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Experiences of parents with visual impairments who are raising children.

Author: Rosenblum, L. Penny; Hong, Sunggye; Harris, Beth
Article Type: Report
Geographic Code: 1USA
Date: Feb 1, 2009
Words: 5840
Publication: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
ISSN: 0145-482X

Abstract: Sixty-seven parents who are visually impaired revealed strategies for their children's safety, transportation, homework,
and other parenting tasks and provided information about the emotional impact on their children and others' reactions to them as
parents. Recommendations for current and future parents who are visually impaired and professionals are discussed.


Parenting is a daunting undertaking for any individual, but it may be even more daunting for individuals with visual impairments
as they think about how to accomplish everyday tasks, such as diapering and transporting children. Over the past 40 years, few
studies have been conducted on the child-rearing experiences of people with visual impairments.

Early articles were generally anecdotal, describing what it was like to raise children as a parent with a visual
impairment (Arsnow, Dichiera, Mould, Sauerburger, & Peaco, 1985; Branson, 1975; DiCaprio, 1971; Hirshberg, 1960; Kendrick,
1983). They focused on the ways in which parents interacted with their children and established communication when their
children were young. The parents with visual impairments in these reports tended to describe their personal concerns related to
day-to-day experiences and adaptations, public perceptions, and the lack of support and information available to them.

Ware and Schwab (1971) expanded on the anecdotal information by interviewing 10 mothers with visual impairments about their
children's clothing, personal hygiene, grooming, and feeding and the role of the mothers in child care. The authors found that
mothers with visual impairments received little training in how to perform parenting tasks and that they accomplished many of
the tasks through trial and error. They proposed the development of a training program in the basics of child care to allow
mothers with visual impairments to concentrate more on the emotional aspects of child rearing. Yet such findings have not been
put into practice, and parents with visual impairments have reported concerns about raising children, including protecting their
children's safety, the extra time needed to accommodate their own visual impairments, and transportation needs (Conley-Jung &
Olkin, 2001).

Some research has focused on the relationships and interactions between parents with visual impairments and their children. It
has shown that societal beliefs influence the types of interactions between parents and children. Deshen and Deshen (1989)
found that Israeli children grew up learning to be disrespectful toward their parents with visual impairments because of the
cultural belief system in Israel surrounding people with disabilities. Although no similar studies have been conducted in the
United States, Conley-Jung and Olkin (2001) interviewed mothers with visual impairments who reported experiencing negative
reactions from other people. The mothers reported strategies to deal with negative attitudes, such as confiding in others,
educating people, ignoring the negative messages, or laughing about them.

The mode of communication can also affect parent-child relationships. Since much of the communication between parents and
young children is conducted visually, parents who are visually impaired must use other modes of communication. Young
children were found to adapt readily to alternate forms of communication for interacting with and developing relationships with
their parents who were visually impaired (Adamson, Als, Tronick, & Brazelton, 1977; Collis & Bryant, 1981).

It is not possible to determine the number of parents in the United States who are blind or have low vision. According to the
2000 census (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000), there were approximately 38 million households with individuals aged 18 or younger,
or about 36% of the total number of households in the United States. In 2005, an estimate based on the American Community
Survey showed that 2.8% of the U.S. population aged 16-64, or about 5.3 million people of child-rearing age, had some kind of
sensory disability (U.S. Census Bureau, 2005).

Research is needed that explores the concerns, coping strategies, and feelings of parents with visual impairments on parenting.
The study presented here was designed as a step toward expanding the limited information on how parents with visual
impairments are raising their children and the strategies that they use.



Individuals in the United States who were visually impaired and who had at least one child at home who was a senior in high
school or younger were eligible to participate in the study. The participants provided information on their own visual impairments.

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHILDREN To participate. Thirty-two participants had 1 child. The 67 participants reported having a total of 113 children who were currently living at home. 14 had 3 children. Of the 48 parents who parented with a spouse or partner. and advice and information needed or desired that would be helpful for the participants or future parents with visual impairments. and 1 had 5 children. Still others noted that their children were more mature or had to grow up faster than other children of the same age. Results DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PARENTS Interviews were conducted with 67 parents with visual impairments from 28 states and the District of Columbia. Of the 24 children with disabilities. A total of 49 participants reported working outside the home or running their own home-based businesses. including posting invitations to participate in the study in blindness-specific newsletters. and they accept people because everyone is different. as in this comment: "My children are more aware of what is a visually impaired or handicapped person. THEMES Three topical areas emerged from the study: the social and emotional aspects of being a parent with a visual impairment. I think my kids have seen that it is possible to problem solve successfully when you have challenges. We then met and came to agreement on the themes. computer programmer. Almost all the participants identified positive aspects of having a visual impairment and being a parent. 47 parented with a spouse. Each of us selected representative quotes from the participants to be used in the article presented here to illustrate the identified themes. the interview script and questions were reviewed by a colleague who had extensive research experience. Challenges. Of the 67 participants. Jobs included being a teacher. and 27 were blind. By far the greatest challenge reported by the participants was transporting their children. The 113 children ranged in age from 3 months to 19 years. supervisor." Others said that their children were more verbal or descriptive than were children of the same age who did not have a parent with a visual impairment. we reviewed the transcripts independently and identified themes for each of three topical areas. The information in each topical area was then coded into themes by question. the parents had to have at least one child who was a senior in high school or younger and was living at home full time. but since 3 participants were married to other participants. and were predominantly Caucasian (n = 50) and female (n = 47). The ages at which the participants were first diagnosed with a visual impairment ranged from birth (n = 40) to 31 years or older (n = 3).. After the audio files were transcribed. and web sites and contacting parents who were visually impaired whom we knew. and 1 parented with a same-sex partner. children who were living with the other parent or not living at home (such as at college or on their own) were not counted. The majority of the participants were diagnosed before age 18 (n = 59). The three most prevalent etiologies were albinism (n = 16). none requested this option. After completing an online information form. retinitis pigmentosa (n = 12). the demographic information for the children was tallied using 64 participants. As one parent noted: "I think to some extent it has helped them to be more open to differences and to be more empathic. A typical response was . 9 children were visually impaired (see Table 2 for more details). They know that not everyone has 20/20 vision. and retinopathy of prematurity (n = 8). 17 had 2 children. and professional in the field of visual impairment.. with a mean of 40 years and a median of 39 years. As Table 1 shows. Many parents said that their children seemed to be more compassionate or empathic toward others. practical ways of dealing with various aspects of raising children. 16 said that the partner also had a disability: 13 had visual impairments. All three researchers (the authors of this article) adhered to the script and questions to maintain consistency across the participants. Social and emotional aspects of being a parent with a visual impairment Positive aspects. The topical areas were groupings of information from several questions. The participants ranged in age from 22 to 60. electronic discussion groups. A structured interview procedure was used to collect responses from the participants (a copy of the interview script and questions are available from the second author). themes were tied to individual questions. and the majority of them (n = 62) were male. Before the study began.We used several methods to recruit parents who were visually impaired. A variety of etiologies were reported. All interviews were recorded using digital voice recorders and were later transcribed to a text file for analysis. 40 participants had low vision. 1 was deaf or hard of hearing. lawyer. and had raised two children. the participants were contacted by one of us to set up a telephone interview.." Some parents reported that their children were more accepting of differences in others. was visually impaired. 19 were single parents. 1 had a spinal cord injury. and 1 partner's disability was not disclosed. Although the participants had the option of completing the information in the online form via telephone with the second author.

bringing the parent only books with braille but bringing other adults books with only print. rather than holding up the objects. asking other adults to do activities with them that were visual (such as dancing like a person on television). The parents listed a variety of tasks that were difficult to monitor. As one parent said: "She was 18 months old. The parents who were blind reported that their children typically became aware of their blindness between ages 1 and 3. "Mommy's eyes don't work. "Mommy. He figures morn can't see that.. "I can hear you and love you. we have to make a doctor's appointment to get your eyes fixed. When he noticed it. 'Daddy. Holly told me calmly that Sandy was in the street in front of the bus. A typical comment was this: Just trying to get past the stereotype that someone who is visually impaired can't be a parent [is difficult]..." He'd say. As one parent said: "Even now. and my daughter was testing me. and he started to touch my eyes. she Explained that my eyes blink. with them being 17 and 18. "Wow. including bringing the parent to something. I get really tired of people giving me such a strange look or reaction when I'm out in public with my daughter. do you need this?'" Some parents reported that their children gradually started to take on responsibility for their parents' needs as visually impaired persons.this: "The biggest challenge is probably transportation. It is getting less now. rather than pointing. After that. My sister-in-law pointed it out to me." A few parents reported that they believed they were being watched by others who questioned their ability to parent successfully because they were visually impaired... [She was] putting fingers in front of my face and trying to make me react." Another parent said that when her son was young. one child began to serve as a sighted guide in the community or to read information to the parent. I tell my son to take the garbage out. including typical chores that the children were expected to do. One of the causes of anxiety for me is that I have had to arrange for transportation. He would say. A poignant example of a safety concern was as follows: When Sandy was 18 months old. he was 2. I was laying on the floor with her. typically late preschool or early elementary school." Explaining one's visual impairment to one's child." A few parents said that their children were embarrassed about having a parent with a visual impairment. bringing objects to the parent's hand to show. but they were not happy campers. Differences were reported on the basis of the parent's level of functional vision. He was 4 or 5 and picked up the magnifier and said.. As one mother noted: "The girls used to be mortified that I squint and look different from the other morns. and he'll leave it. and they know I'm a morn. I couldn't drive them to the mall like other morns. Comments in this category were divided into responses that addressed safety concerns and responses that focused on a child's completion of tasks.. Sandy was attached to me by a type of leash [harness to keep her near]. One father noted: "I was reading something and holding it close. The participants were asked to describe how they knew their children understood that they had a visual impairment.. how do you this?" and "How do you that?" or "How can you. And just that intensity of curiosity." Another challenge focused on monitoring a child. The children demonstrated a variety of behaviors to demonstrate their awareness. and imitating the parent by pretending to walk with a cane or to search for a dropped object with the hands. but they just don't work. For example.." The parents with low vision said that their children did not recognize their parents' visual difference until an older age. . I put the two girls against a fence and told them to stay." Then I'd say. While I was opening the stroller.

but I can't participate.. I was kind of on the side while the morns were helping the kids. Another mother put it more succinctly. When parents reported an emotional impact.. she doesn't understand that. There was a morn there helping Kim.. to describe what the children were doing. She reacted one time and told me to open my eyes real big. I had taken my daughter to class. they most often described activities involving distance vision. such as drawing or painting. "You haven't lived until you go to a soccer game and you don't know if your child is on the field.. such as sports. A few parents with low vision used optical devices (such as a monocular) to watch their children. the parents reported that their children began to notice how the public was responding to them because of their visual impairments. It was just one day. "They are staring at us because I can't see. A mother who was blind shared a special memory related to her daughter's participation in sports: One time... I think he has some real good self-esteem from that." Feeling left out of activities.. plays. When people say little things to him at school--"your mom's blind" or whatever--he's never embarrassed or thinks he wishes I wasn't [blind]... An example of a positive impact was evidenced in this comment by the mother of a 10-year-old son: He loves it when I come in with my dog [guide]. and dance recitals in which the children were participating and recreational activities at parks or other locations where the children were playing at a distance." One mother told how she felt during a birthday party where each mother was helping her child with ceramics: I felt left out. I'm parenting. such as their spouses or partners. She was about 3 or 4. they noted that their children's responses were either positive or negative." I treasured that experience because he really was a radio commentator..In a few instances. He was there and bored and said. Emotional impact on the child. As one father said: "She loves to draw... When the participants were asked if they ever felt left out of an activity that their children were doing. To minimize the impact of not being able to see their children participate in these activities." Some parents reported feeling left out of activities that their children were doing at near distance. One mother who was blind said: What I remember explaining more than my visual impairment was people's reactions. "Why do people stare at us?" I said. He's very proud of the fact that we're a little bit different and that our lives are a little bit more complicated. the parents asked others. I took the girls to things they were interested in but always felt off to the side. Many parents noted that it was difficult to determine if their having a visual impairment had a direct emotional impact on their children. I'll be your commentator. She asked. I don't feel too great about it. We were waiting for a taxi as all the people were leaving. but it's very difficult. He told me everything. . and he's very proud. "I bet you would like to know what your daughter is doing. I'm on the sidelines. a teenager sat with me when my daughter was playing T-ball. I used to be a very social person. When she shows daddy her pictures and daddy doesn't respond.

keep their children engaged in conversation. but about differences. Issues concerning the children's safety were expressed by all the parents. they used other strategies. In addition. and limit the parts of the house or yard that the children had access to. "I don't think they sit around and think. 'Oh it sucks to have a morn who is blind. could not provide transportation. and another hired a local company that typically provided . A mother of young children said. such as dressing the children in brightly colored clothing." When taking their children by car. public transportation. Some parents reported selecting where they lived on the basis of safety concerns." Practical aspects of being a parent with a visual impairment Safety.' He didn't tell me before. The most articulate on this subject was a mother who said... Transporting children while using one's cane or dog guide presented challenges." This mother reported attending a workshop led by a child-restraint specialist and having a fireman show her how to install car seats in a variety of vehicles. and I didn't budget for the taxi. I have made different things with bells and beads--made them cute. It was triggered by attending the conference and by hanging out with the teen group there. especially during the infant and toddler years. I use a guide dog. Everything takes some planning. They both really like their bells.. and then you can take it out of the car. Suddenly. be on the floor with their children. They chose to live on a quiet street or to buy a house with a fenced yard. they had to consider a car seat. A mother with low vision said: Bells. it's all about the bells. Some parents believed there was a negative impact on their children. When they did. and it becomes a stroller. or maintaining a distance that allowed for physical contact. specifically how to install it in a taxi or a friend's car and where to store it when they reached their destination.. the parents. 'Mom can I. "We found a really neat car seat called a Sit-n-Stroll. so I pull the wagon behind me and put the baby in a front backpack.. I have made bell anklets for them. He says. or I put bells on their laces. the parents noted that they needed to plan in advance.' But I do think there's a lot of things they wish I could do with them. in a stroller or on a leash or harness)." To transport their children.. Several parents reported novel strategies for transportation. it was an awakening. For young children. Transportation. they used such strategies as keeping the children restrained (for example.. These parents were less likely to take their children out in public alone. One mother said. My [sighted] husband has learned to be dependent on the bells. The parents with low vision used some of the same strategies as the parents who were blind. The participants wanted their children to be able to attend events.The mother of a sighted 14-year-old daughter said: When we went to a NOAH [National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation] conference. including walking. not just about visual impairment or albinism. "I have a little red wagon I use. drivers (primarily family members and friends). although less frequently. Transportation was an area of great concern for the participants. For example.. Several parents noted that they had researched car seats prior to having their babies. and paratransit (specialized transportation services for people with disabilities and the elderly). I have them wear the bells if I'm with someone else or not. pop out the wheels from the bottom. The participants also reported that they and their children did not have spontaneity when it came to transportation. It's basically a regular car seat that you strap into the car pretty easily.. the parents used all methods of travel. They're both in dance. but recognized that sometimes their children missed out on opportunities because they. The parents who were blind were more apt to keep their children close. As one woman put it: "We don't have that spontaneity. put bells on the children's shoes when they were young.. taxis.. one parent brought her child to the office via paratransit and then paid a coworker to drive her child to day care. and they wish I could see them dance. she became a lot more open about diversity and talking about things.. establishing a rule that the children must answer when called.

transportation to seniors to transport her and her child. or the parenting partner took on the responsibility of communicating with the teacher. adapting games that involved colors. Several issues were apparent from the data. therefore. Many parents reported that they had no problems when it came to communicating with teachers because they could see the notes. influenced where the families lived. Safety was a concern for all the parents regardless of their level of visual impairment. 1996). transportation was an extremely important concern. The advice for future parents fell into five categories: (1) do not focus on your visual impairment. "There's a lot of unwarranted paranoia by hospital staff like doctors. such as a screen-reader program that allowed them to hear what letters or words their children typed on the computer keyboard. numbers. the parents wanted the opportunity to meet other parents who were visually impaired and exchange "war stories" and advice. you'll have a much easier time. paying someone to assist the child with the homework. The parents who were blind had designated meeting spots for their children. rehabilitation facilities and support groups could offer classes or discussion sessions to provide clients with information on these topics. They reported using tools. Homework strategies included having someone else do the homework with the child. Communicating with teachers. The development of strands at conferences to address parenting. A mother of a 12-year-old seventh grader reported that part of her child's allowance was earned by assisting her sister who was in the second grade with homework. helping parents to learn techniques that others have used to ensure their children's safety can be helpful. considerable discussion has focused on the need for instruction in the expanded core curriculum (Hatlen. If you approach doctors or nurses and tell them your plans and sound confident. having the child e-mail the parent the homework. Several parents said that it was difficult to sign their children out from school or day care because they could not see the sign-out sheet.. Picking children up from school or activities. in many instances. As one mother said. Homework and related activities." Many parents thought that electronic discussion groups. having the child read aloud. especially those that are descriptive. there were other topics on which parents could benefit from hearing of others' experiences. shapes. Some parents used their own assistive technology. such as orientation and mobility (O&M) and social skills. using optical aids to access the homework. or speak to the teacher in person. are needed when a person with a visual impairment becomes a parent. Videos. In addition. Some parents wanted general information on raising children that was accessible. Parents and young people with visual impairments need to be made aware that the components of the expanded core curriculum. "Just because we're blind doesn't mean we don't have the same hopes and desires for raising children. while others wanted information in these resources to focus on parents with visual impairments. web sites. and. identified the children by voice. necessitated that they plan transportation ahead of time.. such as a screen board. and purchasing games and activities that they could more easily see or get sensory input from. and (5) be creative and organized. (3) have supportive people around you. Parents of younger children provided examples related to helping their children access printed and pictorial materials. she had an alternative to try. and support groups would be helpful to them in raising their children. (4) consider where you will live and how your decision will affect your children. The parents with low vision used the same strategies. or letters with braille or other tactile markings. such as a staff person signing the child out on their behalf. Giving young people with visual impairments opportunities to learn how to baby-sit. Like safety concerns. accessible videos and books about parenting topics. Being a nondriver limited the participants' ability to be spontaneous with their children. In the field of education. and positioning the child and the homework so the parent could more easily view it. access the notes or other information via the computer. Another mother said. conferences. In addition. One mother said that Child Protective Services had been called solely because she was visually impaired. (2) have a sense of humor. or asked someone to find the children for them." Discussion This study examined the experiences of 67 parents who were visually impaired and were raising children. giving them the . and a venue for matching parents with each other to share experiences and resources would support parents who are visually impaired. electronic discussion groups specific to parenting children of different ages. It just has to be done a little differently. some parents with low vision were able to identify their children by the clothes the children were wearing or the children's hair color or body size. Other examples included a parent who got friends to drive a car that she and her visually impaired husband owned in which they had installed car seats and a parent who had multiple car seats for her daughter so that if one did not fit in someone's car. and books were also recommended. First. Advice for future parents. The participants were asked about the challenges of assisting their children with homework. Several parents suggested that the medical community needs to be advised about the abilities of parents who are visually impaired. In addition. . Advice and information suggested for parents with visual impairments Information or services suggested. Working with communities to establish alternative transportation options for nondrivers would ultimately assist these parents in transporting their children. so they had to seek an accommodation.

K. they were a "connected" group and may not be representative of the population of parents with visual impairments. L. and having them meet young adults with visual impairments who are parents can help to prepare them for parenting. It's also been challenging. American Journal of Nursing. L. the following limitations were identified. H.. and establishing a rule that when a child calls the parent's name. Blind parents rearing sighted children. S. 79. C. Schmeidler. Branson. and I can't stress that enough. and Todorov (1999). Human Organization. (1989). the parent answers. 14-29.responsibility for younger siblings. Mothers with visual impairments who are raising young children. B. Authors' Note: The authors thank the Tucson Downtown Lions Club for its contribution to transcribing the interviews. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness. having their children e-mail homework assignments back and forth with them. . References Adamson. Parents who are sighted can model for their visually impaired children some of the strategies they may use when they become parents. This 70% employment rate is higher than that reported by Kirchner. Arsnow. 193-198. This onetime "snapshot" would have been strengthened through the use of multiple interviews or observations. J. & Deshen.. The participants were primarily recruited through advertisements on the Internet and in newsletters of organizations for people with visual impairments. such as taking family trips using multiple transportation methods. & Olkin. (1975). Like individuals with visual impairments.. Als. 95. C. including medical personnel. Thirty-nine (57%) participants were employed full time. M. R. Child: Care. 16.. H. 7. and Development. 41-50. & Bryant. 75. In the words of one participant. Sauerburger. 194-207. (1981). D.. Thus. Collis. Some of it has been made more difficult by being a blind parent. F. G. This study provided a wealth of information about the experiences of 67 individuals with visual impairments who were raising children. Professionals in the field need to help people with visual impairments develop self-advocacy skills so that future and current parents feel comfortable talking with others. Tronick. Interactions between blind parents and their young children. Mould. Deshen. Conley-Jung. their children's teachers and day care workers. it's about being a parent. 414-416... Only one interview was scheduled per participant. having them enroll in child development classes. Managing at home: Relationships between blind parents and sighted children. and the data were self-reported. F. & Brazelton. & Peaco. They also thank University of Arizona doctoral student Deborah Rooks and San Francisco State University graduate student Rosalyn Antenor Cruz Conanan for their assistance in transcribing the interviews. H. E. Teachers of students with visual impairments and O&M instructors can build opportunities into their instruction for young people to practice skills of the expanded core curriculum that are crucial for parenting. (1977). It was clear to us that. Dichiera. Health. The development of social reciprocity between a sighted infant and her blind parents. the public also needs to be educated about the parenting abilities of people who are visually impaired. (2001). 48. It's been a lot of fun so far: just being a parent watching him grow and develop. but it's not about being a blind parent. G. The development of courses and workshops for parents who are visually impaired that focus on child rearing should be based on input from parents and data gathered through systematic research. overall. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness. parenting was an enriching experience for the participants.. and Sharon Sacks for reviewing a draft of the survey instrument. The study revealed some important information on parenting by people with visual impairments. 262-267. A.. These parents shared information on many aspects of their experiences. and 10 (15%) were employed part time. Studies that gather data from all family members through a combination of observations and interviews would allow researchers to gain a fuller understanding of the impact of a parent's visual impairment on the entire family unit. I remind myself every day that this is a challenge for every parent. The blind mother. and vice versa. Their candidness and optimism shone throughout the interviews.. The potential for future studies is great on the experiences of parents who are visually impaired. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. (1985). and other parents. however.

49 . Hirshberg. The core curriculum for blind and visually impaired students. University of Arizona.15 Ethnicity African American 5 7. Rehabilitation.95 Uveitis 4 5. The blind mother providing care for an infant.. Box 210069. Census Bureau. Prevalence Characteristics n % Gender Male 20 29. (1983).99 Diabetic retinopathy 2 2. e-mail: <bharrisl@e-mail. Hatlen. U. (1960). 40-73. census.30 Low vision 40 59. (1999). E. (2000).gov/servlet/QTl?able?_bm=y&-qr_name=DEC_ 2000_SF1_U_DP1&- geo_id=01000US&ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-_lang=en&. Census Bureau.S. Disabled USA. Tucson. Ph.Ed.. San Francisco. A. and School Psychology. & Todorov.99 Lucocia epicial dysplasia 2 2. A. RE:view.48 Coloboma 2 2.. Saturday Evening Post. & Schwab.88 Retinitis pigmentosa 12 17.>. Retrieved from http://factfinder. Penny Rosenblum. 2005 American Community Survey. New Outlook for the Blind.. (1996).edu>.99 Degree of visual impairment Blind 27 40. 28. San Francisco State University. University of Arizona. CA 94132. assistant professor.S. 233(17). (1971). C. (1971). P. e-mail: <rosenblu@u. doctoral student. Department of Special Education. (2005).91 Retrolental fibroplasia-retinopathy of prematurity 8 11. S. O. Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the participants (N = 67). AZ 85721-0069. L. Invisible barriers: How you can make parenting easier. S 1801 Disability characteristics. DP-1 profile of general demographic characteristics: 2000.arizona. A.99 Coats' disease 1 1. M. Box 210069.D.97 Other 2 2.99 Leber's congenital amaurosis 2 2. Mississippi State University. 169-174. Kendrick.48 Multiracial or biracial 4 5. _caller=geoselect&state=st&-format= Ware. health.70 Etiologies Albinism 16 23.94 Glaucoma 6 8. D. and employment status of people with serious visual impairment. adjunct associate professor. Retrieved from http://factfinder. Factors affecting the child's evaluation of the visually handicapped parent. They never see their children.. Mississippi State: Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Blindness and Low Vision. Tucson.63 Hispanic 3 4.D. e-mail: <hong72@sfsu.. 65. Kirchner. AZ 85721-0069. Sunggye Hong. 1.DiCaprio.97 Cataract 3 4.S.99 Retinoblastoma 2 2.46 Asian 3 4. 175-182. L. Looking at employment through a lifespan telescope: Age. G00_S1801&- ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-_lang=en&. 65. Burk Hall 208. Department of Special>. 181-186. format=&-CONTEXT=qt U.census.48 Caucasian 50 74. New Outlook for the Blind.99 Optic atrophy 2 2. Beth Harris. N.85 Female 47 70. 1600 Holloway Avenue. M. including those with additional disabilities. 17-19.

88 Unknown 2 2.50 Other 5 20.21 Part time 10 14.76 Type of disability (n = 24) Visual impairment 9 37.15 Same-sex partner 1 1.24 No 89 78.47 Preschool 10 8.17 Note: ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity dis-order and ADD = attention deficit disorder.55 Adult 2 1.thefreelibrary.93 Not employed 16 23.13 Age Infant 14 12.49 Table 2 Demographic characteristics of the children (N= 113).36 Married 47 70. single 19 28.83 Multiple handicaps 5 20.48 Employment status Full time (35 hours or more) 39 58. http://www.49 Unknown 1 1.46 31 years or older 3 4.70 1 month to 5 years 9 13.83 Developmental delays 2 8.87 Female 51 .98 Parenting situation Alone.49 Stevens-Johnson syndrome 1 1.93 19 to 30 years 5 7.77 Disability Yes 24 21.85 Elementary school 35 30.39 Toddler 22 19.43 6 years to 18 years 10 14. Nystagmus 1 1.49 Stargardt's 1 1.97 Teenager 30 26. Prevalence Characteristics n Gender Male 62 54.33 ADHD or ADD 1 4.49 Optic nerve damage 1 1.49 Age first diagnosed with a visual impairment Birth 40 59.33 Learning disability 2 8.