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CHAPTER 1

CONCEPT OF RESEARCH

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Research can be called as a purposive investigation. The objectives of the research could be gaining
familiarity with research objectives (exploratory research), to describe the characteristics of a market or
many markets as well as of consumers, to decide the frequency with which some phenomenon (say stock-
out situation for essential goods distributed as ration-card), to test hypothesis, etc. The significance /
importance of the research can be understood from the fact that it provides the basis for all policies and
strategies may be for any marketer or even to government. There are many types of research like
descriptive, analytical, applied, basic, quantitative and qualitative, etc.
1.1 DEFINITIONS OF RESEARCH
(1) It is the activity which extends, corrects and verifies the knowledge.
(2) It is the activity of finding new ways of looking at known / familiar data in order to explore
new ways to change it as expected / intended.
(3) Research is the well planned activity which is designed and implemented to provide the data
for solving important genuine and recurrent problems.
(4) Research can also be said as a movement from the known to unknown facts
(5) It is the systematized efforts to gain new knowledge.
1.2 DEFINITIONS OF METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

“Methodology is a term which should not be misused for “method” or “technique”. Methodology has got
an important meaning. It becomes first an approach towards inquiry and or research then later evolves into
particular methods or techniques. In the applied use it is concerned with selecting specific technical tools
and techniques for collecting data and analyzing it. In the theoretical use, it is concerned with the
philosophical fields of inquiry that can be used to conceptualize the problem under study. There are two
different methodological stances. Discipline research is oriented towards enriching knowledge in a
scientific discipline whereas policy research denotes to another methodology that is philosophically
committed and serve as a guide to social action. Quite often methodology is used in the applied sense
undermining its theoretical perspectives, though both are the two sides of a coin. Some of the definitions
are as follows:
(1) Research methodology is “a procedure designed to the extent to which it is planned and
evaluated before conducting the inquiry and the extent to which the method for making decisions
is evaluated”. The word methodology is used freely in different context.
A thorough understanding of a scientific methodology alone will contribute an appreciable
research piece. Scientific piece of investigation will provide an argument which is as true for each
individual mind as of the researcher’s own mind. Therefore, the most important step in a research
design is the selection of an appropriate methodology.

The significance of the use of the term ‘methodology’ is that it requires an argument to connect
the choice and practice of particular methods to the way that the problem is conceived and the
utility and limitations of the outcome. It is in this sense of the term, as requiring a critical
justification for the adoption and practice of particular research methods that we claim that our
concern is with ‘methodology’ rather than with methods alone. .. Only rarely do books on research
methods discuss situations in which particular methods should not be used, or situations within
which the methods chosen may cause distortion or precipitate changes are the not captured by the
methods themselves.
The researcher must be able to give clear scientific explanation and the logic behind them for a host of the
following questions:
1. Why the particular research study is undertaken?
2. How the research problem is stated?
3. What are approaches towards the inquiry?
4. What are the tools and techniques that will be used for data collection? Why this
method is adopted? Is the sampling design appropriate?
5. How the hypotheses have been framed?

The external examiners who evaluate the thesis. (4) Research is important in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. analytical. (5) It helps understanding perception of the society about the marketer and accordingly designs the marketing strategy. The key objectives of the research could be as follows: (1) To become familiar with a certain mechanism or phenomenon or to gain new insights into it. qualitative. number and location of doors. (2) It facilitates identification of ‘trends’ which ultimately responsible in marketing opportunities. level. (3) Intention to apply research for successful creativity. Which techniques are used to evaluate the accuracy of results? The framing of a good research methodology is compared to that of an architect who designs a building. 1. How the hypotheses will be tested? 7. 1. Literature review and interactions with experts will help one to sharpen the methodology. conceptual. (3) Decision making becomes easier for well researched phenomenon. How the various statistical tools and techniques are selected. (2) Intention to face the challenges in overcoming the competition. i. “he has to evaluate why and on what basis he selects particular size. windows and ventilators. approve one which is conceptually. What is the method of data processing? How it will be calculated? 8. Let us discuss some of the research. Following facts highlight the importance of the research (1) Research facilitates logical or scientific thinking process which leads towards flow less strategy formulation. the methodology adopted should be open to pubic so that others can know how one reached the conclusions about a study. Finally. uses particular materials and others and the like”. 6. (5) Intention to get respectability within the country and out of the country. The research quality that equates to international excellence or national excellence in all areas or in majority of the areas of a thesis to a great extent depends on the formulation of a good and scientific research methodology. say stock-out. (a) Descriptive Research: (b) Analytical Research: (c) Basic or Pure Research: . (4) To formulate and test a hypothesis may be to establish the relationship between say sales and market share or sales and customer satisfaction.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH The basic purpose of the research Is to identify the action plan to answer to questions through the application of scientific procedures. IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH Significance of research and research leads to invention. 1. market situation or an industry (3) To identify the frequency with which some phenomenon. etc. quantitative. (2) To describe accurately the characteristics of a particular consumer-group / segment. etc. (4) Intention to integrate societal marketing (social welfare) with main strategic marketing. applied..e. The means of method of enquiry is opened for public evaluation and criticism.4 MOTIVATIONS IN RESEARCH Why to conduct the research? The motivations could be as follows: (1) Aspiration to derive the consequential benefits due to the research. occurs or the causes associated with the particular phenomenon. methodologically and factually correct and to the best of his knowledge it is free from errors and plagiarism (copying) and sufficiently of good standard. basic.6 TYPES OF RESEARCH There are many types of the research like descriptive.

(b) Applied Research: III (a) Quantitative Research: (i) (b) Qualitative Research: (a) Conceptual Research : (b) Empirical Research: V (a) One Time Research: (b) Longitudinal Research VI (a) Field Research: (b) Laboratory Research: VII. (2) Social research is a systematic method of exploring.71 Objectives of social research (i) To study human behaviour and its interaction with the environment and the social institutions. (iv) To identify the causes of social evils and problems and then formulate social welfare action plan. temporal and environmental factors associated with behaviour of human-beings. In other words. social tensions (e. analyzing and conceptualizing human life in order to extend. security of call centres for girls working in night shift). inter relationships and casual explanations which could be derived within the appropriate theoretical frame of reference (iii) developing new scientific tools. psychological. unemployment and poverty. which by using logical and system techniques. (iii) To develop new scientific tools. 1. technological backwardness.72 Scope of social research Every group of social phenomenon.73 Functions of social research (i) Contribute to human understanding of social reality (ii) Diagnosis of social problems and their analysis like poverty and crime. (ii) To identify casual connection between human activities and natural laws governing them. economic imbalance. correct or verify knowledge of human behaviour and social life.g.7 SOCIAL RESEARCH (1) Social research can be defined as ‘a scientific undertaking. Broadly it covers the areas like biological. 1. 1. (iii) To equip human beings with first hand knowledge about the organizing and working of the society and its institutions. etc. (ii) analyzing their sequences. low productivity. every phase of human life and every stage of past and present developments are the materials for the social scientists. socio-cultural. social research seeks to find explanations to unexplained social phenomenon. Clinical Research or Diagnostic Research: 1. to clarify the doubt and correct the misconceived facts of social life. concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour. . concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour and social life. which aims at (i) discovering new facts and or verifying old facts.

Premise 1: Pavan is a good boy. neither can the conclusion contradict the premises nor can it assume new premises. Nevertheless. (ii) Social science or human behaviour is too complex. (iv) Common problems faced by researchers are refusal of sample. and (6) the self-correcting process. Here both the premises are true. (2) clearly defined variables. Let us understand in detail each of these processes of thinking needed for conducting and drawing conclusions from marketing research.' This is the most commonly used style of thinking in research methodology. Deduction based on such premise will also be false. Let us look at an example. In this style of thinking hypotheses are proposed based on some proven theories and then they are practically tested. varied and every changing. (4) the ability to rule out rival hypotheses. (v) The quality of research findings and conclusions depends upon the soundness of decisions made by the social investigators on research process as correct definition of research problem. The conclusion may be due to some other reasons but not as a result of the given premises.74 Limitations of Social Research (i) The social research is done by the scientist.e. This always distorts fundamental facts being studied so that there can be no objective procedure for achieving the truth. We shall discuss logical' deduction further in the following section. but not as much as in Postulational theories. (3) empirically testable hypotheses. (5) statistical rather than linguistic alternative justification of conclusions. Conclusion: Pratap is a good boy. i. They require a considerable amount of logical deduction. The Thought Process Reasoning forms the basis of the scientific inquiry. who also is a human beings and part of human society and hence may have bias in research study. Deduction is valid if it is impossible for the conclusions to be false. A deduction is true if the premises on which it is based are true. That means the method of drawing conclusion should be logical and valid. . premise like "world is flat" is a false premise. improper understanding of questions. and if the premises it is based on is true. A deduction is correct if it is both true and valid. (iii) Human behaviour can be studied by other human beings only and not by robotics. The essential tenets of the scientific method are (1) direct observation of phenomena. The conclusion may still be correct due to some other premises not considered. methods. Truth and validity of a deduction together mean that conclusion is not logically justified (even if true) if either one or more of the premises is false or if the method of deduction is incorrect. The thought process of a scientist may be based on deduction. but the argument that led to the conclusion is not valid and so the deduction is not valid. For example. they agree with the real world. Deduction Deduction is a form of inference where conclusion necessarily follows from the given premises.. etc. and procedures.e. Let us look at an example where the deduction is not true. induction or a combination of both. loss of memory of the samples. correct sample selection. i.1. the use of logical deduction is considerable. 1. Any mistake in any of these decision areas will challenge the validity of research findings. Hence experimentation cannot be standardized for longer durations.8 SCIENTIFIC METHOD The Scientific method is theorizing based on experimentation and is thus very close to Empiricism It also needs quite a bit of logical deduction and so appears closer to the top of the graph. appropriate statistical techniques for data processing. Premise 2: Prathap and Pavan are friends.

just then. Combination Of Induction And Deduction To explain an observed phenomena a researcher formulates some hypotheses that needs to be verified by the use of induction. • Struggles to state the problem: asks questions. and moves from an emotional to an intellectual confrontation with the problem • Proposes hypotheses to explain the facts that are believed to be logically related to the problem • Deduces outcomes or consequences of the hypotheses: attempts to discover what happens if the results are in the opposite direction of that predicted. contemplates the existing knowledge. Induction Induction is the conclusion drawn from one or more facts. to his shock. Conclusion: Rain is a probability today. generally termed as a problem. at the same time. If we consider this. Premise I: Rain is a probability if the sky is cloudy. This deduction is true and valid. Premise 2: The sky is cloudy today. bat not necessarily from facts alone. then the first premise is not correct. The researchers then use deduction to check whether each of the hypotheses can explain the given facts completely by itself. . gave him a piece of her mind. This method is described as the double movement of reflective thinking by Dewey and is adapted by Cooper and Schindler. One has to correct the first statement. The process the researcher should follow is as outlined below. Once this is done. on some other facts also. or if the results support the expectations. or obstacle. If premise 1 is false then the conclusion is also false. the given fact cannot lead directly to any of these conclusions. And conclusions are in reality only hypotheses and need further verification to ascertain the correctness. it is necessary to perform empirical tests with all these hypotheses and then select a hypothesis that passes these tests. • May be a personal problem is bothering Pavan • May be he was annoyed by a traffic jam on his way to office. doubt. To illustrate. but. Premise 1: Dogs do not hate water Premise 2: Rabid dogs hate water Conclusion: Rabid dogs are not dogs. The researcher • Encounters a curiosity. Then Kiran can based on his previous experience conclude any of the following: • Another colleague of his might have just annoyed Pavan. Here premise 1 is correct and true in general. the rabid dogs are also dogs. his boss. i. gathers facts. • May be. Any of these conclusions can explain the fact that Pavan treated Kiran rudely. But. but premise 1 is a dubious statement. suspicion. The conclusion explains the facts. Sudba. suppose Kiran approaches his boss Pavan with a routine problem. Let us look at an example in which there is a logical flaw.Premise 1: Reading too much dulls one's mind Premise 2: Prathap reads too much Conclusion: Prathap must be dull-headed. Such deductions are made every moment by one and all and look obvious. There is a need for additional facts from the previously learnt knowledge. receives rude treatment for no mistake of his. barrier. but the facts just given are not sufficient to lead to the conclusion. based on the second. However. Here the conclusion logically follows the premises. These conclusions are based on some previous experience. This leads to the invalid conclusion.e.

the people- meter cannot count how many. This needs the use of scientific method. there may be minor deviations that can easily go unnoticed. Thus it is empirical in nature. Thus the assumption that the people-meter measures viewership validity is wrong. These steps are interdependent. Validity is a measure of the match between what the research claims to measure and what it actually measures. Research should be carried out in a scientific manner to reduce the uncertainty in a situation and to ensure accuracy of the results the research yields. • Formulates several rival hypotheses • Devises and conducts a crucial empirical test with various possible outcomes. the scientific method has many other characteristics. They are also not sequentially fixed. and arriving at conclusions. Scientific Method And Its Major Characteristics Two major characteristics of the scientific method are validity and reliability. • Empiricism: Research is done through observations that are based on direct sense experience. • Draws a conclusion. • Systematic: The process of research is marked by thoroughness and regularity. but as in the above example. This characteristic is also known as objectivity. For example. a people meter on a TV set is supposed to be measuring the viewership of a particular program. if a research is reliable. Moreover even if there are viewers. In other words. to ensure validity one should carefully and purposefully probe into every detail of the research. Some of the important ones are: • Logical: Logic is necessary in designing and following up a research process. Achieving this is very difficult even in the hard sciences. . Based on the nature of the study some of the above steps may be eliminated or new steps may be added. The Television may be on but there may be no one watching it. In other words it measures the effectiveness of measurement in research. Hence a research which assumes it is measuring the viewership with people meter is not valid. Hence. then any other investigator repeating it will obtain the same results. It is also a measure of the investigator's independence of the research. an inductive inference. based on acceptance or rejection of the hypotheses • Feeds information buck into the original problem modifying it according to the strength of the evidence. each of which selectively excludes one or more hypotheses. and so it is considered to be systematic. Apart from validity and reliability. Reliability is a measure of repeatability of the research. Validity seems easily achievable. while in reality it only measures the number of occasions the TV was tuned to that particular channel when the program was relayed.

Box 1. • Someone in the future with more knowledge may find a case where the hypothesis is not true. A hypothesis not an observation. a tentative explanation for the observation. the decision-maker applies the methods of science to the art of marketing. marketing research does not involve inanimate. is more applicable to the sciences than to the arts. • Hypotheses can be proven wrong / incorrect. hears. (S)he sees. temperature. The following are the major differences between the physical sciences and marketing research that affect the reliability and validity of research process. controllable factors. an experiment is conducted under a controlled environment. I Marketing Research. For example. • Hypotheses reflect past experience with similar questions (“educated propositions” about cause) • Multiple hypotheses should be proposed whenever possible. Thus the reliability and validity of the method are lower when it applied to marketing research. rather. pressure. One should think of alternative causes that could the observations (the correct one may not even be one that was though of) • Hypotheses should be testable by experimentation and deductive reasoning. Hypothesis: This is a tentative answer to the question: an explanation for what was observed. Prediction: Scientific Method-In Marketing As Compare Dot Physical Sciences Scientific method. are controlled to the required extent. thesis = an arranging) • Hypotheses are possible causes. Unlike physical sciences. in a chemical experiment. as the name suggest. Research conditions In physical sciences. A generalization based on inductive reasoning is to a hypothesis. it is almost impossible to achieve such perfect control of all the variables. etc. The scientist tries to explain what caused what was observed (huy7po=under. but can never be proven or confirmed with absolute certainty. becomes curious about what’s happenings and raises a questions about it. but involves people their . or in some other way notices what is gaining on in the world. In marketing research. beneath.7 :Steps that make up the scientific method Observation: A good scientist is observant and notices thing in the world around him / her.

In physical sciences. For example many questionnaires use a five-point scale to measure the likelihood of purchase. timeliness becomes more important than the aptness of the decisions. Some times the mere presence of an interviewer may affect the result. in turn will affect the result. it may modify their viewing habits because they know that all their viewing is recorded. when a family has a "people meter" on its television set. In any given situation. But in marketing research the influence of measurement on the result is very appreciable. they may give different answers from what they would have given if they were questioned for the first time. However. Personal Interests Ideally. If the researcher is associated in the decision-making process as well. i. behaviour. the personal interests of the researcher in the result increase further. In science. the process researchers undertake for making the measurement may result in a change in the outcome. their perceptions and their attitudes. prosper. The extent to which the results affect the researcher is more in marketing compared to the physical sciences. which is a millionth of a billionth of a meter. Re-questioning a group of respondents may also affect the results.7. Influence Of Measurement Sometimes the process of measurement may itself affect the result. there is no perfectly right decision. This affects both the validity and reliability of the research. the personal interests of the researcher should not affect research results. This forces the researchers to push their research so that it is acceptable to their clients. For instance. they affect their work and thus their life in marketing research. But it happens both in physical and social sciences. For example. These factors. if a company has quizzed a group of respondents about its brand before an advertisement campaign. which change with time.7 : Five Point scale to measure the likelihood of purchase Measuring Instruments Measuring instruments in physical sciences provide very high accuracy. being complex. place. but only the most appropriate decision that can be . This. research results affect only the fame of the researcher whereas in marketing research. presence of others at that instance. in marketing it is difficult to arrive at such accuracy. The scale is shown in Figure 1. then after this the group will start noticing the advertisements with more interest than it would have done without us quizzing. it often happens that strong willed marketing managers may need research to support their decision. Very low Low Probable High Very high Figure 1. adversely affect the reliability of research in marketing.e. The person who administers questionnaires or conducts an interview can also influence the result by his communication skills and his knowledge of the project. people participating in focus groups know that they are being observed and so they may come up with socially acceptable answers. per se. physicists can measure up to a 10-15 of a meter. If a group of respondents are questioned a second or third time. Such a scale gives only a crude measure: moreover the meaning of the words in the given scale may mean different things to different people. Respondents themselves often change opinions with time. This is more clearly explained in the chapter "Instruments of Respondent Communication". etc. For example. Time Pressure In managerial decisions. This would change their responses in the questioning from what the responses would have been had they not been questioned before. These factors affect the validity and reliability of marketing research. and thus their careers. while researchers themselves may be anxious to see their organization. the affect of measurement on the result is not very pronounced except in fields like quantum mechanics. Similarly. When the respondents approach him for clarifications the knowledge or lack of it will affect his reply.

to its fullest extent is not possible in marketing research. are entities. length. cause and effect relationships can be easily identified with the help of experimentation. during a sales promotion. This exerts time pressure on marketing research and may reduce validity and reliability of the research results. But experimentation with complete control of all the factors is impossible in marketing research. On the basis of measurability the variables are of two types. Short-Term Goals Marketing research generally aims at reaching short-term goals. An entity is something that exists as or perceived as separate object. one cannot control factors like changing fashions. a human etc. It can be defined as a formal representation of a property of entities. i. Every entity has a multitude of properties. The basic terminology required for understanding the scientific method is given below. The perception of increased sales may be due to the increased work pressure on the reduced staff. For example. For example. Observation is the process by which we recognize or note facts. wood type. This is leading to a gradual understanding of the theoretical behavior of many issues. derives its terminology from science. to test the effect of a new design on the sale of umbrellas. like consumer behavior. In comparison. They are using more efficient methods like knowledge management for organizing and reusing internal knowledge. Facts And Observations Facts are phenomena that we believe are true. The variables can be classified either based on their measurability or on their relationship with each other. chair. For a table. Similarly. This results in unnecessary repetition of the research. since it is founded in science. science aims at the accumulation of a knowledge pool and uses this knowledge pool to arrive at some general theories. Continuous: The variable that takes an infinite number of continuous values is called as continuous variable. Thus experimentation. width. These facts do not change with the person who reports them. For example. when one is testing the effect of a new design on the sale of jeans. with respect to particular products. Thus observations are the perceptions of the individuals based on 'their experience of reality. For example. it is not possible to hold factors like weather constant. numerical or otherwise. nor propagated. the results are not shared with other firms due to competition. it may be a fact that the sales volume has not changed. Original documents and fact-gathering agencies are important sources of facts in marketing research. Or it may be due to an actual increase in the number of non-buying customers visiting the outlet.' It is usually represented by a symbol. the knowledge once learnt is neither preserved. the firm would not spare resources to go into such 'theoretical' research. but the sales staff at an outlet may give higher sales estimates based on their perception. Variables And Definitions A variable is a physical or non-physical quantity that can take anyone of a predefined set of values. etc. a table has legs. it can actually take any value from zero to . Even if the results are preserved by a company or a marketing research firm. height. But increasingly.taken in the available time. This internal data may not be sufficient to give rise to stand-alone theories.' and hence may vary from the facts. Once established. But in marketing research. These are experiential in nature (they are the expressions of our perception of reality) and tend to change from person to person. Terminology In The Scientific Method Scientific method. researchers are recording what was known in a project and are using it as a base the future projects. Moreover. if satisfaction is represented as a variable. helping in solving an immediate managerial problem Management does not aim at preserving and propagating the acquired knowledge. Similarly we can consider two properties of human beings 'blood group and 'height. these theories remove the need for reinventing the wheel and allow the researchers to concentrate on more advanced areas of research.e. feel. Difficulty In Experimentation In the physical sciences.

The concepts developed are shared between the users and thus they form the basis for the development of new concepts. objects. especially among younger (age is MY) workers. the researcher manipulates a variable and measures the effects on some other variable. explain and communicate a particular set of observations.infinity. 'degree of liking' is referred to as a polytomy because it takes multiple values. suppose a researcher is trying to find the relationship between the length of an advertisement and the recall. Definition: Definitions are of two major types. based on their relationship with other variables are the following. but the effects are either not significant or so random that they are not measurable. Mathematically a continuous variable is such that.' Dependence: The researcher tries to establish a relationship between two variables in his research. that . For sample. They are used to classify. Definitions are required in research to provide an understanding and measure of concepts. Operational definitions are those which define concepts in terms of the process of measurement or manipulation. To illustrate further. Concepts are developed out of personal or group experiences over time. Table 1. the variable ‘occurrence of sale' can take any of the two values' 1 for sale and '0' for no sale. Intervening variable: Sometimes one finds that the IV-DV relationship stated is not direct and that the independent variable actually affects some other variable (the intervening variable or IIV). Extraneous variables: These are variables outside the immediate relationship between independent variables and Dependent variable. For instance. which in turn affects the dependent variable. situations and the like. For example.the introduction of a dating allowance (IV) will lead to higher productivity (DV). In constitutive definitions concepts are defined with the help of other concepts and constructs. The recall percentage is the dependent variable and the length of the advertisement is the independent variable. and the variable measured is called the dependent variable (DV).. which in turn affects the productivity (DV). In the hypothesis stated above. and so can be called a dichotomous variable. conditions. Moderating variable (MY): The moderating variable is the second independent variable included in the study since it is believed to have a significant effect on the relationship between the main independent and dependent variables. if we take any two values of a continuous variable we can find at least one more value between these values. In other words. They are characteristics associated with certain events. they are theoretical definitions. Antecedent Consequence Manipulated Measured outcome Concepts and constructs Concepts are abstract ideas generalized from particular facts. Predicted to ……. the concept of distance is borrowed from physical is used in attitude measurement to refer to the degree of difference between the attitudes of two people. Further. Discrete: This type of variable takes only a fixed number of values.7 lists some terms that are used as synonyms for the dependent and independent variables. '0' for neither like nor dislike. we can see that the dating allowance (IV) does not directly affect the productivity (II V).8 : Synonyms for dependent and independent variables Independent variables Dependent Variables Cause Effect Stimulus Response Predicted from ………. It can take the value '-1' for dislike. let us state a hypothesis . and '1' for' like. Concepts are also borrowed across fields. but affects the satisfaction in the personal life (IIV). The above two types of variables are different from each other in terms of their relationship. There are many extraneous variables that have some impact on the original relationship between the IV and DV. Similarly. Here the younger workers have a moderating effect on the original relationship. constitutive and operational definitions. Table 1. when he is conducting an experiment. The variable manipulated is called the independent variable (IV). we keep adding new meanings to the existing concepts. For example. The other types of variables.

They can either shift the brand image and project it as a soft drink for all ages or they can introduce promotional campaigns with the message that the older generation can project themselves younger by consuming DrinkIt. lucidity are important. motivation. The objective of marketing research thus becomes solving the managerial problems by finding a solution to the respective research problems. Now he finds that these concepts can be classified under some related groups. grimmer. leadership. DrinkIt. one needs to define research problem. A magazine wants to check the quality of the news reports it receives on various parameters. . Constructs are highly abstract concepts. Every managerial problem may not require research. Vivek finds that various attributes like news coverage. Problems There are two major types of problems in marketing research managerial problems and research problems. They have several alternatives before them. For example. These concepts are qualitatively measurable. These groups can be labeled and they represent some idea or image to describe the qualitative requirements of a news report. Research problems are the restatements of managerial problems so that the researcher understands the problem the decision-maker is facing. Or they can introduce a new product for the older generation. "Will the older generation like to project themselves younger? How will the younger generation react to each of these alternatives? Will too many brands create confusion? " The research problems are questions about the interaction between two or three variables or concepts. now intends to target the older generation in order to expand its market. This is the managerial problem. social class.is we broaden them as we acquire more knowledge about it. the quality consultant. with different packaging and a different brand name. a hypothesis is prepared. The difference between concepts ad constructs can be best explained through an example. But people teed to differ in the meanings they attribute to a concept. Managerial problems are defined as questions raised in a business setting. To further analyze these problems. These are not directly tied with reality but are derived on the basis of other concepts. These are normally ideas or images specifically invented for a specific research or theory building purpose. have a variety of meaning and so people may to perfectly understand each other when they use these words. a soft drink company with a strong trendy image. and this may cause problems in communication. etc. Where there is a need for research. Now the research problem can be stated as. The job has been given to Vivek. concepts like personality.