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Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005

Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005

A Poissons Ratio Distribution From Wadati Diagram as Indicator of Fracturing of

Lahendong Geothermal Field, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Silitonga T. H., Siahaan E. E., Suroso

Mailing address, PT. Geodipa Energi, Jl. Karawaitan No. 32, Bandung 40264, Indonesia
E-mail address,

Keywords: Poissons ratio, Wadati diagram, fracturing, WHP 0 up to -0.8 bar. It is believed that local changes in
permeability. the stress field are obviously caused by production and re-
injection; however; the induced seismicity is not confined
ABSTRACT to the immediate regions of production and re-injection, but
also occurs at greater depths (Figure 2).
Poissons ratio from Wadati Diagram using micro
earthquake monitoring is relatively simple and useful for DATAMARK LS-8000SH is a high precision data logger
direct indicator of fracture. A short term micro earthquake capable of recording induced or tectonic earthquakes data.
monitoring in the Lahendong geothermal field shows two Since it is synchronize with UTC by GPSs time calibration
distinct shallow and deep hypocenters distributions. This function, each logger can record the data independently. It
paper describes the Poissons ratios distribution from has been claimed by the manufacture that the time accuracy
Wadati method in the Lahendong geothermal field. The is 5 sec.
higher Poissons ratio associated with shallow hypocenters
indicated by the fractured rocks, and the lower Poissons In the Lahendong geothermal field, the typical micro
ratio associated with deeper hypocenters and un-fractured earthquakes, see Figure 3, are as follow: duration < 50
rocks with silicified rocks. second, the depths < 5 km, and the time differences
between P and S arrival (S-P) < 3 second. Therefore, a
1. INTRODUCTION simple assumption that model is a horizontal layered
The Lahendong geothermal field situated in the North velocity structure, assuming constant, isotropic velocity
Sulawesi Province which is approximately 30 km from the within one layer, is reasonable enough to get a quick
capital city of Manado. interpretation as preliminary result.

One of the geophysical method used to detect reservoir A small error in picking of the arrival time and the
permeability is micro earth quake. Each event of micro inaccuracies of velocity model can produce a large error in
earthquake can be associated with permeable zone. As a determining the hypocenter and epicenter location.
result, this geophysical method is very helpful to develop a Therefore, both factors must be controlled, carefully.
geothermal field.
Firstly, as we know, it is easier to pick P wave than S wave,
Poissons ratio is one of the important parameters that can so P wave data from 4 stations is much better than P and S
be used as a fracture indicator through simple calculation of wave data from 3 stations. Using this procedure, which
Wadati diagram. Whereas, well data like cores, minerals controlled by data from the shortest station usually
and loss circulation can provide reservoir permeability are associated with good event, it is expected to minimize the
very expensive and limited. error.

This paper describes the calculation and interpretation of Secondly, sensitivity analysis was used to obtain the
Poissons ratio derived from the short monitoring of micro representative velocity of the area. Since there is no direct
earthquake at the beginning of production in the Lahendong velocity measurement, and no velocity data from
geothermal field. More over, one layer modeling of petrophysics, the whole micro-earthquakes data were
earthquake distribution and Poissons ratio calculation by calculated using a simple linier inversion program (Gede
using Wadati diagram indicate different fracture intensity Swantika) with various velocities ranges from 2.5 to 4 km
between shallow and deep reservoir. /sec. Most of data converged quickly to provide satisfactory
hypocenter locations using a compressional wave velocity
The Lahendong geothermal field is confined to an area Since full production began, as well as during
about 12 km2 as shown Figure 1. Five MEQs stations with commissioning, four production wells in the Southern
spacing less than 2 km were utilized to cover interest area. block were used to produce 20 MWe. The brine from a
Two seismometers L4-C (3-components) and three production separator were injected into the ground by using
seismometers SS-1 ranges (1-component) with natural one injection well, also in the Eastern block.
frequency 1 Hz were connected to DATAMARK LS-
8000SH. By using sample interval of 10 msec, gains 100 Although the mechanism which causes induced seismicity
times, pre trigger data 1000, and low pass filter 30 Hz were is not understood yet, but it has been studied that injection
applied to detect micro-earthquake with magnitude < 3 of fluid into the ground already deformed by regional stress
Richters scale focal depths < 5 km. can cause man made earthquakes. Another way,
detailed study of the Geyser reservoir showed that
The Lahendong geothermal field was produce steam about seismicity can also increase due to production (Denlinger et
160 tonnes/hr and about 75 tonnes/hr brine were injected al, 1981)
back into the earth through an injection well LHD-5 at

Silitonga et al.

0 2 4 6 8

Legend : : Proposed development area

: 0<M<1 : Interpreted Natural recharge
1 : Sta. Numb. & Seis. 1-component
: 1<M<2 8
5: Sta. Numb. & Seis. 3-component
: 2<M<3 : Production Well

: Deeper : Injection Well

: Shutin Well]

20 6
Eastern block
LHD-1 41 51
1 23 49 36
LHD-7 4
LHD-5 22 37 48
44 9
53 12 46
6 24 Recharge
35 F8 50 4
17 5
42 32
25 5 52 54 47
19 33
38 43 27
39 45
THE LAHENDONG 16 26 30 28
LHD-1340 11 0
18 31 34 3
Southern block 6
barrier ?

10 8 LHD-6

7 14

0 1 km 2
SW 3

Figure 1 The map of the Lahendong geothermal field showing the prospect area, production and injection wells, micro-
earthquakes distributions in the period Desember 2000 - Februari 2001 (Modified from Sudarman S.)

Mt.Lengkoan A=13km2 Mt.Tampuso
LHD-13 LHD-4 LHD-5 LHD-7
2 54 22 20
23 24
0 10
16 Shallow Resrvoir 53 42
25 40 17 49 + 37
+ + +
Legend : 26 30 + 4
34 43 35
+ + + + 12
d) rge

+ + 21 <100C

-1 + +
re ech

Z (km)

+ + + +
te al r

Propilitik +

: Production Well + + + + 51
+ + +
(In tur



+ + + + +

+ + +
+ 52 6 + + + +
-2 + + + + +44+
+ + Deeper Reservoir
+ + + + +
: Injection Well +
++ + + + + + + + 9
+ + + + + +
: Microearthquake & No. + +
31 + 1 + 36 46 50
0 2 4 6 8 10 km

Figure 2 The cross section of the Lahendong geothermal field showing vertical distribution of micro-earthquake and
injection and production wells (Modified from Sudarman S.).

Silitonga et al.

Fig. 3b ST3-NS




9:40:32 9:40:37 9:40:42 9:40:47 9:40:52 9:40:57

Fig. 3a S T3-UD




9:40:32 9:40:37 9:40:42 9:40:47 9:40:52 9:40:57

Fig. 3c S T3-EW




9:40:32 9:40:37 9:40:42 9:40:47 9:40:52 9:40:57
West Indonesian Time (Hr:mnt:sec)

Figure 3 A Typical of micro-earthquake record from a 3-component seismometer in the Lahendong geothermal field,
during monitoring (Fig. 3a, record from a vertical component, Fig. 3b and 3c record from horizontal components)

3. WADATI DIAGRAM Table 1 The corrects picks of micro-earthquacke data

Wadati diagram is important in processing micro- on 1st January 2001
earthquake data for two reasons. The first is that we can
control the correct picks of travel time of P wave and S Tp Ts Ts Tp
wave (ts and tp) from record data. The second reason is that (second) (second) (second)
we can compare the origin time of earth-quake (To, if the 2 22.501 23.041 0.540
time of S and P are equal, it means the rock are fractured) 5 22.700 23.520 0.820
with To from a computer program e.g. linier inversion. 1 22.740 23.510 0.770
3 23.470 25.110 1.640
In many cases, it is hard to pick S wave accurately even To (Wadati) 22.327
though we use 3-component seismometers. Particularly, in To (Inversion) 22.197
the Lahendong geothermal field we only use 2 Error 0.006
seismometers 3-components. Therefore, the use of Wadati Poissons ratio 0.36
diagram is very important to control the correct picks.

After picking all of the ts and tp from all micro-earthquake

stations as shown in Tabel-1, we can construct a Wadati
diagram by plotting all Ts Tp vs Tp for all the receiver
stations, as shown in Figure 4.

Silitonga et al.

M ic r o -e a r th q u a k e d a te : 1 st J a n 2 0 0 1 tim e : 1 5 :3 8 :2 2 .3 2 7 The graph of Poisson's ratio versus depth

2 1

0 Shallow reservoi r

depth (Km)
Ts-Tp (Second)

1 -2
y = 1 ,1 2 8 5 x - 2 4 ,8 4 7
R 2 = 0 ,9 9 3 4 -3 deeper reservoir

0,25 0,3 0,35 0,4 0,45
2 2,0 2 2,5 2 3,0 2 3,5 24 ,0 Poisson's Ratio
T p ( S e co n d )

Figure 5: The graph of Poissons ratio value of

Figure-4: Wadati diagram of micro-earthquakes on 1st Lahendong geothermal field versus depth relative to sea
January 2001 level.
Basically Poissons ratio is defined by the ratio of the strain 0.5
perpendicular to either type of deforming force to that in the
direction of the force itself. In other way, by using Frac
tu ring
compressional velocity and transversal velocity or the Lahendong Ciero Prieto,Mexico
comparison of both velocity from Wadati diagram the Soft, poorly
shallow reservoir

Poissons ratio is defined as follow : consolidated


(Vp 2 2Vs ) deeper reservoir

Wairakei (greywacke)

2(Vp 2 Vs 2 )

Most crustal rocks

where , Vp dan Vs are Poissons ratio, the 0.2

compressional wave velocity (longitudinal) and the shear
Poisson's ratio

Coso, California

wave velocity (transversal) respectively.


If we assume that the ray-paths are confined to 0.1

Steam dominated
homogeneous geology, experimental and theoretical results
indicate that additional fracturing of a fluid-filled rock will Hot water dominated

cause an increase in the Poissons ratio. The P-wave 0

velocity decreases slightly and the S-wave velocityis
hard, rigid r

1 2 3 4 5
significantly reduced. This phenomena is observed in a Vp/Vs
survey on Hawaii near the successful HGO well (Butler
Figure 6 Poissons ratio of some geothermal fields (from
The study of refraction survey indicates the anomaly of the Soengkono, S.; Dobrin) over the world wide versus
velocity structure in the high temperature; the velocity of Vp/Vs.
the compression wave (Vp) reduced by the fluid Figure 6 shows the significant differences between
composition and temperature; velocity of transversal wave Poissons ratio in the shallower zone and deeper zone. The
also influenced by temperature but not affected by fluid best explanation of the Poissons ratio anomaly is where the
composition. (Ito vide Soengkono 1999). In the steam rocks type is different from in the anomalous area.
dominated system, Vp decreases faster than Vs. The two
parameters provide poisson ratio lower than 0.25. In the
water dominated system at the higher porosity pressure, the
Poissons ratio is bigger than 0.25. The Vs decreases faster
than Vp.


The Poissons ratio of the Lahendong geothermal field
indicate a significant differences between shallower and
deeper zone. In the shallower zone, the Poissons ratio
varies between 0.35 up to 0.43. In the deeper zone, the
Poissons ratio varies from 0.27 to 0.35.

Silitonga et al.

6. CORRELATION OF POISSON RATIO WITH 2. Higher Poissons ratio is associated with deeper
WELL BORE DATA hypocenters characterized by un-fractured rocks
and the silicified alteration.
The value of Poissons ratio with depth in the Lahendong
geothermal field can be divided into two zones which
correspond to shallower and deeper zone. The shallower ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
zone with interval of Poissons ratio varies from 0.35 to The authors would like to thank Pertamina Geothermal
0.43 has depth from surface to 2000 meter depth and the Management for permission to publish this paper.
deeper zone with interval of Poissons ratio varies from
0.27 to 0.35 has depth is deeper than 2000 meter. The REFERENCES
correlation between cores and Poissons ratio data provide Hochstein M. P : Geothermal Exploration-665.603,
the two reservoir zones. Geothemal Institute, The University of Auckland,
The shallower zone is distinguished by the intensively 1999.
fractured rock, the loss circulation, partial loss circulation
and drilling break. All the steam in Lahendong field derived Butler David : Notes on Seismic Exploration for
from this zone which is the main target to develop another Geothermal Energy, MicroGeophysics Corporation,
2X20 MWe. In the deeper zone, the rock is silicified 10900 W. 44th Aveneu, Wheat Ridge, Colorado 80033,
without loss circulation zones, see Figure 7. 1982.


(Western side)
Well LHD-4
(Southern side)
Well LHD-5
(Eastern side)
Dobrin M. : Introduction To Geophysical Prospecting,
800 1
TD= 2303 m TD= 2307m TD= 1897m

drilling drilling
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break break
600 lpm Fractured
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200 lpm
Geysers Steam Field (Denlinger et al, 1981)

-1 PLC
20 - 300 lpm
Gede Swastika , Pembuatan Program Inversi Linier Untuk
- Silicification
- No loss circulation PLC
300 - 1000 lpm
Menentukan Hypocenter Gempa, a Report in Master
- Tight permeability
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TLC = Total Loss Circulation
-2000 PLC = Partial Loss Circulation

-3 Siahaan E.E. : Hydrothermal Mineralogy and veining

system in well LHD-1, LHD-4, LHD-5, 1999

-4 Siahaan E.E. : Interpretation of Land sat and Aerial Photo

0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

poissons vs fracture
of Lahendong (internal report Geothermal Pertamina-
unpublished), 2000.

Figure 7 Poissons ratio versus fracturing system (Total Soengkono, S: .Geothermal Geophysics Passive Seismic
Loss Circulation) and lithology (Modified from Siahaan, Method (665.612) Geothemal Institute, The University
E. E.) of Auckland, 1999.

7. CONCLUSIONS Sudarman S. : Review of Lahendong Model and

1. Lower Poissons ratio is associated with Development Strategy, (Internal Report, Geothermal
shallower hypocenters, indicative of fractured Pertamina-unpublished)