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Universidad de Oviedo

rea de Mecnica de Fluidos

2 curso Grados en Ingeniera

FLUID MECHANICS

https://www.innova.uniovi.es/innova/campusvirtual/campusvirtual.php

Index

13. LAMINAR FLOW

- Between flat plates

- In pipes

15. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MACHINES

16. OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

12. Laminar and turbulent flow

The flow of a fluid in a duct comes with an energy loss, usually expressed in

terms of energy per unit weight of fluid flow, called head losses with

dimensions of length (height of fluid column) [m].

with a fluid flow in an unsteady regimen. Taking into account the power

generated by the viscous forces and the power exchanged between the

machines inside the control volume and the fluid:

p

d

Q WV WM e d e vR dS

dt

S

v2

with: e u gz

2

Assuming the following simplifications:

12. Laminar and turbulent flow

Simplifications (I):

1. inertial reference system (without acceleration)

2. Steady flow

3. Fixed and non-deformable control volume

p p

Q WV WM

S

S

v2

e v d S u gz vd S ;

2

Simplifications (II):

4. VC with a single inlet (1) and exit (2)

5. Uniform flow at inlet and exit Q WV WM

q ; w V ; w M ;

2 m m m

v2 p

q w V w M u gz ; where:

2 1 m 1 v1S1 2 v2 S 2

Variation of the energy height between inlet and exit of the CV:

v2 2 p2 v12 p1 q w V w M u1 u2

H 2 H1 z2

z ;

2g 2 g 2 g 1

1 g g

12. Laminar and turbulent flow

Simplifications (III):

6. Flow in an adiabatic duct :

v2 2 p2 v12 p1 w M u1 u2 u

H 2 H1 z2 z1 HM ;

2 g 2

g 2 g 1

g g g

u = internal energy variation, with reversible and irreversible parts

Simplifications (IV):

7. Incompressible flow

u u2 u1 cV

u = irreversible head losses: hP T2 T1 ;

g g g

Simplified energy equation (conditions 1-7), between the system inlet and

outlet, including head losses and the work done or extracted by machines:

v2 2 p2 v12 p1

H 2 H1 z2

z H M hP

2 g g 2 g

1

g

12. Laminar and turbulent flow

(from top to bottom)

Any disturbance is damped.

It happens if the viscous stresses are "big".

Turbulent flow = unsteady

Any disturbance is amplified to affect the entire flow, leading to a

succession of eddies traveling with the flow as they are falling apart

into smaller eddies.

It happens if the viscous stresses are "small".

12. Laminar and turbulent flow

NUMBER (non-dimensional):

: density

U L U : characteristic velocity of the flow

Re

L : characteristic length of the domain

: dynamic viscosity

13. Laminar flow

Consider a laminar flow between two parallel flat plates very long (without

border effects), with a separation between them of height h, one of the plates

with a velocity vP.

u

Other assumptions: 0 (continuity)

x

- Incompressible flow

- Steady flow v u y i f ( x, t )

- 2D flow, unidirectional ( h small)

Condition for laminar flow: gx

vh gy

Re 1400 g

Cauchy equation:

Dv

g p

Dt

13. Laminar flow

Considering the case of newtonian incompressible flow: 2 v

v

v v g p 2 v

t

- Direction y:

p p (Hydrostatic distribution

0 g y g y of the pressure)

y y

u z p 2u 2 u p gz

u g 2 2 p*x

x x x y y x

gX

(cnst. If the geometry

doesnt change)

13. Laminar flow

The above expression can be integrated two times to obtain the velocity

profile:

dy y C1 u y y C1 dy y C1 y C2

dy 2

p*x Vp

u y y y h

*

Vp p

u y h Vp C1 x

h 2 h

y

h 2

contribution contribution

13. Laminar flow

2 px px

* *

p*x with the gradient.

y y y y

p*x L

Head loss: hp where L is the length traveled.

g

13. Laminar flow

Couette flow = flow in the case pX*=0 flow generated by pure viscous

drag, induced by the mobile surface with velocity vP:

p*x Vp Vp

u y y y h y y

2 h h

0 cte.

y

Application: viscometers

13. Laminar flow

v D

Laminar flow Condition : Re

2300

Applying the Cauchy equation to a newtonian fluid in the flow direction, under

the assumptions 2D, incompressible and steady flow, it is possible to find the

velocity profile. Due to the axial geometry, it is convenient to use cylindrical

coordinates (r,,x):

gx v 0r 0 u x v u r x f ( x, , t )

gr

Momentum eq. in cylindrical coordinates,

g

component x:

0

v v v v v

x vr x x vx x

t r r x

z p 1 vx 1 vx vx

2 2

With vr=v=0 and vx=u: g

x x r r r 2 2 x 2

r r

0

Chapter 3 Fluid Transport 13

13. Laminar flow

1 u 1 p g z p*x

Then: r

r r r x

Parabolic profile

profile, with the boundary condition u(r=R)=0:

u (r ) (r R 2 ) fluid in a circular section duct

4

u r

Also: p*x

r 2

obtain the flow rate:

R p*x

Q u d S u (r ) dS R4

S

0 8 Lineal Distribution of

shear stresses

13. Laminar flow

losses:

p*x

Q R4

8 128 L

hp Q Hagen-Poiseuille

*

p L g D 4 equation

hp x

section, the head loss is:

- Directly proportional to the flow rate, the viscosity and the pipe length.

- Inversely proportional to the diameter of the pipe to the fourth power.

14. Turbulent flow in pipes

With a turbulent flow it isnt possible to analytically solve the Cauchy equation,

due to the unsteady character of the flow.

Condition for turbulent flow:

Re 4000

a transition regime)

Definition: the relation between the head losses per unit length and the kinetic

energy divided by the diameter is known as f, which leads to the

Darcy-Weisbach equation:

hp / L L v2 8f L

f hp f 2 5 Q2

v2 1 D 2g g D

2g D

f is a non-dimensional parameter (without units), known as friction factor.

In a turbulent flow, the friction factor depends on the Reynolds number and

the relative roughness r = /D, where the roughness of the pipe represents

the mean height of the irregularities of the interior surface of the pipe.

14. Turbulent flow in pipes

friction factor depending exclusively on the Reynolds number:

64

f lam

Re

Colebrook and White (1939) proposed a single expression that can be used for

the whole turbulent regime:

1 2.51

2 log r

Colebrook-White equation:

3.7 Re f

f

It has the inconvenient that the friction factor doesnt appear explicitly, and an

iterative procedure has to be employed to solve the equation. From this

equation, Moody developed a diagram showing a family of curves of relative

iso-roughness, with which the friction factor can be determined at the

intersection of a vertical line from the Reynolds number with the corresponding

isocurve.

14. Turbulent flow in pipes

f()

f(Re,)

14. Turbulent flow in pipes

Other authors adjusted the experimental data to express the friction factor in

function of the Reynolds number and the relative roughness in a less precise but

explicit equation.

For example, the correlation of Barr:

1 5.1286

2 log r

f 3.7 Re0.89

For non circular ducts it is possible to use the expressions deduced for circular

ducts, substituting the diameter D by the hydraulic diameter (Dh):

4 Transversal section

Dh

Wet perimeter

14. Turbulent flow in pipes

Minor losses are produced by any element in the pipe implying a greater or

lesser obstruction on the flow (inlets and outlets, bends, valves, section

variations, etc.).

They can be calculated as a fraction (some times bigger than one) of the kinetic

energy:

hps Q2

2 g g 2 D4 : minor losses coefficient

coefficients for the most common elements.

Other possibility is to consider the effect of the

minor losses as an additional length of pipe and

use only the Darcy-Weisbach equation for the

calculations. The equivalent length is related

with the minor losses coefficient by the equation:

D

Le

f

14. Turbulent flow in pipes

calculate the equivalent lengths

for the most common elements in

function of the diameter of the

pipe. These nomograms do not

take into account the effect of the

friction coefficient, and the

calculation is only approximate.

of the equivalent length

14. Turbulent flow in pipes

In summary 64 128 L

f hp Q

Re g D 4

(Hagen-Poiseuille eq.)

L v2

hp f

D 2g

1 2.51

2 log r

3.7 Re f

f

HEAD 1 5.1286

2 log r 0.89

LOSSES f 3.7 Re

- Moody diagram

8

hps Q2 8f L 2

g D

2 4 hp Q

g D

2 5

(Darcy-Weisbach eq.)

14. Turbulent flow in pipes

flow is the same in all the pipes; the sum of the individual flows, but the

the total head losses are the sum head losses between the ends is the

of each one: same for all the pipes:

8f L

k hp hp ki Q2

g 2 D5 total

i

i

i Qtotal Qi

i

hp k1 Q12 k2 Q22 ... ki Qi2

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

exchange between a fluid and a rotating axis.

The fundamental variables characterizing the behavior of the machines are

the flow and the energy height. The product of these variables is the

hydraulic power extracted (turbines) or supplied (pumps).

The energy of the flow includes the internal energy, the kinetic energy

and the potential energy. Also, considering the thermodynamic state of the

fluid (pressure, density, temperature), the pressure is introduced as an

additional energy term relating the internal energy and the enthalpy.

There are several fundamental classifications of the machines:

In function of the working principle

In function of the direction of the energy transfer

In function of the energy term modified

In function of the geometric characteristics

In function of other characteristics: fluid, regimen

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

1) Working

principle

Volumetric Turbomachines

machines

of volumes. exchange.

Pulsating flow (as in a Continuous flow.

bicycle pump). Pressure function

Unrestricted of the flow (and

pressure, independent restricted).

of the flow. FLUID

POWER TRANSPORT.

TRANSMISSION.

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

supplying) fluid energy transfer receiving) fluid

power power

Supply energy to the fluid. Extracting energy from the fluid.

Pumps, fans, ventilators, propellers, Hydraulic turbines, wind turbines,

compressors hydraulic and turbo engines

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

Applications

the turbomachines main object is fluid transport.

Application fields of the fluid machines:

Transport: turbo-reactors (compressors, gas turbines), marine propellers

aeronautic propellers, internal combustion engines

Civil engineering: cranes, tunnel boring machines, platforms, caterpillars,

dump trucks

Industry: pumping facilities, industrial ventilation systems

Electricity generation: hydroelectric plants (hydraulic turbines), power

plants (gas turbines, steam turbines), wind farms

Domestic: fans, dryers, appliances (compressors, pumps)

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

eu gz

2

1

m

Q Applying the energy conservation equation to

the rotor:

Q W

d

dt

e d

S

e

vR dS

WM

Assuming there is no heat transfer to the system,

VC the work supplied by the system is:

as a black box 2

m

W W M W P W M p v dS

S

Substituting the energy by its terms and bringing together the pressure energy

of the system at the control surfaces with the energy flows at the inlets and

outlets (assuming steady flow):

p V2 V2 p

S

WM u

2

gz v dS h

2

gz v dS

hu

S

Finally, assuming unidimensional flow, bringing together the enthalpy and

velocity terms (total enthalpy), and disregarding the elevation differences, the

machine power is obtained in function of the total enthalpy variation:

1 2

h0e h0s m

W M m h0 h0 h V

2

Chapter 3 Fluid Transport 29

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

transfer, an expression for the power is obtained in function only of hydraulic

terms (non thermal) as the product of the total pressure increment and the

flow rate:

2

W M Q p0e p0s p0 p V

2

p v2

W M g Q H e H s H

g 2 g

losses at the interior of the machine, the efficiency appears as an additional

parameter.

and its graphical representation is known as characteristic (or

performance) curves of the machine.

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

Relation between the flow rate

and the head (or pressure) (H-Q)

or (P-Q)

Relation between the flow rate

and the power/efficiency (-Q;

W-Q)

nearly constant, independent of

the required pressure (except for

Qth VM n

the losses:

HM f (Q)

between Q and H (one determine

the other). Usually with a negative

slope: the head decreases when

the flow rate increases:

HM f (Q)

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

Flow power

Wd

Flow rate Head

Flow efficiency

BEP (BestEffic.Point)

Hd

Flow NPSHr

Qd

Qd

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

and outlet of the pump define the Energy height (or

Head) given to the fluid: 0

P

2 V22 P

1 V12

HM H2 H1 z2 z1

g 2g g 2g

The energy between points 0 y 3, can be expressed 1 2

as: H3 H0 H3 H2 H2 H1 H1 H0

rearranging: Energy required by the system (SYSTEM

HM

RESISTANCE CURVE): Energy difference

between ends (static value, piezometric

Energy supplied by the HM H3 H0 hp difference) + head losses (Darcy) .

machine (PERFORMANCE z p g f (Q) Defined by the circuit

CURVE). f (Q2 )

const.

Defined by the machine

The system resistance curve goes through the axes origin if there are no difference of

height between the beginning and the end, only head losses (proportional to the flow

squared). If the machine works against an elevation or pressure difference, the resistance

curve is shifted upwards by that static value.

The operating point is the crossing point of the two curves: the machine supplying the

energy demanded by the circuit.

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

The intersection of the two curves defines the operating point: operating

flow rate and head supplied by the pump.

If there is no crossing point, the pump has the wrong dimensions for the

energy requirements of the system. It cant provide the energy demanded by

the desired flow rate.

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

If the flow rate doesnt correspond with the desired one, or if different flow

rates are needed, the system has to be regulated: the resistance curve or the

pump performance curve have to be changed.

impulsion valve, the resistance curve

is modified to change the intersection

point with the performance curve.

The regulation is achieved by a valve in

series with the pump (at the exit of the

pump) causing an increase of the losses

of the circuit. These extra losses are

dissipated in the valve.

In function of the opening of the valve,

the flow rate can change from the

maximum (valve completely open) to zero

(valve completely closed).

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

With liquids in movement, even for isothermal processes without temperature

increment, a local reduction of the pressure due to an increase of the

velocity (Bernoulli), can reach the point of phase change: cavitation.

The cavitation produces vapor bubbles, and when they collapse in a zone of

higher pressure, generates noise, blockage, erosion, etc. It is a phenomenon

that has to be avoided.

It appears in PUMPS AND HYDRAULIC TURBINES (incompressible flow of

water or other liquids), but also in unshrouded machines as marine propellers.

It develops at the suction side of blades (low pressure), tip regions (high local

velocities), high flow rates

2

blades (pump) profiles

Cavitation in

propellers (tip)

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

Vapor pressure

pressure at thermodynamic equilibrium

between the condensed and vaporous phases

of a liquid (or solid) = boiling pressure.

Increases with temperature.

Pv of water:

T (C) 0 20 40 60 80 100

Liquid: Mercury Water Ethanol Benzene Petrol Ammonia

Pv (kPa) 1.610-4 2.34 5.9 10.0 30.4 857.1

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

The analysis of the risk of cavitation in a pump is performed through the

evaluation of the NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head height units), comparing

the NPSHa (available, at the suction side: from the beginning to the pump

inlet) and the NPSHr (required, characteristic of the pump).

The NPSHr is represented as a characteristic curve of the NPSHr f Q2 a bQ2

machine and it should be provided by the manufacturer.

The NPSHa is evaluated at the pump inlet (which is the ABS

2

point more susceptible of cavitation) as the static PB Pv vB

NPSHa

pressure height (absolute) plus the kinetic energy, minus g 2g

the vapor pressure height.

NPSHr curves provided

by the manufacturer

15. Introduction to Fluid Machines

The NO CAVITATION condition is NPSHa NPSHr

The NPSHa can be computed from the suction part of the circuit, applying

the energy equation between A (free surface) and B (pump inlet):

Reformulation of the

ABS

NPSHa in function of the

pA pv

zB z A

hp,suc NPSHr circuit

g g

f Q2 f Q2

margin of NPSHa of a circuit. It is reduced

by the losses and the positive elevation of the

pump.

The energy limit in B is the value of the liquid

vapor pressure at the working temperature.

For water about 25C, pv~3 kPa. Typically

then:

ABS

pA pv 101.3 3 Any pump drawing water from an open tank Patm

10 m

g 9.8 from an elevation greater than 10 m, cavitates.

16. Open channel flow

Open channel flow implicates the movement of a liquid with a free surface

(the flow is not completely enclosed by solid contours).

The most important characteristics of open channel flow are:

The free surface is usually keep at a constant pressure: patm=0.

The free surface can move.

The flow is driven by the fluid weight (gravity).

The cross section can be rectangular, trapezoidal, triangular, circular...

Often, the cross section along the channels and rivers changes in a

complex way.

The precise calculation of the channel flow is usually more complex than the

pipe flow calculation: different and variable sections, inaccurate friction

coefficients, lack of reliable experimental data, etc.

16. Open channel flow

(fast)

(gradual)

Uniform: the fluid velocity doesnt change in direction nor magnitude, and the

liquid surface is parallel to the channel bed (bottom). Occurs only when the

channel section and slope are constant (on a stretch). The depth (which is

constant) is called normal depth yn or y0, and it is the most important design

parameter in channels (stretch C-D).

Non uniform or varied: the surface of the liquid is not parallel to the bottom.

Depending on the change of depth being smooth or abrupt, there are two

possibilities:

Gradual changing flow (stretch A-C)

Fast changing flow (stretch D-E)

16. Open channel flow

Channel flow can also be classified depending on the Froude number, which

expresses the relationship between inertial forces and gravitational forces:

Fr

gy y: depth of the flow

a small surface wave.

Based on the number of Froude, open channel flows can be classified as follows:

Fr < 1: the flow is subcritical. Disturbances can propagate upstream.

Fr = 1. The flow is critical.

Fr > 1. The flow is supercritical. No disturbance can travel upstream; in this case,

the downstream flow conditions can not be seen upstream.

16. Open channel flow

Common sections

of transport

channels.

A A

Hydraulic Radius Rh : Rh Hydraulic depth yh: yh

P bs

Chapter 3 Fluid Transport 43

16. Open channel flow

It is valid the simplified energy equation obtained for the flow in pipes

(without machines in this case):

z y '

z y ' hP velocities in the sections 1

2g

2 2

g 2g 1 1

g and 2, assuming uniform

profiles.

16. Open channel flow

The slopes of the channel floor are usually very low (very small value),

between 1% - 1 or even lower, so that the trajectories of the particles

can be considered parallel (and the depth y of the channel can be measured

vertically).

the flow; this means that pressure variations are essentially due to hydrostatic

effects, thereby:

p'

y ' cnst. yfree_surf

g

With this result, rearranging the above equation:

v12 v2 2

z1 y1 z2 y2 hP

2g 2g

If the slope definitions are used:

z1 z2

S0 tan ; hp S L Assuming flor low x~L.

L

Chapter 3 Fluid Transport 45

16. Open channel flow

Finally:

v12 v2 2

y1 y2 S S 0 L

2g 2g

If there are no head losses, it must be satisfied that S=0 (constant energy

level). If in addition the slope of the channel is small and the stretch studied

is not too long, it can be assumed that z1~z2, which means S0=0 (channel

floor virtually horizontal). In this case:

y1 y2 y cnst. divided between kinetic and

2g 2g 2g potential.

16. Open channel flow

flows with a depth y. The specific energy is defined as:

v2 Q b

2

1 q2 q: flow rate for unit width of the channel.

H y y 2

y

2g 2g y 2g y2 Change of the Cnst. q curves

depth with the

(*)The

specific energy

following considerations are valid

for "Wide and shallow" channels.

Critical depth

1/3

q2

yc

For each value of the specific energy there g

are two states possible:

More depth and less kinetic energy

(subcritical, Fr<1).

Less depth and more kinetic energy

(supercritical, Fr>1).

3

H min yc

2

Chapter 3 Fluid Transport 47

16. Open channel flow

constant and look for the variation of the flow rate Q with depth y.

upstream of the gate and another point

downstream:

Q b

2

H y 2

Q b y 2 g H y Q

2g y

0 yc H Qmax b H g H supercritical, Q increases

y 3 27 until Qmax is reached at Fr=1

(y=2/3 y), and then the

flow becomes subcritical and

v 2 g y y y

If v 0 Fr 2 1 Q decreases.

gy gy y

16. Open channel flow

The equation for a flow without friction cant be applied between a point

upstream and the weird because, near it, the streamlines have a large

curvature, which makes for unrealistic assumptions of uniform flow and

variation hydrostatic pressure.

To calculate the flow over a sharp-crested weir, a discharge coefficient is

needed, which is empirically determined (similar to orifice plates).

16. Open channel flow

Horizontal weir

b

If the velocity upstream is ignored, the discharge

flow rate through the weir can be approximately

determined from the equation for frictionless flow:

H

H 2

v 2 g (H -y ) Qth b 2 g (H -y ) dy 2 g b H 3/2

0 3

2

Q CD 2 g b H 3/2

3

H

CD 0.611 0.075

zw

16. Open channel flow

Triangular weir

flow rate through the weir can be approximately

determined from the equation for frictionless flow:

H

H

v 2 g (H -y ) Qth 2 g (H -y ) 2 y tan dy

0 2

H

8

Qth 2 2 g tan H y y dy 2 g tan H 5/ 2

20 15 2

8

Q CD 2 g tan H 5/ 2

15 2

16. Open channel flow

Hydraulic jump

When the flow is supercritical flow perturbations can not move upstream. If the

downstream conditions cause a supercritical flow to became subcritical, as the

change can not be transmitted upstream (so that there is a process of gradual

change), a transition abruptly occurs, changing the flow directly from

supercritical to subcritical.

This abrupt transition is what is called hydraulic jump, and results in a large

energy dissipation.

16. Open channel flow

momentum and mass to a control volume containing the hydraulic jump,

assuming a constant width b channel:

g y1 g y2 g y1 g y2

Fx y1 b y2 b v1 v1 y1 b v2 v2 y2 b y2 v22 y1 v12

2 2 2 2

Q / b v1 y1 v2 y2

y2 1

y1 2

1 8 Fr12 1

The hydraulic jumps are often used to dissipate the energy downstream weirs

and to prevent erosion of the bottom and sides of the channels.

The head loss through a hydraulic jump can be calculated from the energy

equation:

1 (y2 / y1 ) 1

3

v12 v22

hp y1 y2 h p y1

2g 2g 4 (y2 / y1 )

The above equation shows that y2 must be greater than y1 for a positive

mechanical energy dissipation.

16. Open channel flow

The fully developed flow through a channel with a constant slope, cross section

and depth (yN) is called normal depth flow or uniform flow.

The equation governing this type of flow remains the general energy

equation, in this case with y1=y2 and v1=v2:

v12 v2 2

y1 y2 S S 0 L S S 0 hp S0 L

2g 2g

equal to the change in elevation

of the floor of the channel.

16. Open channel flow

Open channel flows are turbulent in practice. The head loss is written in terms

of a friction factor and the hydraulic radius of the channel:

L v2 (Compare with the expression for the

hp f lineal losses in pipe flow)

4 Rh 2 g

1/ 2

8g

Therefore, the velocity for a normal depth flow is: v (Rh S0 )1/ 2

f

In most open channel flows, the friction factor depends only on the surface

roughness and it is independent of the Reynolds number because this is often

very large. The Chzy equation is usually used:

v C Rh S0

suggested that:

C v Chzy-Manning equation

n n

16. Open channel flow

values depending on the roughness of the channel walls.

Glass or plastic 0.010

Wood or finished cement 0.013

Unfinished cement, brickwork, pipe of concrete or

0.015

cast iron

Pipe of riveted or spiral steel 0.017

Earth channel uniform and smooth 0.022

Corrugated metal, gravelly earth channels and

0.025

clean rivers

Stony and weedy rivers 0.035

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