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International Journal of Textile Science 2016, 5(6): 119-131

DOI: 10.5923/j.textile.20160506.01

Study on Different Types of Knitting Faults,


Causes and Remedies of Knit Fabrics
Muhammad Abu Taher, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Muhammad Ashfak Jahangir,
Md. Shipan Mia, Ashaduzzaman*

Department of Textile Engineering, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Abstract In this study we have done study on knit fabric faults and their causes. In Textile industry faults are frequently
occurred and stitch length has a direct effect on these faults. For changing the stitch length at same count at three same
diametric double jersey knitting machine on same Rib structure we found the effect of stitch length on common Knit fabric
faults. Changing of stitch length gradually increases or decreases the amount of some major faults on knit industry such as
Hole/Cracks, Loops/Drop stitches, Lycra out, Knots & etc. For this study, we collected different samples of common knit
fabric faults & some quality inspection sheet done in 4-point system method from a reputed Textile Industry. Firstly, we
analyzed the data from the quality inspection sheets and then we have analyzed how changing of stitch length affects on the
increasing or decreasing of majorly occurred faults on grey knit fabric.
Keywords Knit Fabric, Knitting Fault, Causes, Remedies, Inspection

minimized, by monitoring of the circular knitting process


1. Introduction (Jearranai and Tiluk), 1999.
Many researchers have applied computer vision to
Knitting is one of the important industrial sectors of improve inspection method of human vision in textile
Bangladesh. The maximum share our export oriented RMG products, in most of them, the image of knitted garments had
is originated from knit fabrics Export means quality; we been considered to specify the faults features. Others work
must ensure 100% quality of our export oriented RMG aimed to classify defects in knitted fabrics by using image
products. [1] Due to increasing demand for quality knitted analysis and neutral network algorithm or fuzzy logic. All
fabrics, high quality requirements are today greater since these methods are not completely reliable because image
customer has become more aware of non-quality analysis of knitted fabrics involves difficulties due to the
problems, in order to avoid fabric rejection , knitting mills loop structures and yarn hairiness, compare to woven fabrics
have to produce fabrics of high quality, constantly [2, 3]. consisting of neat warp and weft yarns. Knitted fabric faults
Detection of faults during production of knitted fabric with can also be detected by inspecting yarn input tension and
circular knitting machine is crucial for improved quality and loop but only few types of faults are concerned by these
productivity any variation to the knitted process needs to be methods.
investigated and corrected. The high quality standard can be Human inspection by using knitted fabric inspection
guaranteed incorporating appropriate quality assurance. machines remains today the most used way to classify faults
Industrial analysis indicate that quality can be improved, and after knitting and after finishing [5]. Generally, faults are
defect cost minimized, by monitoring the circular knitting classified by type and by frequency in the inspected knitted
process. [3] roll. The inspection assessment permits to appreciate fabric
[4], Detection of faults during production of knitted fabric quality. The judgments of fabric quality depend on faults
with circular knitting machine (CKM) is crucial for tolerance levels fixed by each knitter and could be in some
improved quality and productivity. Any variation to the cases subjective because it is often based only on the number
knitting process needs to be investigated and corrected. The of faults and not on fault size and gravity [6].
high quality standard can be guaranteed by incorporating [7]. A new inspection method was proposed in order to
appropriate quality assurance. Industrial analysis indicate classify faults and help knitter to appreciate more objectively
that product quality can be improved, and defect cost fabric quality.

* Corresponding author:
3269234022@qq.com (Ashaduzzaman) 2. Matrial and Methods
Published online at http://journal.sapub.org/textile
Copyright 2016 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved In order to evaluate objectively, the knitted fabric roll
120 Muhammad Abu Taher et al.: Study on Different Types of Knitting Faults, Causes and Remedies of Knit Fabrics

quality, a fault index (FI) for each fault type was defined. Rate of yarn feed should be strictly regulated, as per the
Classically, during inspection only the number and the fault required Stitch Length.
type are taken into account to judge fabric quality, but fault The fabric tube should be just like a fully inflated
gravity and fault size are generally not considered. Fault balloon, not too tight or too slack.
length and fault frequency inside the fabric roll were Eyelets & the Yarn Guides, should not have, any fibers,
measured and introduced in the expression of fault index: fluff & wax etc. stuck in them.
The yarn being used, should have no imperfections, like;
2.1. Process Flow Chart for Knitting Slubs, Neps & big knots etc
Yarn in package form spinning The gap between the Cylinder & the Dial should, be
correctly adjusted, as per the knitted loop size.
Place the package yarn in the yarn
2.3. Barriness
Feeding the yarn by creel Causes:
High Yarn Tension
Set the machine as per design & GSM Count Variation
Mixing of the yarn lots
Knitting Package hardness variation

Remedies:
Withdraw the roll fabric and weighing
Ensure uniform Yarn Tension on all the feeders.
Roll marking The average Count variation in the lot, should not be
more than 0.3
Inspection Ensure that the yarn being used for Knitting is of the
same Lot / Merge no.
Numbering Ensure that the hardness of, all the yarn packages, is
uniform, using a hardness tester.
2.2. Drop Stitches (Holes)
2.4. Streakiness
Drop Stitches are randomly appearing small or big holes
of the, same or different size, which appear as defects, in the Causes:
Knitted fabrics. Yarn slippage on the IRO Pulley, due to the yarn
Causes: slipping in & out from underneath the IRO Belt, due to
a tilted IRO Pulley.
High Yarn Tension
Worn out IRO belts, yarn guides & eyelets etc
Yarn Overfeed or Underfeed
Faulty winding of the yarn packages
High Fabric Take Down Tension
Yarn running out of the belt, on the IRO Pulley.
Obstructions in the yarn passage, due to the clogging of
eyelets, yarn guides & tension discs, with wax & fluff Remedies:
etc. Ensure very smooth, clean & obstruction free passage
Defects like; Slubs, Naps, Knots etc. of the yarn, through the eyelets, yarn & tension discs
Incorrect gap between the Dial & Cylinder rings. etc.
No cuts or rough surfaces, in the Porcelain Eyelets,
Yarn Guides & the Yarn Feeder holes etc.
Flawless winding of the, Yarn Package (The yarn coils
should unwind smoothly, without any obstruction)
The yarn should be running under the IRO belt,
between the belt & around the IRO pulley.
2.5. Snarls
Snarls appear on the fabric surface, in the form of big
loops of yarn getting twisted, due to the high twist in the yarn
(Unbalanced twist yarn).
Figure 1. Drop Stitches (Holes)
Causes:
High, twist in the, yarn.
Remedies: Hosiery yarns are soft twisted. High, twist in the yarn, is
Ensure uniform yarn tension on all the feeders, with a the cause of snarling.
Tension Meter. (Snarls cause, fabric defects & needle breakages)
International Journal of Textile Science 2016, 5(6): 119-131 121

Remedies: Fabric pull or the Take Down tension, on both sides of


Ensure using Hosiery Yarns, of the recommended the grey fabric tube, on the knitting machine, should be
T.P.M. only. equal.
(Hold a few inches of the yarn in both the hands, in the Ensure uniform rate of feed of the dyed fabric, on both
form of a U. the edges, while feeding the fabric to the Calendar,
The yarn has a balanced twist, if it doesnt tend to rotate Compactor or Stenter machines.
or turn, in the form of a snarl.
(Such yarn can be used for Hosiery applications.)
2.6. Contaminations
Causes:
Presence of dead fibers & other foreign materials, such
as; dyed fibers, husk & synthetic fibers etc.
Dead Fibers appear in the fabric, as a result of the,
presence of excessive immature Cotton fibers, in the
Cotton fiber crop.
Dead fibers do not pick up color during Dyeing.
Presence of the foreign materials, in the, staple fiber
mixing
(Kitty, Husk, Broken Seeds, dyed fibers & fibers like
Poly Propylene, Polyester, Viscose etc)
Dyed & other types of fibers flying from the adjacent
Knitting machines cling, to the yarn being used for
knitting & get, embedded in the Grey Fabric.
Remedies: Figure 2. Spirality Faults
Use rich fiber mixing for the yarns, to be used for
Knitting, in order to have less dead fibers, appearing in 2.8. Needle Lines
the fabric. Causes:
Rigid control measures in the Blow Room, to prevent
Bent Latches, Needle Hooks & Needle stems
the mixing of foreign matters in the Cotton mixing.
Tight Needles in the grooves
Segregate the Spinning & Knitting Machines, with
Wrong Needle selection (Wrong sequence of needles,
Plastic Curtains or Mosquito Nets, to prevent the fibers
put in the Cylinder or Dial)
flying from the neighboring machines, from getting
embedded in the yarn / fabric. Remedies:
Inspect the grey fabric on the knitting machine for any
2.7. Spirality
Needle lines.
Spirality appears in the form of a twisted garment, after Replace all the defective needles having, bent latches,
washing. The seams on both the sides of the garment hooks or stems.
displace, from their position & appear on the front & back of Remove the fibers accumulated in, the Needle tricks
the garment. (grooves).
Causes: Replace any bent Needles, running tight in the tricks.
Check the Needle filling sequence in the Cylinder / Dial
Spirality is caused, by the Twisting Torque as a result,
grooves (tricks).
of the high yarn T.P.M.
Hosiery yarns are soft twisted, whereas the Warp yarns 2.9. Sinker Lines
are hard twisted
Uneven Fabric Take down tension, on the Knitting Causes:
machine. Bent or Worn out Sinkers
Unequal rate of Fabric feed on the Stenter, Calender& Sinkers being tight in, the Sinker Ring grooves
Compactor machines. Remedies:
Remedies: Replace, all the worn out or bent sinkers, causing
Use the Hosiery yarns of the recommended TPM level Sinker lines in the fabric.
for Knitting Sinker lines are very fine & feeble vertical lines,
(Hosiery yarns are soft twisted, in comparison to the appearing in the fabric.
Warp yarns) Remove the fibers, clogging the Sinker tricks (Grooves)
122 Muhammad Abu Taher et al.: Study on Different Types of Knitting Faults, Causes and Remedies of Knit Fabrics

2.10. Oil Lines 2.12. Bowing


Causes: Bowing appears as, rows of courses or yarn dyed stripes,
Fibers & fluff accumulated in the needle tricks, which forming a bow shape, along the fabric width
remain soaked with oil. Causes:
Excessive oiling of the, needle beds. Uneven distribution of tensions, across the fabric width
Remedies: while, dyeing or finishing the fabric.
Fibers, accumulated in the needle tricks, cause the oil to Remedies
seep into the Fabric. Bowing can be corrected, by reprocessing the fabric
Some lubricating oils are not washable & cannot be feeding it from the opposite end.
removed during Scouring. A special machine (MAHLO) is also available for,
Oil lines appear in the fabric, in the lengthwise direction, correcting the bowing in the knitted fabrics
even after dyeing.
Remove all the Needles & the Sinkers of the machine,
periodically.
Clean the grooves of the Cylinder & Dial of the
machine thoroughly, with petrol.
Blow the grooves of the Cylinder, Dial & Sinker ring,
with dry air after cleaning.

2.11. Surface Hairiness & Piling


Causes
Abrasion due to the contact with rough surfaces
Excessive surface hairiness caused, due to the abrasive
tumbling action
(Fabric friction in the Tumble Dryer)
Rough Dyeing process & abrasive machine surfaces
(Soft Flow Machine tubes, Tumble Dryer drum etc.)
Figure 3. Fabric Bowing
Reprocessing of the fabric is, also a major cause of
piling.
Remedies: 3. Survey Result & Analysis
Avoid using the Tumble Dryer.
(Control shrinkage by maximum fabric relaxation & Here we see the major knit faults percentage (%) for
over feed in the processing) various types of knit fabric in existing process and
Regularly inspect the fabric contact points on all the developing process where we can minimize the existing
machines, for any rough & sharp surfaces. faults percentage (%) in a Lot by taking the above remedies
(Rectify, if found rough) which are discussed earlier.
Avoid repeated reprocessing of the fabrics.
3.1. For Single Jersey: (500 Meter)
Use anti pilling chemical treatments for the fabrics,
prone to pilling.
Table 1. Fault of single jersey fabric (500 meter)

No. of fault No. of fault % of faults existing % of fault developing


Type of faults Size of faults
existing process developing process process process
Drop Stitches (Holes) 1.1 to 2.5 20 10 4% 2%
Barriness: 2.5to5.5 15 5 3% 1%
Streakiness: 2..7to6 15 5 3% 1%
Snarls: 1.1to2.25 20 10 4% 2%
Contaminations: 1to2.5 25 10 5% 2%
Spirality 3.5to6 20 10 4% 2%
Needle Lines: 3to5.5 15 8 3% 1.6%
Sinker Lines : 2.5to5.6 0 0 0 0
Oil Lines: 1to4 15 6 3% 1.2%
Surface Hairiness & Piling: 2to4.6 20 12 4% 2.4%
Bowing 3.5to6.5 12 5 2.4% 1%
International Journal of Textile Science 2016, 5(6): 119-131 123

7.00%
6.00% % of faults
5.00% existing process
4.00% % of fault
3.00% developing
process
2.00%
1.00%
0.00%

Figure 4. Major knitting fault of single jersey fabric

Calculation:
% of fault in existing process:
Drop Stitches (Holes):
Number of Fault in 500 meter fabric is 20,
So the no. of fault in 100 meter fabric is = (20x100)/500 = 4%
The rest fault percentage is calculated in the same way.
% of fault in developing process:
Drop Stitches (Holes):
Number of Fault in 500 meter fabric is 10
So the no. of fault in 100 meter fabric is = (10x100)/500 = 2%
The rest fault percentage is calculated in the same way.
3.1.1. Percentage of Knitting Faults in s/j Fabric

Drop Stitches (Holes)


Barriness
Streakiness
Snarls
Contaminations
Spirality
Needle Lines
Sinker Lines
Oil Lines
Surface Hairiness & Piling
Bowing

Figure 5. Percentage of dyeing faults in s/j fabric


124 Muhammad Abu Taher et al.: Study on Different Types of Knitting Faults, Causes and Remedies of Knit Fabrics

3.2. For Rib Fabric: (500 Meter)


Calculation:
% of fault in existing process:
Drop Stitches (Holes):
Number of Fault in 500 meter fabric is 20,
So the no. of fault in 100 meter fabric is = (20x100)/500 = 4%
The rest fault percentage is calculated in the same way.
% of fault in developing process:
Drop Stitches (Holes):
Number of Fault in 500 meter fabric is 6
So the no. of fault in 100 meter fabric is = (6x100)/500 = 1.2%
The rest fault percentage is calculated in the same way.
Table 2. Fault of rib fabric (500 meter)

No. of fault No. of fault % of faults existing % of fault developing


Type of faults Size of faults
existing process developing process process process

Drop Stitches (Holes) 1.1 to 2.5 20 6 4% 1.2%

Barriness: 2.5to5.5 15 8 3% 1.6%

Streakiness: 2..7to6 15 6 3% 1.2%

Snarls: 1.1to2.25 25 10 5% 2%

Contaminations: 1to2.5 25 10 5% 2%

Spirality 3.5to6 15 8 3% 1.6%

Needle Lines: 3to5.5 12 4 2.4% .8%

Sinker Lines : 2.5to5.6 0 0 0 0

Oil Lines: 1to4 20 8 4% 1.6%

Surface Hairiness & Piling: 2to4.6 22 10 4.4% 2%

Lycra Out 3.5to6.5 10 4 2% .8%

5.00%
4.50%
% of faults existing
4.00%
process
3.50%
3.00% % of fault
2.50% developing
2.00% process
1.50%
1.00%
0.50%
0.00%

Figure 6. Major knitting fault of rib fabric


International Journal of Textile Science 2016, 5(6): 119-131 125

3.2.1. Percentage of Knitting Faults in Rib Fabric

Drop Stitches (Holes)


Barriness
Streakiness
Snarls
Contaminations
Spirality
Needle Lines
Sinker Lines
Oil Lines
Surface Hairiness & Piling
Bowing

Figure 7. Percentage of dyeing faults in rib fabric

3.3. For Interlock Fabric: (500 Meter)


Table 3. Fault of interlock fabric (500 meter)

No. of fault No. of fault % of faults existing % of fault developing


Type of faults Size of faults
existing process developing process process process
Drop Stitches (Holes) 1.1 to 2.5 20 8 4% 1.6%
Barriness: 2.5to5.5 15 8 3% 1.6%
Streakiness: 2..7to6 12 6 2.4% 1.2%
Snarls: 1.1to2.25 20 8 4% 1.6%
Contaminations: 1to2.5 25 10 5% 2%
Spirality 3.5to6 18 8 3.6% 1.6%
Needle Lines: 3to5.5 15 6 3% 1.2%
Sinker Lines : 2.5to5.6 15 5 3% 1%
Oil Lines: 1to4 15 6 3% 1.6%
Surface Hairiness & Piling: 2to4.6 20 10 4% 1.6%
Bowing 3.5to6.5 12 6 2.4% 1.2%

Calculation:
% of fault in existing process:
Drop Stitches (Holes):
Number of Fault in 500 meter fabric is 20,
So the no. of fault in 100 meter fabric is = (20x100)/500 = 4%
The rest fault percentage is calculated in the same way.
% of fault in developing process:
Drop Stitches (Holes):
Number of Fault in 500 meter fabric is 5
So the no. of fault in 100 meter fabric is = (5x100)/500 = 1.6%
The rest fault percentage is calculated in the same way.
126 Muhammad Abu Taher et al.: Study on Different Types of Knitting Faults, Causes and Remedies of Knit Fabrics

6.00%

5.00% % of faults existing


process
4.00%
% of fault
3.00% developing
process
2.00%

1.00%

0.00%

Figure 8. Major knitting fault of rib fabric

3.3.1. Percentage of Knitting Faults in Interlock Fabric

Drop Stitches (Holes)


Barriness
Streakiness
Snarls
Contaminations
Spirality
Needle Lines
Sinker Lines
Oil Lines
Surface Hairiness & Piling
Bowing

Figure 9. Percentage of dyeing faults in interlock fabric


International Journal of Textile Science 2016, 5(6): 119-131 127

3.4. For Lacoste Fabric: (500 Meter)


Table 4. Fault of lacoste fabric (500 meter)

No. of fault No. of fault % of faults existing % of fault developing


Type of faults Size of faults
existing process developing process process process
Drop Stitches (Holes) 1.1 to 2.5 25 5 5% 1%
Barriness: 2.5to5.5 12 6 2.4% 1.2%
Streakiness: 2..7to6 15 6 5% 1.2%
Snarls: 1.1to2.25 25 10 5% 2%
Contaminations: 1to2.5 25 10 5% 2%
Spirality 3.5to6 15 8 3% 1.6%
Needle Lines: 3to5.5 10 4 2% .8%
Sinker Lines : 2.5to5.6 0 0 0 0
Oil Lines: 1to4 18 7 3.6% 1.4%
Surface Hairiness & Piling: 2to4.6 20 10 4% 2%
Bowing 3.5to6.5 10 4 2% .8%

6.00%

5.00% % of faults existing


process
4.00%
% of fault
3.00% developing
process
2.00%

1.00%

0.00%

Figure 10. Major knitting fault of lacoste fabric

Calculation:
% of fault in existing process:
Drop Stitches (Holes):
Number of Fault in 500 meter fabric is 25,
So the no. of fault in 100 meter fabric is = (20x100)/500 = 5%
The rest fault percentage is calculated in the same way.
% of fault in developing process:
Drop Stitches (Holes):
Number of Fault in 500 meter fabric is 5
So the no. of fault in 100 meter fabric is = (5x100)/500 = 1%
The rest fault percentage is calculated in the same way.
128 Muhammad Abu Taher et al.: Study on Different Types of Knitting Faults, Causes and Remedies of Knit Fabrics

3.4.1. Percentage of Knitting Faults in Lacoste Fabric

Drop Stitches (Holes)


Barriness
Streakiness
Snarls
Contaminations
Spirality
Needle Lines
Sinker Lines
Oil Lines
Surface Hairiness & Piling
Bowing

Figure 11. Percentage of dyeing faults in lacsote fabric

3.5. For Pique Fabric: (500 Meter)


Table 5. Fault of pique fabric (500 meter)

No. of fault No. of fault % of faults existing % of fault developing


Type of faults Size of faults
existing process developing process process process
Drop Stitches (Holes) 1.1 to 2.5 20 8 4% 1.6%
Barriness: 2.5to5.5 18 8 3.6% 1.6%
Streakiness: 2..7to6 12 8 2.4% 1.6%
Snarls: 1.1to2.25 20 10 4% 2%
Contaminations: 1to2.5 25 10 5% 2%
Spirality 3.5to6 15 7 3% 1.4%
Needle Lines: 3to5.5 20 8 4% 1.6%
Sinker Lines : 2.5to5.6 0 0 0 0
Oil Lines: 1to4 20 7 4% 1.4%
Surface Hairiness & Piling: 2to4.6 18 6 3.6% 1.2%
Bowing 3.5to6.5 10 4 2% .8%

Calculation:
% of fault in existing process:
Drop Stitches (Holes):
Number of Fault in 500 meter fabric is 20,
So the no. of fault in 100 meter fabric is = (20x100)/500 = 4%
The rest fault percentage is calculated in the same way.
% of fault in developing process:
Drop Stitches (Holes):
Number of Fault in 500 meter fabric is 8
So the no. of fault in 100 meter fabric is = (8x100)/500 = 1.6%
The rest fault percentage is calculated in the same way.
International Journal of Textile Science 2016, 5(6): 119-131 129

6.00%
5.00% % of faults
existing process
4.00%
% of fault
3.00%
developing
2.00% process
1.00%
0.00%

Figure 12. Major knitting fault of pique fabric

3.5.1. Percentage of Knitting Faults in Pique Fabric

Drop Stitches (Holes)


Barriness
Streakiness
Snarls
Contaminations
Spirality
Needle Lines
Sinker Lines
Oil Lines
Surface Hairiness & Piling
Bowing

Figure 13. Percentage of dyeing faults in pique fabric


130 Muhammad Abu Taher et al.: Study on Different Types of Knitting Faults, Causes and Remedies of Knit Fabrics

3.6. For Fleece Fabric: (500 Meter)


Table 6. Fault of fleece fabric (500 meter)

No. of fault No. of fault % of faults existing % of fault developing


Type of faults Size of faults
existing process developing process process process
Drop Stitches (Holes) 1.1 to 2.5 20 8 4% 1.6%
Barriness: 2.5to5.5 16 6 3.2% 1.2%
Streakiness: 2..7to6 15 8 3% 1.6%
Snarls: 1.1to2.25 20 8 4% 1.6%
Contaminations: 1to2.5 30 10 6% 2%
Spirality 3.5to6 16 8 3.2% 1.6%
Needle Lines: 3to5.5 20 8 4% 1.6%
Sinker Lines : 2.5to5.6 15 0 0 0
Oil Lines: 1to4 16 6 3.2% 1.2%
Surface Hairiness & Piling: 2to4.6 20 8 4% 1.6%
Bowing 3.5to6.5 15 5 3% 1%

6.00%
5.00% % of faults
existing process
4.00%
% of fault
3.00%
developing
2.00% process
1.00%
0.00%

Figure 14. Major knitting fault of fleece fabric

Calculation:
% of fault in existing process:
Drop Stitches (Holes):
Number of Fault in 500 meter fabric is 20,
So the no. of fault in 100 meter fabric is = (20x100)/500 = 4%
The rest fault percentage is calculated in the same way.
% of fault in developing process:
Drop Stitches (Holes):
Number of Fault in 500 meter fabric is 8
So the no. of fault in 100 meter fabric is = (8x100)/500 = 1.6%
The rest fault percentage is calculated in the same way.
International Journal of Textile Science 2016, 5(6): 119-131 131

3.6.1. Percentage of Knitting Faults in Fleece Fabric

Drop Stitches (Holes)


Barriness
Streakiness
Snarls
Contaminations
Spirality
Needle Lines
Sinker Lines
Oil Lines
Surface Hairiness & Piling
Bowing

Figure 15. Percentage of dyeing faults in fleece fabric

4. Findings and Suggestions


Many faults are coming from yarn and knitting but we
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