March

2005 1 Introduction

The authors are with the Center for Advanced Power Electronics, School of

Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Synchronous static compensation (STATCOM) is a exible

639798, Singapore AC transmission system (FACTS) device, which is

E-mail: eluo@ntu.edu.sg connected as a shunt to the network, for generating or

IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005 1203

absorbing reactive power. STATCOM can be utilised to source current IS load current IL

bus voltage

regulate voltage, control power factor and stabilise power

source Z VB

ow [1]. Many inherent benets of multilevel inverters have impedance S interface

led to their increased interest in STATCOM. In [2, 3], impedance I

Z

cascade multilevel inverters have been used in STATCOM. source

load

voltage STATCOM

Furthermore, the application of binary hybrid multilevel current impedance

inverters in STATCOM has also been investigated because VS IC ZL

the binary hybrid multilevel inverter can generate more STATCOM V

voltage C

voltage levels than the cascade multilevel inverter with the

same number of switches [46]. Recently, trinary hybrid

multilevel inverters have been presented and attracted more Fig. 2 Simplified model of distribution system with STATCOM

interest since it is said that they can generate the most

voltage levels among existing multilevel inverters [7, 8].

This paper investigates the application of trinary hybrid

multilevel inverter in STATCOM. In this topology, not Table 1: Parameters of compensator and distribution

only are fewer switches required, but also the cost of cooling system for simulations and experiments

systems and DC capacitors is decreased. Moreover, the

problem of regenerative power in trinary hybrid multilevel Simulations Experiments

inverters mentioned in [9] is avoided because the STAT-

Operating frequency 50 Hz 50 Hz

COM mainly generates or absorbs reactive power.

Voltage imbalance is a problem that STATCOM must Rating of source voltage 13.5 kV 196 V

deal with in the distribution system. Steady-state voltage (line-to-line RMS value)

imbalance can arise from unequal loading on each phase or Rating of reactive power 10 MVAr 2000 VAr

from unbalanced faults on the power system, which cause Rating of STATCOM current 428 A 6A

single-phase voltage sags. These sags are detrimental since (phase RMS value)

they cause heating in motors and affect sensitive single Interface impedance per phase oLI 3.64 O; oLI 3.64 O;

phase loads. The presented STATCOM can balance bus RI 0.3 O RI 0.3 O

voltages under unbalanced conditions. Source impedance per phase oLS 2.2 O; oLS 2.2 O;

The staircase PWM is widely used in STATCOM [10, 11] RS 0.3 O RS 0.3 O

since gate-turn-off thyristor (GTO) with lower switching Unit voltage of DC capacitors, UD 3.3 kV 48 V

frequency are employed as switches in such applications of

DC capacitor in the H-bridge with 2933 mF 3300 mF

high power and high voltage [1214]. Vector control based DC voltage UD

on synchronous frame transform has been used successfully

DC capacitor in the H-bridge with 1114 mF 1100 mF

in STATCOM to regulate reactive power [2, 15] and reduce

DC voltage 3UD

negative sequence component of the bus voltage [16]. In this

paper, vector control and staircase modulation are com-

bined to reach the control aims. The challenge here is that

the conventional method based on the comparison of

switching angles and phase angles [2, 10, 11] to generate the the bus B through the interface impedance ZI. ZS is the

switching signals cannot work well in such a control system. equivalent impedance of the source and ZL is the equivalent

A new method based on the comparison of reference impedance of the load. In the steady state and under

amplitudes and reference signals is proposed in this paper. balanced conditions, voltages and currents can be expressed

Furthermore, dead-zone control is used to improve as phasors. In Fig. 2, VS is the source voltage, VB is the bus

performance of the inverter. The performance of the voltage, VC is the generated voltage of the STATCOM, IC is

proposed control system is conrmed by simulation and the current generated by the STATCOM, IS is the source

experiment. current and IL is the load current. Parameters of the

compensator and the distribution system are shown in

2 System configuration Table 1. The STATCOM in the steady state will generate a

leading reactive current when the amplitude of VC is larger

2.1 Configuration of STATCOM system than that of VB, and vice versa, it will draw a lagging current

Figure 1 shows a one-line diagram of a distribution system from the source.

with STATCOM and Fig. 2 shows a simplied model of

Fig. 1. The STATCOM, which is based on a three-phase 2.2 Three-phase nine-level trinary hybrid

nine-level trinary hybrid multilevel inverter is connected to multilevel inverter

Figure 3 shows a three-phase Y-congured nine-level

trinary hybrid multilevel inverter used in the STATCOM.

transformer 2 transformer 3

The inverter has separate DC capacitors for each H-bridge

electrical wire electrical wire unit of each phase. To get maximum output voltage levels

B

load 2 of the inverter, the ratio of DC capacitor voltages is

interface arranged as 1:3, so the inverter can output nine voltage

impedance levels each phase. With two H-bridges per phase, however,

transformer 1 C

three-phase

a cascade multilevel inverter can output only ve voltage

nine-level levels each phase and a binary hybrid multilevel inverter can

trinary hybrid output only seven voltage levels each phase. The more

generator load 1 multilevel

inverter

output voltage levels a multilevel inverter has, the more

nearly a sinusoid waveform can be synthesised. Thereby,

more lower-order harmonics can be eliminated and total

Fig. 1 Distribution system with STATCOM harmonic distortion (THD) can be reduced greatly. Since

1204 IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005

HBaI HBbI HBc I

vCb c

SC1 SC3 v aC SC1 SC3 SC1 SC3 vC

UD aI

vH UD bI

vH UD cI

vH

3UD v aI

H

I

3UD bII

vH 3UD cII

vH

the ratio of DC capacitor voltages of the inverter is trinary, STATCOM works at high voltages, so GTOs are selected

this kind of inverter can be called trinary hybrid multilevel as switching components that cannot switch at high

inverter. frequency. The staircase PWM, the most popular one

Three phases of the inverter are controlled separately and among optimal programmed PWM strategies, is used in the

the operating principle of each phase is identical. In the proposed STATCOM.

following, the A-phase of the inverter is analysed. HBak Figure 4 shows the A-phase waveforms of the inverter

represents the kth H-bridge in the A-phase leg of the (only waveforms with solid lines are considered). By

inverter, where superscript a means A-phase and k can be I applying the Fourier transform to vaC , the amplitude of

or II. nak ak

H and nD represent the output voltage and the DC any odd nth harmonic of vaC can be expressed as (3),

capacitor voltage of the HBak, respectively. A switching whereas the amplitudes of all even harmonics are zero:

function, SFak, is used to relate nak ak

H and nD as: a 4UD X4

v cosnfj n 1; 3; 5; . . . 3

vak

H SF ak vak

D k I; II 1 C n

np j1

ak

The value of SF can be either 1, 1 or 0. For the value 1,

switching components SC1 and SC4 need to be turned on. The switching angles, f1, f2, f3 and f4, are chosen so as to

For the value 1, switches SC2 and SC3 need to be turned cancel predominant lower-frequency harmonics. For the

on. For the value 0, switches SC1 and SC3 need to be turned nine-level case in Fig. 4, the 5th, 7th and 11th harmonics

on or SC2 and SC4 need to be turned on. The A-phase can be eliminated with the appropriate choice of the

voltage of the inverter, vaC , is represented as: switching angles. One degree of freedom is used so that

the magnitude of the output waveform corresponds to the

X

II

modulation index of A-phase, Ma, which is expressed as:

vaC SF ak vak

D 2

kI

a

pvaC 1

M 4

The unit voltage of DC capacitors is UD, i.e. vaI aII

D and vD are 16UD

a

UD and 3UD, respectively. So vC has nine levels in total. a

Table 2 shows values of switching functions for different where v is the amplitude of the fundamental component

C 1

values of vaC . of vaC . Let the equations from (3) be as follows:

Two types of modulation for multilevel inverters have cosf1 cosf2 cosf3 cosf4 4M a

been presented in power applications: carrier-based PWM

strategies and optimal programmed PWM strategies [17]. cos5f1 cos5f2 cos5f3 cos5f4 0

With much lower switching frequency, the optimal cos7f1 cos7f2 cos7f3 cos7f4 0

programmed PWM strategies can eliminate the same cos11f1 cos11f2 cos11f3 cos11f4 0

number of lower-order harmonics as the carried-based

PWM strategies. In this distribution system, the proposed 5

SFaI 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1

aII

SF 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1

IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005 1205

4UD iCa

v Ba

vCa

t

0 1 3 4 2

3UD

2 2

t

vHall

/2 3/2 2

2 +2 2 +2

UD

t

vHal /2 3/2 2

4 +4 1 +1

Fig. 4 Waveforms of output voltage of A-phase inverter, A-phase current and output voltages of H-bridges of A-phase inverter

Table 3: Table of theoretical switching angles for different FG1000BV-90DA) has a typical repetitive peak off-state

modulation indexes voltage of 4.5 kV and repetitive controlled on-state current

of 1 kA [18]. Normally, the GTO repetitive peak off-state

Modulation f1 (rad) f2 (rad) f3 (rad) f4 (rad) voltage and repetitive controlled on-state current are chosen

index (M a) to be 23 times of the system nominal ratings. In each

H-bridge module, GTOs are connected in series to make

0.56 0.59438 0.85477 1.0383 1.3207

up rated DC source voltage to satisfy the redundancy

.. .. .. .. .. requirement. The redundancy requirement is that if any

. . . . .

0.78 0.17641 0.39873 0.726 1.086

single GTO fails (such as short circuit) in one inverter arm,

the remaining functional GTOs can sustain continuous

0.79 0.17371 0.37637 0.6986 1.0709

operation until the next planned maintenance outage. The

0.8 0.17175 0.35575 0.6703 1.0545 number of GTOs required in trinary hybrid nine-level

.. .. .. .. .. inverters and common cascade nine-level inverters are given

. . . . .

in Table 4, where unit voltage of DC capacitors, UD, is

0.85 0.078667 0.35911 0.48161 0.95097 3.3 kV. The comparison shows that the trinary hybrid

multilevel inverter uses fewer GTOs since fewer redundant

switches are needed in the trinary hybrid topology.

Table 3 shows the ofine calculated switching angles, which One of the advantages of a multilevel inverter is to achieve

are stored in a lookup table. high voltage without having to connect switching devices in

series directly. But with the increase of power and voltage of

2.3 Counts of GTOs the applications, the series connection of switching devices is

GTOs are selected as switching components in the inevitable. The total DC-link voltages for each phase are

STATCOM. A readily available GTO (Mitsubishi GTO 13.2 kV in this paper and [19], 16 kV in [20] and 38.4 kV in

inverter inverter

GTOs in series per valve in the H-bridge with DC voltage UD 3 (1 redundant) 3 (1 redundant)

GTOs in series per valve in the H-bridge with DC voltage 3UD 6 (1 redundant)

Total number of GTOs 108 144

1206 IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005

[21]. If the cascade multilevel inverters are used in these 2.5 Device power loss and cost of cooling

systems and each valve contains only one GTO specied in systems

the paper, each phase of inverter will contain eight Figures 5 and 6 show waveforms of the currents owing

H-bridges in this paper and [19], ten H-bridges in [20] and through the arms of HBaI and HBaII, respectively. iaij A i

23 H-bridges in [21]. Too many H-bridges result in very I; II j 1 . . . 4 is the current owing through the jth arm

complicated power circuits, too many control signals and a of the HBai. A positive value of iaij A means that the current

bulky system. Therefore, in very high power and voltage

applications, the series connection of power semiconductors ows through GTOs, while a negative value of iaij A implies

is necessary. that the current ows through antiparallel diodes. As

In early systems, a large snubber was used to limit mentioned peviously, if the output voltage of an H-bridge is

the dv/dt of the switching component during the turnoff zero, the switches SC1 and SC3 will be turned on or the

period [22], and a variable inductor was placed between switches SC2 and SC4 will be turned on. For the purpose of

each gate drive circuit and the corresponding switching balancing the current stresses and power losses of switches,

component in order to control the rising/falling time and to both of these two switching states for the zero output

adjust the transient voltage [23, 24]. These modications voltage of an H-bridge are used and each switching state is

1

increase the losses and reduce the dynamic performance, used in an alternative cycle. In Fig. 5, if vaII

H is 0, the SC and

3 aII

so a system with fewer GTOs connected in series provides SC of the HB are turned on when ot ranges from f2 to

better voltage sharing, and improves efciency and dynamic f2+2p, but the SC2 and SC4 of the HBaII are turned on

performance [4]. Recently, however, technology that allows when ot ranges from 0 to f2 or from f2+2p to 2p. In

1 3 aI

the robust, reliable and cost-efcient series connection of Fig. 6, if vaI

H is 0, the SC and SC of the HB are turned on

GTOs became industrially mature [19]. Especially, in [21], when ot ranges from f1 to f1+2p, but the SC2 and SC4 of

with a digital control circuit for extremely accurate the HBaI are turned on when ot ranges from 0 to f1

adjustment of gate turn-off timing in units of 0.1 ms, the or from f1+2p to 2p.

up to 16 GTOs connected in series shared the voltage From Figs. 5 and 6, we note that the combination of

uniformly in the turn-off period. This technology of waveforms of the non-zero current that ows through an

adjustment can be available even if the number of GTOs arm during two periods is just the waveform of iaC in a

is further increased for a higher-voltage converter in the complete period. So the on-state power losses of a GTO,

future. And with such technology, a system with more PG,ON, and the on-state power losses of an antiparallel

GTOs connected in series has almost the same voltage diode, PD,ON, can be expressed as

sharing, dynamic performance and efciency as a system Z

with fewer GTOs connected in series. Thanks to the precise VG 3p=2 a

PG;ON i dot 6

gate turn-off timing adjustment presented in [21], the trinary 2T p=2 C

inverter in which up to six GTOs connected in series is not

only feasible, but also has almost the same performance as Z 3p=2

VD

the cascade multilevel inverter in which three GTOs are PD;ON iaC dot 7

connected in series. 2T p=2

a

iC

vHall

3UD

3/2 2 t

2 /2 2 + 2 4

a ll1

iA

a ll2

iA

a ll3

iA

a ll4

iA

IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005 1207

1 2 3 4 iCa 1 + 2

v Hal

UD 3/2

2 t

/2 4

i Aal1

i Aal2

i Aal3

i Aal4

1.6 3.0

diT/dT = 300A/s

1.4

2.5

switching energy Eon , J/P

1.2 200A/s

VD = 2250V

0.8

VD = 2250V VDM = 3375V

IGM = 25A 1.5

0.6 diGQ/dt = 30A/s

diG/dt =10A/s VRG = 17V

0.4

CS = 0.7F 1.0 CS = 0.7F

0.2 RS = 5 LS = 0.3H

Tj = 125C Tj = 125C

0 0.5

200 400 600 800 1000 1200 200 400 600 800 1000

turn-on current, A turn-off current, A

Fig. 7 Turn-on and turn-off switching energy of GTO (Mitsubishi GTO FG1000BV-90DA)

where VG and VD are the voltage drops of a GTO and a (not including the redundant one) connected in series in

diode, respectively, if they are in the on-state. T is the period an arm of the HBaII, so the GTOs endure the off-state

of iaC . VG is 2.8 V approximately, according to the datasheet voltage, 3UD =5 (1980 V), after they are turned off. The

of the GTO, and VD is 1.3 V approximately. So, from (6), (7) turn-off switching energy of the GTO in the HBaII can

and Table 1, we nd that PG,ON is 269 W and PD,ON is be calculated as 1.6 1980/2250 1.4 J. From Fig. 5, we

125 W for the worst case. nd that the switching losses of the GTO in the HBaII are

As shown in Fig. 5, the current that ows through a due to a switching-off process of the GTO in a period. So,

GTO in the aHB

aII

is iaC 1 sin f2 before the GTO is turned this switching losses can be calculated as PG;SW aII

1:4

off, where iC 1 is the amplitude of the A-phase STATCOM 50 70 W for the worst case. The switching losses of the

current. For the worst case, the current is 454 A. Figure 7 GTO in the HBaI are due to three switching-off processes

shows the datasheet of turn-on and turn-off switching and two switching-on processes in a period. By the same

energy of the GTO (Mitsubishi GTO FG1000BV-90DA) method, the switching losses of the GTO in the HBaI are

aI

when the DC off-state voltage is 2250 V. Based on Fig. 7, calculated as PG;SW 194 W for the worst case.

the turn-off switching energy is 1.6 J when the DC off-state If a nine-level cascade multilevel inverter is used in such a

voltage is 2250 V. As shown in Table 4, there are ve GTOs STATCOM system, the on-state losses and switching losses

1208 IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005

Table 5: Comparison of device power losses and cost of cooling systems

H-bridge Worst cases considered, redundant GTOs excluded Cost of cooling Total cost of

(DC voltage) system for a GTO cooling systems

and an antiparallel in three-phase

diode ($) inverter ($)

GTO on-state GTO switching Antiparallel diode

power losses losses (W) on-state power

(W) losses (W)

multilevel inverter HB (3UD) 269 70 125 464kcooling

Cascade multilevel HB (UD) 269 51 125 445kcooling 65644kcooling

inverter HB (UD) 269 62 125 456kcooling

HB (UD) 269 66 125 460kcooling

HB (UD) 269 69 125 463kcooling

of the GTOs for the worst cases can be calculated by the that the current generated by the STACOM is sinusoidal

same method above and the results are shown in Table 5. and iaC 1 is the amplitude of the A-phase current. The A-

Suppose that the cost of cooling system is proportional to phase current of the STATCOM in Fig. 4 can be expressed

the power losses, that is, as:

Ccooling kcooling Ploss 8

ia ia sinot p=2

C C 1 9

where Ccooling is the cost of cooling system, Ploss is power

losses and kcooling is the coefcient whose unit is $/W. As where o is the frequency in radians, assuming that the initial

shown in Table 5, the cost of the cooling system for a GTO voltages of A-phase DC capacitors are UD and 3UD,

and an antiparallel diode in the H-bridge with 3UD DC respectively. Table 6 shows capacitor voltages during rst

voltage in the trinary hybrid multilevel inverter is almost the half cycle in Fig. 4, where

a a

same as that in the cascade multilevel inverter. Compara- i i

C 1 C 1

tively, the cost of the cooling system for a GTO and an m1 m2 10

antiparallel diode in the H-bridge with UD DC voltage in oCaI oCaII

the trinary hybrid multilevel inverter are a little higher since The e, DC voltage regulation factor, is selected as 5%,

the GTO switches at higher frequency. However, the total which means that the DC capacitor voltages uctuate

cost of cooling systems for the trinary hybrid multilevel within 0.951.05 times the normal value. To keep the DC

inverter is lower than that for the cascade multilevel inverter capacitor voltages within this range, the capacitances of DC

as shown in Table 5, since fewer GTOs are used in trinary capacitors are expressed as:

hybrid multilevel inverter. a

i MAXABSsinf sinf ; ABSsinf 2sinf

C 1 1 2 1 2

2.6 Cost of DC capacitors aI sinf3 ; ABSsinf1 2sinf2 sinf3 sinf4 1

C

The trinary hybrid inverter not only needs fewer GTOs than 2oeUD

the cascade multilevel inverter, but also has lower cost of 11

DC capacitors. First, the required capacitances of DC a

capacitors of the trinary hybrid multilevel inverter are i 1 sinf

aII C 1 2

analysed. Figure 4 shows A-phase waveforms of the inverter C 12

(only waveforms with solid lines are considered). The 6oeUD

STATCOM supplies reactive power, so the output voltage where ABS is the function of absolute value, MAX is the

and output current of the inverter is orthogonal. Suppose function of selecting one with the maximum value. Based

0 UD 3UD

f1/(ot) UD 3UD

f2/(ot) UD m1(sinf1 sinf2) 3UD

f3/(ot) UD m1(sinf1 2sinf2 +sinf3) 3UDm2(sinf2 sinf3)

f4/(ot) UD m1(sinf1 2sinf2 +sinf3) 3UD m2(sinf2 sinf4)

p/(2ot) UD m1(sinf1 2sinf2 +sinf3 +sinf4 1) 3UD m2(sinf2 1)

(pf4)/(ot) UD m1(sinf1 2sinf2 +sinf3) 3UD m2(sinf2 sinf4)

(pf3)/(ot) UD m1(sinf1 2sinf2 +sinf3) 3UD m2(sinf2 sinf3)

(pf2)/(ot) UD m1(sinf1 sinf2) 3UD

(pf1)/(ot) UD 3UD

p/(ot) UD 3UD

IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005 1209

Table 7: Prices of capacitors with high voltage and high components of bus voltages and inverter output currents.

capacitance The function of the unbalanced voltage control module is to

eliminate the negative sequence components of the bus

Capacitors Series Prices (Europe $) voltages, so that the bus voltages can be balanced. The

reference output voltage of the inverter vabc

C is the addition

A GMKPg 3.6 kV/1114 mF 1873

of the output of power control module vabcP and the output

B GMKPg 2.6 kV/4400 mF 2565

of unbalanced voltage control module vabc U . Each phase of

C GMKPg 1.9 kV/4000 mF 1248

the inverter is controlled separately by the inverter control

D GMKPg 1 kV/9000 mF 943 module A, B or C. Inverter control modules not only

E GMKPg 0.9 kV/12000 mF 1598 control the output voltage waveform of the inverter, vabc C ,

but also are responsible for the balancing of each DC

capacitor voltage. In the following, we rst introduce vector

representation and transformation of instantaneous three-

on the consideration of the worst case from Table 3, the

phase quantities, and then specify these modules one by

required capacitances CaI and CaII are 2580 and 1050 mF.

one.

If a nine-level cascade multilevel inverter is used in such a

STATCOM system, the required capacitances are calcu- 3.1 Vector representation and transformation

lated by (13) for the comparison. From (13) and Table 3, of instantaneous three-phase quantities

for the worst cases, the required capacitances are 5380, A set of three instantaneous phase variables ga, gb and gc

3960, 3130 and 1060 mF: that sum to be zero can be uniquely represented in the ab-

a

ak

i 1 sinf

C 1 k

phase frame through the abc-ab transformation T abc!ab .

C 13 2 3

2oeUD 1 1

6 1

6 2 2 7

Table 7 shows the prices of high-voltage high-capacitance 6 p p 7

7

capacitors [25] and Table 8 shows the counts and cost of 26 3 37

T abc!ab 6 0 7 14

capacitors. Capacitors are connected to form an array of 36 2 2 7

capacitors to satisfy required capacitance and rating 6 7

4 1 1 1 5

voltage. The array has n rows in parallel and each row p p p

includes m capacitors connected in series. Moreover, an 2 2 2

additional row is used to satisfy the redundancy require- The ab ! abc transformation T ab!abc is the inverse of

ment. Normally, the peak voltage and current rating of the T abc!ab :

capacitor array are chosen to be 23 times the system

3

nominal voltage. The comparison results show that the cost T ab!abc T abc!ab 1 T abc!ab T 15

of DC capacitors in a trinary hybrid inverter is less than 2

that in cascade multilevel inverters in which the current and Thus

voltage stresses of switches are balanced [10] or not 2 a3 2 a3

g g

balanced [2]. There are two reasons why the trinary hybrid 4 gb 5 T ab!abc cabc ; cabc T abc!ab 4 gb 5

inverter has lower cost of DC capacitors. First, it needs less 16

redundancy capacitors. Secondly, the capacitor CAPaI was 0 0

both charged and discharged in quarter cycles (0p/2, where

p/2p, p3p/2 or 3p/22p), as shown in Fig. 4, so the 2 3

required CaI is smaller. ga

cabc 4 gb 5 17

3 Control system of STATCOM gc

Furthermore, we can obtain dq+ or dq co-ordinate

Figure 8 shows the control system of the STATCOM. The expressions by using the positive or negative sequence

power control module controls not only the reactive power synchronous reference frame transformations [Tab-dq+] or

but also the active power, which compensates the power [Tab-dq], respectively:

losses of the inverter and interface impedance. The input

signals of the power control module are positive sequence cdq T ab!dq cab ; cab T dq!ab cdq 18

voltage) per voltage of DC (euro)

phase capacitor

Trinary hybrid multilevel inverter HB (UD) 2.58 mF/3.3 kV B 3 2+1 305 253

HB (3UD) 1.05 mF/9.9 kV A 6 6+1

Cascade multilevel inverter (without HB (UD) 5.38 mF/3.3 kV B 3 4+1 333 816

balancing stresses) HB (UD) 3.96 mF/3.3 kV B 3 3+1

HB (UD) 3.13 mF/3.3 kV B 3 3+1

HB (UD) 1.06 mF/3.3 kV A 2 2+1

Cascade multilevel inverter (with Four HBs (UD) 5.38 mF/3.3 kV B 3 4+1 461 700

balancing stresses)

1210 IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005

CAPaI CAPaII vDa II vDa I

a

iC

interface

impedance SS a a*

vC

multilevel inverter inverter control

(A phase) module A

iC

bus SS b b*

vC

multilevel inverter inverter control

(B phase) module B

c

CAPc I CAPc II vDc II vDc I iC

c*

multilevel inverter inverter control vC

SS c module C

(C phase)

UD v Pabc* abc*

vC

vBabc iCabc power control +

1/12

module

+

vUabc*

unbalanced voltage

control module

cdq T ab!dq cab ; cab T dq!ab cdq 19 voltage vector and the q+ axis is in quadrature with

where it, i.e.

!

vbB

ab ga dq gd dq gd y arctan a 25

c b ; c q ; c q 20 vB

g g g

Under balanced steady-state conditions,

abc

cos y sin y dq jvB j

T ab!dq ; vB 26

sin y cos y 21 0

T dq!ab T ab!dq T where jvabc

B j is the amplitude of phase voltage of the bus.

Therefore, the reactive power and active power can be

expressed as:

cos y sin y

T ab!dq ; 3 3

sin y cos y 22 P jvabc j i ; Q jvabc j i 27

dq!ab ab!dq T

2 B Cd 2 B Cq

T T

Z

RI

y ot y0 23 vBd+

d+

iC

where y0 is determined by the denition of the dq+ d+

vC + +

co-ordinate frame. 1/sLI

LI

The power control module regulates the positive sequence

reactive power and active power injected into the bus.

Three-phase bus voltages vabc B and three-phase inverter

LI

output currents i abc

C can be transformed into vab ab

B and i C in

the ab phase frame by (16). The reactive power and active

iq+

power can be shown as v q+ + +

C

C 1/sLI

3 3

P vaB iaC vbB ibC ; Q vaB ibC vbB iaC 24

2 2

vBq+

vab

B and i ab

can be transformed into

C and in the dq+ vdq

B i dq

C RI

frame by (18). The dq+ co-ordinate frame is dened where

the d+ axis is always coincident with the instantaneous Fig. 9 Plant of STATCOM system in s domain

IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005 1211

+

UD +

d+

iC + + vCd+

PI PI

UD d+

iC

LI vPabc

abc

iC q+

iC T dq+ T abc

T abc T dq+ LI

+

icq+ +

q+

vC

PI

+

v q+ +

vBabc B

T abc T dq+

v d+

B

d +

iC d+

iC

Fig. 10, respectively:

+ 1 d

PI LI s + RI vd

C vC vq q

C vC 32

Figure 11 shows the equivalent control diagrams for id C

d+

equivalent control diagram for iC and iq

C , which is derived from Fig. 9, Fig. 10 and (32). The

controlled system is reduced to a rst-order transfer

q + q+

function [11].

iC + 1 iC Active power owing into STATCOM will regulate DC

PI LI s + RI capacitor voltages of the inverter. UD is the reference value

of unit voltage of DC capacitors. UD is the unit voltage of

q+ DC capacitors and can be calculated by

equivalent control diagram for iC

1 cI cII

q UD vaI vaII bI bII

D vD vD vD vD 33

Fig. 11 Equivalent control diagram for id

C and iC 12 D

The active current reference, id C , is generated from a PI

In Fig. 2, the resistance and inductance of interface controller, which controls UD. The reactive current

impedance are expressed as Rl and Ll. From Fig. 2 reference, iq

C , is given according to different compensation

di abc aims. For example, for a STATCOM to compensate for the

LI C RI i abc abc

C vC vB

abc

28 reactive power of a load, it will be the load reactive current.

dt

Under balanced conditions, the dq+ component of the bus

From (16) and (28)

voltages is shown in (26). The output of this module, vabc

P , is

di ab

LI C RI i ab ab

C vC vB

ab

29 obtained from vdC and vqC through T

dq!ab

and T ab!abc ,

dt as previously mentioned.

From (18), (25) and"(29) # " q #

d iC

d

iC 3.3 Unbalanced voltage control module

LI q

oLI Assuming that the sequence components are not coupled,

dt iC id Fig. 2 can be thought of as separately representing either the

C

" # " # positive or negative sequence. Considering the case of the

d

iC vC vd

d

B negative sequence components and using the phasors, VC

RI q q 30

iC vC vq B

represents the negative sequence component of compensa-

tor voltage generated by the STATCOM and VB is the

Thus, under balanced conditions, the plant of the negative sequence component of bus voltage. Setting VC

STATCOM system can be expressed as (31) in the s equal to k times VB , VB can be expressed as

domain,

" as shown in Fig. 9: # " # ZI ZL

vd d q d

C vB oLI iC RI iC sLI id

C VB VS 34

31 ZS ZI ZI ZL 1 kZS ZL

vq q d q

C vB oLI iC RI iC sLI iq

C

A P controller in the synchronous reference dq frame is

A PI controller is used for both active and reactive current used to produce the amplitude of vC from the amplitude of

control loop, as shown in Fig. 10. Under balanced v

B , as shown in Fig. 12. A large P can reduce the negative

conditions, the inverter can be regarded as a unit function, sequence component of the bus voltage greatly, which is

q d

i.e., vd

C and vC in Fig. 9 are equal to vC and vq

C and in derived from (34). The output of transform T ab!dq

B

vBabc vBd dq

T abc T dq mean vB +

+

vBq P

+

vB =0

vC

dq

d

vC

vUabc*

T abc T dq

C

q

vC

1212 IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005

all

vD

+ + TSA: table of theoretical switching angles

3UD mean PI

+ FC: function of comparing and keeping

a

iC 2

Bb()

a FSS: function of switching signals

vC

Bb() 0.81 : amplitude of the fundamental

1

UD + mean component of a periodical variable

PI part A

al Bu(): unipolar binary function

vD

Bb(): bipolar binary function

2

2 +

a sin() part B ABS(): absolute value

ABS(vC ) a 1 + 1

S

a S Ma sin() 1

+

1

ABS() 1 TSA 3 3 : reciprocal

4 4 sin()

4 ABS(NLlast )

sin() +

+

1 1 + Bu()

Bu()

a + + Bu()

S + ABS(NL)

+ Bu() SS a

S

a

+

4UD 1

WB Bu() FC FSS

+ NL

+ Bu()

+

+

Bu()

Bu()

b()

H is shown as a real line in Fig. 4, the average

100 Hz in addition to DC components. A mean function charge into the capacitor CAPaII over each half cycle is zero.

that generates the average value of input during the last However, when vaII H is shifted by Dd2 by the dark dashed

0.01 s is used to eliminate the second-harmonic components. line, the charge over each half cycle can be expressed as

Thus, in the dq frame, the regulated quantities appear as Z pf2 Dd2

DC. When the STATCOM is used to balance the bus QaII 3UD jiaC j1 cos ydy

voltages, there is a problem that the inverter current may be f2 Dd2

over rating. Under unbalanced conditions, the output of the

P control in Fig. 12 is a signal corresponding to the voltage 6UD jiaC j1 cos f2 sin Dd2 36

drop across the STATCOM interface impedance. By where iaC is sinusoidal and jiaC j1 is the amplitude of iaC . QaII

limiting the value of this voltage drop, the inverter current is proportional to Dd2 when Dd2 is small. So QaII can be

is limited. written approximately as:

When the STATCOM balances the bus voltages, the

negative sequence power that the inverter sends can be QaII 6UD jiaC j1 cos f2 Dd2 37

expressed as: Therefore, the capacitor voltage vaIID can be controlled by

VC VC VB RI slightly shifting the switching pattern. For high-power high-

P 35 voltage applications, the total power loss of the inverter is

R2I oLI 2

less than 1%, thus Dd2 0:1 rad [2]. The shifted switching

Since RI oLI , the P is quite small. This small deviation angles about HBaII during 0 to 2p are f2 Dd2 ,

of DC capacitor voltages that caused by the P can be p f2 Dd2 , p f2 Dd2 and 2p f2 Dd2 .

balanced by ejecting or absorbing additional positive Suppose that

sequence power. d2 f2 Bb vaC iaC Dd2 38

3.4 Inverter control modules where Bb is a bipolar binary function, which can be

Figure 13 shows the inverter control module A. The expressed as

8

operation and principle of inverter control modules B and C <1 t40

are the same as that of the inverter control module A. Bb t 0 t0 39

Inverter control module A can be divided as part A and :

1 to0

part B, as shown in Fig. 13.

The part A of Fig. 13 addresses the issue of balancing Therefore, the shifted switching angles about HBaII between

individual capacitor voltages vaI aII 0 and 2p are d2, pd2, p+d2 and 2pd2.

D and vD . Without addi-

tional control for balancing the individual capacitor The average charge current for CAPaII can be expressed

voltages, the capacitor voltages will become unequal under as:

unbalanced conditions or during a transient process. iaII aII

D 100Q 40

Additionally, each DC capacitor voltage may not be exactly

aII

balanced even under steady balanced conditions, since And the relationship between the current of CAP , iaII

D and

inverter devices are not ideal and have different tolerance the voltage of CAPaII, vaII

D , can be expressed as:

errors. Figure 4 shows the waveforms when the STATCOM

dvaII

supplies reactive power to the system. D

iaII

D C

aII

41

First, the second H-bridge of A-phase, HBaII, is analysed. dt

When the output voltage of HBaII, vaII H , has the same From (37), (40) and (41), the transfer function from Dd2 to

direction as iaC , the capacitor CAPaII is discharged and vice vaII

D in the s domain can be written as:

IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005 1213

In the s domain, vaI

D can be expressed as

vaII

D k1 600UD jiaC j1 cos f2 k2 k3

k1 42 vaI

D Dd2 Dd 46

Dd2 s C aII s s

Once the switching angles of HBaII is decided, the where

switching angles of HBaI will be regulated for controlling 200UD jiaC j1 cos f2

the DC capacitor voltage of HBaI, vaI D . As shown in k2

Fig. 4, the switching angle of HBaII over the rst quarter C aI

cycle is f2 Dd2 , so the second switching angles of 200UD jiaC j1 cos f1 cos f3 cos f4 47

k3

HBaI over the rst quarter cycle must be f2 Dd2 , C aI

otherwise the inverter will generate voltage spikes. If the PI controllers are used to regulate the DC capacitor

switching angles of HBaI over the rst half cycle are f1 , voltages, as shown in Fig. 14. In the control loop, the

f2 Dd2 , f3 , f4 , p f4 , p f3 , p f2 Dd2 and additional feedforward path (bold part) can enhance

p f1 , the charge to CAPaI during the rst half cycle can dynamic response. The relationship between k2 =k3 and

be expressed as modulation index is shown in Fig. 15. In general, the

0

QaI 4UD jiaC j1 cos f2 sin Dd2 43 inverter runs at a modulation index higher than 0.7. So

k2 =k3 is selected as 0.81 approximately.

aI

For balancing the CAP , other switching angles will shift Part B of Fig. 13 shows the main control scheme to

slightly, as shown in Fig. 4. Then the charge to the CAPaI generate desired switching signals from the reference

during a half cycle can be expressed as voltages of the inverter. In the paper and [2, 11], the

staircase PWM is used. In [2, 11], only the balanced

QaI 2UD jiaC j1 2 cos f2 sin Dd2 cos f1 sin Dd1 condition is considered and the control aim is just to

cos f3 sin Dd3 cos f4 sin Dd4 44 regulate the reactive power, so the amplitude of the inverter

voltage can be controlled by the control loop for reactive

To shift switching angles averagely, Dd1 , Dd3 and Dd4 are power and the phase angle of the inverter voltage can be

set equal to Dd. So (44) can be rewritten as controlled by the control loop for active power, respectively.

The above method cannot be applied in the STATCOM

QaI 2UD jiaC j1 2 cos f2 sin Dd2

control system presented in the paper since, in addition to

cos f1 cos f3 cos f4 sin Dd 45 regulation of reactive power, balance of bus voltages during

unbalanced conditions is involved in the control aims. To

achieve these aims, the reference voltages of the inverters,

vabc

C , are the addition of the resulting signals of the power

control module, vabc

P , and the resulting signals of the power

3UD 2 vDa ll control module, vabc

+

PI

k1 U , as shown in Fig. 8. Based on the

s reference voltages of the inverter, the switching signals are

produced to control the inverter.

k2 Under balanced conditions, the reference voltages of the

s inverter are quite close to pure sinusoidal waveforms since

k2

they only contain higher-order harmonic components

k3

whose amplitudes are very low. The 5th, 7th and 11th

order harmonics of the output voltage of the A-phase (B-

phase or C-phase) inverter are nearly eliminated by the

+ + staircase modulation, so these harmonic components of

UD +

+ k3 + vDal

PI the STATCOM currents and bus voltages are very small.

s

The output voltage of the A-phase (B-phase or C-phase)

inverter contains triple-order harmonic components. Under

balanced conditions, the amplitudes of triple-order harmo-

Fig. 14 Control scheme for individual DC capacitor voltages

Sa

: reference signal

1.2 Sa

1

WB

sin 4

reference amplitudes

1.0

sin 3

0.8

sin 2

0.6

k2 /k3

sin 1

0.4

0.2

4

ABS(NL)

0 3

2

0.2 1

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

modulation index M

Fig. 16 Demonstration of comparison of reference amplitudes with

Fig. 15 Relationship between k2/k3 and modulation index M reference signal in inverter control model A

1214 IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005

nic components of the output voltage of the A-phase of the inverter also contain high triple-order harmonic

inverter are the same as those of the B-phase inverter components, which passed from the STATCOM currents

and the C-phase inverter, so triple-order harmonic compo- and the bus voltages through the power control module.

nents of the STATCOM currents and bus voltages do So the reference voltages of the inverter are far from

not exist with the proper connection of the STATCOM pure sinusoidal waveforms. Without good sinusoidal

system. Amplitudes of other higher-order harmonic com- reference voltages of the inverter, the 5th, 7th and 11th

ponents of the STATCOM currents and bus voltages are order harmonic components of the output voltages

very low. As stated above, the reference voltages of the of the A-phase, B-phase and C-phase inverters cannot be

inverter are the addition of resulting signals of the power eliminated effectively by the staircase modulation. Thus,

control module and the unbalanced voltage control module the STATCOM currents and the bus voltages under

that are fed by the STATCOM currents and the bus unbalanced conditions contain higher 5th, 7th and

voltages, as shown in Fig. 8. As shown in Fig. 12, the 11th order harmonic components than those under

unbalanced voltage control module contains the mean balanced conditions. Therefore, the reference voltages

functions that eliminate the effect of harmonic components

of the STATCOM currents and the bus voltages. But the

power control module does not contain them to keep high

dynamic performance. So the reference voltages of the Table 9: Parameters of GTO (Mitsubishi GTO FG1000BV-

inverter contain higher-order harmonic components whose 90DA)

amplitudes are very low.

Under unbalanced conditions, the reference voltages of Forward voltage 2.3 V

the inverters are far from pure sinusoidal waveforms Turn-on resistance 0.002 O

since they contain lower-order harmonic components whose Turn-on inductance 10 mH

amplitudes are high. Under unbalanced conditions,

Current fall time 10 ms

the amplitudes of output voltages of A-phase inverter,

Current tail time 20 ms

B-phase inverter and C-phase inverter are not identical, so

the amplitudes of triple-harmonic components of Diode forward voltage 1.2 V

these output voltages are not identical. This causes the Diode turn-on resistance 0.0005 O

STATCOM currents and the bus voltages to contain high Snubber resistance 10 O

triple-order harmonic components, especially the third- Snubber capacitor 0.7 mF

order harmonic components. The reference voltages

W, VAr( 107)

1

Q* Q

0

P

1

a

1

V( 104)

1

b

1

V( 104)

1

c

500

0

A

500

d

1

V( 104)

1

0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.24

e

time, s

a P, Q and Q : active power, reactive power and reference value of reactive power

b vaC , vbC and vcC : reference voltages of inverter

a b c

c vC , vC and vC : the output voltage of A-phase, B-phase and C-phase inverter

d Phase currents of STATCOM

e Line-neutral voltages of bus

IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005 1215

500.00 20000.00

400.00

10000.00

200.00 8000.00

6000.00

100.00 4000.00

80.00

60.00 2000.00

40.00

1000.00

20.00 800.00

600.00

,V

400.00

Ic a , A

10.00

8.00

b a

6.00

200.00

V

4.00

100.00

2.00 80.00

60.00

1.00 40.00

0.80

0.60

20.00

0.40

10.00

0.20 8.00

6.00

0.10 4.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

frequency, KHz frequency, KHz

a b

20 000.00

10 000.00

8000.00

6000.00

4000.00

2000.00

1000.00

800.00

600.00

Vref a , V

400.00

200.00

100.00

80.00

60.00

40.00

20.00

10.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

frequency, KHz

c

a Simulated frequency spectrum of A-phase current of STATCOM

b Simulated frequency spectrum of A-phase line-neutral voltage of bus

c Simulated frequency spectrum of reference voltage of A-phase inverter

of the inverter are far from pure sinusoidal waveforms Therefore, a robust control method is needed in this

because of not only high triple-order harmonic components STATCOM system, which must satisfy the following two

but also 5th, 7th and 11th order harmonic components. items. First, under balanced conditions, reactive power can

If mean functions or lters are added into the power control be regulated rapidly and vaC does not contain 5th, 7th and

module to eliminate the lower-order harmonic components 11th harmonics. Secondly, under unbalanced conditions,

of the reference voltages of the inverter, the dynamic the STATCOM can work steadily and the bus voltages can

performance of the reactive and active power control will be be balanced. To achieve the above aims, a new control

worse. This is undesirable since the main purpose of the method is proposed in this paper. By this method, vaC is

STATCOM is to regulate reactive power quickly and the synthesised and satises the following two items. First,

STATCOM works under balanced conditions for most of under balanced conditions, the amplitude and phase angle

the time. of fundamental component of vaC are the same as those of

1216 IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005

1

V( 104)

0

1

a

V( 104)

0

3000

negative component of bus voltage (without comp.)

2000 negative component of bus voltage (with comp.)

V

1000

0

c

500

0

A

500

time, s

d

a Line-neutral voltages of bus without compensation

b Line-neutral voltages of bus with compensation

c Negative component of bus voltages with compensation and without compensation

d Phase currents of STATCOM with compensation

vaC . Moreover, vaC does not contain 5th, 7th and 11th practice, under balanced conditions, vaC is quite close to a

harmonics. Secondly, under unbalanced conditions, vaC can sinusoidal waveform. So, under balanced conditions, the

follow the track of vaC . new method can also eliminate lower-order harmonics just

The method by which vaC is synthesised is shown in part B like the conventional method.

of Fig. 13. ABSvaC is the absolute value of vaC . The

Secondly, under unbalanced conditions, vaC is far from a

reference signal S a equals to ABSvaC =4UD . jS a j1 is the sinusoidal waveform because of lower-order harmonic

amplitude of the fundamental component of S a . From (4), components. With the new method as shown in Fig. 16,

one can get modulation index M a that is just jS a j1 p=4. one can obtain a vaC whose waveform is quite similar to that

From the table of switching angles (TSA) (Table 3), the of vaC . Moreover, the new method is more robust than the

theoretical switching angles, f1 f4 , can be calculated. The method in which the switching angles are compared with

theoretical switching angles are shifted slightly to balance ot, which is obtained by a phase lock loop (PLL). Under

individual capacitor voltages by the control loop shown in unbalanced condition and during transient process, the

part A of Fig. 13. Thus, the nal switching angles are d1 d4 . increasing rate of the value of ot obtained by PLL is not

The following is the key part of the new very stable, so a small deviation of this rate will result in a

method. The conventional method used in [2, 10, 11] is large deviation of the comparison result. Therefore, the new

to compare the phase angle ot with switching angles to method based on the comparison of amplitudes is more

determine the switching states. The new method is to robust than the conventional method based on the

compare the reference signal S a =jS a j1 with a series of comparison of angles under unbalanced conditions and

reference amplitudes (sin d1sin d4), as shown in Fig. 16. during transient processes.

First, the case in which vaC is a perfect sinusoidal Thus, with the new method, the two aims mentioned

waveform is considered. In the rst quarter cycle, S a is a previously are achieved. Moreover, the dead zone control is

perfect sinusoidal waveform and can be expressed as used to avoid high-frequency switching of switches in a

short interval. In Fig. 16, WB is the width of the dead zone.

S a jS a j1 sinot 48 The control system of the dead zone is shown in Fig. 13.

In the rst quarter cycle, The values of S a =jS a j1 WB and S a =jS a j1 WB are

compared with sin d1 to sin d4, respectively. The comparison

Sa results are the inputs of Bu , which is a unipolar binary

4 sin di , ot4di i 1; 2; 3; 4 49

jS a j1 function dened as

Equation (49) shows, as vaC is a perfect sinusoid, the new

method has the same function as the conventional method 1 t0

Bu t 50

by which the lower-order harmonics can be eliminated. In 0 to0

IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005 1217

300.00 20 000.00

200.00

10 000.00

8000.00

100.00

80.00 6000.00

60.00 4000.00

40.00

2000.00

20.00

1000.00

10.00 800.00

8.00 600.00

,V

,A

6.00

b a

c a

400.00

4.00

V

I

200.00

2.00

1.00 100.00

0.80 80.00

0.60 60.00

0.40 40.00

0.20 20.00

0.10 10.00

a b

10 000.00 700.00

600.00

8000.00

6000.00 400.00

4000.00 200.00

2000.00 100.00

80.00

60.00

40.00

1000.00

800.00

20.00

600.00

Vref a, V

,A

400.00 10.00

8.00

c b

6.00

I

200.00

4.00

2.00

100.00

80.00 1.00

60.00 0.80

0.60

40.00

0.40

20.00 0.20

10.00 0.10

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

frequency, kHz frequency, kHz

c d

a Simulated frequency spectrum of A-phase current of STATCOM

b Simulated frequency spectrum of A-phase line-neutral voltage of bus

c Simulated frequency spectrum of reference voltage of A-phase inverter

d Simulated frequency spectrum of B-phase current of STATCOM

e Simulated frequency spectrum of B-phase line-neutral voltage of bus

f Simulated frequency spectrum of reference voltage of B-phase inverter

g Simulated frequency spectrum of C-phase current of STATCOM

h Simulated frequency spectrum of C-phase line-neutral voltage of bus

i Simulated frequency spectrum of reference voltage of C-phase inverter

of comparing and keeping, FC, as shown in Fig. 7. Suppose

that NL is the expected level number of vaC and ABS(NL) is The performance of the STATCOM system presented

the absolute value of NL. If the two addition results are above has been veried under balanced and unbalanced

different, the FC outputs the ABS(NLlast) (the last values of conditions by simulation. The simulation investigations

ABS(NL)). If the two addition results are identical, the FC were performed with MATLAB Simulink. The parameters

outputs this addition result. NL is obtained from ABS(NL) of the distribution system and STATCOM are shown in

and the polar of vac . Finally, based on Table 2 and Table 1. In Table 1, the capacitance of the DC capacitors

denition of the switching function, the switching signals for used in the simulation is calculated based on Tables 7 and 8

the A-phase inverter can be obtained from NL. From (redundancy capacitors are not considered). The parameters

Fig. 16, one can see that the waveform of ABS(NL) will of the GTOs are shown in Table 9.

slightly shift right because of the dead zone, which will Figure 17 shows simulated waveforms under balanced

result in additional charge or discharge of DC capacitors. conditions. The step changes of the reference signal of the

But, with the control loop shown in part A of Fig. 13, the reactive power, Q , is from 0 to 7 MVAr at 0.12 s and from

DC capacitor voltages can be balanced. 7 to 7 MVAr at 0.18 s. It is seen that the reactive power Q

1218 IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005

20 000.00 20 000.00

10 000.00 10 000.00

8000.00 8000.00

6000.00 6000.00

4000.00 4000.00

2000.00 2000.00

1000.00 1000.00

800.00 800.00

Vref b , V

Vb b , V

600.00 600.00

400.00 400.00

200.00 200.00

100.00 100.00

80.00 80.00

60.00 60.00

40.00 40.00

20.00 20.00

10.00 10.00

e f

600.00 20 000.00

400.00

10 000.00

200.00 8000.00

6000.00

100.00 4000.00

80.00

60.00

40.00 2000.00

20.00 1000.00

800.00

600.00

Vb c , V

Ic c , A

10.00

8.00 400.00

6.00

4.00

200.00

2.00

100.00

1.00 80.00

0.80 60.00

0.60

40.00

0.40

0.20 20.00

0.10 10.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

frequency, kHz frequency, kHz

g h

20 000.00

10 000.00

8000.00

6000.00

4000.00

2000.00

1000.00

800.00

Vref c , V

600.00

400.00

200.00

100.00

80.00

60.00

40.00

20.00

10.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

frequency, kHz

i

Fig. 20 continued

p

rapidly tracks the step-changing reference while the active 2 2p4UD , the response speed of this system is only

power maintains zero. Complete decoupled control is constrained by a practical DC voltage. Figure 18 shows

achieved. Because the maximum RMS value of the output simulated frequency spectra of the A-phase STATCOM

voltage of one phase of the inverter is bounded at current, the A-phase line-neutral voltage of the bus and the

IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005 1219

m m m m

1 1.00V 2 5.00V 0.00s 10.0 s / 1 STOP 1 500 v 2 500 v 0.00s 20.0 s / 1 STOP

1 1

2 2

a

a

m m m

1 1.00V 2 5.00V 0.00s 10.0 s / 1 STOP 1 500 v 0.00s 20.0 s / 1 STOP

b b

1 1.00V 2 5.00V m

0.00s 10.0 s / 1 STOP Fig. 22 Experimental waveforms of STATCOM under unbalanced

conditions without compensation

From 0 to 40 ms and from 120 to 200 ms, the source voltages are

1 balanced; from 40 to 120 ms, source voltages are unbalanced

a CH1: AB line-to-line voltage of bus (200 V/div.); CH2: BC line-to-line

voltage of bus (200V/div.)

b CH1: CA line-to-line voltage of bus (200 V/div.)

can see that voltage levels of the inverter are identical, which

means that the DC capacitor voltages are balanced by the

c control loops shown in part A of Fig. 13, in which P and I

are selected as 0.001 and 0.01, respectively.

Fig. 21 Experimental waveforms of STATCOM under balanced

conditions Figure 19 shows simulated waveforms of the STATCOM

From 0 to 20 ms, reference value of reactive power that STATCOM during unbalanced conditions. Before 0.2 s and after 0.4 s,

sends is zero; from 20 to 60 ms, reference value is 850 Var; from 60 to the source voltage is balanced. From 0.2 to 0.3 s , the source

100 ms, reference value is 850 Var voltages are unbalanced with 0.25 p.u. negative sequence

a CH1: output voltage of A-phase inverter (200 V/div.); CH2: A-phase voltage components added. Figures 19a and b show the

current of STATCOM (1 A/div.) bus voltages without compensation and with compensation.

b CH1: output voltage of B-phase inverter (200 V/div.); CH2: B-phase With compensation, the bus voltage is balanced. By limiting

current of STATCOM (1 A/div.) the value of the P controller in Fig. 6, the current sent by

c CH1: output voltage of C-phase inverter (200 V/div.); CH2: C-phase the STATCOM is limited within the rating values, as shown

current of STATCOM (1 A/div.)

in Fig. 19d. When the compensator is active, the negative

sequence component of the bus voltage is reduced. The

amount of compensation is subject to the limitation of

the inverter current. In the unbalanced voltage control

reference voltage of the A-phase inverter when Q is module as shown in Fig. 6, P is selected as 10 and the limits

7 MVAr. In these spectra, the triple-order harmonic of the P controller are from 7000 to 7000. Figure 20

components are nearly zero and the 5th, 7th and 11th order shows simulated frequency spectra of the STATCOM

harmonic components are low. The reference voltages of currents, the bus voltages and the reference voltages

the inverter still contain 13th and higher-order harmonics, of the inverter during the unbalanced conditions

which may result in additional switching of the switches. with compensation. The inverter is well controlled to

Two methods are used to avoid the additional switching. compensate for the bus voltages in spite of high lower-

Firstly, smaller P in the PI controller as shown in Fig. 10 order harmonic components in the reference voltages of

will reduce the amplitude of harmonics of vabc

C . P and I are the inverter, which proves that the new method as shown in

adjusted to 9 and 500, respectively, so that the inverter has part B of Fig. 13 is effective. The dominant lower-order

enough dynamic response and the amplitudes of the harmonic components in the STATCOM currents are

harmonics of vabc C are limited to an appropriate range. the third-order harmonics, whose amplitudes are lower

Furthermore, the dead zone control as shown in part B of than 15% of the rating value of the STATCOM currents.

Fig. 13 eliminates the effect of the harmonics. The width of In the worst case, the voltage ripple of a DC capacitor

the dead zone, WB, is selected as 0.008. From Fig. 17, one caused by the third-order harmonic component of

1220 IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 5, September 2005

m m laboratory using the scaled system parameters as given in

1 500 v 2 5.00 V 0.00s 20.0 s / 1 STOP

Table 1. For the experimental system, a programmed AC

source is used to represent the voltage source of the system.

1 The STATCOM consists of a three-phase nine-level

MOSFET inverter, which is controlled using a

TMS320F240 controlled card, and three inductances.

Figure 21 shows the output voltages of the A-phase, B-

phase and C-phase inverters and the phase currents. From 0

2 to 20 ms, the reference value of reactive power that the

STATCOM sends is set as zero. At 20 ms, there is a step

change of the reference value of reactive power from 0 to

850 VAr. At 60 ms, there is a step change of the reference

a value from 850 to 850 VAr. The results show excellent

m m dynamic response to the step changes.

1 500 v 2 5.00 V 0.00s 20.0 s / 1 STOP Figure 22 shows the line-to-line bus voltages without

compensating unbalanced voltages. Figure 23 shows the line-

1

to-line bus voltages and phase currents of the STATCOM

with compensation of unbalanced voltages. From 0 to 40 ms

and from 120 to 200 ms, the source voltages are balanced.

From 40 to 120 ms, the source voltages are unbalanced

with 0.25 p.u. negative sequence voltage components added.

With compensation, the bus voltages are balanced partially.

2

The extent of compensation is constrained by the current of

the STATCOM, which is limited within the normal value, as

shown in Fig. 23.

b

m m 6 Conclusions

1 500 v 2 5.00 V 0.00s 20.0 s / 1 STOP

The application of a trinary hybrid multilevel inverter in a

1

STATCOM with unbalanced voltages, which is cost-

effective because of reduced cost of switching components,

cooling systems and DC capacitors, has been investigated.

The staircase modulation permits the inverter to be run at

lower frequency. Vector control based on synchronous

frame transform leads to high dynamic performance of the

2

STATCOM. Moreover, the bus voltages are rebalanced

during unbalanced conditions and the compensation

current is limited within normal values. The new method

c by which the switching signals are generated from the

reference inverter voltages is based on the comparison of

Fig. 23 Experimental waveforms of STATCOM under unbalanced

conditions with compensation

amplitudes instead of angles. By this method, the output

From 0 to 40 ms and from 120 to 200 ms, source voltages are balanced; voltage of the inverter does not contain lower-order

from 40 to 120 ms, source voltages are unbalanced harmonics under stable balanced conditions and the

a CH1: AB line-to-line voltage of bus (200 V/div.); CH2: A-phase inverter can keep high dynamic performance under

current of STATCOM (1 A/div.) unbalanced conditions or transient processes.

b CH1: BC line-to-line voltage of bus (200 V/div.); CH2: B-phase

current of STATCOM (1 A/div.) 7 References

c CH1: CA line-to-line voltage of bus (200 V/div.); CH2: C-phase

current of STATCOM (1 A/div.) 1 Gyugyi, L.: Dynamic compensation of AC transmission line by solid-

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3 Ainsworth, J.D., Davies, M., Fitz, P.J., Owen, K.E., and Trainer,

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5 Tan, P.C., Loh, P.C., and Holmes, D.G.: A robust multilevel hybrid

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DC capacitance can still be based on the assumption of a inverter, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 1999, 14, (2), pp. 459464

sinusoidal current from the STATCOM. 7 Lai, Y.S., and Shyu, F.S.: Topology for hybrid multilevel inverter,

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8 Luo, F.L., and Liu, Y.: A new asymmetric hybrid multilevel inverter.

5 Experimental results IEE Int. Power Engineering Conf., 2003, Vol. 1, pp. 311316

9 Rech, C., Grundling, H.A., Hey, H.L., Pinheiro, H., and Pinheiro,

J.R.: A generalized design methodology for hybrid multilevel

To verify the performance of the proposed compensator inverters. IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conf., 2002,

experimentally, a hardware prototype has been built in the Vol. 1, pp. 834839

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10 Tolbert, L.A., Peng, F.Z., Cunnyngham, T., and Chiasson, J.N.: 19 Steimer, P.K., Gruning, H.E., Werninger, J., and Schroder, D.: State-

Charge balance control schemes for cascade multilevel converter in of-the-art verication of the hard-driven GTO inverter development

hybrid electric vehicles, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 2002, 49, (5), for a 100-MVA intertie, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 1998, 13, (6),

pp. 10581064 pp. 11821190

11 Peng, F.Z., and Lai, J.S.: Dynamic performance and control of a 20 Nakajima, T., Suzuki, K.-I., Yajima, M., Kawakami, N.,

static VAr generator using cascade multilevel inverter, IEEE Trans. Tanomura, K.-I., and Irokawa, S.: A new control method prevent-

Ind. Appl., 1997, 33, (3), pp. 748755 ing transformer DC magnetization for voltage source self-commutated

12 Edwards, C.W., Mattern, K.E., Stacey, E.J., Nannery, P.R., and converters, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 1996, 11, (3), pp. 1522

Gubernick, J.: Advanced static Var-generator employing GTO 1528

thyristors, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 1998, 3, (2), pp. 16221627 21 Suzuki, H., Nakajima, T., Izumi, K., Sugimoto, S., Mino, Y., and

13 Cho, G.C., Jung, G.H., Choi, N.S., and Cho, G.H.: Analysis and Abe, H.: Development and testing of prototype models for a high-

controller design of static Var compensator using three-level GTO performance 300 MW self-commutated AC/DC converter, IEEE

inverter, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 1996, 11, (1), pp. 5765 Trans. Power Deliv., 1997, 12, (4), pp. 15891601

14 Trainer, D.R., Tennakoon, S.B., and Morrison, R.E.: Analysis of 22 Seki, N., and Uchino, H.: Which is better at a high power reactive

GTO-based static VAr compensators, IEE Proc., Electr. Power Appl., power compensation system, high PWM frequency or multiple

1994, 141, (6), pp. 293302 connection?. IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting,

15 Schauder, C., and Mehta, H.: Vector analysis and control of 1994, Vol. 2, pp. 946953

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16 Hochgraf, C., and Lasseter, R.H.: Statcom controls for operation Conversion Conf., Yokohama, 1993, pp. 609614

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pp. 538544 M., Murakami, S., and Ishiguro, F.: Development of a large

17 Li, L., Czarkowski, D., and Dzieza, J.: Optimal surplus harmonic static VAr generator using self-commutated inverters for improving

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