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81-90

**Thrust vector control by flexible nozzle and secondary
**

fluid injection

S.N. Lee1 , S.W. Baek2

Summary

A numerical analysis is applied to examine the characteristics of the thrust vec-

tor control(TVC). Various mechanisms have been developing to control the flight

path and attitude of the vehicle. Among of them, two way are investigated in this

report. One is the movable nozzle and the other is the injection of secondary fluid.

The movable nozzles give a precise control to change in flight and do not reduce the

thrust. The secondary injection reduces the weight of TVC and actuation power.

To compare two different TVC performances, Preconditioned Navier-Stokes(N-

S) algorithms with multi-block is used and Shear Stress Transport(SST) turbu-

lence modeling is applied. The Geometric Conservation Law(GCL) is consid-

ered to compute the nozzle moving mechanism. The Advective Upwind Splitting

Methos(AUSM)+-up and Roe scheme is compared to distinguish the mach disk

and plume behavior.

keywords: TVC, AUSM+ -up, SST, GCL, Preconditioned

Introduction

While a rocket or a missile is in mission, it is sometimes needed to control

its flight path and speed due to indispensable outside disturbance or for a specific

purpose.

Thrust Vector Control is a technique to change direction of flight path of the

propulsion system. There are some kinds of TVC method. Many researches have

been studying to find out the most effective mechanisms. The secondary gas injec-

tion method is to control the flight direction by using the exhaust gas interaction

with the side-jet injected. The secondary gas injection system is simple and light.

However, its flow interaction mechanism is very complex. The adoption of rotat-

ing vanes is to directly guide the exhaust gas direction. However, in this case the

vanes are openly exposed to the very hot gas. Since1960’s, the secondary fluid in-

jection have researched with activity. Lee and Chang[1] studied 2DCD nozzle with

dilute gas-particle for secondary injection and Flamm et al.[2] investigated for the

dual throat fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle. Whitesides and David[3] measured and

determined the forces and moments on a gimbaled SRM nozzle.

In this report, a numerical simulation was modeled to predict the ability of

the thrust vectoring. Mechanical deflection and secondary injection system are

compared to know the flight control. To examine the efficient scheme for the N-

1 KAIST, Daejeon, S. Korea.

2 KAIST, Daejeon, S. Korea.

S is a source term for turbulence modeling.4. Ev and Fv are diffusive terms.81-90 S equation. energy and turbulence equation for the gas phase. ⎛ ⎞ ρp 0 0 ρT 0 0 ⎜ ρpu ρ 0 ρT u 0 0⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ρp v 0 ρ ρT v 0 0⎟ Γ=⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ρ p H − 1 ρ u ρ v ρT H + ρ C p 0 0 ⎟ ⎝ ρpκ 0 0 ρT κ ρ 0⎠ ρpω 0 0 ρT ω 0 ρ 1 1 ρp = + Ure f Cp T . pp.82 Copyright © 2009 ICCES ICCES. The preconditioned N-S scheme is used to solve effectively both incompressible and compressible area. AUSM+ -up and Roe scheme is simulated. The gas phase equation for 2-D flow is cast in the following form following Weiss and Smith [4] and Shuen et al [5] ∂ Q ∂ (E − Ev ) ∂ (F − Fv ) Γ + + =S (1) ∂t ∂x ∂y Γ represents the preconditioning matrix which controls the eigenvalues. The governing equations include the Navier-Stokes. The thrust vectoring by moving nozzle and secondary injection is simulated and predicted its ability using above schemes. Schematic of Rocket Nozzle The schematic of TVC nozzle examined in this work is illustrated in Fig. Figure 1: Schematic of Submerged TVC Nozzle Numerical Formulation Two-dimensional nozzle is examined here. no. The grid change by rotating nozzle is simulated using the geometric conservation law. 1. While E and F are flux terms. Nozzle is a submerged shape and consisted of 8 multi-blocks. vol.10.

0. ρ uκ . The S f is the cell face area. ρ vH. T ]T . 0) fa ρ1/2a21/2 + − + − P1/2 = P(5) (ML )PL + P(5) (MR )PR − Ku P(5) P(5) (ρL + ρR ) fa a1/2 (uR − uL ) (5) φL f 1/2 = ṁ1/2 + P1/2 (6) φR . Advective Upwind Splitting Method(AUSM)+-up[7] and Roe scheme[4]. ρ uv.5V f ree))2 Q = [p. [κ . to model the rotation of nozzle numerically.Thrust vector control by flexible nozzle 83 rho ρT = − T Ure f = min(a. The change of volume is equivalent to the cell face movement rate. τω x]T Fv = [0. ρ v2 + p. ρ uH. τxy . Ω means the control volume and vgn is the grid velocity. ω ]T E = [ρ u. τκ y . τxy . ρ u2 + p. ρ vω ]T Ev = [0. max(V. ρ uv. ρ uω ]T F = [ρ v. Ωn+1 − Ωn = ∑ vgn dS f (2) dt f Consequently. τxx. v. ρ vκ . AUSM+ -up scheme ρL ṁ1/2 = a1/2M1/2 (4) ρR + − KP PR − PL M1/2 = μ(4) (ML ) + μ(4) (MR ) − max(1 − σ M̄ 2 . the equation (1) is modified into Eq. uτxy + vτyy + qy . τxx. uτxx + vτxy + qx . (3) using Eq. τω y ]T Moreover. τκ x . (2) Qn+1 Ωn+1 − Qn Ωn Γ + ∑ (E − Ev − Qug )dS f + ∑ (F − Fv − Qvg )dS f = SΩ (3) dt f f 1) Inviscid Flux Two type of schemes are applied to get the cell face inviscid flux. u. geometric conservation law(GCL) is applied into the Preconditioned N-S equation[6].

3) Shear Stress Transport(SST)x To account for turbulence behavior. The equations for turbulent kinetic energy and specific dissipation rate in this problem are written as Eq.81-90 Roe scheme 1 1 F = (FR + FL ) − Γ |AΓ | ΔQ (7) 2 2 2) Viscous Flux The central discretized method is used for viscous flux. φ = F1 φ1 + (1 − F1 )φ2 . The two-equation model is based on the low-Reynolds number. no.84 Copyright © 2009 ICCES ICCES. vol. (8) and (9).10.4. pp. D(ρκ ) ∂ ui ∗ ∂ ∂κ = τi j − β ρωκ + (μ + σk μi ) (8) Dt ∂xj ∂xj ∂xj D(ρω ) γ ∂ ui ∂ ∂ω 1 ∂κ ∂ω = τi j − β ρω 2 + (μ + σk μi ) + 2ρ (1 − F1 )σω2 Dt vi ∂ x j ∂xj ∂xj ω ∂xj ∂xj (9) The constants in SST model are defined as below. so it is needed to correct the compressibility factor in supersonic region. the Shear Stress Turbulence (SST) model- ing [8] is used.

5F(Mt ) √ 2κ Mt = γ RT F(Mt ) = 1.5 max[Mt2 − 0.31ω . .09ω y y2 ω CDkω y2 1 ∂κ ∂ω −20 CDkω = max 2ρσω2 .252 ] The eddy viscosity can be written as μt = 0. ΩF2) ∂u ∂v Ω = − . 10 ω ∂xj ∂xj The compressible effect can be modified as follows: β ∗ = β ∗ [1 + F(Mt )] β = β − β ∗ 1. √ k 500v 4ρσω2 κ arg1 = min max . F2 = tanh(arg22 ) ∂y ∂x . 0.31ρ k/ max(0.

√ k 500v arg22 = max 2 .09ω y y2 ω . 0.

For all cases. 3 and 4. The plume by mechanical deflection in Fig. the free stream mach number is 0.8 from upper and lower hole on the diverging nozzle with same time step at movable nozzle. the far field boundary condition is defined by Riemann invariant. ā = (R − R− ) 2 4 Second. the flexible nozzle and secondary fluid injection is analyzed to compare the efficiency of momentum change.025 of mach number. First. Figure 2: nozzle deflection signal The flexible nozzle rotates by input data as time change in Fig.3. Numerical Result The flow of the flexible nozzle and secondary injection is drawn in Fig. the AUSM+ -up and Roe scheme is compared to examine plume be- havior. An ambient pressure and temperature is 1atm and 300K. The secondary fluid injection type is fixed grid and the mass flow comes out with mach 1.0 and 0. 2500K and 0. . The free stream velocity is assumed to be zero. 2a R± = U ± γ −1 1 (γ − 1) + Ū = (R+ + R− ). 3 is changed quickly and equally to the rotation angle of nozzle and there is no change for plume shape. Nozzle inlet condition is set to 20atm. 2. In second case.Thrust vector control by flexible nozzle 85 Numerical Simulation The two cases are compared to predict the TVC performance.

10. 4. The flexible nozzle can change the plume same as the angle of nozzle deflection but lose the thrust magnitude in Fig. By injection. accurate injection condition should be studied.86 Copyright © 2009 ICCES ICCES. pp.8 does not show a big difference in the plume angle about 13∼15 degree. vol. To change motion of vehicle. no. 5.4. The injection velocity of mach 1 and 0. The secondary injection system increases .8 degree (d) + 4 degree (e) . the shock is formed inside nozzle and the plume becomes more under-expanded.81-90 (a) steady state (b) + 8 degree (c) .4 degree Figure 3: plume change by nozzle deflection The thrust control by secondary injection shows a slightly different characteris- tic in Fig.

8 at lower wall Figure 4: plume change by secondary fluid injection the thrust by mass injection in Fig. . 6 but plume dose not deflect accurately com- paring with the flexible nozzle. (a) X and Y direction thrust (b) thrust magnitude Figure 5: thrust variation by flexible nozzle The AUSM+ -up and Roe scheme is compared to examine flow characteristic.8 at upper wall (d) mach = 0. 7. Comparing two schemes. the AUSM+-up shows a detailed and sharp mach disk in plume in Fig.Thrust vector control by flexible nozzle 87 (a) mach = 1 at upper wall (b) mach = 1 at lower wall (c) mach = 0.

the flexible nozzle and secondary injection show good result to change thrust. no. the precise control should be studied more to find the injection velocity and angle.10.0 from the . thrust also change directly by the deflection angle of nozzle.4. The schemes for mass flux at the cell faces do not show a critical difference in the TVC. pp. The pressure wave in far field is slight different and needed to study which is more accurate Acknowledgement This work was supported by grant No.88 Copyright © 2009 ICCES ICCES. but AUSM+ -up scheme shows a sharper plume shape than Roe scheme. AUSM+ -up transfer higher pressure wave than Roe scheme in Fig. 8. Secondary fluid injection can change flight motion without heavy equipment. The flexible nozzle changes the motion by mechanically. So. R01 – 2006 – 000 – 11311 . vol. Consequently. Conclusion The preconditioned N-S equation is used to examine the TVC mechanism.81-90 (a) X and Y direction thrust (b) thrust magnitude Figure 6: thrust variation by secondary injection (a) AUSM+-up Scheme (b) Roe scheme + Figure 7: plume by AUSM -up and Roe scheme In far field boundary.

K. Computational Physics. (1979) : Geometric Conservation Law and Its Application to Flow Computations on Moving Grids.-H. pp.. K.. Shuen. G. Johnson.. J. Deere.. pp. L. L. 6.. Chang. Hengel.M.. D. 2. Flamm. Thomas. J. vol. pp. Bacchus. Mason.. J. M. 5. 214. J. C. Liou. Berrier. 106. 2050-2057. Choi. 10. D. 137-170. A. B. K. (1994): The Determina- tion of Forces and Moments on a Gimbaled SRM Nozzle Using a Cold Flow Model.(1955) : Preconditioning Applied to Variable and Constant Density Flows. 1037 .-S. AIAA-94-3292 4. D. vol. J. (2007): Experimental Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for Supersonic Aircraft Application. H. D.. P. R. no. Computational Physics. Y. Givoli. Part II: AUSM+-up for All Speeds”. 4.. pp. Vol.. 11 no. Weiss. J. S. Computational Fluid Dynamics J. pp. 1030-1037 7.S. E. AIAA Journal.Thrust vector control by flexible nozzle 89 Figure 8: pressure variation upper far field boundary Basic Research Program of the Korea Science & Engineering Foundation References 1. (1993): A Coupled Implicit Method for Chemical Non-equilibrium Flows at All Speeds. and Smith. Lee. AIAA Journal. K. AIAA- 2007-5084 3.. Lombard. (2003): A 2DCD Nozzle with Thrust Vector Con- trol under Dilute Gas-Particle Interaction. 306-318. (2006) : A sequel to AUSM. K. 420-431. W.. 11. M. Chen.A. J. L. Whitesides. 17. 33 No. S.

A. (2001) : Two-Equation turbulence Models for Prediction of Heat Transfer on a Transonic Turbine Blade..81-90 8. K. no. Garg.4. V. A.90 Copyright © 2009 ICCES ICCES. vol. pp. NASA/CR-2001- 210810 . Ameri.10.

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