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CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF

Planning Guide

CDMA/CDMA2000 1X

English
Mar 2002
68P09248A69–A
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Table of Contents

CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide

1 How to Use This Guide
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3

1.2 Quick Guide to Contents of Each Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4

2 Basic CDMA Spectrum Planning
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
2.2 North American and International Frequency Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
2.3 CDMA Channel Spacing - General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
2.3.1 Minimum Spacing Between CDMA Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
2.3.2 Maximum Spacing Between CDMA Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
2.3.3 Multiple Market Spectrum Planning Considerations. . . . . . . . . . 2 - 11
2.3.4 Multiple Carrier Overlay Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 11
2.3.4.1 IS-2000 1X New Carrier Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 14
2.3.4.2 IS-2000 1X Shared Carrier Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 15
2.3.5 Guard Band Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 15
2.3.5.1 AMPS Guard Band Recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 17
2.3.5.2 2nd CDMA Carrier with AMPS Guard Band. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 17
2.3.5.3 Greater Than Two CDMA Carriers with AMPS Guard Band . . . . 2 - 18

2.4 Channel Spacing and Designation - 800 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 19
2.4.1 Segregated Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 20

2.5 Channel Spacing and Designation - 1900 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 23

2.6 Dual-Mode vs. Dual-Band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 25

2.7 Spectrum Clearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 25

2.8 Background Noise Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 26
2.8.1 Suggested Measurement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 27
2.8.1.1 Test System Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 27
2.8.1.2 Test System Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 28
2.8.2 Test Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 29
2.8.3 Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 30

2.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 30

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide i
Table of Contents - continued

3 CDMA Capacity
3.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5

3.2 Reverse Link Pole Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
3.2.1 Data Rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 11
3.2.2 Median Eb/(No+Io) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 12
3.2.3 Voice or Data Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 13
3.2.4 Cell Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 14
3.2.5 Sectorization Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 15
3.2.6 Power Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 17

3.3 Reverse Link Soft Blocking Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 18
3.3.1 Conventional Blocking Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 18
3.3.2 CDMA Soft Blocking Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 18
3.3.2.1 Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 19
3.3.2.2 Theoretical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 19
3.3.2.3 Single Cell Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 22
3.3.2.4 Multiple Cell System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 23

3.4 Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 32
3.4.1 Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 32
3.4.2 Reverse Noise Rise Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 33
3.4.3 Probability Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 35
3.4.4 Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation Examples . . . . . . 3 - 37
3.4.4.1 Example #1: Voice Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 37
3.4.4.2 Example #2: Voice and Data Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 38
3.4.5 Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimates for IS-2000 1X . . . 3 - 41
3.4.5.1 Noise Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 41
3.4.5.2 F-factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 42
3.4.5.3 Average Eb/No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 43
3.4.5.4 Eb/No Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 43
3.4.5.5 Processing Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 44
3.4.5.6 Activity Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 44
3.4.5.7 Traffic Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 45
3.4.5.8 Throughput Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 45
3.4.5.9 IS-2000 1X Reverse Noise Rise Capacity Analysis Results . . . . . 3 - 46

3.5 Forward Link Pole Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 52
3.5.1 Forward Link Load Factor Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 52
3.5.2 Forward Link Pole Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 53

3.6 Forward Link Fractional Power Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 54

ii CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
Table of Contents - continued

3.7 Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 57
3.7.1 Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 58
3.7.2 Forward Noise Rise Capacity Estimation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 59
3.7.3 Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation Examples . . . . . . 3 - 60
3.7.3.1 Example #1: Voice Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 61
3.7.3.2 Example #2: Voice and Data Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 62
3.7.4 Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimates for IS-2000 1X . . 3 - 65
3.7.4.1 Noise Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 65
3.7.4.2 I-factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 66
3.7.4.3 Average Eb/No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 66
3.7.4.4 Eb/No Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 67
3.7.4.5 Processing Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 67
3.7.4.6 Activity Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 68
3.7.4.7 Orthogonality Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 69
3.7.4.8 Traffic Mix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 69
3.7.4.9 Throughput Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 69
3.7.4.10 IS-2000 1X Forward Noise Rise Capacity Analysis Results . . . . . 3 - 70
3.8 Forward vs. Reverse Link Capacity Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 76
3.9 EIA/TIA Specifications and RF Air Interface Limitations. . . . . . . . . . 3 - 80
3.9.1 IS-95 Forward Channel Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 80
3.9.2 IS-95 Reverse Channel Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 81
3.9.3 IS-2000 1X Forward Channel Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 82
3.9.3.1 IS-2000 Forward Channels (Motorola Implementation) . . . . . . . . . 3 - 83
3.9.3.2 IS-2000 Forward Link Radio Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 86
3.9.3.3 IS-2000 Walsh Code Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 88
3.9.4 IS-2000 Reverse Channel Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 91
3.9.4.1 IS-2000 Reverse Channels (Motorola Implementation) . . . . . . . . . 3 - 91
3.9.4.2 IS-2000 Reverse Link Radio Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 92
3.10 Handoffs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 94
3.10.1 Soft Handoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 94
3.10.2 Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 95
3.10.3 Hard Handoffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 95
3.10.3.1 Anchor Handoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 95
3.10.3.2 IS-95 to IS-2000 Hand-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 95
3.10.3.3 IS-2000 to IS-95 Hand-down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 96
3.10.3.4 Packet Data Handoffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 96
3.10.3.5 Inter-Carrier Hand-across . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 96
3.11 Budgetary Estimate of Sites for Capacity (Voice Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 96
3.11.1 Required Parameters for Initial System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 97
3.11.1.1 Busy Hour Call Attempts and Completions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 97
3.11.1.2 Average Holding Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 97
3.11.1.3 Erlangs per Subscriber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 97

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide iii
Table of Contents - continued

3.12 IS-95 and IS-2000 Simulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 102
3.13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 104
4 Link Budgets and Coverage
4.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.2 Radio Frequency Link Budget. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.2.1 Propagation Related Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.2.1.1 Building Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.2.1.2 Vehicle Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.2.1.3 Body Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.2.1.4 Ambient Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.2.1.5 RF Feeder Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.2.1.6 Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 12
4.2.2 CDMA Specific Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 14
4.2.2.1 Interference Noise Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 14
4.2.2.2 Soft Handoff Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 18
4.2.2.3 Eb/No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 19
4.2.3 Product Specific Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 20
4.2.3.1 Product Transmit Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 20
4.2.3.2 Product Receiver Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 24
4.2.4 Reliability (Shadow Fade Margin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 29
4.2.5 Example Reverse (Uplink - Subscriber to Base) Link Budget. . . 4 - 36
4.2.6 RF Link Budget Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 40
4.3 Propagation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 41
4.3.1 Free Space Propagation Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 41
4.3.2 Hata Propagation Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 43
4.3.3 COST-231-Hata Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 44
4.3.4 Additional Propagation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 45
4.4 Forward Link Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 46
4.4.1 BTS Equipment Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 47
4.4.2 CDMA Signal Power Distribution Characteristics and PA Sizing 4 - 51
4.4.3 General Power Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 51
4.4.4 Design Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 53
4.4.4.1 Comparison to Average Rated Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 53
4.4.4.2 Comparison to High Power Alarm Rating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 54
4.4.4.3 Comparison to Walsh Code Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 54
4.4.5 General Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 54
4.4.5.1 Minimum ARP Based on LT-AVG Estimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 55
4.4.5.2 Minimum HPA Based on VST-AVG Estimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 56
4.4.5.3 Exceeding the High Power Alarm Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 56
4.4.5.4 Carrier Load Management Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 57

iv CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
Table of Contents - continued

4.4.6 Power Allocation in Mixed Mode Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 58
4.4.7 Government Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 65

4.5 CDMA Repeaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 65
4.5.1 CDMA Repeater Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 66
4.5.1.1 Coverage Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 66
4.5.1.2 Cascaded Noise Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 69
4.5.1.3 Interference and Capacity Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 73
4.5.1.4 Filtering Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 73
4.5.2 CDMA Repeater Installation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 74
4.5.2.1 Antenna Isolation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 74
4.5.2.2 Repeater Antenna Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 77
4.5.2.3 Repeater Gain Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 78
4.5.3 CDMA Repeater Optimization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 79
4.5.3.1 Timing Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 79
4.5.3.2 Optimization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 81
4.5.4 CDMA Repeater Maintenance Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 81
4.5.4.1 Future Expansion Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 82
4.5.4.2 Environmental Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 83
4.5.4.3 Operations and Maintenance Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 83

4.6 Theoretical vs. Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 83

4.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 85

5 PN Offset Planning and Search Windows
5.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3

5.2 Number of Pilot Offsets per CDMA Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3

5.3 PN Offset Planning - General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.3.1 Consequences and Sources of Offset Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.3.2 PN Offset Planning - Parameters and Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
5.3.3 Converting Between Chips and Time or Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.3.4 Search Windows and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
5.3.5 Search Windows and Scan Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 11

5.4 PN Offset Planning - Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 12
5.4.1 Mitigating Adjacent Offset Interference - General . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 12
5.4.1.1 Adjacent Offset Interference Protection Based on Timing . . . . . . . 5 - 12
5.4.1.2 Adjacent Offset Interference Protection Based on Signal Strength 5 - 14
5.4.2 Protection Against Co-Offset Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 15
5.4.3 Incorrect Identification of an Offset by the Base Station . . . . . . . 5 - 18
5.4.4 PILOT_INC and the Scan Rate of Remaining Set Pilots . . . . . . . 5 - 19
5.4.5 Summary of Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 20

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide v
Table of Contents - continued

5.4.6 Guidelines for Assigning Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 22
5.4.7 Guidelines for Changing PILOT_INC
at Inter-CBSC Boundaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 25

5.5 Reuse Patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 26

5.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 27

6 RF Antenna Systems
6.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3

6.2 CDMA Cell Site Antenna Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
6.2.1 Antenna Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
6.2.2 Antenna Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
6.2.3 Antenna Beamwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
6.2.4 Voltage Standing Wave Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
6.2.5 Return Loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
6.2.6 Power Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
6.2.7 Front to Back Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
6.2.8 Side Lobes & Back Lobes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
6.2.9 Antenna Downtilting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
6.2.10 Antenna Height. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8

6.3 CDMA Antenna Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
6.3.1 Antenna Isolation Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
6.3.1.1 CDMA/AMPS Transmit/Receive Antenna Isolation Requirements 6 - 10
6.3.1.2 Measuring Port-to-Port Antenna Isolation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 13
6.3.1.3 Reducing the Required Antenna Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 13
6.3.1.4 Typical Antenna Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 14
6.3.1.5 CDMA Antenna Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 14
6.3.2 Antenna Diversity (Spacial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 15
6.3.2.1 Horizontal Antenna Diversity and Recommended Separation . . . 6 - 16
6.3.2.2 Vertical Antenna Diversity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 16

6.4 CDMA Antenna Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 17
6.4.1 Multiple Frame Antenna Sharing with 800 MHz BTS Products . 6 - 17
6.4.2 Multiple Carrier Cavity Combining
With 1900 MHz BTS Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 20
6.4.2.1 Output Power Without Combining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 20
6.4.2.2 Type of Combining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 20
6.4.2.3 Multiple Carrier Scenarios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 21
6.4.3 Duplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 22
6.4.3.1 Pre-Engineered Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 23
6.4.3.2 Duplexers and Intermodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 23
6.4.3.3 Proper Installation and Maintenance of Duplexed Antennas . . . . 6 - 24

vi CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
Table of Contents - continued

6.5 CDMA Antenna Sharing With Other Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 28
6.5.1 SC9600 BTS/HDII Shared Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 28
6.5.1.1 Common Transmit Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 29
6.5.1.2 Common Receive Antenna(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 32
6.5.2 Duplexed AMPS/CDMA Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 39

6.6 GPS Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 41

6.7 Ancillary Antenna System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 41
6.7.1 Directional Couplers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 41
6.7.2 Surge (Lightning) Protectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 41
6.7.3 Transmission Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 42
6.7.3.1 RF Performance of Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 42
6.7.3.2 Physical Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 42
6.7.3.3 Choice of Transmission Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 43
6.7.4 Transition Feeder Cables (Jumper Cables). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 43

6.8 RF Diagnostic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 44

7 RF Antenna Systems - Advanced Topics
7.1 Dual Polarized Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
7.1.1 Fundamental Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
7.1.1.1 Dual Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
7.1.1.2 Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
7.1.1.3 Diversity Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
7.1.1.4 Cross-Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
7.1.2 Isolation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 11
7.1.3 Performance Impacts - Industry and Motorola Findings . . . . . . . 7 - 12
7.1.4 Antenna Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 14
7.1.4.1 Dual Polarized Antennas versus Singularly Polarized Antennas . . 7 - 14
7.1.4.2 Antenna Selection Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 15
7.1.5 Transmission at 45° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 15
7.1.6 Incorporation of Dual Polarized Antennas into a Link Budget . . 7 - 16
7.1.7 Dual Polarized Antenna Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 17

7.2 In-Building Distributed Antenna Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 18
7.2.1 In-Building System Architecture Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 19
7.2.2 Coaxial Cable System Design Using A Link Budget. . . . . . . . . . 7 - 20
7.2.2.1 Design Procedure Flow Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 20
7.2.2.2 Gathering Building Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 21
7.2.2.3 Determining the Base Station Location. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 23
7.2.2.4 Estimating the Antenna Placement within the Building . . . . . . . . . 7 - 24
7.2.2.5 Selecting the Antenna Type: Omni vs. Directional . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 24
7.2.2.6 Choosing the Base Station Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 25

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide vii
Table of Contents - continued

7.2.2.7 Choosing the Cable Topology: Splitters, Couplers, and Taps . . . . 7 - 25
7.2.2.8 Estimating Cable Lengths from the Base Station to the Antennas 7 - 30
7.2.2.9 Selecting the Coaxial Cable Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 30
7.2.2.10 Link Budgets For In-Building Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 32
7.2.2.11 Evaluating the First Pass and Iterating the Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 38
7.2.3 Active Coaxial Cable System Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 38
7.2.3.1 Downlink Amplifier Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 39
7.2.3.2 Uplink Amplifier Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 40
7.2.3.3 Optimizing Amplifier Placement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 45
7.2.4 Fiber Optics for In-Building Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 47
7.2.4.1 Fiber Optic Distribution System Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 47
7.2.4.2 When To Use Fiber Optics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 47
7.2.4.3 Fiber Optic System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 48
7.2.5 In-Building Antenna Systems Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 49

7.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 50

8 Synchronization of the CDMA System
8.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3

8.2 Base Station Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3

8.3 Synchronization Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
8.3.1 Global Positioning System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
8.3.2 Low Frequency Receiver (LFR). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
8.3.3 High Stability Oscillator (HSO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7

8.4 Synchronization Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7

8.5 Synchronization Source Antenna Planning and Installation . . . . . . . . 8-8
8.5.1 GPS Antenna/Preamplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
8.5.1.1 Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
8.5.1.2 Cabling Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 10
8.5.1.3 Multiple Frame GPS Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 10
8.5.2 Remote GPS Antenna/Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 11
8.5.2.1 RGPS Receiver Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 13
8.5.2.2 Cabling Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 14
8.5.2.3 Multiple Frame RGPS Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 15
8.5.3 LFR Antenna / Preamplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 16
8.5.3.1 Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 17
8.5.3.2 Cabling Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 17

viii CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
Table of Contents - continued

9 Inter-System Interference (ISI)
9.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3

9.2 Cellular/PCS Inter-System Interference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
9.2.1 Intra-Band Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
9.2.1.1 AMPS Cells to CDMA Subscribers ........................ 9-6
9.2.1.2 AMPS Subscribers to CDMA Cells ........................ 9-9
9.2.1.3 CDMA Cells to AMPS Subscribers ........................ 9-9
9.2.1.4 CDMA Subscribers to AMPS Cells ........................ 9-9
9.2.2 Inter-Band Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 10
9.2.2.1 Preventative Measures: BS-to-BS Interference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 13
9.2.2.2 Preventative Measures: Subscriber-to-Subscriber Interference . . . 9 - 27

9.3 PCS and Microwave Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 28
9.3.1 PCS to Microwave Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 28
9.3.1.1 Coordination Distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 29
9.3.1.2 Propagation Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 30
9.3.1.3 Power Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 34
9.3.1.4 Microwave Receiver Interference Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 35
9.3.1.5 PCS to Microwave Interference Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 37
9.3.2 Microwave to PCS Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 38
9.3.2.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 38
9.3.2.2 Calculation of Nominal Noise Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 38
9.3.2.3 Calculation of Effective Interference Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 39
9.3.2.4 Calculation of Effective Noise Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 39
9.3.2.5 Microwave to PCS Interference Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 40

9.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 40

APPENDICES:
I Terms and Acronyms
I.1 Terms and Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-3
II Glossary
II.1 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II - 3
III Watts to dBm Conversion Table
III.1 Watts to dBm Conversion Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III - 3
IV Complementary Error Function Table
IV.1 Complementary Error Function Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV - 3

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide ix
Table of Contents - continued

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x CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
List of Figures
CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide

Figure 1-1: Radio Sub-System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Figure 2-1: 3G Spectrum Allocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Figure 2-2: Minimum Spacing Between 800 MHz CDMA Channels . . . . . . . 2-6
Figure 2-3: Minimum Spacing Between 1900 MHz CDMA Channels . . . . . . 2-6
Figure 2-4: Adjacent Channel Interference Reverse Rise Estimates . . . . . . . . 2-7
Figure 2-5: Total Channel Numbers Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Figure 2-6: Assign Guard Band. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Figure 2-7: Assign 1st and Last CDMA Carries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 10
Figure 2-8: Equally Distribute Remaining CDMA Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 10
Figure 2-9: 1-to-1 Overlay Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 12
Figure 2-10: Non 1-to-1 Overlay Examples (NOT Recommended). . . . . . . . . . 2 - 12
Figure 2-11: Service Acquisition Issues Due To Uneven Carrier Coverage . . . 2 - 13
Figure 2-12: New IS-2000 1X Carrier Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 14
Figure 2-13: Second IS-2000 1X Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 14
Figure 2-14: IS-2000 1X Shared Carrier Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 15
Figure 2-15: Calculation of Spectrum Required for a CDMA Carrier . . . . . . . . 2 - 17
Figure 2-16: Calculation of Minimum Spectrum Required
for Two CDMA Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 17
Figure 2-17: 2nd CDMA Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 18
Figure 2-18: 3rd CDMA Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 18
Figure 2-19: AMPS Frequency Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 20
Figure 2-20: Segregated Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 22
Figure 2-21: Suggested CDMA Noise Floor Measurement System . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 28
Figure 3-1: Impact of Eb/(No+Io) on the Number of Users. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 12
Figure 3-2: Impact of Voice or Data Activity on the Number of Users . . . . . . 3 - 13
Figure 3-3: Impact of Other Cell Interference on the Number of Users . . . . . . 3 - 14
Figure 3-4: Impact of Sectorization Gain on the Number of Users (3 Sector) . 3 - 16
Figure 3-5: Impact of Imperfect Power Control on the Number of Users . . . . 3 - 17
Figure 3-6: Values of the Integral I ( α, δ ) and I ( 2α, δ )
with Various Path Loss Slope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 26
Figure 3-7: Probability of Blocking vs. Erlangs per CDMA Sector with
Various Path Loss Slope Values with Rate Set 1 Vocoder . . . . . . 3 - 28
Figure 3-8: Probability of Blocking vs. Erlangs per CDMA Sector with Various
Power Control Standard Deviations with Rate Set 1 Vocoder. . . . 3 - 29
Figure 3-9: Probability of Blocking vs. Erlangs per CDMA Sector with
Various Path Loss Slope Values with Rate Set 2 Vocoder . . . . . . 3 - 30

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide xi
List of Figures - continued

Figure 3-10: Probability of Blocking vs. Erlangs per CDMA Sector with Various
Power Control Standard Deviations with Rate Set 2 Vocoder . . . . 3 - 31
Figure 3-11: Rise versus Percent of Pole Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 33
Figure 3-12: Standard Normal Distribution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 35
Figure 3-13: Rise and Radius versus Loading Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 36
Figure 3-14: Reverse Link Rise vs. Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 49
Figure 3-15: Reverse Link Rise vs. Erlangs for Different Data Rates . . . . . . . . 3 - 50
Figure 3-16: Reverse Link Total Erlangs & Throughput vs.
Data Activity Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 51
Figure 3-17: Forward Link Rise vs. Throughput. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 73
Figure 3-18: Forward Link Rise vs. Erlangs for Different Data Rates . . . . . . . . 3 - 74
Figure 3-19: Forward Link Total Erlangs & Throughput vs.
Data Activity Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 75
Figure 3-20: Forward and Reverse Link Rise vs.
Throughput - 95% Probability Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 76
Figure 3-21: Forward and Reverse Link Rise vs.
Erlangs for Different Data Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 77
Figure 3-22: Forward and Reverse Link Erlangs & Thruput vs.
Data Activity Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 78
Figure 3-23: Alternate Forward and Reverse Link Erlangs & Thruput vs.
Data Activity Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 79
Figure 3-24: Example of IS-95 Forward CDMA Channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 80
Figure 3-25: Example of IS-95 Reverse CDMA Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 82
Figure 3-26: Example of IS-2000 Forward CDMA Channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 83
Figure 3-27: QPCH to PCH Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 85
Figure 3-28: IS-2000 Walsh Code Tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 89
Figure 3-29: Walsh Code Allocation Tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 90
Figure 3-30: Walsh Code Allocation Tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 90
Figure 3-31: Example of IS-2000 Reverse CDMA Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 91
Figure 3-32: Subscriber Distribution of Chicago Metropolitan Area . . . . . . . . . 3 - 98
Figure 4-1: Percentage of Cells Based on dB Changes to the Link Budget . . . 4-4
Figure 4-2: RF Link Budget Gains & Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Figure 4-3: In-Building Propagation Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Figure 4-4: Preferred FWT Locations Without External Antennas. . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Figure 4-5: Typical Components in the RF Feeder Run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 11
Figure 4-6: Rise (dB) at the cell of interest versus
X (% load) at the cell of interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 18
Figure 4-7: Example of Two Different Receive Path Configurations . . . . . . . 4 - 27
Figure 4-8: Impact of Fade Margin on Reliability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 30
Figure 4-9: Edge Reliability vs. Fade Margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 32
Figure 4-10: Area Reliability vs. Fade Margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 33
Figure 4-11: Area Reliability as a Function of Shadow Fade Margin. . . . . . . . . 4 - 35
Figure 4-12: Edge Reliability as a Function of Shadow Fade Margin . . . . . . . . 4 - 36
Figure 4-13: Impact of dB Trade-off to Number of Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 41

xii CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
List of Figures - continued

Figure 4-14: Typical Repeater Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 66
Figure 4-15: Repeater Range Analysis Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 67
Figure 4-16: Alternate Repeater Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 68
Figure 4-17: Cabled Cascaded Noise Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 69
Figure 4-18: Base Station & Repeater Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 70
Figure 4-19: Repeater Cascaded Noise Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 71
Figure 4-20: Multiple Repeater Cascaded Noise Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 72
Figure 4-21: Alternate Repeater Antenna Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 75
Figure 4-22: Horizontal Separation Using a Barrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 75
Figure 4-23: Micro-wave Linked Repeater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 76
Figure 4-24: Fiber Linked Repeater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 76
Figure 4-25: Potential Range Reduction Due to Repeaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 78
Figure 5-1: PN Offset Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Figure 5-2: Short PN Sequence w/PILOT_INC = 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Figure 5-3: Subscriber Location Relative to Search Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Figure 5-4: Search Windows in Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 10
Figure 5-5: Minimum Distance for Adjacent Offset Interference . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 13
Figure 5-6: Active Window Interference Timing Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 15
Figure 5-7: Neighbor Window Interference Timing Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 16
Figure 5-8: Active and Neighbor Areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 17
Figure 5-9: Phase Measurement Translations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 18
Figure 5-10: Adjacent Sector and Adjacent Site
Offset Assignment Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 22
Figure 5-11: Inter-CBSC PILOT_INC Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 25
Figure 6-1: dBd vs. dBi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Figure 6-2: The Relationship of Antenna Height to Number of Cell Sites. . . . 6-9
Figure 6-3: Antenna Placement - Shared Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 14
Figure 6-4: Antenna Placement - Separate Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 15
Figure 6-5: SC4812T to SC4812T Expansion Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 17
Figure 6-6: SC2450 to SC4812T Expansion Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 18
Figure 6-7: SC2400 ELPA to SC4812T Expansion Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 19
Figure 6-8: SC9600 SIF to SC4812T Expansion Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 19
Figure 6-9: SC9600 SIF & LPA with SC4812T Modem Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 20
Figure 6-10: 2 Carrier Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 21
Figure 6-11: 8 Carrier Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 22
Figure 6-12: Duplexer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 22
Figure 6-13: Two Tone IM Test Set Up (800 MHz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 27
Figure 6-14: SC9600 LPA Used by HDII Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 29
Figure 6-15: HDII LPA Used by SC9600 CDMA Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 30
Figure 6-16: HDII LPA Used by SC9600-D CDMA Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 31
Figure 6-17: SC9600-D CDMA-AMPS Configuration,
Shared Sector HDII Multicoupler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 33
Figure 6-18: SC9600-D CDMA-AMPS Configuration,
Shared Omni HDII Multicoupler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 34

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide xiii
List of Figures - continued

Figure 6-19: SC9600 CDMA-AMPS Configuration,
Shared Sector HDII Multicoupler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 35
Figure 6-20: SC9600 CDMA-AMPS Configuration,
Shared Omni HDII Multicoupler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 35
Figure 6-21: SC2400 CDMA-AMPS Configuration,
Shared Sector HDII Multicoupler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 36
Figure 6-22: SC2400 CDMA-AMPS Configuration,
Shared Omni HDII Multicoupler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 36
Figure 6-23: SC4812T CDMA-AMPS Configuration,
Shared Omni HDII Multicoupler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 37
Figure 6-24: SC4812T CDMA-AMPS Configuration,
Shared Sector HDII Multicoupler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 37
Figure 6-25: CDMA-AMPS Config., Shared SC9600 SIF frame,
AMPS/NAMPS Sector Rx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 38
Figure 6-26: CDMA-AMPS Config., Shared SC9600 SIF Frame,
AMPS/NAMPS Omni Rx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 38
Figure 6-27: CDMA Duplexing Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 39
Figure 7-1: Dual Polarization Antenna Element Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Figure 7-2: Probability Distribution SNR for
M-branch Selection Diversity System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
Figure 7-3: Rayleigh Probability Density Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Figure 7-4: Reception of Highly Correlated Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Figure 7-5: Reception of Uncorrelated Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Figure 7-6: Correlated Signal Diversity Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 10
Figure 7-7: Uncorrelated Signal Diversity Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 10
Figure 7-8: Uncorrelated Signal Diversity Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 11
Figure 7-9: Theoretical Model for Base Station Polarization Diversity . . . . . . 7 - 11
Figure 7-10: Tx, Rx and Diversity Rx Antenna Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 16
Figure 7-11: Coaxial Cable Design Approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 19
Figure 7-12: Fiber Optic Design Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 20
Figure 7-13: Coax Design Flow Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 21
Figure 7-14: "Bow Tie" Antenna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 25
Figure 7-15: Schematic Diagram of a Power Tap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 26
Figure 7-16: Typical Tap Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 27
Figure 7-17: Diagram of a Power Splitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 27
Figure 7-18: Schematic of a Directional Coupler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 28
Figure 7-19: Parallel Power Distribution Using a Power Splitter . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 29
Figure 7-20: Series Power Distribution Using Directional Couplers . . . . . . . . . 7 - 29
Figure 7-21: Radiating Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 31
Figure 7-22: Radiating Cable Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 31
Figure 7-23: Radiating Cable Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 32
Figure 7-24: Link Budget Block Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 33
Figure 7-25: Maximum Coverage Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 34
Figure 7-26: Multiple Floor Coverage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 34

xiv CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
List of Figures - continued

Figure 7-27: Logarithmic Path Loss Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 35
Figure 7-28: Linear Path Loss Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 36
Figure 7-29: Measurement System Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 37
Figure 7-30: Bi-Directional Amplifier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 38
Figure 7-31: Uni-Directional Uplink Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 39
Figure 7-32: Downlink Amplifier Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 40
Figure 7-33: Effect of a 10 dB Noise Figure Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 41
Figure 7-34: Noise Figure of a Lossy Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 41
Figure 7-35: Cascaded System Noise Figure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 42
Figure 7-36: Uplink Amplifier Gain Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 43
Figure 7-37: Noise Summing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 44
Figure 7-38: Amplifier Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 45
Figure 7-39: Amplifier Performance vs. Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 46
Figure 7-40: Fiber Optic Star Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 47
Figure 7-41: Fiber Uplink Noise Summing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 49
Figure 8-1: CDMA Cell site Synchronization Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Figure 8-2: Single and Multi-Frame RF GPS Configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 11
Figure 8-3: Single and Multi-Frame Remote GPS Configurations . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 13
Figure 8-4: BTS to RGPS Cable Connector Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 15
Figure 8-5: Remote GPS Distribution Box Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 16
Figure 9-1: Intra-Band Interference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Figure 9-2: Example of a (1:3) Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
Figure 9-3: AMPS System with a Larger CDMA Site Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
Figure 9-4: Required CDMA Signal Strength vs.
Interfering AMPS Signal Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
Figure 9-5: Inter-Band Interference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 10
Figure 9-6: AMPS/TACS/GSM Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 11
Figure 9-7: DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 12
Figure 9-8: Transmitter Spectral Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 16
Figure 9-9: Interfering Transmit Carrier and Sideband Emission Spectrum. . . 9 - 16
Figure 9-10: Transmitter IM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 19
Figure 9-11: Interfering Transmit Carriers and Intermodulation Spectrum . . . . 9 - 20
Figure 9-12: Receiver IM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 21
Figure 9-13: Victim Receiver Out-of-Band Intermodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 22
Figure 9-14: External IM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 23
Figure 9-15: Victim Receiver Out-of-Band Desensitization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 24
Figure 9-16: The PCS Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 28
Figure 9-17: Example Coordination Distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 30
Figure 9-18: Propagation Curves for High PCS Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 33
Figure 9-19: Propagation Curves for Low PCS Antennas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 33
Figure 9-20: Example Aggregated Service Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 34
Figure 9-21: Example C/I Curves for a 10 MHz Microwave Receiver. . . . . . . . 9 - 35

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide xv
List of Figures - continued

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xvi CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
List of Tables
CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide

Table 1-1: Quick Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Table 2-1: Some Common World-Wide Frequency Bands
for Cellular and PCS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Table 2-2: CDMA Channel Spacing and Designation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 19
Table 2-3: Channel Numbers and Frequencies for Band Class 0
and Spreading Rate 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 19
Table 2-4: CDMA Channel Number to
CDMA Frequency Assignment Correspondence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 20
Table 2-5: 7 Cell (120°), 21 Channel Spacing, "B" Band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 21
Table 2-6: Band Class 1 System Frequency Correspondence . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 23
Table 2-7: CDMA Channel Number to CDMA Frequency Assignment. . . . . 2 - 23
Table 2-8: Channel Numbers and Frequencies for Band Class 1
and Spreading Rate 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 24
Table 2-9: Preferred Set of Frequency Assignments for Band Class 1
and Spreading Rate 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 24
Table 3-1: Samples of Various f Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 14
Table 3-2: Propagation Path Loss in Different Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 24
Table 3-3: Probability Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 36
Table 3-4: Interference Rise Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 41
Table 3-5: F-factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 42
Table 3-6: IS-2000 1X Average Eb/No Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 44
Table 3-7: Traffic Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 45
Table 3-8: Reverse Capacity per Sector
for Various Probabilities of Rise - Pedestrian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 47
Table 3-9: Reverse Capacity per Sector
for Various Probabilities of Rise - Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 48
Table 3-10: Example of Parameter Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 55
Table 3-11: Interference Rise Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 65
Table 3-12: I-factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 66
Table 3-13: IS-2000 1X Average Eb/No Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 68
Table 3-14: Traffic Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 69
Table 3-15: Forward Capacity per Sector
for Various Probabilities of Rise - Pedestrian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 71
Table 3-16: Forward Capacity per Sector
for Various Probabilities of Rise - Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 72
Table 3-17: IS-2000 Forward Link Radio Configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 86
Table 3-18: Forward Link Radio Configuration Support for CBSC Release 16 3 - 87

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide xvii
List of Tables - continued

Table 3-19: Forward Link Channel Element Resource Requirement . . . . . . . . 3 - 88
Table 3-20: IS-2000 Reverse Link Radio Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 93
Table 3-21: Reverse Link Radio Configuration Support for CBSC Release 16 3 - 93
Table 3-22: Reverse Link Channel Element Resource Requirement. . . . . . . . . 3 - 94
Table 3-23: Subscriber Distribution of Chicago Metropolitan Area . . . . . . . . . 3 - 99
Table 3-24: Chicago Metropolitan Area Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 101
Table 4-1: Example Building Penetration Losses (800 & 1900 MHz) . . . . . . 4-7
Table 4-2: Example of Main Transmission Line Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 10
Table 4-3: Processing Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 24
Table 4-4: Receive Path Noise Figures and Gains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 27
Table 4-5: Link Budget Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 28
Table 4-6: Example of an IS-95 CDMA Reverse RF Link Budget . . . . . . . . . 4 - 37
Table 4-7: Example of an IS-2000 1X CDMA RF Link Budget . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 39
Table 4-8: PA Ratings for Some BTS Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 47
Table 4-9: BTS Pilot Power Adjustment Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 49
Table 4-10: Relative Tx & Rx Link Difference Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 79
Table 5-1: Search Window Size vs. Neighbor Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 11
Table 5-2: Distance/Timing Restriction on Adjacent Interference . . . . . . . . . 5 - 13
Table 5-3: Pilot Sequence Offset Index Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 14
Table 5-4: Estimates of Reuse Distance and Cluster Size Based on Timing . . 5 - 16
Table 5-5: Calculation of Reuse Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 18
Table 5-6: Summary of PN Offset Planning Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 20
Table 5-7: Offset Groupings for PILOT_INC = 2 (also 4, 6, 8, and 12) . . . . . 5 - 23
Table 5-8: Offset Groupings for PILOT_INC = 3 (also 6 and 12). . . . . . . . . . 5 - 23
Table 5-9: Reuse Pattern Coordinates, i & j, and Cluster Size, N, and D/R . . 5 - 26
Table 6-1: CDMA Carrier Frequency Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Table 6-2: PCS Carrier Frequency Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Table 6-3: Degradation to Sensitivity Based on Noise Level Below kTBF . . 6 - 11
Table 6-4: Antenna Isolation Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 13
Table 6-5: Duplexer Frequency Response Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 23
Table 6-6: Minimum IM Orders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 24
Table 6-7: Possible Duplexed Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 39
Table 6-8: Transmission Line Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 43
Table 6-9: Transition Cable Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 44
Table 7-1: Motorola Data Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 14
Table 7-2: Building Topology Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 23
Table 7-3: Estimated Coverage Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 24
Table 7-4: Typical Values for Power Splitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 28
Table 7-5: Path Loss Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 35
Table 7-6: Average Floor Loss Attenuation Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 36
Table 8-1: BTS to RGPS Cable Wiring Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 15
Table 9-1: Cellular Spectrum Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 11
Table 9-2: Inter-Band Interference Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 12
Table 9-3: Example IM Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 18

xviii CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
List of Tables - continued

Table 9-4: Partial Example of Base Station Transmitter Specifications . . . . . 9 - 25
Table 9-5: DCS 1800 Base Station Transmitter Specifications (GSM 05.05). 9 - 25
Table 9-6: Partial Example of Base Station Receiver Specifications . . . . . . . 9 - 26
Table 9-7: In-Band GSM Base Station Receiver Blocking
Specifications (GSM 05.05) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 26
Table 9-8: Out-of-Band GSM Base Station Receiver Blocking
Specifications (GSM 05.05) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 26
Table 9-9: Inter-Band Interference Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 - 27
Table III-1: Watts to dBm Conversion Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III - 3
Table IV-1: Complementary Error Function, Q(x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV - 3

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide xix
List of Tables - continued

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xx CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
Foreword

Scope of manual
This manual is intended for use by cellular telephone system
craftspersons in the day-to-day operation of Motorola cellular system
equipment and ancillary devices. It is assumed that the user of this
information has a general understanding of telephony, as used in the
operation of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), and is
familiar with these concepts as they are applied in the cellular
mobile/portable radiotelephone environment. The user, however, is not
expected to have any detailed technical knowledge of the internal
operation of the equipment.
This manual is not intended to replace the system and equipment
training offered by Motorola, although it can be used to supplement or
enhance the knowledge gained through such training.

Text conventions
The following special paragraphs are used in this manual to point out
information that must be read. This information may be set-off from the
surrounding text, but is always preceded by a bold title in capital letters.
The four categories of these special paragraphs are:

NOTE
Presents additional, helpful, non-critical information that
you can use.

IMPORTANT

* Presents information to help you avoid an undesirable
situation or provides additional information to help you
understand a topic or concept.

CAUTION
Presents information to identify a situation in which
equipment damage could occur, thus avoiding damage to
equipment.

WARNING
Presents information to warn you of a potentially
hazardous situation in which there is a possibility of
personal injury.

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide xxi
Foreword – continued

The following typographical conventions are used for the presentation of
software information:
S In text, sans serif BOLDFACE CAPITAL characters (a type style
without angular strokes: i.e., SERIF versus SANS SERIF) are used
to name a command.
S In text, typewriter style characters represent prompts and the
system output as displayed on an operator terminal or printer.
S In command definitions, sans serif boldface characters represent
those parts of the command string that must be entered exactly as
shown and typewriter style characters represent command output
responses as displayed on an operator terminal or printer.
S In the command format of the command definition, typewriter
style characters represent the command parameters.

Changes to manual

Changes that occur after the printing date are incorporated into your
manual by Cellular Manual Revisions (CMRs). The information in this
manual is updated, as required, by a CMR when new options and
procedures become available for general use or when engineering
changes occur. The cover sheet(s) that accompany each CMR should be
retained for future reference. Refer to the Revision History page for a list
of all applicable CMRs contained in this manual.

Receiving updates

Technical Education & Documentation (TED) maintains a customer
database that reflects the type and number of manuals ordered or shipped
since the original delivery of your Motorola equipment. Also identified
in this database is a “key” individual (such as Documentation
Coordinator or Facility Librarian) designated to receive manual updates
from TED as they are released.

To ensure that your facility receives updates to your manuals, it is
important that the information in our database is correct and up-to-date.
Therefore, if you have corrections or wish to make changes to the
information in our database (i.e., to assign a new “key” individual),
please contact Technical Education & Documentation at:

MOTOROLA, INC.
Technical Education & Documentation
1 Nelson C. White Parkway
Mundelein, Illinois 60060
U.S.A.

Phone:
Within U.S.A. and Canada . . . . . 800-872-8225
Outside of U.S.A. and Canada . . +1-847-435–5700
FAX: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +1-847-435–5541

xxii CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
Foreword – continued

Reporting manual errors
In the event that you locate an error or identify a deficiency in your
manual, please take time to write to us at the address above. Be sure to
include your name and address, the complete manual title and part
number (located on the manual spine, cover, or title page), the page
number (found at the bottom of each page) where the error is located,
and any comments you may have regarding what you have found. We
appreciate any comments from the users of our manuals.

24-hour support service
If you have any questions or concerns regarding the operation of your
equipment, please contact the Customer Network Resolution Center for
immediate assistance. The 24 hour telephone numbers are:

Arlington Heights, IL . . . . . . . . . . 800-433-5202
Arlington Heights, International . . +1–847-632-5390
Cork, Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44–1793–565444
Swindon, England . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44–1793–565444

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide xxiii
General Safety

Remember! . . . Safety
depends on you!!

The following general safety precautions must be observed during all
phases of operation, service, and repair of the equipment described in
this manual. Failure to comply with these precautions or with specific
warnings elsewhere in this manual violates safety standards of design,
manufacture, and intended use of the equipment. Motorola, Inc. assumes
no liability for the customer’s failure to comply with these requirements.
The safety precautions listed below represent warnings of certain dangers
of which we are aware. You, as the user of this product, should follow
these warnings and all other safety precautions necessary for the safe
operation of the equipment in your operating environment.

Ground the instrument

To minimize shock hazard, the equipment chassis and enclosure must be
connected to an electrical ground. If the equipment is supplied with a
three-conductor ac power cable, the power cable must be either plugged
into an approved three-contact electrical outlet or used with a
three-contact to two-contact adapter. The three-contact to two-contact
adapter must have the grounding wire (green) firmly connected to an
electrical ground (safety ground) at the power outlet. The power jack and
mating plug of the power cable must meet International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) safety standards.

Do not operate in an explosive
atmosphere

Do not operate the equipment in the presence of flammable gases or
fumes. Operation of any electrical equipment in such an environment
constitutes a definite safety hazard.

Keep away from live circuits

Operating personnel must:
S not remove equipment covers. Only Factory Authorized Service
Personnel or other qualified maintenance personnel may remove
equipment covers for internal subassembly, or component
replacement, or any internal adjustment.
S not replace components with power cable connected. Under certain
conditions, dangerous voltages may exist even with the power cable
removed.
S always disconnect power and discharge circuits before touching them.

Do not service or adjust alone

Do not attempt internal service or adjustment, unless another person,
capable of rendering first aid and resuscitation, is present.

xxiv CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
General Safety – continued

Use caution when exposing or
handling the CRT
Breakage of the Cathode–Ray Tube (CRT) causes a high-velocity
scattering of glass fragments (implosion). To prevent CRT implosion,
avoid rough handling or jarring of the equipment. The CRT should be
handled only by qualified maintenance personnel, using approved safety
mask and gloves.

Do not substitute parts or
modify equipment
Because of the danger of introducing additional hazards, do not install
substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modification of equipment.
Contact Motorola Warranty and Repair for service and repair to ensure
that safety features are maintained.

Dangerous procedure
warnings
Warnings, such as the example below, precede potentially dangerous
procedures throughout this manual. Instructions contained in the
warnings must be followed. You should also employ all other safety
precautions that you deem necessary for the operation of the equipment
in your operating environment.

WARNING
Dangerous voltages, capable of causing death, are present in this
equipment. Use extreme caution when handling, testing, and
adjusting .

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide xxv
Revision History

Manual Number
68P09248A69–A

Manual Title
CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide

Version Information
The following table lists the manual version, date of version, and
remarks on the version.

Version Date of Issue Remarks
Level
O December 1998 CDMA RF Planning Guide GA Release
A March 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide

Cellular Manual Revision
Information
The following table lists Cellular Manual Revision (CMR) number, date
of CMR, and remarks on the CMR.

Revision Date of Issue Remarks
Level
CMR No. NOV 2000

xxvi CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
Patent Notification

Patent numbers

This product is manufactured and/or operated under one or more of the
following patents and other patents pending:

4128740 4661790 4860281 5036515 5119508 5204876 5247544 5301353
4193036 4667172 4866710 5036531 5121414 5204977 5251233 5301365
4237534 4672657 4870686 5038399 5123014 5207491 5255292 5303240
4268722 4694484 4872204 5040127 5127040 5210771 5257398 5303289
4282493 4696027 4873683 5041699 5127100 5212815 5259021 5303407
4301531 4704734 4876740 5047762 5128959 5212826 5261119 5305468
4302845 4709344 4881082 5048116 5130663 5214675 5263047 5307022
4312074 4710724 4885553 5055800 5133010 5214774 5263052 5307512
4350958 4726050 4887050 5055802 5140286 5216692 5263055 5309443
4354248 4729531 4887265 5058136 5142551 5218630 5265122 5309503
4367443 4737978 4893327 5060227 5142696 5220936 5268933 5311143
4369516 4742514 4896361 5060265 5144644 5222078 5271042 5311176
4369520 4751725 4910470 5065408 5146609 5222123 5274844 5311571
4369522 4754450 4914696 5067139 5146610 5222141 5274845 5313489
4375622 4764737 4918732 5068625 5152007 5222251 5276685 5319712
4485486 4764849 4941203 5070310 5155448 5224121 5276707 5321705
4491972 4775998 4945570 5073909 5157693 5224122 5276906 5321737
4517561 4775999 4956854 5073971 5159283 5226058 5276907 5323391
4519096 4797947 4970475 5075651 5159593 5228029 5276911 5325394
4549311 4799253 4972355 5077532 5159608 5230007 5276913 5327575
4550426 4802236 4972432 5077741 5170392 5233633 5276915 5329547
4564821 4803726 4979207 5077757 5170485 5235612 5278871 5329635
4573017 4811377 4984219 5081641 5170492 5235614 5280630 5339337
4581602 4811380 4984290 5083304 5182749 5239294 5285447 D337328
4590473 4811404 4992753 5090051 5184349 5239675 5287544 D342249
4591851 4817157 4998289 5093632 5185739 5241545 5287556 D342250
4616314 4827507 5020076 5095500 5187809 5241548 5289505 D347004
4636791 4829543 5021801 5105435 5187811 5241650 5291475 D349689
4644351 4833701 5022054 5111454 5193102 5241688 5295136 RE31814
4646038 4837800 5023900 5111478 5195108 5243653 5297161
4649543 4843633 5028885 5113400 5200655 5245611 5299228
4654655 4847869 5030793 5117441 5203010 5245629 5301056
4654867 4852090 5031193 5119040 5204874 5245634 5301188

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide xxvii
Patent Notification – continued

Notes

xxviii CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
Chapter CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide

1 How to Use This Guide
Table of Contents

1.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3

1.2 Quick Guide to Contents of Each Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide 1-1
CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide
Chapter 1: How to Use This Guide
1
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1-2 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide
Chapter 1: How to Use This Guide
1
1.1 Introduction

The purpose of this document is to provide systems engineers/planners with a basic set of
guidelines required to properly design a high quality Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) RF
System. The demarcation point for this guide is primarily at the antenna connectors of the Base
Transceiver Station (BTS) equipment. The CDMA RF Planning Guide (RFPG) commences at
these antenna connectors and incorporates the RF antenna system as well as the RF link. In general,
most of the content provided in this planning guide can be applied to any CDMA system design.
In some instances, specific RF planning information unique to Motorola’s CDMA BTS product is
also provided. The following figure pictorially represents the area within a wireless network that
this document is focused.

Figure 1-1: Radio Sub-System

Core Network

Radio Sub-System

BTS
CDMA Air
Interface

Mobile

Portable Fixed

Most of the information in this planning guide can be applied to both the IS-95 and IS-2000 CDMA
air interface specifications. Where it is appropriate, IS-95 specific and/or IS-2000 specific
information will be provided.

General RF considerations for CDMA system designs are addressed as well as 800 MHz and 1900
MHz specific considerations. Some basic spectrum planning guidelines including channel
assignments and designations for both 800 MHz and 1900 MHz are located in Chapter 2. Chapter
6 addresses some RF antenna system issues that differ between 800 MHz and 1900 MHz.
Throughout this document the terms 800 MHz and cellular may be used interchangeably, as well
as 1900 MHz and PCS may also be used interchangeably.

Terms and acronyms are located in Appendix I. Appendix II is a glossary of terms which are
referred to in Chapter 5. An understanding of these terms and acronyms is recommended prior to
reading this document.

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide 1-3
CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide
Chapter 1: How to Use This Guide
1
1.2 Quick Guide to Contents of Each Section

The CDMA RF Planning Guide is a collection of fairly independent chapters covering various
aspects of CDMA system RF design and implementation.

The table below outlines the key features of each Chapter.

Table 1-1: Quick Guide
Chapter
Chapter title Use it to
Number
1 How to Use this Guide Understand the contents of this document.
2 Basic CDMA Spectrum Learn how to allocate spectrum for multiple CDMA carriers
Planning including channel spacing and guard band considerations,
which bands are used for different technologies (world-wide),
and the importance of performing background noise
measurements, spectrum clearing, and following Federal
Rules and Regulations.
3 CDMA Capacity Learn several different approaches on how to estimate the
maximum capacity of a CDMA carrier for the forward or
reverse link as a function of system parameters. Understand
the importance of performing system simulations. Identify
some of the limitations of the air interface. Determine an
estimate of the number of CDMA cells required to support a
given traffic load.
4 Link Budgets and Understand the parameters that comprise the CDMA RF Link
Coverage Budget. Learn about some of the basic propagation models.
Understand some of the power amplifier considerations as
they pertain to forward link coverage. Learn some of the
issues and considerations of CDMA repeater usage.
5 PN Offset Planning and Understand how to perform PN offset planning and how to
Search Windows properly set the search window parameters.
6 RF Antenna Systems Learn some of the basic antenna parameters. Discuss some of
the issues involved with antenna placement. Understand how
to share antennas with other CDMA equipment as well as
with AMPS equipment. Establish guidelines for the
installation of CDMA systems antennas.
7 RF Antenna Systems - Discuss some of the issues surrounding the usage of dual
Advanced Topics polarized antennas. Learn some useful information in the area
of in-building antenna system design.
8 Synchronization of the Learn about the strength and weakness of various
CDMA System synchronization strategies. Determine the requirements to
provide adequate signals to synchronize the CDMA system.
9 Inter-System Study interference issues with co-location of CDMA with
Interference other technologies.

1-4 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide
Chapter 1: How to Use This Guide
1
Table 1-1: Quick Guide
Chapter
Chapter title Use it to
Number
I Terms and Acronyms Learn some of the various terms and acronyms.
II Glossary Understand some of the various terms used.
III Watts to dBm Convert from watts to dBm and from dBm to watts.
Conversion Table
IV Complimentary Error Determine the complimentary error function.
Function Table

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide 1-5
CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide
Chapter 1: How to Use This Guide
1
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1-6 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
Chapter CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide

2 Basic CDMA Spectrum
Planning
Table of Contents

2.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
2.2 North American and International Frequency Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
2.3 CDMA Channel Spacing - General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
2.3.1 Minimum Spacing Between CDMA Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
2.3.2 Maximum Spacing Between CDMA Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
2.3.3 Multiple Market Spectrum Planning Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 11
2.3.4 Multiple Carrier Overlay Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 11
2.3.4.1 IS-2000 1X New Carrier Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 14
2.3.4.2 IS-2000 1X Shared Carrier Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 15
2.3.5 Guard Band Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 15
2.3.5.1 AMPS Guard Band Recommendation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 17
2.3.5.2 2nd CDMA Carrier with AMPS Guard Band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 17
2.3.5.3 Greater Than Two CDMA Carriers with AMPS Guard Band . . . . 2 - 18

2.4 Channel Spacing and Designation - 800 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 19
2.4.1 Segregated Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 20

2.5 Channel Spacing and Designation - 1900 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 23

2.6 Dual-Mode vs. Dual-Band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 25

2.7 Spectrum Clearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 25

2.8 Background Noise Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 26
2.8.1 Suggested Measurement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 27
2.8.1.1 Test System Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 27
2.8.1.2 Test System Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 28
2.8.2 Test Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 29
2.8.3 Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 30

2.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 30

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2.1 Introduction

This chapter provides a set of general guidelines that can be used to properly allocate spectrum for
1.23 MHz CDMA systems (IS-95A/B and IS-2000 Spreading Rate 1), including issues relating to
the co-location of CDMA and AMPS systems. Spectrum planning information for IS-2000
Spreading Rate 3 and for Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) for Universal
Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) will not be covered in this document. Unless
otherwise noted, all references to IS-2000 in this document will imply a Spreading Rate of 1. The
information is specific to spectrum allocation based on U.S. and International Standards. Issues
regarding technological impacts to capacity will be addressed in Chapter 3. In this chapter,
"channels" refer to frequency allocation and not conversation channels. As a result, a CDMA
channel reference is the same as a CDMA carrier and the two terms can be interchanged for this
chapter.

To design a system adequately, RF system engineers will need to work closely with the customer
and carefully follow government codes. To optimize CDMA, the signal to noise ratio must be
balanced. The goal is to minimize the noise which will maximize the capacity.

Common world-wide frequency bands for cellular, PCS, and 3G are introduced in the chapter
along with a general discussion on CDMA channel spacing, multiple carrier guidelines, and guard
band considerations. Specifics are given on CMDA channel designations (North American) for
800 MHz and how to segregate the spectrum with existing 800 MHz technologies. PCS (North
American) channel designations are listed, followed by a short discussion of dual-mode and dual-
band. The topic of spectrum clearing and background noise measurements appears last; however,
it is perhaps one of the most important and challenging aspects to the CDMA system design
engineer. References include standards and FCC web page locations.

2.2 North American and International Frequency Blocks

The manner in which the frequency spectrum is allocated in some countries imposes some
limitations on where CDMA may be implemented. It is difficult to predict the amount of available
spectrum or the frequency band which international operators might be considering for their
CDMA systems. With this in mind, prior to designing a CDMA system, the CDMA system design
engineer should obtain the frequency spectrum information from the operator and then determine
the appropriate BTS products to use based on the desired application and the operating frequency.
The table below highlights some of the more common frequency bands which are currently being
utilized for cellular, PCS, and other technologies in adjacent spectrum throughout the world.

Table 2-1: Some Common World-Wide Frequency Bands for Cellular and PCS

Transmit Frequency Band (MHz)
Block Designator
Personal Station Base Station

SMR (US) 816-821 861-866
AMPS / EAMPS 824-849 869-894

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Table 2-1: Some Common World-Wide Frequency Bands for Cellular and PCS

Transmit Frequency Band (MHz)
Block Designator
Personal Station Base Station

TACS / ETACS 872-915 917-960
DCS 1800 1710-1785 1805-1880
GSM 890-915 935-960
PCS (Korea) 1750-1780 1840-1870
ARDIS (Pan America) 806-824 851-869
RAM Mobitex 896-901 935-940
(Pan America)
PCS 1850-1910 1930-1990
(U.S. / Pan America)
FPLMTS 1885-2025 2110-2200
FPLMTS (satellite) 1980-2010 2170-2200
PDC 900 940-956 810-826
PDC 1500 1477-1501 1429-1453
(Malaysia / Moscow)
Japan Marinet 887-889 832-834
Japan Analog 898-901, 915-925 843-846, 860-870
DECT (TDD Systems) 1880-1900 1880-1900
PHS (TDD Systems) 1895-1918 1895-1918

The technology evolution of wireless communication systems are migrating from the 1st
generation (1G) voice only services, to the 2nd generation (2 or 2.5G) voice and low to medium
speed data services, and then to the 3rd generation (3G) voice and multimedia, high speed data
services. To accommodate the evolution to 3G, the International Telecommunications Union -
Radio Communication (ITU-R) standardization sector developed specifications for International
Mobile Telecommunications - 2000 (IMT-2000). As an output of the standardization effort, several
countries throughout the world have agreed to allocate new spectrum for 3G deployments. The
chart in Figure 2-1 highlights some of the common world-wide 3G spectrum allocations.

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Figure 2-1: 3G Spectrum Allocations

2.3 CDMA Channel Spacing - General

CDMA (IS-95A/B and IS-2000 Spreading Rate 1) is a broadband technology which utilizes 1.2288
MHz bandwidth per CDMA Channel (this is often rounded off to 1.23 MHz). In order to deploy
an initial CDMA channel, spectrum must be allocated for the CDMA channel and the guard bands
that are required on each side of the channel. In order to deploy a second CDMA channel, the
channel spacing between the CDMA channels must be determined. Prior to deploying the first
CDMA channel, long term spectrum planning should be performed in order to maximize the
capacity of a multiple carrier CDMA block of spectrum. This section provides information on
CDMA channel spacing, multiple carrier guidelines, and guard band considerations.

In this section, "channel" is defined as each 1.2288 MHz carrier and not as a conversation path. For
AMPS, each frequency (carrier) corresponds to one conversation path. Therefore, a channel could
be used to discuss conversational paths or the number of carriers. For CDMA, each carrier can
support many conversation paths and therefore the term "channel" can take on different meanings
based upon the context in which it is used.

2.3.1 Minimum Spacing Between CDMA Carriers

As the number of the CDMA subscribers increases, there may be a need to add additional CDMA
carrier frequencies to the system. If the first and second carrier frequencies are to be adjacent to
one another, then the channel spacing between CDMA carriers (center to center) needs to be
determined. For 800 MHz IS-95A/B and IS-2000 based systems with a 30 kHz channel increment,
the minimum recommended channel spacing separation between CDMA channels is 1.23 MHz
(see Figure 2-2).

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Figure 2-2: Minimum Spacing Between 800 MHz CDMA Channels
1.23 MHz

Guard Band 1st CDMA Channel 2nd CDMA Channel Guard Band
1.23 MHz 1.23 MHz

Note: For the example in Figure 2-2, the second CDMA channel (whether it is ubiquitous or
non-ubiquitous) must be co-located with the first CDMA channel in a 1-to-1 overlay
approach throughout the second CDMA channel deployment area (see Section 2.3.4).

For 1900 MHz IS-95A/B and IS-2000 based systems with a 50 kHz channel increment, the
minimum recommended channel spacing separation between CDMA channels is 1.25 MHz (see
Figure 2-3).

Figure 2-3: Minimum Spacing Between 1900 MHz CDMA Channels
1.25 MHz

Guard Band 1st CDMA Channel 2nd CDMA Channel Guard Band
1.23 MHz 1.23 MHz

Note: For the example in Figure 2-3, the second CDMA channel (whether it is ubiquitous or
non-ubiquitous) must be co-located with the first CDMA channel in a 1-to-1 overlay
approach throughout the second CDMA channel deployment area (see Section 2.3.4).

The minimum channel spacing places the broadband carriers adjacent to one another and allows
the sidebands of each to intrude into the band of the other. The adjacent channel interference for
this minimum channel separation will slightly reduce the capacity of both CDMA carriers. A
CDMA channel with adjacent CDMA channels on both sides will have an even greater reduction
in capacity. If system noise, non-linearities, or other imperfections increase the energy in the skirts
of the carriers, then an increased capacity reduction may be experienced.

A reverse link adjacent channel interference analysis was performed in an attempt to estimate and
compare the capacity impact of a 1.26 MHz and a 1.23 MHz channel spacing. The analysis
estimates the noise rise for a single carrier configuration (i.e. no adjacent carriers), for the center

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carrier of a three carrier configuration with a 1.26 MHz channel separation, and for the center
carrier of a three carrier configuration with a 1.23 MHz channel separation. The results of this
analysis where all of the carriers are loaded equally is shown in Figure 2-4. (Note: The capacity
results shown in Figure 2-4 should not be used to estimate the actual capacity of a CDMA carrier.
They are for comparison purposes only.)

Figure 2-4: Adjacent Channel Interference Reverse Rise Estimates

14

12 0 Adjacent Carriers
2 Adjacent Carriers @ 1.23 MHz
10 2 Adjacent Carriers @ 1.26 MHz

8
Rise -dB

6

4

2

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
# of Users

One method of analyzing the impact is to compare the number of users at a fixed maximum noise
rise level. Choosing 6 dB to be the maximum noise rise level, the following results can be
extrapolated from the chart in Figure 2-4.

• 23.5 Users with 0 Adjacent Carriers
• 22.6 Users with 2 Adjacent Carriers @ 1.26 MHz
• 21.8 Users with 2 Adjacent Carriers @ 1.23 MHz

The capacity loss from 0 Adjacent Carriers to 2 Adjacent Carriers with 1.26 MHz spacing is
approximately 0.9 users. The capacity loss from 2 Adjacent Carriers with 1.26 MHz spacing to 2
Adjacent Carriers with 1.23 MHz spacing is approximately 0.8 users.

Another method of analyzing the impact is to compare the noise rise increase at a fixed maximum
number of users. Choosing 23 users to be the maximum number of users, the following noise rise
results can be extrapolated from the chart in Figure 2-4.

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• 5.7 dB noise rise with 0 Adjacent Carriers
• 6.2 dB noise rise with 2 Adjacent Carriers @ 1.26 MHz
• 6.7 dB noise rise with 2 Adjacent Carriers @ 1.23 MHz

The noise rise increase from 0 Adjacent Carriers to 2 Adjacent Carriers with 1.26 MHz spacing is
approximately 0.5 dB. The noise rise increase from 2 Adjacent Carriers with 1.26 MHz spacing to
2 Adjacent Carriers with 1.23 MHz spacing is approximately 0.5 dB.

The results of this analysis show a minimal impact going from 1.26 to 1.23 MHz channel spacing.
Ultimately, the system operator must decide whether the modest capacity impact of using the
minimum channel spacing is worth the marginal gain in frequency spectrum.

2.3.2 Maximum Spacing Between CDMA Carriers

With the allocations of new spectrum for 3G applications through-out the world, a new opportunity
for deploying CDMA systems has been created. There are many different considerations that may
impact the spectrum planning for a CDMA system (total spectrum available, government rules and
regulations, adjacent spectrum guard band requirements, amount of spectrum that is clear and
available for use, etc.). For certain applications, there may be some capacity benefits in reducing
the adjacent spectrum guard band requirements in order to increase the guard band between the
CDMA carriers. This approach will typically be applied towards the deployment of new spectrum
allocations (i.e. 3G deployments). An appropriate adjacent spectrum guard band analysis must be
performed to justify an adjacent spectrum guard band reduction in order to increase the guard band
between the CDMA carriers.

Since the minimum channel spacing recommendation does have some impact on capacity, the
optimal channel spacing may not always be the minimum channel spacing recommendation stated
in Section 2.3.1. The optimal channel spacing from a CDMA capacity perspective is to maximize
the channel spacing within the total contiguous bandwidth available for the CDMA channels (after
all of the spectrum planning considerations for guard band and other requirements have been taken
into account). For those applications where there is flexibility in performing spectrum planning,
the following spectrum planning example of an entire block of spectrum (including guard band
requirements) can be performed in order to determine the maximum channel spacing which
maximizes capacity. The following multiple carrier, maximum channel spacing example can be
applied from a general perspective towards both IS-95A/B and/or IS-2000 1X carrier systems.

Example Assumptions:
• 5 MHz "D" block of 1900 MHz full duplexed spectrum (5 MHz for Tx, 5 MHz for Rx)
• Channel increment is 50 kHz
• Guard band requirements for each end of the spectrum is 290 kHz per side
(Note: The 290 kHz guard band value was arbitrarily chosen for this example. It does not
represent an actual guard band recommendation. See Section 2.3.5 for more information
regarding a guard band analysis and considerations.)
• Government rules and regulations allow the following spectrum planning assignments

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1. Determine the total number of channel numbers (i.e. 30 kHz channel increments for 800
MHz systems, or 50 kHz channel increments for 1900 MHz systems) that are available
within the allocated bandwidth.

Example: 5 MHz / 0.05 MHz = 100 "D" block channel numbers (see Figure 2-5).

Figure 2-5: Total Channel Numbers Available

300-399

100 Channel Increments x 50 kHz = 5 MHz

2. Allocate and assign the guard band channels to each end of the spectrum. Calculate the
minimum number of channel numbers to satisfy the guard band requirements by
dividing the guard band by the channel increment and rounding up to the nearest integer.

Example: 290 kHz / 50 kHz = 5.8 = 6 channel numbers per side. See Figure 2-6.
6 channels x 50 kHz = 300 kHz per side
300 kHz x 2 = 600 kHz = 0.6 MHz total guard band

Figure 2-6: Assign Guard Band

300-305 306-393 394-399
Guard Guard
Band Band

100 Channel Increments x 50 kHz = 5 MHz

3. Use the following equation to calculate the total number of 1.23 MHz CDMA channels
(Nc) for the allocated bandwidth.

Nc = ( BW – GB ) ⁄ FS [EQ 2-1]

Where:
X represents the integer value of X (or floor value of X)
BW is the total bandwidth allocated for CDMA channels
GB is the total guard band requirements
FS is the minimum frequency spacing (1.23 for 800 MHz, 1.25 for 1900 MHz)

Example: BW = 5 MHz, GB = 0.6 MHz, FS = 1.25 MHz

Nc = ( 5 – 0.6 ) ⁄ 1.25 = 3 CDMA channels

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4. Determine the minimum number of channel numbers to allocate for each CDMA
channel.

• For 30 kHz channel spacing systems (800 MHz systems) use 41 channel numbers
1.23 MHz / 0.03 MHz = 41 channel numbers
• For 50 kHz channel spacing systems (1900 MHz systems) use 25 channel numbers
1.25 MHz / 0.05 MHz = 25 channel numbers
Example: 25 channel numbers for each carrier
5. Assign the minimum number of channels for the 1st and last CDMA carriers next to
each of the adjacent spectrum guard bands.

Example: Assign 25 channel numbers for the F1 and F3 CDMA carriers next to each
adjacent spectrum guard band. See Figure 2-7.

Figure 2-7: Assign 1st and Last CDMA Carries
CDMA Carrier F1 CDMA Carrier F3
Center Freq. Channel = 318 Center Freq. Channel = 381

300-305 306-330 331-368 369-393 394-399
Guard Guard
Band Band

100 Channel Increments x 50 kHz = 5 MHz

6. Equally distribute the remaining CDMA carriers while maximizing the spacing between
each carrier.

Example: Assign 25 channel numbers for the single remaining CDMA carrier (F2) as
close to the center of the remaining spectrum as possible. See Figure 2-8.

Figure 2-8: Equally Distribute Remaining CDMA Carriers
CDMA Carrier F1 CDMA Carrier F2 CDMA Carrier F3
Center Freq. Channel = 318 Center Freq. Channel = 350 Center Freq. Channel = 381

300-305 306-330 331-337 338-362 363-368 369-393 394-399
Guard Excess Excess Guard
Band Band Band Band

100 Channel Increments x 50 kHz = 5 MHz

Note: For the "D" block example shown above, channels 318 and 381 are conditionally valid
channel numbers according to the IS-95/IS-2000 standards (see Table 2-8). As stated
previously, an appropriate guard band analysis must have been performed to justify a
guard band reduction in order to utilize these conditional channel numbers.

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2.3.3 Multiple Market Spectrum Planning Considerations

Prior to finalizing a spectrum planning design for an individual market, there are various inter-system
operation aspects between multiple markets which may need to be considered. Inter-system
references in this section can be applied towards different systems (or markets) under the control of a
single operator (or corporation) or under the control of different operators (or corporations). In either
case, a multiple market spectrum planning perspective may need to be considered. There are two
major categories of inter-system operation services that will be considered; inter-system handoffs and
inter-system automatic roaming.

An inter-system handoff refers to the general provisions by which a call in progress on a traffic
channel under the control of one system may be automatically transferred to another traffic channel
under the control of a different system without interruption to the ongoing communication. Inter-
system handoffs can be inter-vendor (i.e. via IS-41 or GSM MAP) or intra-vendor handoffs. The inter-
system intra-vendor handoffs can take the form of soft or hard handoffs. If adjacent markets will need
to perform inter-system handoffs to each other, the channel numbers selected between the adjacent
markets may need to be coordinated. For example, if inter-system soft handoffs are to be
implemented, then the channel numbers between the inter-system handoff boundaries must be the
same.

Inter-system automatic roaming refers to the general provisions for automatically providing cellular
services to the subscribers which are operating outside their home service area, but within the
aggregate service area of all participating systems. Inter-system roaming can be inter-vendor (i.e. via
IS-41 or GSM MAP) or intra-vendor automatic roaming. If different systems will need to perform
inter-system automatic roaming to each other, the channel numbers selected between the different
systems may need to be coordinated. For example, the channel numbers on a preferred roaming list
must be coordinated to accommodate all of the roaming markets.

As a result, a spectrum planning design for an individual market may need to be considered from a
multiple market spectrum planning perspective depending upon the inter-system services that will be
supported.

2.3.4 Multiple Carrier Overlay Guidelines

As the capacity demand of a system increases, the deployment of additional CDMA carriers will
eventually be necessary. The capacity demand may or may not require a ubiquitous deployment of a
new carrier throughout the underlying carrier region. When a new carrier is deployed (either
ubiquitous or non-ubiquitous), the new carrier should be deployed with a 1-to-1 co-location overlay
with the underlying carriers (refer to Figure 2-9 for overlay examples) and should also be deployed
with the same coverage area as the underlying carrier.

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Figure 2-9: 1-to-1 Overlay Examples
Non-Ubiquitous 1-to-1 Overlay Ubiquitous 1-to-1 Overlay

F1 Only Sites F1 & F2 Sites All Sites have F1 & F2

For the examples in Figure 2-9, an F2 carrier must be co-located with every F1 site within the new
carrier region. It is important to note that F1 micro-cells located in the new carrier region should
also be co-located with F2 micro-cells.

Examples of non 1-to-1 overlays are provided in Figure 2-10. These examples are similar to those
provided in Figure 2-9, but are NOT recommended.

Figure 2-10: Non 1-to-1 Overlay Examples (NOT Recommended)
Non-Ubiquitous Non 1-to-1 Overlay Ubiquitous Non 1-to-1 Overlay

F1 Only Sites F1 & F2 Sites F1 Only Sites F1 & F2 Sites

There are two main reasons for requiring a 1-to-1 co-location overlay of a new carrier with the
same coverage area.

• To overcome adjacent channel interference causing a near/far interference effect
• To overcome a potential service acquisition issue created by uneven coverage between
CDMA carriers

If a 1-to-1 co-location overlay deployment is NOT implemented, a near/far interference effect is
created from the adjacent CDMA carriers. This will create coverage holes near the sites that are
not co-located with the underlying carriers. See Section 2.3.5 for more details regarding the near/
far effect.

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If a 1-to-1 co-location overlay deployment is NOT implemented, a service acquisition issue may
be created by the uneven coverage between the CDMA carriers. A diagram to help explain the
service acquisition issue is shown in Figure 2-11.

Figure 2-11: Service Acquisition Issues Due To Uneven Carrier Coverage

Cell 1 F1
Cell 1 - F1 & F2 Coverage
A
Cell 1
F1&F2 Cell 2 - F2 Coverage
B
Cell 2 Cell 1 - F1 Coverage
F2
F1 is primary carrier

There are two different types of service acquisition issues which can be created as a result of
uneven carrier coverage as shown in Figure 2-11.

• At point A, the primary carrier (F1) of Cell 1 is transmitting the channel list message
containing channel numbers for both F1 and F2. With 2 channels input into the hashing
algorithm, half of the subscribers at point A should hash to F2. Since the coverage of F2
is too weak to acquire service, those same subscribers will fall back to the primary
carrier and attempt to reread the channel list message. These same subscribers will again
try to hash to F2 and again fail to acquire service. This cycle will repeat itself until those
subscribers move to a location where both F1 and F2 coverage from Cell 1 is acceptable.

• At point B, the primary carrier (F1) of Cell 1 is transmitting the channel list message
containing channel numbers for both F1 and F2. With 2 channels input into the hashing
algorithm, half of the subscribers at point B should hash to F2. Since the coverage of F2
is provided by Cell 2 which uses a different PN offset, those subscribers will not be able
to decode the synchronization and paging channels and the service acquisition attempt
will fail. As a result, those same subscribers will fall back to the primary carrier and
attempt to reread the channel list message. These same subscribers will again try to hash
to F2 and again fail to acquire service. This cycle will repeat itself until those
subscribers move to a location where both F1 and F2 coverage is provided by the same
cell.

As a result, a new carrier should always be deployed with a 1-to-1 co-location overlay with the
underlying carriers and should also be deployed with the same coverage area as the underlying
carriers. Also, if a new cell site is deployed into an existing multiple carrier region, then all of the
carriers in this region should be implemented at the new cell site and the coverage area for each
carrier should be made the same.

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2.3.4.1 IS-2000 1X New Carrier Overlay

The multiple carrier overlay guidelines described in Section 2.3.4 apply to both IS-95A/B and IS-
2000 1X CDMA carriers. Figure 2-12 shows an example of a new IS-2000 1X carrier being
deployed in a system with existing IS-95A/B carriers.

Figure 2-12: New IS-2000 1X Carrier Deployment

F1 F2 F3 F4

IS-95A/B IS-2000

A new IS-2000 1X overlay carrier being deployed into an existing IS-95A/B system would have
to be implemented in a 1-to-1 co-location overlay with the underlying IS-95A/B carriers and
should also be deployed with the same coverage area as the underlying IS-95A/B carriers. For
some applications, a new IS-2000 1X carrier may be deployed to support 1X data applications
only. Without the burden of the co-existing voice capacity, an IS-2000 1X data only carrier can
support higher data rates with improved data capacity. From an overall data performance
perspective, a dedicated 1X data only carrier should provide the best data performance results.

With IS-2000 1X, higher data rates can be achieved with smaller radius cell sites. The link budget
improvements from a smaller radius cell site can be applied towards producing higher average data
rates. As a result, one option is to cell split an area (i.e. deploying more cells in the same area) in
order to improve the chances of achieving higher data rates. In a mixed IS-95A/B and IS-2000
system, a new cell site being deployed to improve 1X data performance must also deploy the
existing IS-95A/B carriers at the new cell site.

Another method to improve 1X data performance is to deploy a second IS-2000 1X carrier to an
area that already has 1X deployed (see Figure 2-13).

Figure 2-13: Second IS-2000 1X Carrier

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

IS-95A/B IS-2000

This is an effective approach to alleviate system loading and also increase end user 1X data

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performance. This approach also offers a simple and cost effective solution to improve 1X data
performance, since an additional 1X carrier can be easily implemented by adding extra 1X MCC
and BBX cards to the existing 1X cell sites (assuming the existing 1X cell sites are not populated
to their maximum carrier capacity).

2.3.4.2 IS-2000 1X Shared Carrier Overlay

As an alternate approach to deploying a new CDMA channel frequency, the Walsh code
orthogonality between the IS-95A/B and IS-2000 air interfaces will allow a new IS-2000 1X carrier
to share the carrier frequency with an existing IS-95A/B carrier (see Figure 2-14).

Figure 2-14: IS-2000 1X Shared Carrier Overlay

F1 F2 F3

IS-95A/B IS-2000

For initial 1X deployments with low 1X subscriber penetration rates, this may be a viable option
to choose, but it is not recommended if the existing IS-95A/B carrier capacity is already near its
maximum limit. With the burden of the co-existing IS-95A/B traffic capacity, an IS-2000 1X
carrier will be limited in its data performance. High data rate 1X usage will introduce load that may
result in bursty performance degradation of the underlying IS-95A/B voice. On the other hand, the
IS-95A/B voice users may end up restricting the high data rate 1X users. To protect the IS-95A/B
voice users, it is recommended to limit the high data rate application usage on the 1X carrier for a
shared carrier overlay type of deployment. Since one of the main reasons for deploying a 1X carrier
is to provide high data rate service, limiting the high data rate usage on the 1X carrier may actually
defeat the purpose of deploying the 1X carrier in the first place. As a result, the benefit of using
this type of deployment may be somewhat limited.

2.3.5 Guard Band Considerations

General spectrum planning guidelines require the use of a guard band between adjacent spectrum
being used for different operator systems or for different air interface technologies. The guard band
is required to minimize the intra-band and inter-band interference to and from the adjacent
spectrum. The determination of a proper guard band involves a detailed analysis of the forward and
reverse links for both systems being analyzed. Guard band planning may need to take into account
the adjacent spectrum, which is geographically along the border of the system, as well as that which
is geographically co-located with the system. Cooperation between neighboring system operators
is essential to minimize interference problems. All of the possible interference scenarios from both
systems perspectives must be considered in the analysis. The more common interference scenarios

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between two systems are listed below.

• System A subscriber(s) interfering with System B base station
• System A base station interfering with System B subscriber(s)
• System B subscriber(s) interfering with System A base station
• System B base station interfering with System A subscriber(s)

Depending upon the particular interference scenario, there are four predominant interference
mechanisms that may need to be analyzed.

• Transmitter sideband emissions interfering with the adjacent band receiver
• Transmitter intermodulation (IM) products interfering with the adjacent band receiver
• Receiver desensitization from an interfering transmit carrier
• Receiver intermodulation from two or more interfering transmit carriers

Additional details regarding the above interference scenarios and interference mechanisms are
provided in Chapter 9. A detailed analysis of the guard band requirements may need to take into
account the following factors:

Interference Geometries
• geographic and/or geometric properties of the interference location
• antenna orientation (height, azimuth, downtilt)
• total path loss (propagation loss, antenna discrimination, and obstruction losses)

Interference Characteristics (for desired and interference signals)
• air interface technologies being used
• antenna gain and feeder line losses
• transmit power, duty cycle, and power spectral density
• transmit and receive frequencies being used
• transmit and receive filter characteristics
• receiver noise threshold and other receiver performance characteristics

A potential interference problem, known as the near/far effect, is created by the geometric
relationship between a subscriber and base station. This effect is produced when a subscriber is
located far from its serving base station, but near an interfering base station. Under these
circumstances, the strength of the desired signal is low while the strength of the interfering signal
is high. A guard band analysis may need to take into account any near/far effects that may be
present.

The guard band analysis utilizes all of the relevant parameters from the subscriber/base station
geometries and characteristics to calculate the desired signal strength, receiver noise, and the
received interfering signal strength. The net value should include all of the relevant effects of
transmit powers, transmit power spectral densities, path loss, filtering, duty cycles, and summation
over multiple interferers. Depending upon the air interface technology that is being analyzed, a
degradation metric is selected (i.e. C/I, noise floor rise, receiver sensitivity, Eb/No, BER, FER,
etc.) to determine how these net values will impact the performance of the receiver, and whether

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this impact is acceptable or not. Ultimately, the guard band that is selected should provide an
acceptable performance value from the degradation metric. Interference improvement mechanisms
(i.e. adjustments to base station transmit powers, adding extra filtering, increasing isolation, etc.)
should also be considered in the guard band analysis determination.

2.3.5.1 AMPS Guard Band Recommendation

For an 800 MHz system with a 30 kHz channel spacing, it has been determined through a guard
band analysis that the minimum recommended guard band between a CDMA channel and an
AMPS channel is 0.27 MHz. The initial introduction of CDMA will require a band segment of 1.77
MHz. The band segment consists of the 1.23 MHz required for the CDMA carrier bandwidth plus
0.27 MHz of AMPS guard band on both sides of the CDMA carrier. The minimum frequency
separation required between any CDMA carrier and the nearest AMPS carrier is 900 kHz (center
to center).

The CDMA carrier width (1.23 MHz) is the result of the chip rate chosen for the Pseudorandom
Noise (PN) spreading sequence. The guard band between CDMA and analog systems is defined as
the minimum frequency separation required such that the level of interference caused by one FM
subscriber is less than a predetermined threshold. The threshold is taken to be the thermal noise
level in each receiver.

Figure 2-15: Calculation of Spectrum Required for a CDMA Carrier

CDMA Channel = 1.23 MHz = 1.23MHz / 30kHza = 41 AMPS Channels
CDMA Guard = 0.27 MHz/side = 0.54MHz / 30kHza = 18 AMPS Channels
Totals 1.77 MHz 59 AMPS Channels

a. One AMPS Channel = 30 kHz

2.3.5.2 2nd CDMA Carrier with AMPS Guard Band

The following figure summarizes the additional and total number of AMPS channels removed to
free up spectrum for the second CDMA channel for an 800 MHz system with a 30 kHz channel
spacing.

Figure 2-16: Calculation of Minimum Spectrum Required for Two CDMA Channels

CDMA Spacing= 1.23 MHz = 1.23MHz / 30kHza = 41 AMPS Channels
CDMA Channel = 1.23 MHz = 1.23MHz / 30kHza = 41 AMPS Channels
a
CDMA Guard = 0.27 MHz/side = 0.54MHz / 30kHz = 18 AMPS Channels
Totals 3.00 MHz 101 AMPS Channels

a. One AMPS Channel = 30 kHz

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The difference between the 1st CDMA carrier and the 2nd CDMA carrier is equal to the channel
spacing. Minimal channel spacing is 1.23 MHz (41 AMPS channels). The following figure
represents the frequency requirements for 2nd carrier implementation.

Figure 2-17: 2nd CDMA Carrier
1.23 MHz

AMPS Guard 1st CDMA Channel 2nd CDMA Channel AMPS Guard
0.27 MHz 1.23 MHz 1.23 MHz 0.27 MHz

2.3.5.3 Greater Than Two CDMA Carriers with AMPS Guard Band

Additional carriers can be added as outlined in Section 2.3.4. See Figure 2-18 for a 3-carrier
example for an 800 MHz system with a 30 kHz channel spacing. CDMA carriers must be at least
1.23 MHz apart with guard bands on each end. The governing body controlling the frequency
allocations will dictate the amount of spectrum available for each operator. This spectrum will limit
the number of carriers allowed per block.

Figure 2-18: 3rd CDMA Carrier
1.23 MHz 1.23 MHz

AMPS Guard 1st CDMA Channel 2nd CDMA Channel 3rd CDMA Channel AMPS Guard
0.27 MHz 1.23 MHz 1.23 MHz 1.23 MHz 0.27 MHz

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2.4 Channel Spacing and Designation - 800 MHz

The Primary and Secondary CDMA Channel will be assigned as indicated in Table 2-2. The
information presented in Table 2-3 is taken directly from the IS-95A/B and IS-2000 standards that
outline the channel allocations shared by CDMA and AMPS technologies (Note: information
provided applies only to Spreading Rate 1 for IS-2000).

Table 2-2: CDMA Channel Spacing and Designation

“A” Band “B” Band

Primary 283 384
Secondary 691 777a
a. In the United States due to proximity of 800 MHz Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service,
channel 777 has interference considerations associated with it. Use of this channel should
require determination of sufficient isolation prior to implementation.

Table 2-3: Channel Numbers and Frequencies for Band Class 0 and Spreading Rate 1

CDMA Analog CDMA
System Transmitter Frequency Band (MHz)
Channel Channel Channel
Designator Subscriber Base
Validity Count Number

A" Not Valid 22 991 - 1012 824.040-824.670 869.040-869.670
(1 MHz)
Valid a 11 1013 - 1023 824.700-825.000 869.700-870.000
a
A Valid 311 1 - 311 825.030-834.330 870.030-879.330
(10 MHz)
Not Valid 22 312 - 333 834.360-834.990 879.360-879.990
B Not Valid 22 334 - 355 835.020-835.650 880.020-880.650
(10 MHz)
Valid a 289 356 - 644 835.680-844.320 880.680-889.320
Not Valid 22 645 - 666 844.350-844.980 889.350-889.980
A’ Not Valid 22 667 - 688 845.010-845.640 890.010-890.640
(1.5 MHz)
Valid b 6 689 - 694 845.670-845.820 890.670-890.820
Not Valid 22 695 - 716 845.850-846.480 890.850-891.480
B’ Not Valid 22 717 - 738 846.510-847.140 891.510-892.140
(2.5 MHz)
Valid a 39 739 - 777 847.170-848.310 892.170-893.310
Not Valid 22 778 - 799 848.340-848.970 893.340-893.970

a. The valid channel numbers provided in this table were taken directly from the IS-95 standard.
Before using a valid channel number that is near the band edge, an analysis is required to verify
proper guard band and FCC emission compliance with the adjacent band.
b. The spectrum allocated to the A’ band is not sufficient for a CDMA carrier.

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In Table 2-3, the center frequency (in MHz) corresponding to the channel number is calculated as
shown in Table 2-4, where N represents the channel number.

Table 2-4: CDMA Channel Number to CDMA Frequency Assignment Correspondence

Transmitter CDMA Channel Number Center Frequency (MHz)

Subscriber Station 1 < N < 799 0.030 * N + 825.000

991 < N < 1023 0.030 * (N-1023) + 825.000

Base Station 1 < N < 799 0.030 * N + 870.000

991 < N < 1023 0.030 * (N-1023) + 870.000

A visual depiction of the CDMA frequencies is shown in Figure 2-19.

Figure 2-19: AMPS Frequency Allocation
1023

333
334

666
667

799
991

716
717
1

A” A B A’ B’
EAMPS AMPS AMPS EAMPS EAMPS

1st A Band CDMA 283 2nd ary A Band CDMA 691

1st B Band CDMA 384 2ndary B Band CDMA 777
Non-Wireline
Wireline
1st refers to the primary channel.
2nd ary refers to the secondary channel. Not to be confused with a second carrier.

2.4.1 Segregated Spectrum

When the CDMA carrier is deployed where another technology already exists, the system spectrum
must be split into two frequency bands. One band is for the existing technology and the other band
is for digital frequency bands. This concept is shown in the following “B” band frequency chart
(see Table 2-5). Note that the digital band includes a single primary CDMA carrier.

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Table 2-5: 7 Cell (120°), 21 Channel Spacing, "B" Band
A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2 G2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 F3 G3
334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354
355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375
376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396
397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417
418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438
439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459
460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480
481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501
502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522
523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543
544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564
565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585
586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606
607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627
628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648
649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 - - -
- - - - - 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732
733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753
754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774
775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795
796 797 798 799

cyan CDMA Channel (364 through 404)
yellow CDMA Guard Band (355 through 363 and 405 through 413)

Any advanced technology (NAMPS, TDMA or CDMA) that must co-exist with AMPS/EAMPS
in the available spectrum requires implementation of segregated spectrum. Transition from AMPS
to CDMA consists of effectively replacing AMPS channels with CDMA channels. In such a mixed
system, co-channel interference is minimized by dividing the available cellular spectrum into two
parts as depicted in Figure 2-20. The segregated spectrum approach also requires the system to be
partitioned into three distinct geographic areas. This technique ensures the physical separation
needed to permit reuse of AMPS channels from the CDMA band.

There are two benefits to segregated spectrum planning. First, spectrum division reduces concern
over introducing interference as each CDMA carrier is implemented. Second, it will allow for
independent AMPS and CDMA planning.

The three distinct geographic areas created are identified as follows:

Core Zone - The region in which CDMA carriers are deployed. The core will operate CDMA
channels in the CDMA band and AMPS channels in the AMPS band. The existing AMPS
frequency plan is modified to delete AMPS channels in the CDMA band.

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Perimeter Zone - The outermost area contains those cells that are located at an adequate distance
from the CDMA core such that it is acceptable to assign AMPS channels that are in the CDMA
band. This physical separation serves to maintain acceptable interference levels.

Transition Zone - The transition zone (also known as the guard zone) is located between the core
and the perimeter. AMPS channels in the CDMA band should not be assigned in the transition
zone. This zone should not be confused with the transition cell hand-down capability.

Figure 2-20: Segregated Spectrum
Option # 1 - Uniform Option # 2 - Non-Uniform

Perimeter Zone

CORE
Core Core

Transition
Zone

CORE

Option # 3 - Homogeneous
Requires Isolated system or
adjacent CDMA systems

The grade-of-service (blocking) should be checked for all cells to make sure it is acceptable,
particularly in the transition zone. In the event that the grade of service is unacceptable and all
channels have been assigned, certain design options can be exercised to resolve this problem. The
first option that may be considered is to replace the AMPS channels with CDMA channels. The
cell would then become a core cell. A second option would be to sectorize or cell split the AMPS
cell. A third option would be to reduce the size of the CDMA core to the point that this cell would
then be considered a perimeter zone cell.

Segregated spectrum may be implemented in various configurations: uniform, non-uniform and
homogenous. Uniform deployment consists of a single core area surrounded by a single transition
and perimeter zone. Non-uniform implementation may establish multiple CDMA core and
transition zones. A homogeneous implementation occurs when the entire system consists of
CDMA and there are no transitions or perimeter zones. Homogeneous system composition may be
considered by isolated systems or systems adjacent to another CDMA system operating in the same
frequency spectrum.

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2.5 Channel Spacing and Designation - 1900 MHz

The block designators for the personal and base station frequencies are as specified in Table 2-6.

Table 2-6: Band Class 1 System Frequency Correspondence

Transmit Frequency Band (MHz)
Block Designator
Personal Station Base Station

A 1850-1865 1930-1945
D 1865-1870 1945-1950
B 1870-1885 1950-1965
E 1885-1890 1965-1970
F 1890-1895 1970-1975
C 1895-1910 1975-1990

The channel spacing, CDMA channel designations and transmit center frequencies are specified in
Table 2-7.

Table 2-7: CDMA Channel Number to CDMA Frequency Assignment

Transmitter CDMA Channel Number Center Frequency (MHz)
Personal Station 0 < N < 1199 1850.000 + 0.050 * N
Base Station 0 < N < 1199 1930.000 + 0.050 * N

Transmission on conditionally valid channels is permissible if the adjacent block is allocated to the
licensee or if other valid authorization has been obtained. Valid CDMA Channels Numbers are
identified in Table 2-8.

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Table 2-8: Channel Numbers and Frequencies for Band Class 1 and Spreading Rate 1

Valid CDMA CDMA Transmit Frequency Band (MHz)
Block
Frequency Channel
Designator
Assignments Number Personal Station Base Station

A Not Valid 0 - 24 1850.000 - 1851.200 1930.000 - 1931.200
(15 MHz) Valid 25 - 275 1851.250 - 1863.750 1931.250 - 1943.750
Cond. Valid 276 - 299 1863.800 - 1864.950 1943.800 - 1944.950
D Cond. Valid 300 - 324 1865.000 - 1866.200 1945.000 - 1946.200
(5 MHz) Valid 325 - 375 1866.250 - 1868.750 1946.250 - 1948.750
Cond. Valid 376 - 399 1868.800 - 1869.950 1948.800 - 1949.950
B Cond. Valid 400 - 424 1870.000 - 1871.200 1950.000 - 1951.200
(15 MHz) Valid 425 - 675 1871.250 - 1883.750 1951.250 - 1963.750
Cond. Valid 676 - 699 1883.800 - 1884.950 1963.800 - 1964.950
E Cond. Valid 700 - 724 1885.000 - 1886.200 1965.000 - 1966.200
(5 MHz) Valid 725 - 775 1886.250 - 1888.750 1966.250 - 1968.750
Cond. Valid 776 - 799 1888.800 - 1889.950 1968.800 - 1969.950
F Cond. Valid 800 - 824 1890.000 - 1891.200 1970.000 - 1971.200
(5 MHz) Valid 825 - 875 1891.250 - 1893.750 1971.250 - 1973.750
Cond. Valid 876 - 899 1893.800 - 1894.950 1973.800 - 1974.950
C Cond. Valid 900 - 924 1895.000 - 1896.200 1975.000 - 1976.200
(15 MHz) Valid 925 - 1175 1896.250 - 1908.750 1976.250 - 1988.750
Not Valid 1176 - 1199 1908.800 - 1909.950 1988.800 - 1989.950

Table 2-9: Preferred Set of Frequency Assignments for Band Class 1 and Spreading Rate 1

Block
Preferred Set Channel Numbers
Designator

A 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275
D 325, 350, 375
B 425, 450, 475, 500, 525, 550, 575, 600, 625, 650, 675
E 725, 750, 775
F 825, 850, 875
C 925, 950, 975, 1000, 1025, 1050, 1075, 1100, 1125, 1150, 1175

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2.6 Dual-Mode vs. Dual-Band

Dual-mode subscriber units can support two air-interfaces using a common frequency band (i.e.
CDMA and analog at 800 MHz). In a mixed digital and analog system, normally the registration
request will be attempted first to the digital service then to the analog service. Dual-mode allows
the digital service provider the option to redirect traffic to a different air-interface where resources
are available, for capacity control or emergency hand down. Dual-mode phones also allow the
subscriber unit to roam outside of its home network (assuming service is provided).

Dual-band subscriber units are designed to allow a subscriber to utilize two frequency spectrums,
such as PCS frequency spectrum and the cellular bands. Handoffs are supported between CDMA
providers of different bands (much like dual-mode) and also supported between CDMA, NAMPS
and AMPS. With dual-mode phones, the service provider has the option to redirect the subscriber
unit to a different air interface; however, dual-band providers redirect the subscriber unit to a
different part of the frequency spectrum. An example for dual-mode would be a subscriber unit that
is capable of operating on a CDMA 800 MHz system or could be redirected to an AMPS 800 MHz
system, assuming resources are available. An example for dual-band operation would be a
subscriber unit that is capable of operating on a CDMA PCS (1900 MHz) system and also being
able to operate on an AMPS 800 MHz system.

The goal in developing dual-mode and dual-band subscriber units is to ease transition from one
technology to a second (such as 800 MHz AMPS to 800 MHz CDMA), allow a single subscriber
unit to roam outside of the provider’s service area, and eventually to have a subscriber unit which
will work everywhere (domestic and international) thus providing "seamless" coverage.
"Seamless" coverage does not necessarily imply a single service provider.

2.7 Spectrum Clearing

Spectrum clearing is a topic which is especially important to CDMA systems. The CDMA
technology bases its capacity on a signal to noise balance (uplink and downlink). Adequate
spectrum must be cleared to optimize a system to its greatest capacity. Although there are many
approaches to testing the airways for clearance, it is advised that drive tests are performed (i.e. with
a spectrum analyzer) to verify that the spectrum is clear, and/or locate possible spectrum violators.

For new spectrum allocations or for spectrum that is being reallocated for telecommunication
systems (i.e. 3G spectrum allocations), spectrum measurements may be necessary to verify that the
spectrum is clear of any previous users of the spectrum (see Section 2.8 for more information).

In the cellular bands, CDMA bandwidth is created by removing the appropriate number of AMPS
channels. This should be done in cells within the core and transition zones. For the 1st CDMA
carrier, 59 AMPS (30 kHz) channels would need to be cleared.

Cells for the transition (or guard) zone can be identified either by predictive RF propagation or
actual noise floor measurements. The coverage area needing spectrum clearing will vary
depending upon transmission signal strength, base station height, terrain variation, foliage, and
reflection from buildings, hills or the atmosphere. The zone or area of cells to be cleared is related

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to the reuse distance needed to achieve acceptable C/I levels. The area needing clearing for CDMA
may be reduced by controlling interference. Examples of how to control interference include:
utilizing directional antennas, increasing or decreasing antenna heights and downtilts, careful
adjustment of power applied to pilot and voice channels, or by using geographic elements for
isolation.

Because all transmission equipment has the capacity to block or disrupt signalling, each country
has laws governing transmission of signals. Many countries have adopted the United States Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) standards. However, do NOT assume these standards are
international. In the United States, Codes of Federal Regulations must be strictly adhered to. The
U.S. government divides these codes into what are called "Titles". Each Title covers a specific
topic. For instance, Title 7 covers Agriculture codes, Title 15 covers Commerce and Foreign Trade.
The Telecommunication Code of Federal Regulations is listed in Title 47. Title 47 is subdivided
into "Volumes" which contain "Parts" or chapters explicitly defining each code. The FCC World-
Wide Web Page contains a search engine which can locate specific regulations. For example,
regulations governing licensing and use of frequencies in the 806-824, 851-869, 896-901, and 935-
940 MHz bands are located under CFR 47, Part 90.

Specific codes for PCS exist under CFR 47, Part 24. Great detail is given to rules and restrictions
within CFR 47, Part 24. One rule for example, under paragraph 24.236 gives the field strength
limits: "The predicted or measured median field strength at any location on the border of the PCS
service area shall not exceed 47 dBuV/m unless the parties agree to a higher field strength."

Rules can be very specific. For instance, regulations are given for items such as antenna mast
heights, antenna location, what maximum radiated power is allowed at each frequency, how to
divide spectrum, who is responsible for clearing spectrum and what is the allotted time frame. It is
important to clearly understand the regulations of the government for which the system will be
deployed. Large fines can be assessed to the customer and/or Motorola.

Although Federal Regulations take priority, each state and town/city may have additional codes or
zoning regulations.

For non-U.S. regulations, please contact the governing agency of that country.

2.8 Background Noise Measurements

Capacity and coverage in CDMA systems (IS-95 & IS-2000) are, in part, a function of the
background thermal and man-made interference noise levels. For the 1.23 MHz CDMA channel,
the background thermal noise is approximately -113 dBm. Man-made interference includes
automobile ignition noise and spurious emissions from radio and other electronic equipment.

The background man-made noise will vary from site to site depending on the number of
interference sources and their proximity to the cell. In order to insure the optimal operation of each
of the CDMA cell sites, Motorola recommends that noise floor measurements are considered as a
part of the site selection process for CDMA systems. These noise floor measurements can also be
used to make adjustments to the noise margin parameter for a particular link budget analysis (see
section 4.2.1.4).

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It is anticipated that CDMA systems may be deployed in the same geographical areas where
another technology once occupied the current CDMA system’s spectrum. It is also possible for
adjacent band signals from other systems that are in the same geographical areas with the CDMA
system to cause interference with the CDMA system. As a result, noise floor measurements are
also recommended to be used to identify any in-band or out-of-band interference sources. Once an
interference source has been identified, an evaluation of the interference source can be performed
to determine the impact to the CDMA system. If the impact is determined to be significant, then
proper actions can be taken to reduce the source of interference to an appropriate level.

2.8.1 Suggested Measurement Method

Interference is random in nature, with amplitude and frequency varying over time. Some of the
interference sources are thermal noise, environmental noise, and noise from other systems (i.e.
AMPS/EAMPS, CDMA, GSM, iDEN, ANSI-136, point-to-point microwave, public safety, land
mobile, private mobile, air-to-ground airphone service, etc.). Out of band sources can create
interference through intermodulation (IM).

Due to the random nature of the background noise, Motorola suggests that a data logging system
be employed to measure the noise floor over some period of time. Statistical analysis of the
collected data can then be performed to determine an average and cumulative distribution function
of the noise floor rise. The cumulative distribution function indicates the amount of time the
background noise rise exceeds some specified limit.

2.8.1.1 Test System Functional Description

A possible configuration of a noise floor test system is shown in Figure 9-1. The test measurement
calibration point (cal point) is at the feedline entrance of a separate antenna or an unused port of
the receiver multicoupler. The band-pass filter is used to attenuate out-of-band signals, which
otherwise could create in-band intermodulation products. The low noise amplifiers are used to
improve the system noise figure and provide enough gain to allow for the measurement of very low
level signals. The step attenuator between the amplifiers is used to limit the system gain, again, to
reduce the level of possible intermodulation products. The output of the final amplifier is then split
using a two-way splitter. The two equal outputs of the splitter are used as inputs to two spectrum
analyzers. Spectrum analyzer 1 operates in the manual mode. This spectrum analyzer is equipped
with a tracking generator which is used for the system gain calibration. This spectrum analyzer is
also used to make noise floor plots and to investigate the nature of interference as it appears on the
screen. Spectrum analyzer 2 is under computer control. Measurement traces are collected with this
spectrum analyzer and are stored to disk for later processing. Up to two spectrum analyzer traces
per second can be recorded for the described system. The noise source is used to measure the
system noise figure. The measured system noise figure is used when processing the collected data
into the desired cumulative distribution plots.

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Figure 2-21: Suggested CDMA Noise Floor Measurement System

+28 vdc
50 ohm
termination
Noise
Source
ENR = 15 dB
Cal x
Point
Plotter

Bandpass +28 vdc +28 vdc Spectrum
Filter Analyzer 1
Step w/tracker
Atten.
NF = 26 dB
IP=16 dBm

Amplifier Amplifier

NF = 1 dB NF = 2 dB
G = 15 dB G = 25 dB
IPi = 4 dBm IPi = 0 dBm
IEEE
Spectrum 488
Analyzer 2 PC
NF = 26 dB
IP = 21 dBm

2.8.1.2 Test System Calibration

The test system gain and noise figure must be measured before data collection begins. The
measured gain and noise figure are used to make adjustments to the collected data during the data
analysis operation. The system gain is measured using the tracking generator provided in spectrum
analyzer 1. The system noise figure is determined by first measuring the noise floor with the system
Calibration Point (input) terminated in 50 ohms and then measuring the noise floor with the system
Calibration Point connected to the calibrated noise source. The noise figure is then calculated as
follows:

 
 ENR 
NF = 10 log  ------------------------- [EQ 2-2]
  -------------------
Pon  
  Poff – 1- 

Where:
ENR Equivalent noise ratio of the calibrated noise source (linear ratio)

Pon Noise floor measurement with the noise source connected to the system input
(Watts)

2 - 28 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide
Chapter 2: Basic CDMA Spectrum Planning
2
Poff Noise floor measurement with the system input terminated in 50 ohms (Watts)

NF System noise figure (dB)

2.8.2 Test Procedures

If the CDMA system is deployed in an area where another technology currently exists, there are
two proposed methods of co-existence. One method is to clear all co-channels from the other
system within the CDMA band on a system wide basis. Another possibility is to only clear the co-
channels from cells which are near the CDMA cells. Co-channels to the CDMA band are then
reused at distant cells. Before noise floor testing can begin, co-channel clearing, per the chosen
implementation plan, must be completed. This is necessary because co-channels within the CDMA
band will appear as interference in the collected data.

After clearing the spectrum, preliminary tests should be run without band select filtering to identify
uncleared channels, out of band large signals, and spurious emissions, and to measure any co-
located technology antenna isolation. It is best to perform these tests during the busy hour as more
uplink and downlink channels will be in use, and recorded by the tests.

Plot the system downlink band to identify possible uncleared co-channels, external sources of
downlink interference, and to verify Tx-Rx isolation with any co-located cell sites.

Plot the uplink band to identify receive isolation with any co-located cell sites and to identify any
possible sources of uplink interference.

Examine the plot of the adjacent system frequencies for out of band or spurious emissions from the
other systems in the adjacent bands.

With a co-located cell site configuration, transmitter IM can be a source of interference with a
duplexed antenna. If this configuration exists, all of the channels from the co-located site should
be keyed up in the sector, and the spectrum should be scanned for IM and cross modulation
products. This can effectively raise the noise floor 10 to 20 dB. It can be caused by connector
breakdown in the RF path, and decreased isolation due to the duplexed configuration.

It may also be prudent to perform spot checks to identify possible interference causing conditions.
If available, make a call on the competitors system and note the subscriber power level at the
CDMA cell site. A maximum subscriber power level near the CDMA cell site may create
interference issues.

Once the system has been cleared of analog co-channels, noise floor testing can proceed. For best
results, the data should be logged at various times of the day and night at each cell site. This is
necessary because varying traffic patterns throughout the day will effect the noise levels present at
the cell site. It is recommended that at least 2000 traces be collected in each site.

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide 2 - 29
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Chapter 2: Basic CDMA Spectrum Planning
2
2.8.3 Data Analysis

The collected data must be scaled to account for the measurement system gain, noise figure, and
bandwidth before the statistical analysis is performed. Once the data is properly scaled, a statistics
software package can be used to calculate the average noise floor rise and cumulative distribution
functions. The noise floor rise cumulative distribution plots can then be used to make a judgement
on the effect of background interference to CDMA performance at each cell site. Plots can also be
produced which show the amplitude and frequency of interferers as a function of time. These plots
can be used to help identify the source of interferers, which can lead to methods of interference
reduction.

2.9 References
1 TIA/EIA/IS-95-A, Mobile Station - Base Station Compatibility Standard for Dual-Mode
Wideband Spread Spectrum Cellular Systems, 1995, Sections 2.1.1.1, 2.2.1.1, 3.1.1.1,
3.2.1.1, 6.1.1.1, 6.2.1.1, 7.1.1.1, Tables 2.1.1.1-1, 6.1.1.1-1, 6.1.1.1-2.

2. ANSI J-STD-008, Personal Station-Base Station Compatibility Requirements for 1.8 to
2.0 GHz Code Division Multiple Access Personal Communications, March 24, 1995,
Section 2.1.1.1, Tables 2.1.1.1-1, 2.1.1.1-2, 2.1.1.1-3 and 2.1.1.1-4.

3. CFR 47 (Telecommunications), Office of the Federal Register National Archives and
Records Administration, October 1, 1997.

4. FCC Web Page (Wireless Telecommunications Bureau): http://www.fcc.gov/wtb/
National Archives and Records Administration (CFR Search Engine): http://
www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/index.html

5. TIA/EIA/IS-2000-2, Physical Layer Standard for cdma2000 Spread Spectrum Systems

6. TIA/EIA TSB-84A, Licensed PCS to PCS Interference, Version 1.7, June 9, 1998

7. Dennis Schaeffer (Motorola), "Adjacent Channel Interference Impact In CDMA
Systems", August 20, 1999

8. Asia Pacific Telecom Carrier Solutions Group (Motorola), "cdma2000 1X System
Planning Guide", Version 0.1, November 7, 2000

9. Motorola, CDMA Uplink Noise Survey Procedure, Version 0.4.

10. Motorola, RF Logger User Guide, January 2000

2 - 30 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide Mar 2002
Chapter CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide

3 CDMA Capacity
Table of Contents

3.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5

3.2 Reverse Link Pole Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
3.2.1 Data Rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 11
3.2.2 Median Eb/(No+Io) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 12
3.2.3 Voice or Data Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 13
3.2.4 Cell Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 14
3.2.5 Sectorization Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 15
3.2.6 Power Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 17

3.3 Reverse Link Soft Blocking Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 18
3.3.1 Conventional Blocking Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 18
3.3.2 CDMA Soft Blocking Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 18
3.3.2.1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 19
3.3.2.2 Theoretical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 19
3.3.2.3 Single Cell Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 22
3.3.2.4 Multiple Cell System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 23

3.4 Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 32
3.4.1 Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 32
3.4.2 Reverse Noise Rise Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 33
3.4.3 Probability Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 35
3.4.4 Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation Examples . . . . . . 3 - 37
3.4.4.1 Example #1: Voice Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 37
3.4.4.2 Example #2: Voice and Data Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 38
3.4.5 Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimates for IS-2000 1X . . . 3 - 41
3.4.5.1 Noise Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 41
3.4.5.2 F-factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 42
3.4.5.3 Average Eb/No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 43
3.4.5.4 Eb/N o Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 43
3.4.5.5 Processing Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 44
3.4.5.6 Activity Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 44
3.4.5.7 Traffic Mix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 45
3.4.5.8 Throughput Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 45
3.4.5.9 IS-2000 1X Reverse Noise Rise Capacity Analysis Results . . . . . . 3 - 46

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3.5 Forward Link Pole Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 52
3.5.1 Forward Link Load Factor Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 52
3.5.2 Forward Link Pole Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 53

3.6 Forward Link Fractional Power Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 54

3.7 Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 57
3.7.1 Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 58
3.7.2 Forward Noise Rise Capacity Estimation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 59
3.7.3 Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation Examples . . . . . . 3 - 60
3.7.3.1 Example #1: Voice Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 61
3.7.3.2 Example #2: Voice and Data Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 62
3.7.4 Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimates for IS-2000 1X . . 3 - 65
3.7.4.1 Noise Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 65
3.7.4.2 I-factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 66
3.7.4.3 Average Eb/No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 66
3.7.4.4 Eb/N o Standard Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 67
3.7.4.5 Processing Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 67
3.7.4.6 Activity Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 68
3.7.4.7 Orthogonality Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 69
3.7.4.8 Traffic Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 69
3.7.4.9 Throughput Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 69
3.7.4.10 IS-2000 1X Forward Noise Rise Capacity Analysis Results. . . . . 3 - 70
3.8 Forward vs. Reverse Link Capacity Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 76
3.9 EIA/TIA Specifications and RF Air Interface Limitations. . . . . . . . . . 3 - 80
3.9.1 IS-95 Forward Channel Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 80
3.9.2 IS-95 Reverse Channel Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 81
3.9.3 IS-2000 1X Forward Channel Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 82
3.9.3.1 IS-2000 Forward Channels (Motorola Implementation) . . . . . . . . 3 - 83
3.9.3.2 IS-2000 Forward Link Radio Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 86
3.9.3.3 IS-2000 Walsh Code Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 88
3.9.4 IS-2000 Reverse Channel Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 91
3.9.4.1 IS-2000 Reverse Channels (Motorola Implementation) . . . . . . . . 3 - 91
3.9.4.2 IS-2000 Reverse Link Radio Configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 92
3.10 Handoffs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 94
3.10.1 Soft Handoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 94
3.10.2 Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 95
3.10.3 Hard Handoffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 95
3.10.3.1 Anchor Handoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 95
3.10.3.2 IS-95 to IS-2000 Hand-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 95
3.10.3.3 IS-2000 to IS-95 Hand-down. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 96
3.10.3.4 Packet Data Handoffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 96
3.10.3.5 Inter-Carrier Hand-across . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 96

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3.11 Budgetary Estimate of Sites for Capacity (Voice Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 96
3.11.1 Required Parameters for Initial System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 97
3.11.1.1 Busy Hour Call Attempts and Completions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 97
3.11.1.2 Average Holding Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 97
3.11.1.3 Erlangs per Subscriber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 97

3.12 IS-95 and IS-2000 Simulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 102
3.13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 104

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3.1 Introduction

Capacity of a wireless network (for mobile or fixed subscribers) is defined as the number of users
that a given cell site can support while maintaining a certain QoS/GOS criteria. With the
introduction of various data related services (facilitated by IS-95B or IS-2000), the capacity of a
given cell site can also be represented by the number of users along with the associated data
throughput and a QoS criteria. The amount of RF spectrum available has a direct relationship on
the capacity that can be provided. The air interfaces which make efficient use of the allocated
spectrum will offer greater capacity. In AMPS or TDMA systems, blocking occurs when all voice
frequencies or time slots are fully occupied by other users in the system. In Code Division Multiple
Access (CDMA) systems, all users in the system share a common wideband spectrum over the time
they are active.

Capacity of a CDMA system depends upon the amount of interference in the system. Additional
users accessing the system will increase the system interference level. In order to maximize the
capacity, steps need to be taken to minimize the total power transmitted so as to reduce the total
interference in the system. An adjustment to this power will also make an adjustment to the
capacity. Blocking in CDMA is defined to occur when the total interference density reaches a
predetermined level above the background noise density. This is a soft blocking condition. The
blocking probability can be relaxed by allowing the maximum tolerable interference level to
increase.

In this chapter, several different capacity equations are provided which can be used to estimate the
average cell site capacity under various conditions and assumptions. The capacity of a CDMA
system is dependent upon the RF environment (i.e. path loss, delay spread, cell site layout, etc.).
There is no single capacity number but a range of values over an environment. With the
introduction of various data related services, the capacity will also depend upon the mixture of
voice and data traffic models. A capacity equation analysis is a simplistic approach as it assumes
uniform loading across all cells. However, in a live network, such a scenario would be rare. Thus,
there is no simple formula that can calculate the actual capacity that a live CDMA cell site will be
able to support. Though some equations will be provided to allow the approximation of the number
of users and data throughput that could be supported, these equations will demonstrate that the
capacity of a CDMA carrier varies with many factors. As a result, the capacity equations provided
in this chapter should be used for budgetary purposes only. A more sophisticated CDMA
simulation program, such as Motorola’s NetPlan tool, should be used for a live CDMA system to
model the forward and reverse links for thousands of subscribers in a realistic system environment
with different voice and data traffic mixes. The NetPlan tool provides detailed simulations of both
the forward and reverse links which produces a more accurate and realistic system capacity and
coverage prediction.

3.2 Reverse Link Pole Capacity Estimation

In digital systems (i.e. IS-95A/B or IS-2000) the energy per bit needs to be a certain level above
the total interference density in order to detect the transmitted bit. (Note: the following section can
be applied towards both IS-95 and IS-2000 systems.) This is referred to as Eb/Io. Energy is
equivalent to power times time or to power divided by the rate. Therefore, the energy per bit can

Mar 2002 CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide 3-5
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3
be expressed as the received power divided by the maximum bit rate:

P
E b = --- [EQ 3-1]
R

Assuming:

• P denotes the received power from each subscriber at the base station antenna
• R denotes the data rate (9600 bps for Rate Set 1, 14400 bps for Rate Set 2)
• Power control is perfect
• Subscribers are transmitting just enough power to be received
• Uniform subscriber distribution

The total interference power density assuming N users, can be expressed as

( N – 1 )P
Io = --------------------- [EQ 3-2]
W

Where:
W Bandwidth of the channel

Using Equation 3-1 and Equation 3-2, the energy per bit to the total interference density can be
determined.

Eb P⁄R - W⁄R
------ = --------------------- = ------------- [EQ 3-3]
Io (---------------------
N – 1 )P N–1
W

Solving for N yields:

W⁄R
N – 1 = -------------- ≈ N [EQ 3-4]
Eb ⁄ I o

It should be pointed out that some papers approximate N-1 with N.

The above equation is an ideal case or can be referred to as a first order capacity estimate. The
capacity (N) can additionally be impacted by interference from other cell sites, the voice or data
activity associated with the users, and the effect of thermal noise. Including these other factors into
Equation 3-2 will yield:

ρ ( N – 1 )P ( 1 + f )
Io + N o = ----------------------------------------- + N o [EQ 3-5]
W

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Where:
Io Interference power density impacted by other cells, and the number of users with
an average voice or data activity rate

f Ratio of out of cell (inter-cell) interference power to in cell (intra-cell)
interference power. This factor is used to adjust the capacity of a single cell to
account for the interference generated by other users in a multiple cell system.

ρ Average voice or data activity factor

No Thermal noise

Using this new value of Io, Equation 3-3 can be rewritten as follows:

P
-----------
Eb P⁄R W No W
----------------------
- = ------------------------------------------------------ = ----- ⋅ --------------------------------------------------- [EQ 3-6]
( N o + Io ) ρ ( N – 1 )P ( 1 + f ) R ρ ( N – 1 ) ( 1 + f )P
-----------------------------------------
----------------------------------------- + No +1
W No W

The pole capacity is defined as the maximum capacity that can be achieved under a given set of
conditions. At pole capacity, the rise over the thermal noise will approach infinity. This can be
calculated from the power rise over thermal rise.

P Eb R- ρ ( N – 1 ) ( 1 + f )P
- ⋅ ----
----------- = ---------------------- ⋅ ----------------------------------------- + 1 [EQ 3-7]
No W ( N o + Io ) W No W

Eb R-
----------------------- ⋅ ----
P ( N o + Io ) W
----------- = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- [EQ 3-8]
NoW Eb R
1 – ----------------------- ⋅ ----- ⋅ ρ ( N – 1 ) ( 1 + f )
( N o + Io ) W

As the denominator in Equation 3-8 approaches zero, the power rise over thermal rise will
approach infinity. Solving the denominator to be equal to zero will result in the maximum pole
capacity.

Eb R-
- ⋅ ----
---------------------- ⋅ ρ( N – 1) ( 1 + f ) = 1 [EQ 3-9]
( N o + Io ) W

Solving for the number of users (N) yields:

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W⁄R
N – 1 = ----------------------------------------------- ≈ N [EQ 3-10]
Eb
ρ ( 1 + f ) ⋅ -----------------------
( N o + Io )

As mentioned previously, sometimes N-1 is approximated to be only N.

Two additional items can be taken into account to further refine the number of users that can be
supported. They are a reduction factor due to imperfect power control and a factor to account for
sectorization. In Equation 3-10, the f factor accounts for interference coming from other cell sites.
The sectorization factor will account for the impact of interference leakage between sectors.

To approximate the reverse pole capacity point for CDMA (which can be applied to both IS-95 and
IS-2000), the following equation can be used.

W⁄R
ReversePoleCapacity = N = ----------------------------------- ⋅  ----------- ⋅  --- ⋅ G s
1 1
[EQ 3-11]
Eb 1+f ρ
----------------
-
N o + I o adjust

Where:
Io Total received signal and noise power spectral density

No Thermal noise power spectral density

Eb Energy per bit

E
b -
-------------------
N +I
Ratio of Signal energy per bit to the sum of interference and noise adjusted for
o o adjust
imperfect power control

W Bandwidth of the channel

R Data rate

W⁄R Processing gain

f Ratio of out of cell (inter-cell) interference power to in cell (intra-cell)
interference power. This factor is used to adjust the capacity of a single cell to
account for the interference generated by other users in a multiple cell system.

ρ Average voice or data activity factor

Gs Sectorization gain

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The adjusted Eb/(No+Io) requirement to account for imperfect power control (power control
deviation) can be determined by:

Eb Eb ( βσ ) ⁄ 2
2
----------------
- = ----------------- ⋅ e e [EQ 3-12]
No + Io adjust No + Io

Where:
Eb
----------------
- Signal / (Interference plus noise) ratio requirement under perfect power control
N0 + I 0

σe Standard deviation in imperfect power control

β Constant value equal to ln(10)/10

Some reverse link pole equations may use the term F, where F is defined as the ratio of in cell
(intra-cell) interference power to the sum of out of cell (inter-cell) interference power and in cell
(intra-cell) interference power. F is related to f by the following equation.

InCell 1 1
F = -------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------ = ----------- [EQ 3-13]
InCell + OutCell OutCell 1+f
1 + ---------------------
InCell

Substituting F into Equation 3-11 results in the following equation (which also can be applied to
both IS-95 and IS-2000).

W⁄R
ReversePoleCapacity = N = ----------------------------------- ⋅ F ⋅  --- ⋅ G s
1
[EQ 3-14]
Eb  ρ
----------------
-
N o + I o adjust

Assuming the following values for the various parameters, the reverse link pole capacity for an IS-
95 Rate Set 2 site would be 19 users or roughly 12.3 Erlangs per sector (assuming an Erlang B
model with 2% grade of service) for a three sector site (57 users per site). This value represents the
pole capacity or the point at which no more users can be added without seriously degrading the
quality of the system.

W Bandwidth of the channel (only one CDMA Channel) 1228800 Hz

R Data rate 14400 bps

f Ratio of out of cell (inter-cell) interference power to in cell 0.7

ρ Average voice or data activity factor 0.4

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Gs Sectorization gain per sector for a three sector site 2.4/3

Eb
----------------
- Signal / (Interference plus noise) ratio requirement under
No + I o
perfect power control 6.5 dB

σe Standard deviation in imperfect power control 2.5

β Constant value ln(10)/10

Eb ( 6.5 ⁄ 10 ) ( 0.23 ⋅ 2.5 ) ⁄ 2
2
----------------
- = 10 ⋅e = 5.27 = 7.22dB [EQ 3-15]
N o + Io adjust

( 1228800 ) ⁄ 14400  1   1   2.4
ReversePoleCapacity = N = --------------------------------------------
( 7.22 ⁄ 10 )
⋅  ---------------- ⋅  ------- ⋅  ------- ≈ 19 [EQ 3-16]
10 1 + 0.7 0.4 3

Several variations of a reverse link capacity equation exist. The various equations may not be
exactly the same as Equation 3-11 or Equation 3-14, but many, if not all, of the items within the
equations will be represented: processing gain, Eb/(No+Io) (may also include a factor to account
for imperfect power control or power control impact may be its own term), other cell interference,
voice or data activity factor, and impact of sectorization. When discussing capacity, it is important
to mention all of the factors which are being considered and the assumed value for each factor. For
instance, 19 users shown above can easily turn into 32 users, if the calculation does not account for
any inter-cell interference (f=0). The capacity results are also highly dependent upon the values that
are used for the capacity equation. Even if the equations are similar, the values used may be
different which leads to different capacity claims from different sources. Some values are more
optimistic, thus leading to more users.

The Eb/(No+Io) performance parameter, used as an input to the equations provided above
(Equation 3-11 or Equation 3-14), is usually specified for a particular data rate (along with other
assumptions; i.e. flat fading, mobile environment with a 30 kmph worst case speed, 1% FER,
diversity, and perfect decorrelation). Although the reverse pole capacity equations can be applied
towards both IS-95 and IS-2000 systems, they are typically applied towards analyzing a system
utilizing a single data rate. As such, they may be more appropriate in estimating the capacity of an
IS-95 system, where it is common to support a single data rate (i.e. Rate Set 1 or Rate Set 2). For
IS-2000 systems which utilize multiple data rates, the reverse pole capacity equations can be used
to analyze the capacity of each individual data rate. They are not recommended to analyze a
mixture of data rates, unless an appropriate average Eb/(No+Io) performance parameter can be
produced to correlate with an associated average data rate.

Another point to be made is that these equations are for pole capacity. In designing a CDMA
system, the system designer should not assume that the system pole capacity will be achieved. The
system designer should plan that the reverse link capacity will not exceed 75% of the pole capacity.
From the above example, this would correspond to about 14 users or 8.2 Erlangs. Note that this is

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for the reverse link, the forward link may actually not allow this amount of Erlangs to be provided.

In analyzing Equation 3-11, the following relationships can be observed:

• The reverse pole capacity value is greater for the lower data rate vocoder (i.e. Rate Set 1
at 9600 bps will provide greater reverse link capacity than Rate Set 2 at 14400 bps).
• The reverse pole capacity value is increased if the Eb/(No+Io) requirement is reduced.
• The reverse pole capacity value is increased if the average voice or data activity is
reduced.
• The reverse pole capacity value is increased if the inter-cell to intra-cell interference
ratio is reduced.
• The reverse pole capacity value is increased if the sectorization gain can be increased
(i.e. choosing antennas with better front to back ratios and also antennas that have a
quick rolloff from their half power point to the back of the antenna).
• The reverse pole capacity value is increased if the power control standard deviation is
reduced.

The following set of graphs demonstrates the six points just made. Only one of the parameter
values was varied for each graph with the other parameter values being left to the values given in
Equation 3-16. The intent of the graphs is to demonstrate the sensitivity a parameter value has on
the capacity of site or system.

3.2.1 Data Rates

The capacity of a CDMA carrier is dependent upon the data rate being used. Referring to
Equation 3-11, it can be seen that R (the data rate) has an inverse relationship to the reverse pole
capacity. Figure 3-1 through Figure 3-5 will show curves for both Rate Set 1 at 9.6 kbps (which is
the air interface data rate used for the 8 kbps vocoder) and Rate Set 2 at 14.4 kbps (which is the air
interface data rate used for the 13 kbps vocoder).

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3.2.2 Median Eb/(No+Io)

Figure 3-1 shows that lower values for Eb/(No+Io) result in more users being supported. BTS
infrastructure enhancements that decrease the required Eb/(No+Io) value is one area Motorola is
researching to improve the capacity of the reverse link.

Figure 3-1: Impact of Eb/(No+Io) on the Number of Users

For a mobile environment, a 7 to 7.5 dB Eb/(No+Io) value is deemed acceptable. For a fixed system,
the Eb/(No+Io) requirement can be as low as 3 to 4 dB for some situations. Fixed units installed
indoors with a whip antenna will require Eb/(No+Io) values similar to the mobile environment,
whereas fixed units installed with outdoor directional antennas will require lower Eb/(No+Io)
values. Further advancements in chipsets and the algorithms employed in those chipset may reduce
the Eb/(No+Io) requirement and thus smaller values than these previously listed will be acceptable.
For example, the values above are reasonable for an IS-95 site, but new chipsets are being used (i.e
IS-95 Motorola EMAXX chipset and IS-2000 chipset) which improve upon the Eb/(No+Io)
requirement. From the graph above, a 3 dB advantage of a fixed system over a mobile system will
yield a pole capacity of approximately twice the number of users (considering just the impact of
Eb/(No+Io)).

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3.2.3 Voice or Data Activity
As a means to minimize interference, the transmission rate and power can be reduced when the
voice or data activity is absent or lessened. This reduction in transmission rate or power reduces
the average signal power of all users and thereby reduces the interference seen by each user. This
following figure depicts that as the voice or data activity increases, fewer users can be supported.

Figure 3-2: Impact of Voice or Data Activity on the Number of Users

The typical voice activity factor is 40%.

For some IS-2000 data services applications, a higher data rate coupled with a higher data activity
factor may be required. From the results in Figure 3-2, it can be seen that both of these factors will
reduce the capacity that can be supported by a CDMA carrier.

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3.2.4 Cell Interference
The capacity of a cell depends on the total interference it receives from other cells. The level of
power that is received at the base station from different sources is dependent upon the laws of
propagation. The following figure shows that when the out of cell interference is increased with
respect to the in cell interference that the capacity will degrade.

OutCell
f = --------------------- [EQ 3-17]
InCell

Figure 3-3: Impact of Other Cell Interference on the Number of Users

The following table shows several f values that were obtained from simulations assuming a
specific propagation model (path loss slope, standard deviation, and correlation).

Table 3-1: Samples of Various f Factors
Path loss Standard
slope Deviation Correlation f Factor
4.0 6.5 0.9 0.43
4.0 8.0 0.5 0.55
3.5 6.5 0.5 0.69
3.5 8.0 0.5 0.76
3.5 10 0.1 1.68
Note: path loss slope converts to path loss dB/decade by
multiplying the slope by a factor of 10

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The terms of the propagation model correspond to the path loss slope, the shadowing standard
deviation and the site to site correlation value. As shown by the above table, higher propagation
exponents (the path loss slope) will reduce the f factor and lower exponents will increase the value
of f.

For a system that is only comprised of a single cell (for example a fixed system in a remote area),
there will be no out of cell interference and therefore the pole capacity will be higher. Similarly,
cell sites positioned along a highway to provide only highway coverage will not see much
interference from other sites and therefore the f value will be lower for these sites than for a site in
the middle of a cluster of sites. In addition the f value will be lower for systems that are only
comprised of a few sites than for a system with many sites. As the number of sites increases there
is a greater occurrence of interference from other cells which will increase the f value as shown by
Equation 3-17.

3.2.5 Sectorization Gain

Sectorization gain can be somewhat of a misleading term. The sectorization gain is actually more
of a reduction factor. For an omni site, the sectorization gain is one. For a sector site, one approach
may be to multiply the resulting capacity of an omni site (or single sector) by the number of sectors
for the sector site (i.e. a three sector site would support three times the number of users than an
omni site and a six sector site would support six times the number of users than an omni site). This
is not the case though. The additional sectors are considered to be other locations generating
interference to the desired sector. The other cell interference factor accounts for just that,
interference generated by other sites. The sectorization gain is the adjustment for the other sectors
at the local site causing increased levels of interference. The reason it is referred to as a
sectorization gain is that for a given physical site location, this site location is able to support many
more users when it is sectorized than if it stayed omni.

The sectorization gain can be improved by selecting antennas which have a good front to back ratio
and which also exhibit a quick rolloff past the half power points (3 dB down from main lobe). For
instance, using a 90° antenna in place of a 120° antenna for a three sector site would decrease the
amount of energy (interference) going into adjacent sectors, thus increasing the sectorization gain
and thereby improving upon the number of users which could be supported. It is important to note
that decreasing the horizontal beamwidth too much can also have a negative impact on the
coverage (signal strength) within the cell site’s coverage area. As the sectorization gain increases,
the number of users will increase (as seen from the graph in Figure 3-4).

The sectorization gain value which is commonly used is 0.8 per sector or 2.4 for a three sector site
(0.8 time 3). This 0.8 sectorization gain can be thought of as a 1 dB impact to the capacity of the
site due to other sectors interference.

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Figure 3-4: Impact of Sectorization Gain on the Number of Users (3 Sector)

The above figure would apply only to a three sector site. The sectorization gain shown is for an
entire site. For instance, a sectorization gain of 2.4 corresponds to 0.8 per each sector (= 2.4/3). For
an omni site the sectorization gain would be 1. If the sectorization per sector for a six sector site is
considered to be similar to that of a three sector site, then the sectorization gain for the site would
be 6 times the per sector value (for instance, 6 * 0.8 = 4.8).

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3.2.6 Power Control

Traffic capacity of CDMA systems is increased by implementing an appropriate power control
scheme to equalize the performance of all subscribers in the system. The appropriate power control
scheme reduces the interference to the other adjacent cells. The less interference generated in the
spectrum, the more users the CDMA system can support. As previously mentioned, the inaccuracy
in power control is roughly a log-normal distributed function. Under different path loss situations,
the average required Eb/(No+Io) tends to fluctuate around the mean to maintain a desirable Frame
Erasure Rate. The power control standard deviation varies according to the extent of fluctuations.

Figure 3-5: Impact of Imperfect Power Control on the Number of Users

This graph shows that improving the accuracy of power control can provide some increase to the
number of users.

At relatively slow speeds or in static conditions (fixed), power control is effective in counteracting
slow fades, whereas at high speeds, power control is not as effective in counteracting fast fading.
At higher speeds, the effects of interleaving become increasingly beneficial.

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3.3 Reverse Link Soft Blocking Capacity Estimation

3.3.1 Conventional Blocking Analysis

In AMPS and TDMA systems, voice/traffic channels are assigned to users as long as they are
available. Given the required offered traffic, the Erlang B model is used to determine the number
of traffic channels required to provide a predetermined grade of service. The Erlang B model is
based upon a model of serving without queuing. In other words, all blocked calls are cleared.
Traffic load is the product of call rate and call holding time. It is a dimensionless quantity measured
in Erlangs. One Erlang is the traffic intensity of a traffic channel which is continuously occupied.
Grade of service is a term used to quantify the extent to which congestion occurs in any trunking
system and is typically expressed as the probability of finding blocking. Blocking in AMPS and
TDMA is defined to occur when all voice frequencies (for AMPS) or time slots (for TDMA) have
been assigned to other subscriber stations.

The values quoted for traffic load and grade of service for cellular systems are usually taken during
the busy hour. Busy hour is defined as the continuous one-hour period in the day during which the
highest average traffic density is experienced by the system. The Erlang B formula is given by:

C
A
------
C! -
P Blocking = -----------------
C
[EQ 3-18]
K

A
------
K!
K=0

Where:
A is the offered traffic

C is the number of available servers

Assumptions of the Erlang “B” Model:

1. The number of potential users is infinite
2. Intervals between originations are random
3. Call set up time is negligible

3.3.2 CDMA Soft Blocking Capacity Estimation

Unlike the traditional analog design, balanced uplink and downlink cannot be achieved in CDMA
because of the differences in waveform design on both links. Originally it was considered that the
reverse link (subscriber to base) would usually be the capacity limiting path. However with the
Rate Set 2 vocoder and other real world situations, the forward link (base to subscriber) may be the
limiting path. With new higher data rate services being introduced (via IS-95B or IS-2000), it is

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expected that the forward link will require higher data downloads than the reverse link. As a result,
the forward link is also expected to be the limiting path from a capacity perspective. Even though
the forward link may be the limiting factor of capacity for some systems, the reverse link capacity
estimates provided in this document can still be used to approximate the capacity under the given
assumptions and conditions. In many instances, the capacity analysis results of the reverse link can
sometimes provide an adequate estimate. Simulations should be used (i.e. using NetPlan) to obtain
more accurate capacity estimations. For more detailed results, simulations can take into account
many variable elements for which a general reverse or forward link capacity equation cannot
adequately model (i.e. non uniform traffic and speed distributions, non uniform cell site layouts,
propagation characteristics for a specific area, multiple subscriber classes with various call models,
combined forward and reverse link analysis, etc.).

Soft blocking in CDMA systems is defined to occur when the total collection of users both within
the serving cell/sector and in other neighbor cells introduce an amount of interference density so
great that it exceeds the background noise spectral density by a predefined amount. Under the
assumption that the system is not hardware limited, the following analysis applies this soft
blocking concept to calculate the Erlang capacity of a CDMA system. The concept of soft blocking
will be explained in details in the following paragraphs.

3.3.2.1 Assumptions
1. The number of active calls is a Poisson random variable with mean ( λ--µ- )
2. Each user is active with probability ρ and inactive with probability (1- ρ )
3. Each user’s required energy per bit-to-interference density ratio (Eb/Io) is varied
according to propagation conditions to achieve the specified Frame Erasure Rate (FER).
The FER is usually taken as 1% (0.01) to provide satisfactory transmission.
4. All the sectors have the same number of users.
5. The users are uniformly distributed over each sector.

3.3.2.2 Theoretical Analysis

In mathematical form, the definition of blocking can be restated as follows:

Interference from the + Interference from + Thermal Noise = Total Interference
serving cell other cells

Blocking occurs when

k othercells k

∑ νi E bi R + ∑ ∑ vi ( j )E bi ( j )R + N0 W > I0 W [EQ 3-19]
i=1 j i=1

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Where:
k is the number of simultaneous users per sector. By assumption [1], k is a Poisson
random variable with mean --µλ- which is the offered traffic

W is the spread spectrum bandwidth allocated to a CDMA channel

R is the data rate

Eb is energy per bit

No is the background thermal noise density

Io is the total allowable interference density

ν is the voice or data activity and is a binomial random variable with ρ = Pr ( ν =1),
which is the gate on probability.

The voice or data activity factor ( ρ ) is defined as:

ρ = Probability ( ν =1) [EQ 3-20]

Defining ε = Eb/Io, which is known as the Bit Energy to Interference Density Ratio, and dividing
by IoR, the inequality [Equation 3-19] can be written as follows:

k othercells k
W
∑ νi εi + ∑ ∑ vi ( j )εi ( j ) > ( 1 – η ) ⋅ ----R- [EQ 3-21]
i=1 j i=1

Where:
W/R is known as the processing gain

No
η = ------ is the predefined threshold
Io

Hence, the probability of blocking for CDMA is defined as the probability that the above condition
holds true.

k othercells k
W
Pblocking = Probability {Z = ∑ ν i ε i + ∑ ∑ vi ( j )εi ( j) > ( 1 – η ) ⋅ ----R- } [EQ 3-22]
i=1 j i=1

Notice that the blocking probability for CDMA is determined by the system Eb/Io performance,
voice or data activity factor, the spread spectrum bandwidth, the data rate, and the maximum

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allowable interference level. The probability of blocking can be relaxed by allowing the maximum
tolerable interference level (Io/No) to increase. In this case, the system is forced to accommodate
more simultaneous users by degrading its service quality. This phenomenon is called “soft
blocking”. The threshold value for the maximum allowable interference shall be defined in the call
processing software by the operator.

To evaluate the blocking probability, the distribution of Z has to be determined which, in turn,
depends on the following random variables: voice or data activity ( ν ), bit energy to interference
ratio ( ε ), the total number of users in the sector (Ns), and the number of active users per sector (k).

The voice or data activity ( ν ), is a binomial random variable with ρ = Pr ( ν =1), which is the gate
on probability. The distribution is given by:

P( ν =k) =  N s – 1 ⋅ ρ k ⋅ ( 1 – ρ ) Ns – k – 1 [EQ 3-23]
 k 

The distribution of k is Poisson and is given by:

 --λ-
k
 µ –λ
Pk = ----------- ⋅ exp  ------ [EQ 3-24]
k!  µ

Where:
λ and µ are the arrival and service rates and --λ- is the offered traffic
µ

The distribution of Eb/No depends on the power control mechanism in the system. Power control
allows the system to equalize the transmit power of all subscribers within the system. In a trial test,
the Eb/No performance was measured with a fixed system Frame Erasure Rate (FER) for a fully
loaded CDMA cell. The data showed the overall Eb/No was a log-normal distribution. Hence the
distribution of ε can be written as:

x ⁄ 10
ε = 10 [EQ 3-25]

Where:
x is a Gaussian Random Variable with mean m and standard deviation σ

The first and second moment of ε are given by:

2
( βσ )
E( ε ) = E[ exp ( βx ) ] = exp -------------- ⋅ exp ( βm ) [EQ 3-26]
2

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2
2
E( ε ) = E[ exp ( 2βx )] = exp [ 2 ( βσ ) ] ⋅ exp ( 2βm ) [EQ 3-27]

Where:
ln ( 10 -)
β = ---------------
10

3.3.2.3 Single Cell Case

For the single cell case, the second summation term in Equation 3-22 is zero (i.e. no interference
for other cells). Since Z is the sum of k random variables, where k is the number of simultaneous
users in the system, the Central Limit Theorem can be applied for the approximation for Z. The
central limit theorem states that the probability density function for the sum of a number of
independent random variables with arbitrary one-dimensional probability density function
approaches a Gaussian Distribution. Hence the probability of blocking can be rewritten as:

A – E(Z)
Probability of Blocking = Q ---------------------- [EQ 3-28]
STD ( Z )

Where:
E( ) is the expected value

STD( ) is the standard deviation

Z
Z = ----------------------
exp ( βm )


W⁄R –λ
2
A = ---------------------- ⋅ ( 1 – η ) and Q(x) = ---------- ⋅ e xp  -------- dλ ∫
1
exp ( β m ) 2π  2 
x

The expected value and standard deviation of Z can be computed as follows. Since Z is the sum
of k random variables and k is a Poisson random variable;

ε
Let ε = ---------------------------
exp ( βm )

2
λ ( βσ )
E( Z )= E(k) E( γε ) =  --- ⋅ ρ ⋅ exp  -------------- [EQ 3-29]
µ 2

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VAR( Z ) = E(k) VAR ( γε ) + VAR(k) [E( γε )] 2
= VAR(k) [E( γε )] 2
= E(k) [E( γε )] 2
λ
= ---
µ
[E( γ 2 )] E[ ε 2 ]

λ
VAR( Z ) =  --- ⋅ ρ ⋅ exp [ 2 ( βσ ) ]
2
[EQ 3-30]
 µ

STD( Z ) =  --λ- ⋅ ρ ⋅ exp [ 2 ( βσ )2 ] [EQ 3-31]
 µ

Thus, the probability of blocking for a CDMA single cell system can be formulated as in
Equation 3-32.

 W⁄R   --λ- ⋅ ρ ⋅ exp  (------------- βσ ) -  
2
 exp ( βm ) ⋅ ( η )
 2 
---------------------
- 1 – –
  µ
Probability of Blocking = Q  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [EQ 3-32]
  --λ- ⋅ ρ ⋅ exp [ 2 ( βσ ) 2 ] 
  µ 

Although the Single Cell Probability of Blocking equation (Equation 3-32) can be applied towards
both IS-95 and IS-2000 systems, it is typically applied towards analyzing a system utilizing a single
data rate. As such, it may be more appropriate in estimating the capacity of an IS-95 system, where
it is common to support a single data rate (i.e. Rate Set 1 or Rate Set 2). For IS-2000 systems which
utilize multiple data rates, the Single Cell Probability of Blocking equation can be used to analyze
the capacity of an individual data rate. It is not recommended to analyze a mixture of data rates.
Section 3.4 will introduce an analytical approach more suitable for systems serving multiple data
rates.

3.3.2.4 Multiple Cell System

In a multiple-cell system the interference created by users in the serving cell and cells other than
the serving cell needs to be considered. The path loss characteristics and the overhead capacity for
soft handoffs need to be taken into account.

3.3.2.4.1 Path Loss Characteristics

Power control is crucial to CDMA system performance. Assuming that the path loss depends only
on the subscriber-to-base distance, the subscribers will be power controlled by the nearest cell. The
generally accepted theoretical path loss model is to introduce an attenuation which is the product
of, the subscriber-to-base distance to the power α , and, a log-normal random variable with zero
mean and δ dB standard deviation.

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In Mathematical form, the path loss between the subscriber and the cell site is proportional to

ξ
 -----
-
 10 –α
10 ⋅r [EQ 3-33]

Where:
r is distance from subscriber to cell site

ξ is a Gaussian random variable with standard deviation δ and zero mean

The path loss can be expressed as

PL = α ⋅ log  ----
r
[EQ 3-34]
 r 0

Where:
r and r 0 are the base-subscriber distance and the reference distance respectively

When plotting the signal strengths at a given radio path distance, the deviation from the local mean
values is approximately 8 dB. This standard deviation of 8 dB is roughly true in many different
areas. The path loss curves can be obtained by collecting data from different drive runs in different
environments. As long as the subscriber-to-base distance for each run is the same, the signal
strength data measured at that particular subscriber-to-base distance can be used for determining
the local mean values for the path loss at that distance.

Measurements of path loss have been made in several major cities. Some of the typical values are
tabulated as shown in Table 3-2.

Table 3-2: Propagation Path Loss in Different Areasa
1 Mile Intercept Point (Po) Path Loss Slope (γ)
Propagation Area
in dBm dB/decade
Free Space -45.0 20.0
Open Area -49.0 43.5
Suburban -61.7 38.4
Philadelphia -70.0 36.8
Newark -64.0 43.1
New York City -77.0 48.0
Tokyo, Japan -84.0 30.5
a. William C. Y. Lee, "Mobile Cellular Telecommunications Systems", McGraw-Hill Book Company, Sec-
ond Edition 1995, figure 4.3, p. 110.

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Since the main concern about propagation at far distances is for coverage purposes, path loss
measurements typically use a 1 mile (or 1 km) intercept point as a starting point for path loss
curves. This also tends to eliminate some of the near-field effects of near-by surroundings and
vertical beam width shadowing. Although different areas may have different path loss slopes,
Table 3-2 also shows that an area-to-area prediction is represented by two parameters, the 1 mile
intercept point (Po, the power received at a distance of 1 mile from the transmitter) and the path
loss slope (γ). Differences in area-to-area prediction curves are primarily due to the differences in
man-made structures. When the base station is located in a city environment, then the 1 mile
intercept signal level could be very low, but the slope is flattened out, as shown by the Tokyo data.
When the base station is located outside the city, the intercept signal level could be much higher,
but the slope is larger, as shown by the Newark data. Due to differences in structure density
(average separation between buildings), the 1 mile intercept could be high or low, with the path
loss slope still at a typical level of about 40 dB/dec (i.e. compare data of open area to Newark).

3.3.2.4.2 Interference from Other Cells

The normalized interference density from other cells can be written as:

Jo = Ioc / Io = Total Interference from other cells / IoW

ξ
  r m γ -----
- r 0 Eb Rνκ
   10 ∅  ξ, ----- ----------------- dA
10 
Jo = ∫ ∫ ----- [EQ 3-35]
allcells  r 0 rm Io W 

Where:
rm Distance from any subscriber to its own cell not power controlled by the serving
cell
r0 Distance from any subscriber to the serving cell not power controlled by the
serving cell
γ Path loss exponent
ν Voice or data activity
Ioc Other cells interference density
Io Total allowable interference density
W Spread bandwidth
Eb*R Bit energy * data rate, which is the received power at the base station for any user,
assuming power control is applied
ξ Defines the path loss characteristics and is Gaussian random variables with zero
means and standard deviation of σ

κ User density = 2 * users per sector / 3 *sectorization gain

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ξ
 r0   r m γ -----
10
-
∅  ξ,  = 1, if   10 ≤ 1
----- -----
rm r0
= 0, otherwise

By calculating the expected value and standard deviation Jo and z , the probability of blocking for
a CDMA multiple cell system can be formulated as follows.

λ r m α  r0 
E(J0) = E ( ε )  --- ρ ∫  ----- 10α-   -----
∫  r0  exp [ ( βδ ) 2 ] 1 – Q ------------
 log – β 2δ 2 dA
µ   rm
allcell
 2δ
2 

λ
E(J0) = E ( ε )  --- ρ ⋅ [ I ( α, δ ) ] [EQ 3-36]
µ

2 λ  r-----
2α  r0 
VAR(J0) = E ( ε )  --- ρ ∫
m
exp [ ( βδ ) 2 ]  1 – Q ------------- log   ----- – β 2δ 2 dA
20α
µ ∫  r0 
 2  rm 

allcell 2δ

2 λ
VAR(J0) = E ( ε ) --- ρ ⋅ [ I ( 2α, δ ) ] [EQ 3-37]
 µ

The following figure provides the values of the numerical integration of the integral I ( α, δ ) and
I ( 2α, δ ) versus various log-normal path loss slopes with a standard deviation of 8 dB.

Figure 3-6: Values of the Integral I ( α, δ ) and I ( 2α, δ ) with Various Path Loss Slope
1.5

I(alpha,sigma=8dB)
I(2alpha,sigma=8dB)
Values of the Integrals

1.0

0.5

0.0
30 35 40 45 50
Path Loss (dB/dec)

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Combining [EQ 3-36]and [EQ 3-37] with [EQ 3-29] and [EQ 3-30], the moments of the total
normalized interference variable Z including the interference from outer cells is obtained.

2
λ ( βσ )
E ( Z ) =  --- ρ ⋅ exp  -------------- [ 1 + I ( α, δ, r ) ] [EQ 3-38]
 µ  2 

STD ( Z ) = λ--- ρ ⋅ exp [ 2 ( βσ ) 2 ] [ 1 + I ( 2α, δ, r ) ] [EQ 3-39]
 µ

A – E(Z)
Pblocking with outer cell interference = Q ---------------------- [EQ 3-40]
STD ( Z )

Where:
W⁄R
A = ---------------------- ⋅ ( 1 – η ) [EQ 3-41]
exp ( β m )

–λ
2
Q ( x ) = ---------- ⋅ e xp  -------- dλ ∫
1
 2 
[EQ 3-42]

x
2
 W⁄R λ ( βσ ) 
- ⋅ ( 1 – η ) –   --- ρ ⋅ exp  -------------- [ 1 + I ( α, δ, r ) ] 
 ---------------------
exp ( βm )   µ   2  
Probability of Blocking = Q  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [EQ 3-43]
 λ --- ρ ⋅ exp [ 2 ( βσ ) 2 ] [ 1 + I ( 2α, δ, r ) ] 
  µ 

Note: A Complementary Error Function Q(x) table is provided in Appendix IV.

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Using Equation 3-32 and Equation 3-43, the probability of blocking is plotted against the Erlang
capacity per CDMA sector in different situations. A list of parameters is included at the bottom of
each plot.

Figure 3-7: Probability of Blocking vs. Erlangs per CDMA Sector with Various Path Loss
Slope Values with Rate Set 1 Vocoder

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters:
• Mean Eb/No = 7 dB
• Pwr Ctrl Std Dev = 2.5 dB
• Voice or Data Activity Factor = 0.4
• Spread Bandwidth = 1.23 MHz
• Data Rate = 9600 bps (Rate Set 1)
• Total Interference Density to Background Noise Level (Io/No) = 10 dB
• Shadowing Standard Dev = 8 dB

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Figure 3-8: Probability of Blocking vs. Erlangs per CDMA Sector with Various Power Control
Standard Deviations with Rate Set 1 Vocoder

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters:
• Mean Eb/No = 7 dB
• Voice or Data Activity Factor = 0.4
• Spread Bandwidth = 1.23 MHz
• Data Rate = 9600 bps (Rate Set 1)
• Total Interference Density to Background Noise Level (Io/No) = 10 dB
• Path Loss Slope = 40 dB/dec
• Shadowing Std Dev = 8 dB

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Figure 3-9: Probability of Blocking vs. Erlangs per CDMA Sector with Various Path Loss
Slope Values with Rate Set 2 Vocoder

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters:
• Mean Eb/No = 7 dB
• Pwr Ctrl Std Dev = 2.5 dB
• Voice or Data Activity Factor = 0.4
• Spread Bandwidth = 1.23 MHz
• Data Rate = 14400 bps (Rate Set 2)
• Total Interference Density to Background Noise Level (Io/No) = 10 dB
• Shadowing Standard Dev = 8 dB

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Figure 3-10: Probability of Blocking vs. Erlangs per CDMA Sector with Various Power
Control Standard Deviations with Rate Set 2 Vocoder

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters:
• Mean Eb/No = 7 dB
• Voice or Data Activity Factor = 0.4
• Spread Bandwidth = 1.23 MHz
• Data Rate = 14400 bps (Rate Set 2)
• Total Interference Density to Background Noise Level (Io/No) = 10 dB
• Path Loss Slope = 40 dB/dec
• Shadowing Std Dev = 8 dB

The Multiple Cell Probability of Blocking equation shown in Equation 3-43 can be applied towards
both IS-95 and IS-2000 systems. Since, it is typically applied towards analyzing a system utilizing
a single data rate, it may be more appropriate in estimating the capacity of an IS-95 system, where
it is common to support a single data rate (i.e. Rate Set 1 or Rate Set 2). For IS-2000 systems which
utilize multiple data rates, the Multiple Cell Probability of Blocking equation can be used to
analyze the capacity of an individual data rate. It is not recommended in analyzing a mixture of
data rates. Section 3.4 provides an approach more suitable for systems serving multiple data rates.

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3.4 Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation

The amount of noise rise (interference) that can be tolerated by the CDMA base station will place
a limit upon how many users can be supported by the reverse link. As the number of users served
by the reverse link is increased, the level of noise rise seen by the base station will also be
increased. The cell capacity is determined by calculating the number of users required to produce
a maximum accepted noise rise.

This section provides a method of estimating the noise rise for a particular user type. The
estimating approach will also allow the calculation of the total noise rise for multiple user types.
As a result, the noise rise estimation approach provided in this section is better suited to estimate
the capacity of a system which utilizes multiple user types (i.e. multiple data rates). Although this
capacity estimation approach can be applied towards both IS-95 and IS-2000 systems, it may be
more appropriate in estimating the capacity of an IS-2000 system, where it is more common to
support different user type profiles utilizing different data rates.

For IS-2000 systems, it is important to note that the capacity estimation calculation provided in this
section does not account for the dynamic resource allocation capabilities of an IS-2000 1X packet
data user. Within the IS-2000 1X infrastructure, the subscriber will be assigned supplemental
channel resources based upon several criteria (e.g. the demand requirements for the amount of data
to be transmitted, RF capacity availability, Walsh code resource availability, etc.). The allocation
of these IS-2000 1X supplemental channel resources are also dynamically adjusted throughout the
duration of the packet data call. The capacity estimation calculation provided in this section treats
a packet data user more like a circuit data user. The capacity formulas provided imply a fixed
resource allocation where there are X users at 9.6 kbps, Y users at 19.2 kbps, Z users at 38.4 kbps,
etc. As a result, the capacity obtained from the capacity estimation approach will differ from that
of an actual IS-2000 1X system. For a more accurate estimation of packet data services, it is
recommended to utilize a simulation tool which simulates the dynamic resource allocation
capabilities of an IS-2000 1X system. The time-sliced simulation function of the NetPlan tool can
be used for this purpose. See Section 3.12 for more information on the simulation capabilities of
the NetPlan tool.

3.4.1 Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Limit

The reverse link pole capacity is considered to be the point where an additional user will cause the
noise rise within the cell to increase exponentially. This will create an unstable situation where user
connections may be lost and the network grade of service will be severely degraded. The reverse
link noise rise pole capacity can be represented by the following equation:

Z = 10 × Log 10  ------------ = – 10 × Log 10 ( 1 – X )
1
[EQ 3-44]
1–X

Where:
X Percent of reverse link pole capacity, traffic loading factor

Z Noise Rise (dB)

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Refer to Section 4.2.2.1 for a derivation of Equation 3-44. A graph of the reverse noise rise pole
capacity equation (Equation 3-44) is shown in Figure 3-11.

Figure 3-11: Rise versus Percent of Pole Capacity

20

15
Interference Rise, Z (dB)

10

5

0
0% 25% 50% 75% 100%
Loading Factor, X

In order to estimate the capacity from a number of users perspective, a reverse noise rise capacity
limit must be selected. For CDMA RF system designs (for both IS-95A/B and IS-2000), a peak
noise rise of 10 dB is recommended to be the maximum that a system should tolerate. The average
noise rise would be several dB below this peak value. It is important to note that the 10 dB noise
rise limit is a peak value which is associated with a certain probability factor (see Equation 3-48
and Section 3.4.3). The recommended probability factors associated with the 10 dB peak noise rise
recommendation are as follows.

• 10 dB noise rise with a 90% probability factor (for aggressive capacity results)
• 10 dB noise rise with a 95% probability factor (for moderate capacity results)
• 10 dB noise rise with a 98% probability factor (for conservative capacity results)

Although the above recommendation provides some flexibility in selecting a probability factor, the
10 dB noise rise with a 95% probability factor is the typical limit that is normally recommended.

3.4.2 Reverse Noise Rise Capacity Estimation

To approximate the number of users that could be supported by a site while staying below a desired
noise rise limit, the following reverse link capacity equations can be utilized.

A multi-service traffic loading factor, X, can be expressed as follows:

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M
ν( m ) Eb(m)
X = ∑ L ( m ) × ------------------------ × -------------
F × PG ( m ) NT
[EQ 3-45]
m=1
The mean value for the multi-service traffic loading factor, X, is expressed as:
M 2
ν( m ) ( βσ ( m ) )
E[ X ] = ∑ L ( m ) × ------------------------ × exp βε ( m ) + ---------------------
F × PG ( m ) 2
[EQ 3-46]
m=1

The variance for the multi-service traffic loading factor, X, is expressed as:
M 2
ψ( m ) + ( ν( m ) )
Var ( X ) = ∑ - × exp [ 2βε ( m ) + 2 ( βσ ( m ) )2 ]
L( m ) × ----------------------------------
F × ( PG (m ) )
2
[EQ 3-47]
m=1

The following equation provides the distribution of the noise rise, Z, for the multi-service traffic
loading factor, X:

Z = – 10 × Log 10 ( 1 – Pa × Var ( X ) – E [ X ] ) [EQ 3-48]

Where:
M Number of different service-types

L( m ) Traffic load of the mth service-type (in Erlangs)

Eb ( m )
------------- The energy-per-bit to total-interference-density target of the mth service-type
NT

β LN(10)/10

ε( m ) Average Eb/No (dB) of the mth service-type

σ( m ) Eb/No standard deviation, in dB of the mth service-type (to account for
inaccuracies in power control)

ν( m ) Activity Factor of the mth service-type

ψ( m ) Mean Square of Activity Factor of the mth service-type (variance = 0.1)

F A measure of the in-cell to total interference density (own cell plus other cell)

PG ( m) Processing gain (Bandwidth/Information rate) of the mth service

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Z Interference rise (expressed in dB)

Pa Probability factor (inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution) with a
distribution having a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1 (see Figure 3-12)

Briefly looking at Equation 3-46 and Equation 3-47, the average and variance of the loading factor
will increase as the number of users increases. Additionally, as the average and variance values
increase, so does Z, as reflected by Equation 3-48.

In a scenario with multiple services, the equations are a bit more complex than for a single service.
Basically, an average and variance needs to be determined for each service offered. The net rise,
Z, will need to account for all of the users being handled by each service.

3.4.3 Probability Factor

The probability factor (Pa) in Equation 3-48 is used to calculate a percentile noise rise. The
percentile noise rise is used as the interference margin within the RF link budget calculation of cell
range. Therefore, scenarios with different traffic mixes and rise probabilities but with a constant
percentile noise rise will all maintain the same cell range. However, the mean noise rise and cell
capacity (throughput and Erlangs) will vary depending upon the mix of the different services for
the given scenario.

The probability factor is calculated as the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution
with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. Figure 3-12 shows the relationship of the
probability factor with the Probability Density Function (PDF) and the Cumulative Distribution
Function (CDF) for a standard normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.

Figure 3-12: Standard Normal Distribution

1
95%ile
98%ile
0.8 85%ile

75%il
Distribution

0.6

50%ile
0.4

0.2 PDF
CDF

0
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Probability Factor (Pa)

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Table 3-3 provides the probability factor values for some common percentile probability
percentages.

Table 3-3: Probability Factors
Percentile Probability
Probability Factor (Pa)
50% 0
75% 0.6745
85% 1.0364
90% 1.2816
95% 1.6448
98% 2.0537

The rise curves in Figure 3-13 show the 50th (average) and 95th percentile noise rise against cell
loading in terms of the number of users. It can be seen that the 95th percentile noise rise curve rises
faster than the 50th percentile (average) noise rise curve and at the 95th percentile noise rise of 10
dB for the example provided in Figure 3-13 below, the 50th percentile (average) noise rise is
approximately 5 dB. The relationship between a given percentile rise curve and the average rise
curve will be dependent upon what percentile is being represented and also upon the particular call
model traffic mix.

Figure 3-13: Rise and Radius versus Loading Example

25 1

0.9
% of Radius
20 0.8

0.7
95%ile Rise
Relative Radius

15 0.6
Rise (dB)

0.5

10 0.4

0.3

5 0.2

0.1
50%ile (Avg.) Rise
0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Users

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied for the scenario portrayed (i.e. 30 kmph, 100% voice, etc.).

Figure 3-13 also shows how the relative cell range decreases with the increasing number of users.

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A relative range impact of 50% corresponding to a 10 dB 95th percentile noise rise can be observed
from this figure.

3.4.4 Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation Examples

The following section provides two examples of how to use the reverse link noise rise capacity
estimation equations provided in Section 3.4.2. The first example estimates the noise rise for a
single service type of traffic load of voice users only. The second example provides the calculations
required to estimate the noise rise for a multiple service type of traffic load with a mixture of voice
and data users.

3.4.4.1 Example #1: Voice Only

The following example calculates the noise rise for, on average, 20 IS-2000 1X voice users at 9600
bps, in a 3-sectored system with a 95% probability factor. Additional assumptions are provided
below.

Traffic Load:
20 Voice users (average) at 9600 bps

General Assumptions:
• 0.45 = F-factor (3 sector cell site assumed)
• 1.64 = probability factor for 95% (Pa)
• 0.23 = Beta value LN(10)/10 ( β )

Traffic Load Assumptions: Voice @ 9600 bps
• 20 = number of average users at 9600 bps ( L ( m ) )
• 21.1 dB = Processing gain ( PG ( m) ) or 1228800/9600 = 128 linear
• 3.6 dB = average Eb/No for 1% FER with vehicular fading at 30 kmph ( ε ( m ) )
• 2.5 dB = Eb/No standard deviation ( σ ( m ) )
• 0.713 = voice activity factor ( ν ( m ) )
• 0.1 = mean square of activity factor ( ψ ( m ) )

The first step is to calculate the mean value of the traffic loading factor, X, for the 20 average voice
users by using Equation 3-46 (repeated below for reference).

M 2
ν( m ) ( βσ ( m ) )
E[ X ] = ∑ L ( m ) × ------------------------ × exp βε ( m ) + --------------------
F × PG ( m ) 2
-
m=1

Using the input variables from the assumptions above, E[X] is calculated as follows:

2
0.713 ( ( 0.230259 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) )
E [ X ] = 20 × ------------------------- × exp ( 0.230259 ) ⋅ ( 3.6 ) + ---------------------------------------------------
0.45 × 128 2

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E [ X ] = 0.247569 × exp [ 0.994617 ] = 0.247569 × 2.703690 = 0.669351

The next step is to calculate the variance for the traffic loading factor, X, for the 20 average voice
users by using Equation 3-47 (repeated below for reference).

M 2
ψ( m ) + ( ν( m ) )
Var ( X ) = ∑ - × exp [ 2βε ( m ) + 2 ( βσ ( m ) )2 ]
L( m ) × ----------------------------------
F × ( PG (m ) )
2
m=1

2
0.1 + ( 0.713 ) 2
Var ( X ) = 20 × ----------------------------------
2
× exp [ 2 ⋅ ( 0.230259 ) ( 3.6 ) + 2 ⋅ ( ( 0.230259 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) ) ]
0.45 × ( 128 )

Var ( X ) = 0.001650 × exp [ 2.320605 ] = 0.001650 × 10.181831 = 0.016803

The final step is to calculate the noise rise, Z, for the 20 average voice users by using Equation 3-
48 (repeated below for reference).

Z = – 10 × Log 10 ( 1 – Pa × Var ( X ) – E [ X ] )

Z = – 10 × Log 10 ( 1 – 1.644848 × 0.016803 – 0.669351 )

Z = – 10 × Log10 ( 0.117432 ) = 9.30 dB

3.4.4.2 Example #2: Voice and Data Users

The following example calculates the noise rise for a multiple service type traffic load environment
consisting of, on average, 6 IS-2000 1X voice users at 9600 bps, 3 IS-2000 1X data users at 19200
bps, and 1 data user at 38400 bps. Additional assumptions are provided below.

Traffic Load:
6 Voice users (average) at 9600 bps
3 Data users (average) at 19200 bps
1 Data user (average) at 38400 bps

General Assumptions:
• 0.45 = F-factor (3 sector cell site assumed)
• 1.64 = probability factor for 95% (Pa)
• 0.23 = Beta value LN(10)/10 ( β )

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Traffic Load Assumptions: Voice @ 9600 bps
• 6 = number of average users at 9600 bps ( L ( m ) )
• 21.1 dB = Processing gain ( PG ( m) ) or 1228800/9600 = 128 linear
• 3.6 dB = average Eb/No for 1% FER with vehicular fading at 30 kmph ( ε ( m ) )
• 2.5 dB = Eb/No standard deviation ( σ ( m ) )
• 0.713 = voice activity factor ( ν ( m ) )
• 0.1 = mean square of activity factor ( ψ ( m ) )

Traffic Load Assumptions: Data @ 19200 bps
• 3 = number of average users at 19200 bps ( L ( m ) )
• 18.1 dB = Processing gain ( PG ( m) ) or 1228800/19200 = 64 linear
• 3.0 dB = average Eb/No for 5% FER with vehicular fading at 30 kmph ( ε ( m ) )
• 2.5 dB = Eb/No standard deviation ( σ ( m ) )
• 1.0 = data activity factor ( ν ( m ) )
• 0.1 = mean square of activity factor ( ψ ( m ) )

Traffic Load Assumptions: Data @ 38400 bps
• 1 = number of average users at 38400 bps ( L ( m ) )
• 15.1 dB = Processing gain ( PG ( m) ) or 1228800/38400 = 32 linear
• 2.4 dB = average Eb/No for 5% FER with vehicular fading at 30 kmph ( ε ( m ) )
• 2.5 dB = Eb/No standard deviation ( σ ( m ) )
• 1.0 = data activity factor ( ν ( m ) )
• 0.1 = mean square of activity factor ( ψ ( m ) )

The first step is to calculate the mean value of the traffic loading factor for the 6 average voice users
at 9600 bps by using Equation 3-46. Using the input variables from the assumptions above,
E[X]9600 is calculated as follows:

2
0.713 ( ( 0.230259 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) )
E [ X ]9600 = 6 × ------------------------- × exp ( 0.230259 ) ⋅ ( 3.6 ) + ---------------------------------------------------
0.45 × 128 2

E [ X ]9600 = 0.074271 × exp [ 0.994617 ] = 0.074271 × 2.703690 = 0.200805

Now, calculate the mean value of the traffic loading factor for the 3 average data users at 19200
bps by using Equation 3-46. Using the input variables from the assumptions above, E[X]19200 is
calculated as follows:

2
1 ( ( 0.230259 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) )
E [ X ]19200 = 3 × ---------------------- × exp ( 0.230259 ) ⋅ ( 3.0 ) + ---------------------------------------------------
0.45 × 64 2

E [ X ]19200 = 0.104167 × exp [ 0.856462 ] = 0.104167 × 2.354815 = 0.245293

Now, calculate the mean value of the traffic loading factor for the 1 average data user at 38400 bps

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by using Equation 3-46. Using the input variables from the assumptions above, E[X]38400 is
calculated as follows:

2
1 ( ( 0.230259 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) )
E [ X ]38400 = 1 × ---------------------- × exp ( 0.230259 ) ⋅ ( 2.4 ) + ---------------------------------------------------
0.45 × 32 2

E [ X ]38400 = 0.069444 × exp [ 0.718307 ] = 0.069444 × 2.050957 = 0.142428

Finally, calculate the total loading factor E[X]Total for all user types by summing together all of the
individual results.

E [ X ]Total = 0.200805 + 0.245293 + 0.142428 = 0.588526

The next step is to calculate the variance for the traffic loading factor for the 6 average voice users
at 9600 bps by using Equation 3-47. Using the input variables from the assumptions above,
Var(X)9600 is calculated as follows:

2
0.1 + ( 0.713 ) 2
Var ( X ) 9600 = 6 × ---------------------------------2- × exp [ 2 ⋅ ( 0.230259 ) ( 3.6 ) + 2 ⋅ ( ( 0.230259 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) ) ]
0.45 × ( 128 )

Var ( X ) 9600 = 0.000495 × exp [ 2.320605 ] = 0.000495 × 10.181831 = 0.005041

Now, calculate the variance for the traffic loading factor for the 3 average data users at 19200 bps
by using Equation 3-47. Using the input variables from the assumptions above, Var(X)19200 is
calculated as follows:

2
0.1 + ( 1 ) 2
Var ( X )19200 = 3 × -----------------------------2- × exp [ 2 ⋅ ( 0.230259 ) ( 3.0 ) + 2 ⋅ ( ( 0.230259 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) ) ]
0.45 × ( 64 )

Var ( X ) 19200 = 0.001790 × exp [ 2.044294 ] = 0.001790 × 7.723704 = 0.013828

Now, calculate the variance for the traffic loading factor for the 1 average data user at 38400 bps
by using Equation 3-47. Using the input variables from the assumptions above, Var(X)38400 is
calculated as follows:

2
0.1 + ( 1 ) 2
Var ( X )38400 = 1 × -----------------------------2- × exp [ 2 ⋅ ( 0.230259 ) ( 2.4 ) + 2 ⋅ ( ( 0.230259 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) ) ]
0.45 × ( 32 )

Var ( X ) 38400 = 0.002387 × exp [ 1.767983 ] = 0.002387 × 5.859025 = 0.013986

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Finally, calculate the total variance Var(X)Total for all user types by summing together all of the
individual results.

Var ( X ) Total = 0.005041 + 0.013828 + 0.013986 = 0.032856

The final step is to calculate the noise rise, Z, for the total traffic load using a 95% probability factor
by using Equation 3-48 (as shown below).

Z = – 10 × Log10 ( 1 – Pa × Var ( X ) Total – E [ X ]Total )

Z = – 10 × Log 10 ( 1 – 1.644848 × 0.032856 – 0.588526 )

Z = – 10 × Log10 ( 0.113327 ) = 9.46 dB

3.4.5 Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimates for IS-2000 1X

In order to calculate the capacity supported by the air interface in an IS-2000 1X system, it is
important to determine the values of the various factors that affect the capacity. The IS-2000 1X
reverse link capacity estimates (throughput and Erlangs) provided in this document are based on
the reverse link noise rise capacity estimation equations provided in Section 3.4.2 and utilizing the
parameter value assumptions that follow.

The following are the assumptions for the various IS-2000 1X parameter values to be applied to
the reverse link noise rise capacity estimation equations.

3.4.5.1 Noise Rise

For the purpose of determining capacity estimates, a 10 dB maximum noise rise value was selected.
Additionally, each rise has a probability factor, Pa, associated with it. The following table provides
some of the recommended noise rise values and probability factors used for this exercise.

Table 3-4: Interference Rise Scenarios
Percentile Associated
Probability (Pa) Noise Rise (Z)
90% 10 dB
95% 10 dB
98% 10 dB

Since the probability factor is associated with a normal distribution, the 50% probability factor
implies an average noise rise value. Therefore, for the scenarios where the probability factor is
greater than 50%, the average noise rise will be less than the rise value shown. This can be
illustrated further through Figure 3-12, where the 50% probability factor is associated with the
average point in the normal distribution curve. However, a higher probability factor would be

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associated with a value that is greater than the average value.

The capacity tables shown in Section 3.4.5.9 provide both the capacity (in Erlangs and throughput)
and the average rise values associated with a 10 dB peak noise rise for the 90%, 95%, and 98%
probability factors. Typical RF designs should strive to keep the peak percentile probability reverse
noise rise value less than 10 dB.

Various probability factors were used in scenarios to estimate the capacity for aggressive (90%),
moderate (95%), or conservative (98%) cases. Additionally, a rise value of less than 10 dB can be
used to demonstrate the impact on capacity, in order to trade capacity for increased reverse link
coverage.

In all of the test cases, the cell loading is considered uniform in each sector (homogeneous network)
and as such the rise is the same across each cell. In practice, the non-homogeneous nature of cell
loading will mean that an individual cell may be able to cope with a peak load higher than the
homogeneous case.

3.4.5.2 F-factor

F-factor is the ratio of own cell interference to own cell plus other cell interference. Simulations
have shown that the F-factor varies with the antenna types and propagation index. For this exercise,
the following F-factors have been assumed:

Table 3-5: F-factor
Site Type F-factor
Omni 0.60
3-Sector 0.45
6-Sector 0.40

In looking at Equation 3-46 and Equation 3-47, the number of users is proportional to the F-factor
in order to maintain the same average and variance load factors. That is, an increase to the F-factor
(out of cell interference is reduced compared to own cell interference) will result in an increase in
the number of users. A decrease to the F-factor, implying out of cell interference is more prevalent,
will result in a decrease to the number of users.1

1. Additional information showing the relationship of the F-factor to the antenna type and propagation index
can be found in the following references.

a. R.H. Owen, Phil Jones, Shirin Dehgan, Dave Lister, "Uplink WCDMA capacity and range as a function of
inter-to-intra cell interference: theory and practice", pp. 298-302, VTC 2000.

b. Szu-Wei Wang and Irving Wang, "Effects of Soft Handoff, Frequency Reuse and Non-Ideal Antenna Sec-
torization on CDMA System Capacity", pp. 850-854, IEEE 1993.

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3.4.5.3 Average Eb/No

Eb/No is defined as energy per bit to the noise spectral density. The appropriate value for the
required Eb/No is such that the desired bit, block, or frame erasure rate of the received signal is
achieved. This gives an indication of the lowest signal strength that the receiver can detect above
a certain noise level. Such items as the subscriber speed, the propagation environment, and power
control impact the required Eb/No.

The Eb/No numbers used for each data rate in this document are typical numbers that are used for
dimensioning purposes. The Eb/No values were obtained from reverse link level simulations. The
Eb/No values used for this exercise are shown in Table 3-6.

The link level simulations used to generate the Eb/No values utilized the following assumptions:

• Two receive antennas
• Eb/No values are per antenna
• The power control bit error rate of 4% used
• 1900 MHz

In looking at Equation 3-46 and Equation 3-47 again, the number of users is inversely proportional
to the Eb/No in order to maintain the same average and variance load factor. That is, an increase in
the Eb/No will result in a decrease in the number of users. A decrease to the Eb/No will result in an
increase to the number of users.

3.4.5.4 Eb/No Standard Deviation

A standard deviation of 2.5 dB on the Eb/No is assumed for each rate. This standard deviation for
the Eb/No is used to adjust the average Eb/No to compensate for imperfect power control in the real
world environment.

The number of users is inversely proportional to the Eb/No standard deviation in order to maintain
the same average and variance load factor. That is, an increase in the Eb/No standard deviation will
result in a decrease in the number of users. A decrease to the Eb/No standard deviation will result
in an increase to the number of users.

The Eb/No standard deviation has been assumed to be the same for each data rate. In a real world
situation this may not be the case, but for an estimate of the capacity (as used for this exercise), one
value has been assumed for all services.

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3.4.5.5 Processing Gain

The processing gain is the ratio of the chip rate to the bit rate. For IS-2000 1X, the chip rate is equal
to 1.2288 x 106 chips/s. The calculation of the processing gain in linear and in dB units are provided
below.

Processing Gain linear = W ⁄ R

Processing Gain db = 10 × Log 10 ( W ⁄ R )

Where:
W Bandwidth (1.2288 Mcps for IS-2000 1X)

R Information rate

The following table provides a summary of the Eb/No, Eb/No Standard Deviation, and the
processing gain values used for the various data rates that were analyzed.

Table 3-6: IS-2000 1X Average Eb/No Values
Bearer Rate Data Rate FER Eb/No (dB) Eb/No Std. Proc. Gain
(bits/s) (bits/s) 3 kmph 30 kmph Dev. (dB) (dB)
8600 9600 1% 2.56 3.60 2.5 21.1
14400 19200 5% 0.76 3.00 2.5 18.1
32000 38400 5% 0.12 2.40 2.5 15.1
64000 76800 5% -0.36 2.24 2.5 12.0
128800 153600 5% -0.65 1.40 2.5 9.0

Recall that the Eb/No values shown in the above table were obtained from reverse link level
simulations and represent typical values that are used for dimensioning purposes. The Eb/No values
will vary based on the subscriber speed, propagation conditions, percent FER, etc. For detailed
capacity and coverage results, Motorola recommends using the NetPlan simulation tool. This
simulation tool incorporates a family of Eb/No curves as opposed to only a few Eb/No values.

The bearer rate data in Table 3-6 represents a data link layer rate from the subscriber’s perspective.
It does not include any overhead (RLP, framing, etc.). The bearer rates in Table 3-6 are used in the
calculation of the throughput capacity (see Section 3.4.5.8).

3.4.5.6 Activity Factor

The activity factor is defined as the percentage of time that a user transmits on an active traffic
channel. With IS-95, a typical industry accepted voice activity factor was 40%. This roughly
equated to 32% of the time the user was at full rate and 68% of the time the user was at eighth rate.
With IS-2000 1X, the voice activity factor needs to be adjusted to account for the reverse pilot

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channel and for CRCs being sent at eighth rate. The following calculation provides the adjustment
for these factors.

( – 3.75 ⁄ 10 )
0.32 + 0.68 ⁄ 6.4 + 0.68 ⋅ 10 = 0.713

For IS-2000 1X, the extra CRC bits being sent produces an effective eighth rate of 1500 bps. The
(0.68/6.4) term accounts for the extra CRC bits (where 9600/1500 = 6.4). The (0.68 x 10(-3.75/10))
term accounts for the reverse pilot overhead channel.

It should be noted that this adjusted activity factor is utilized in the capacity equation as a means
to derate the capacity due to the reverse pilot overhead channel and CRC bits. In converting the
voice users to an equivalent throughput, the voice activity factor of 40% (0.4) is used.

For the capacity results provided in this section, two different data activity factors (0.9 and 0.2) are
assumed to show the impact of a high and low data activity factor user type.

The number of users is inversely proportional to the activity factor in order to maintain the same
average and variance load factor. That is, an increase in the activity factor will result in a decrease
in the number of users. A decrease to the activity factor will result in an increase to the number of
users.

3.4.5.7 Traffic Mix

Four different traffic mix scenarios were analyzed as reflected in the following table.

Table 3-7: Traffic Mix
Scenario Bearer Service
Voice (8.6 kbps) 64 kbps 128.8 kbps
A 100% - -
B 80% 20% -
C 50% 40% 10%
D 10% 60% 30%

The percentage of users can be interpreted, for example, as follows. In Scenario A, 100% of the
users are voice users at 8.6 kbps. In this scenario, all users in the network are continuously
transmitting at the relevant voice activity and at the required power to reach their respective Eb/No
value. For Scenario C, 50% of the users are voice users at 8.6 kbps, 40% of the users are using 64
kbps, and the remaining 10% of the users are at 128.8 kbps.

3.4.5.8 Throughput Capacity

With multiple rate high-speed data services being introduced into the call model traffic mix, the
capacity of a cell/sector should now be quantified with a throughput value in addition to the number
of Erlangs. For the capacity analysis results provided below, the estimated throughput capacity is

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calculated by multiplying the bearer rate, the activity factor, and the number of supported users
(continuously transmitting users) together.

For a single data rate user example, consider scenario A with a rise of 10 dB and a probability factor
of 95% (see Table 3-8). The voice rate assumed is 8.6 kbps and as such, approximately 27 Erlangs
at the pedestrian speed can be supported in a single sector of a 3-sectored cell. This corresponds to
a throughput capacity of approximately 93 kbps / sector (8.6 kbps x 0.40 AF x 27 Erlangs). As
stated previously (see Section 3.4.5.6), an adjusted activity factor is utilized in the capacity
equation as a means to derate the capacity due to the reverse pilot overhead channel and extra CRC
bits. In converting the voice users to an equivalent throughput capacity, the non-adjusted voice
activity factor of 40% (0.4) is used for the throughput calculation, instead of the adjusted activity
factor of approximately 71.3% (as calculated in Section 3.4.5.6).

For a multiple data rate mixture of users, the throughput capacity is calculated for each individual
data rate user type and then summed together. For example, consider traffic mix scenario C with a
probability of 95% and a data activity factor of 20%. From the results in Table 3-8, an estimated
19.3 Erlangs at the pedestrian speed can be supported in a single sector of a 3-sectored cell with a
total throughput of 182 kbps. The traffic distribution for scenario C is 50% for 8.6 kbps voice users,
40% for 64.0 kbps data users, and 10% for 128.8 kbps data users. According to the traffic
distribution of scenario C, the throughput capacity is calculated as follows.

8.6 kbps Voice User Thruput = 8.6 kbps x 0.4 AF x (19.3 x 0.5) Erlangs = 33.2 kbps
64.0 kbps Data User Thruput = 64.0 kbps x 0.2 AF x (19.3 x 0.4) Erlangs = 98.8 kbps
128.8 kbps Data User Thruput = 128.8 kbps x 0.2 AF x (19.3 x 0.1) Erlangs = 49.7 kbps
Total Throughput = 181.7 kbps

3.4.5.9 IS-2000 1X Reverse Noise Rise Capacity Analysis Results

The following two tables provide capacity values (expressed as kbps throughput and Erlangs) per
sector for the various scenarios assuming an interference rise limit of 10 dB but with varying levels
of probability. For the traffic mix scenarios which include data users (Scenarios B, C, and D),
capacity results for two different Data Activity Factors (AF) are provided. A 90% Data AF is used
to estimate the results of high data activity factor users such as a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) user.
A 20% Data AF is used to estimate the results of lower data activity factor users such as a Low
Speed Packet Data (LSPD) or a High Speed Packet Data (HSPD) user. All of the traffic mix
scenarios in Table 3-8 below assume pedestrian (3 kmph) Eb/No values.

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Table 3-8: Reverse Capacity per Sector for Various Probabilities of Rise - Pedestrian
Scenario Rise Data Avg Rise Throughput (kbps/Sector) Erlangs/Sector
Probability AF (dB) Omni 3-Sector 6-Sector Omni 3-Sector 6-Sector
A 98% N/A 4.7 117 88 78 33.6 25.2 22.4
95% N/A 5.3 124 93 83 35.7 26.8 23.8
90% N/A 5.9 131 98 88 37.7 28.3 25.1
B 98% 90% 3.3 209 156 139 14.6 10.9 9.7
98% 20% 4.2 163 122 109 30.5 22.9 20.3
95% 90% 3.8 232 174 154 16.2 12.1 10.8
95% 20% 4.8 175 132 117 32.8 24.6 21.9
90% 90% 4.5 254 191 170 17.8 13.3 11.9
90% 20% 5.4 187 140 125 35.0 26.3 23.4
C 98% 90% 2.6 234 176 156 6.4 4.8 4.3
98% 20% 3.4 220 165 147 23.3 17.5 15.5
95% 90% 3.1 268 201 179 7.4 5.5 4.9
95% 20% 3.9 243 182 162 25.8 19.3 17.2
90% 90% 3.8 303 227 202 8.3 6.2 5.5
90% 20% 4.6 266 200 177 28.2 21.1 18.8
D 98% 90% 2.3 241 181 161 3.5 2.6 2.3
98% 20% 2.8 266 200 177 16.9 12.7 11.3
95% 90% 2.9 279 210 186 4.0 3.0 2.7
95% 20% 3.4 301 226 201 19.1 14.3 12.7
90% 90% 3.5 320 240 213 4.6 3.4 3.1
90% 20% 4.0 336 252 224 21.4 16.0 14.2

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All of the traffic mix scenarios in Table 3-9 below assume vehicular (30 kmph) Eb/No values.

Table 3-9: Reverse Capacity per Sector for Various Probabilities of Rise - Vehicle
Scenario Rise Data Avg. Rise Throughput (kbps/Sector) Erlangs/Sector
Probability AF (dB) Omni 3-Sector 6-Sector Omni 3-Sector 6-Sector
A 98% N/A 4.4 89 67 59 25.5 19.1 17.0
95% N/A 5.0 95 71 63 27.3 20.4 18.2
90% N/A 5.6 101 76 67 29.0 21.7 19.3
B 98% 90% 2.4 108 81 72 7.5 5.6 5.0
98% 20% 3.5 104 78 69 19.4 14.6 12.9
95% 90% 3.0 124 93 83 8.7 6.5 5.8
95% 20% 4.0 114 86 76 21.4 16.0 14.3
90% 90% 3.6 141 106 94 9.9 7.4 6.6
90% 20% 4.7 125 94 83 23.3 17.5 15.6
C 98% 90% 2.0 113 85 75 3.1 2.3 2.1
98% 20% 2.7 120 90 80 12.8 9.6 8.5
95% 90% 2.5 134 101 89 3.7 2.8 2.5
95% 20% 3.2 137 103 92 14.6 10.9 9.7
90% 90% 3.1 157 118 105 4.3 3.2 2.9
90% 20% 3.8 155 116 103 16.4 12.3 10.9
D 98% 90% 1.8 114 86 76 1.6 1.2 1.1
98% 20% 2.2 132 99 88 8.4 6.3 5.6
95% 90% 2.3 138 103 92 2.0 1.5 1.3
95% 20% 2.7 154 116 103 9.8 7.4 6.5
90% 90% 2.8 163 122 109 2.3 1.8 1.6
90% 20% 3.3 178 133 119 11.3 8.5 7.5

The results in Table 3-8 and Table 3-9 show the capacity estimates for an IS-2000 1X reverse link
under the stated configurations, assumptions, and parameter values. As shown above, the capacity
estimate can vary greatly depending upon the parameter values that are chosen. Although the
stated assumptions and parameter values used for this exercise are deemed to be realistic, the
accuracy of the capacity estimate is highly dependent upon the accuracy of the assumptions and
parameter values used for the capacity estimate.

With new higher data rate services being introduced (via IS-95B or IS-2000), it is expected that the
forward link will require higher data downloads than the reverse link. As a result, the forward link
is also expected to be the limiting path from a capacity perspective. Even though the forward link
may be the limiting factor of capacity for some systems, it may still be appropriate to use the
previous reverse link capacity estimates to approximate the CDMA carrier capacity under the
given assumptions and conditions. In many instances, the capacity analysis results of the reverse
link can sometimes provide an adequate budgetary estimate for the CDMA carrier. Ultimately,
simulations should be used (i.e. using NetPlan) to obtain more accurate capacity estimations.
Simulations can take into account many variable elements for which a general reverse or forward

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link capacity equation cannot adequately model (i.e. non uniform traffic and speed distributions,
non uniform cell site layouts, propagation characteristics for a specific area, multiple subscriber
classes with various call models, combined forward and reverse link analysis, etc.).

As a point of reference, the CDMA Development Group (CDG) has published a report2 with
simulation results for voice users showing 29.9 Erlangs for the reverse link and 23.6 Erlangs for
the forward link. These capacity values were based on a generic 37 site system. Furthermore, the
sites were three-sector and a vehicular fading model was assumed.

The following figure shows the relationship between the reverse link noise rise and the throughput
for several probability curves. The input parameters used to create the figure are shown below. The
50%-ile curve corresponds to the average rise.

Figure 3-14: Reverse Link Rise vs. Throughput

10

8
Noise Rise (dB)

6

4

2

0
0 50 100 150 200 250

Throughput (Kbps)

98% 95% 90% 85% 75% 50%

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters:
• Traffic mix = Scenario B
• Voice activity factor = 57.6%
• Data activity factor = 100%

2. CDG Evolution Study Report, Revision 4.01, January 10,2000

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• Mean square of activity factor = 0.1 dB
• F-factor = 0.45 (3-sector cell site configuration)
• Vehicular (30 kmph) Eb/No assumptions from Table 3-6 were used
• Eb/No standard deviation = 2.5 dB

The following figure shows the relationship between reverse link noise rise and Erlangs of various
data rates. The input parameters used to create the figure are shown below.

Figure 3-15: Reverse Link Rise vs. Erlangs for Different Data Rates
10
9
8
7
Noise Rise (dB)

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Erlangs
Voice @ 9600 Data @ 19200 Data @ 38400 Data @ 76800 Data @ 153600

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters:
• Voice and data activity factor = 57.6%
• Mean square of activity factor = 0.1 dB
• F-factor = 0.45 (3-sector cell site configuration)
• Probability factor = 95%
• Vehicular (30 kmph) Eb/No assumptions from Table 3-6 were used
• Eb/No standard deviation = 2.5 dB

The curves in the figure above show the significant impact that data users can have on the capacity
of a system. The voice and data activity factors were purposely set to the same value in order to
reflect the capacity impact of just varying the data rate.

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The following figure shows the relationship between the reverse link total throughput and total
Erlangs with respect to the data activity factor. The input parameters used to create the figure are
shown below.

Figure 3-16: Reverse Link Total Erlangs & Throughput vs. Data Activity Factor
30.0 120

25.0 100

Total Thruput (Kbps)
20.0 80
Total Erlangs

15.0 60

10.0 40

5.0 20

0.0 0
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

Data Activity Factor

Total Thruput Total Erlangs

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters:
• Traffic mix = Scenario B
• Peak noise rise = 10 dB
• Probability factor = 95%
• Voice activity factor = 57.6%
• Mean square of activity factor = 0.1 dB
• F-factor = 0.45 (3-sector cell site configuration)
• Vehicular (30 kmph) Eb/No assumptions from Table 3-6 were used
• Eb/No standard deviation = 2.5 dB

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3.5 Forward Link Pole Capacity Estimation

Forward link (downlink) capacity calculations are similar to the reverse link calculations in that the
ratio of energy per bit over the interference density for each subscriber needs to be calculated. The
nature of the interference is slightly different in that the pilot, page and synchronization channels
need to be considered as interference. Therefore the capacity of the forward link is dependent upon
the strength of these channels. Another factor that may need to be considered in the calculation of
forward link capacity is the total amount of base station transmission power required. By using the
appropriate input parameters, the following approach can be applied towards both types of systems
(IS-95 and IS-2000 1X).

3.5.1 Forward Link Load Factor Estimation

A forward link load factor, η FL , can be defined in a similar approach as the reverse link pole
capacity equations, although some of the parameters are slightly different. The following equation
can be used to represent the forward link load factor.

N
( E b ⁄ No ) j
η FL = ∑ ν j ⋅ ---------------------- ⋅ [ ( 1 – α j ) + i j ]
W ⁄ Rj
[EQ 3-49]
j=1

Where:
η FL Forward link load factor

N Number of connections per cell

νj Activity factor of user j

( Eb ⁄ N o )j Signal energy per bit divided by noise spectral density of user j

W Bandwidth of the channel

Rj Data rate of user j

αj Orthogonality of the channel of user j

ij Ratio of out of cell to in cell base station power received by user j

When compared to the reverse link equations, the primary new parameter is α j , which represents
the orthogonality factor for the forward link users. Since the forward link employs orthogonal
codes to separate the users, multipath propagation can cause sufficient delay spread in the radio
channel which produces interference. Thus, the orthogonality factor is used to estimate the amount
of interference created by the multipath propagation environment, where a value of 1 corresponds

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to perfectly orthogonal users and a value of 0 corresponds to no orthogonality. Typically, the
orthogonality factor is between 0.4 and 0.9 for multipath channels.

For the forward link, the ratio of out of cell to in cell base station power received, i j , is dependent
upon the individual user location and is therefore different for each user.

3.5.2 Forward Link Pole Capacity Estimation

When the forward link load factor approaches unity, the system reaches its pole capacity and the
noise rise over thermal goes to infinity. The forward link noise rise pole capacity can be represented
by the following equation:

Z = – 10Log 10 ( 1 – η FL ) [EQ 3-50]

Where:
Z Noise rise (dB)

η FL Forward link load factor (see Equation 3-49)

The forward link noise rise pole capacity equation can be used to estimate the noise rise over
thermal noise due to multiple access interference. This is similar to the reverse link equation (see
Equation 3-44) and has the same characteristics as shown in Figure 3-11.

For forward link dimensioning, it is important to take into account the total amount of base station
transmission power required. The power estimate should be based on the average transmission
power for the user and not the maximum transmission power for a user at the cell edge which is
typically shown by the link budget. The total base station transmission power for a user at an
‘average’ location within the cell can be mathematically expressed by the following equation.

N
( E b ⁄ No ) j
N rf ⋅ W ⋅ L ⋅∑ j ----------------------
ν ⋅
W ⁄ Rj
j = 1
BS_Tx_Power = ----------------------------------------------------------------------- [EQ 3-51]
1 – η FL

Where:
N rf Noise spectral density of the subscriber receiver front-end or N rf = k ⋅ T + NF ,
– 23
where k is Boltzmann’s constant ( 1.38 ⋅ 10 ) J/K, T is temperature in degrees
Kelvin (290 K), and NF is the subscriber station noise figure

L Average attenuation between the base station transmitter and the subscriber
station receiver

η FL Average load factor using Equation 3-49 with average values for αj and i j

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When using Equation 3-51, the power impacts of the forward link common channels (pilot, page,
sync, quick paging channel, etc.) and cable losses should be accounted for in the BS_Tx_Power
allocation.

3.6 Forward Link Fractional Power Capacity Estimation

For the forward link of a CDMA cell site, there is a fixed amount of power that is allocated for a
CDMA carrier on a per-cell/per-sector basis. Since this is a fixed resource, an alternate method for
estimating forward link capacity is to normalize this fixed power resource and estimate the
fractional amount of power required for the average user while taking several factors into account
(i.e. distribution of users with 1-way, 2-way, & 3-way links, other cell interference, overhead
channel power, required Eb/Nt, forward power control error, activity factor, etc.).

The following equation represents a first order approximation of the forward link capacity using a
fractional power approach:

( 1 – ζpps )
N < -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [EQ 3-52]
Veff ( 3S 3way ζ3way + 2S 2way ζ 2way + S 1way ζ 1way )

Where:
N Traffic load supported (in Erlangs)

V eff Effective Voice or Data Activity

ζpps Fraction of total cell power for pilot, page, and sync

S iway Fraction of users in i-way handoff

ζiway Fraction of allocated cell power for each i-way link

The next step is to provide a more detailed estimate for the fraction of allocated cell power for each
i-way link.

Eb
 -------------- + FPC error ⁄ 10
 Nt iway 
( I on ( i ) – λ ( i ) ) ⋅ 10
ςi – way = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- [EQ 3-53]
W
i ⋅ λ ( i ) ⋅ -----
R

Where:
Ion ( i ) Total normalized interference seen by i-way user

λ(i) Fraction of recovered power by i-way connection

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Eb
--------------
- Energy per bit per thermal noise power spectral density per i-way connection
Nt iway

FPCerror Forward power control error in dB

W Bandwidth of channel

R Data rate

The final step is to provide a more detailed estimate for the total normalized interference as seen
by each i-way user.

I on ( i ) = i + δ ⋅ I ocn( i ) [EQ 3-54]

Where:
δ Adjacent carrier(s) noise factor

Iocn ( i ) Other cell (not including adjacent carrier) normalized interference

For the following examples, the values from Table 3-10 below (0 adjacent carriers is assumed) are
entered into Equation 3-52, Equation 3-53, and Equation 3-54 in order to estimate the forward link
capacity for a Rate Set 1 and Rate Set 2 system.

Table 3-10: Example of Parameter Values
Parameter 1-way 2-way 3-way
S iway 0.40 0.35 0.25
I ocn ( i ) 0.134 0.30 0.30
λ(i) 0.92 0.92 0.80
E b ⁄ Ntiway for 13 kb 15.5 dB 9 dB 7 dB
E b ⁄ Ntiway for 8 kb 13 dB 7 dB 5 dB
FPC error 1.2 dB (for 13 kb) or 1.5 dB (for 8 kb)
ζ pps 0.37
W⁄R 85.33 (for 13 kb) or 128 (for 8 kb)
V eff 0.48 (for 13 kb) or 0.56 (for 8 kb)
δ 1.00 (for 0 adjacent carrier),
(assume 2% per carrier) 1.02 (for 1 adjacent carrier),
1.04 (for 2 adjacent carriers)

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The following examples assume no adjacent carrier interference ( δ = 1.00).

Example #1: Rate Set 1

1. Estimate for the total normalized interference as seen by each i-way user.

Ion ( 1 ) = 1 + 1 ⋅ 0.134 = 1.134

Ion ( 2 ) = 2 + 1 ⋅ 0.3 = 2.3

Ion ( 3 ) = 3 + 1 ⋅ 0.3 = 3.3

2. Estimate the fraction of allocated cell power for each i-way link.

( 13 + 1.5 ) ⁄ 10
( 1.134 – 0.92 ) ⋅ 10
ς 1 – way = ------------------------------------------------------------------------ = 0.0512
1 ⋅ 0.92 ⋅ 128
( 7 + 1.5 ) ⁄ 10
( 2.3 – 0.92 ) ⋅ 10
ς 2 – way = ---------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.0415
2 ⋅ 0.92 ⋅ 128
( 5 + 1.5 ) ⁄ 10
( 3.3 – 0.8 ) ⋅ 10
ς 3 – way = ------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.0364
2 ⋅ 0.8 ⋅ 128

3. Estimate the first order approximation of the forward link capacity using a fractional power
approach.

( 1 – 0.37 )
N < ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 14.6 Erlangs
0.56 ⋅ ( 3 ⋅ 0.25 ⋅ 0.0364 + 2 ⋅ 0.35 ⋅ 0.0415 + 0.40 ⋅ 0.0512 )

Example #2: Rate Set 2

1. Estimate for the total normalized interference as seen by each i-way user (same for Rate Set 1).

Ion ( 1 ) = 1 + 1 ⋅ 0.134 = 1.134

Ion ( 2 ) = 2 + 1 ⋅ 0.3 = 2.3

Ion ( 3 ) = 3 + 1 ⋅ 0.3 = 3.3

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2. Estimate the fraction of allocated cell power for each i-way link.

( 15.5 + 1.2 ) ⁄ 10
( 1.134 – 0.92 ) ⋅ 10
ς 1 – way = --------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.1275
1 ⋅ 0.92 ⋅ 85.33
( 9 + 1.2 ) ⁄ 10
( 2.3 – 0.92 ) ⋅ 10
ς 2 – way = ---------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.0920
2 ⋅ 0.92 ⋅ 85.33
( 7 + 1.2 ) ⁄ 10
( 3.3 – 0.8 ) ⋅ 10
ς 3 – way = ------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.0807
2 ⋅ 0.8 ⋅ 85.33

3. Estimate the first order approximation of the forward link capacity using a fractional power
approach.

( 1 – 0.37 )
N < ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 7.5 Erlangs
0.48 ⋅ ( 3 ⋅ 0.25 ⋅ 0.0807 + 2 ⋅ 0.35 ⋅ 0.0920 + 0.40 ⋅ 0.1275 )

3.7 Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation
The amount of noise rise (interference) that can be tolerated by the CDMA subscriber will place a
limit upon how many users can be supported by the forward link. As the number of users served
by the forward link is increased, the level of noise rise seen by the subscribers will be increased
due to the additional energy being transmitted by the site to support all of the subscribers. The cell
capacity is determined by calculating the number of users required to produce a maximum accepted
noise rise. This section is similar to Section 3.4 for the reverse link except it is being applied to the
forward link.

This section provides a method of estimating the noise rise for a particular user type. The
estimating approach will also allow the calculation of the total noise rise for multiple user types.
As a result, the noise rise estimation approach provided in this section is better suited to estimate
the capacity of a system which utilizes multiple user types (i.e. multiple data rates). Although this
capacity estimation approach can be applied towards both IS-95 and IS-2000 systems, it may be
more appropriate in estimating the capacity of an IS-2000 system, where it is more common to
support different user type profiles utilizing different data rates.

For IS-2000 systems, it is important to note that the capacity estimation calculation provided in this
section does not account for the dynamic resource allocation capabilities of an IS-2000 1X packet
data system. Within the IS-2000 1X infrastructure, the subscriber will be assigned supplemental
channel resources based upon several criteria (e.g. the demand requirements for the amount of data
to be transmitted, RF capacity availability, Walsh code resource availability, etc.). The allocation
of these IS-2000 1X supplemental channel resources are also dynamically adjusted throughout the
duration of the packet data call. The capacity estimation calculation provided in this section treats
a packet data user more like a circuit data user. The capacity formulas provided imply a fixed
resource allocation where there are X users at 9.6 kbps, Y users at 19.2 kbps, Z users at 38.4 kbps,
etc. As a result, the capacity obtained from the capacity estimation approach may differ from that

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of an actual IS-2000 1X system. For a more accurate estimation of packet data services, it is
recommended to utilize a simulation tool which simulates the dynamic resource allocation
capabilities of an IS-2000 1X system. The time-sliced simulation function of the NetPlan tool can
be used for this purpose. See Section 3.12 for more information on the simulation capabilities of
the NetPlan tool.

Another aspect of the forward link capacity is the amount of base station transmission power
required. As the subscriber unit experiences more interference, it will request more power from its
serving base station to compensate for increased interference. Therefore, the transmission power
limitations of the base station may place an upper limit on the forward capacity available.

3.7.1 Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Limit

The forward link pole capacity is considered to be the point where additional power from the BTSs
to support an additional user will cause the noise rise within the subscriber unit to increase
exponentially. This will create an unstable situation where user connections may be lost and the
network grade of service will be severely degraded.

The forward link noise rise pole capacity can be represented by the same equation that is provided
in Equation 3-50. A graph of the forward noise rise pole capacity equation is the same as the one
for the reverse noise rise pole capacity equation which is shown in Figure 3-11.

In order to estimate the capacity from a number of users perspective, a forward noise rise capacity
limit must be selected. For CDMA RF system designs (for both IS-95A/B and IS-2000), a peak
noise rise of 10 dB is recommended to be the maximum that a system should tolerate (which is the
same limit for the reverse link). In order to account for the noise rise generated by the pilot, page,
and sync overhead channels for the forward link, a de-rating of the noise rise limit is recommended
as follows.

Assumptions:
Pilot = 20% of total power at maximum capacity
Page = 75% of the pilot power
Sync = 10% of the pilot power
PPStotal = 20% (for pilot) + 20% x 75% (for paging) + 20% x 10% (for sync) = 37%

Noise Rise De-rating:
PPStotal = 37% of total power at maximum capacity
Total User Capacity = 100% - 37% = 63% of total power at maximum capacity
10 dB noise rise limit = 10(10/10) = 10 linear units
De-rated Noise Rise Limit = 10 x 63% = 6.3 linear = 10log(6.3) = ~8.0 dB

Thus, the recommended de-rated peak noise rise limit is 8 dB. The average noise rise would be
several dB below this peak value. It is important to note that the 8 dB noise rise limit is a peak value
which is associated with a certain probability factor (see Equation 3-48 and Section 3.4.3). The
recommended probability factors associated with the 8 dB peak noise rise recommendation are as
follows.

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• 8 dB noise rise with a 90% probability factor (for aggressive capacity results)
• 8 dB noise rise with a 95% probability factor (for moderate capacity results)
• 8 dB noise rise with a 98% probability factor (for conservative capacity results)

Although the above recommendation provides some flexibility in selecting a probability factor, the
8 dB noise rise with a 95% probability factor is the typical limit that is normally recommended.

3.7.2 Forward Noise Rise Capacity Estimation

To approximate the number of users that could be supported by a site while staying below a desired
noise rise limit, the following forward link capacity equations can be utilized.

A multi-service traffic loading factor, X, can be expressed as follows:
M
ν( m) Eb( m)
X = ∑ L ( m ) × -------------- × ------------- × [ ( 1 – α( m ) ) + i( m) ]
PG ( m) NT
[EQ 3-55]
m=1
The mean value for the multi-service traffic loading factor, X, is expressed as:
M 2
ν( m) ( βσ ( m ) )
E[ X ] = ∑ L ( m ) × -------------- × exp βε ( m ) + --------------------
PG ( m ) 2
- × [ ( 1 – α( m ) ) + i ( m ) ] [EQ 3-56]
m=1

The variance for the multi-service traffic loading factor, X, is expressed as:
M 2
ψ ( m ) + ( ν( m ) )
Var ( X ) = ∑ - × exp [ 2βε ( m ) + 2 ( βσ( m ) )2 ] × [ ( 1 – α ( m ) ) + i ( m ) ] [EQ 3-57]
L ( m ) × ----------------------------------
( PG (m ) )
2
m=1

The following equation provides the distribution of the noise rise, Z, for the multi-service traffic
loading factor, X (which is the same equation provided for the reverse link, Equation 3-48):

Z = – 10 × Log 10 ( 1 – Pa × Var ( X ) – E [ X ] ) [EQ 3-58]

Where:
M Number of different service-types

L( m ) Traffic load of the mth service-type (in Erlangs)

Eb ( m )
------------- The energy-per-bit to total-interference-density target of the mth service-type
NT

β LN(10)/10

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ε( m ) Average Eb/No (dB) of the mth service-type

σ( m ) Eb/No standard deviation, in dB of the mth service-type (to account for
inaccuracies in power control)

ν( m ) Activity Factor of the mth service-type

ψ( m ) Mean Square of Activity Factor of the mth service-type (variance = 0.1)

α( m ) Orthogonality of the channel of the mth service-type

i( m ) Ratio of out of cell to in cell base station power received by the mth service-type,
InCell 1 1
where I = -------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------ = -----------
InCell + OutCell OutCell 1 + i
1 + ---------------------
InCell
Note: The terms I and i are equivalent to the terms F and f for the reverse link (see
Equation 3-13), but from a forward link perspective. For the forward link, the
ratio of out of cell to in cell base station power received, i ( m ) , is dependent upon
the individual user location and is therefore different for each user.

PG ( m) Processing gain (Bandwidth/Information rate) of the mth service

Z Interference rise (expressed in dB)

Pa Probability factor (inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution) with a
distribution having a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1 (see Section 3.4.3
for more details regarding the probability factor)

In a scenario with multiple services, the equations are a bit more complex than for a single service.
Basically, an average and variance needs to be determined for each service offered. The net rise,
Z, will need to account for all of the users being handled by each service.

3.7.3 Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation Examples

The following section provides two examples of how to use the forward link noise rise capacity
estimation equations provided in Section 3.7.2. The first example estimates the noise rise for a
single service type of traffic load of voice users only. The second example provides the calculations
required to estimate the noise rise for a multiple service type of traffic load with a mixture of voice
and data users.

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3.7.3.1 Example #1: Voice Only

The following example calculates the noise rise for, on average, 16.3 IS-2000 1X voice users at
9600 bps, in a 3-sectored system with a 95% probability factor. Additional assumptions are
provided below.

Traffic Load:
16.3 Voice users (average) at 9600 bps

General Assumptions:
1 1
• 0.45 = I-factor (3 sector), where i ( m ) = --- – 1 = ---------- – 1
I 0.45
• 1.64 = probability factor for 95% (Pa)
• 0.23 = Beta value LN(10)/10 ( β )

Traffic Load Assumptions: Voice @ 9600 bps
• 16.3 = number of average users at 9600 bps ( L ( m ) )
• 21.1 dB = Processing gain ( PG ( m) ) or 1228800/9600 = 128 linear
• 6.34 dB = average Eb/No for 1% FER with vehicular fading at 30 kmph ( ε ( m ) )
• 2.5 dB = Eb/No standard deviation ( σ ( m ) )
• 0.56 = voice activity factor ( ν ( m ) )
• 0.1 = mean square of activity factor ( ψ ( m ) )
• 0.6 = Orthogonality factor ( α( m ) )

The first step is to calculate the mean value of the traffic loading factor, X, for the 16.3 average
voice users by using Equation 3-56 (repeated below for reference).

M 2
ν( m) ( βσ ( m ) )
E[ X ] = ∑ L ( m ) × -------------- × exp βε ( m ) + --------------------
PG ( m ) 2
- × [ ( 1 – α( m ) ) + i ( m ) ]
m=1

Using the input variables from the assumptions above, E[X] is calculated as follows:

2
0.56 ( ( 0.23 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) ) 1
E [ X ] = 16.3 × ---------- × exp ( 0.23 ) ⋅ ( 6.34 ) + --------------------------------------- × ( 1 – 0.6 ) + ---------- – 1
128 2 0.45

E [ X ] = 0.115685 × exp [ 1.625527 ] = 0.115685 × 5.081096 = 0.587805

The next step is to calculate the variance for the traffic loading factor, X, for the 16.3 average voice
users by using Equation 3-57 (repeated below for reference).

M 2
ψ ( m ) + ( ν( m ) )
Var ( X ) = ∑ - × exp [ 2βε ( m ) + 2 ( βσ( m ) )2 ] × [ ( 1 – α ( m ) ) + i ( m ) ]
L ( m ) × ----------------------------------
( PG (m ) )
2
m=1

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2
0.1 + ( 0.56 ) 2 1
Var ( X ) = 16.3 × -------------------------------- × exp [ 2 ⋅ ( 0.23 ) ( 6.34 ) + 2 ⋅ ( ( 0.23 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) ) ] × ( 1 – 0.6 ) + ---------- – 1
2 0.45
( 128 )

Var ( X ) = 0.000668 × exp [ 3.582424 ] = 0.000668 × 35.960611 = 0.024004

The final step is to calculate the noise rise, Z, for the 16.3 average voice users by using
Equation 3-58 (repeated below for reference).

Z = – 10 × Log 10 ( 1 – Pa × Var ( X ) – E [ X ] )

Z = – 10 × Log 10 ( 1 – 1.644848 × 0.024004 – 0.587805 )

Z = – 10 × Log10 ( 0.157354 ) = 8.03 dB

3.7.3.2 Example #2: Voice and Data Users

The following example calculates the noise rise for a multiple service type traffic load environment
consisting of, on average, 6 IS-2000 1X voice users at 9600 bps, 1 IS-2000 1X data user at 19200
bps, and 1 data user at 38400 bps. Additional assumptions are provided below.

Traffic Load:
6 Voice users (average) at 9600 bps
1 Data user (average) at 19200 bps
1 Data user (average) at 38400 bps

General Assumptions:
1 1
• 0.45 = I-factor (3 sector), where i ( m ) = --- – 1 = ---------- – 1
I 0.45
• 1.64 = probability factor for 95% (Pa)
• 0.23 = Beta value LN(10)/10 ( β )

Traffic Load Assumptions: Voice @ 9600 bps
• 6 = number of average users at 9600 bps ( L ( m ) )
• 21.1 dB = Processing gain ( PG ( m) ) or 1228800/9600 = 128 linear
• 6.34 dB = average Eb/No for 1% FER with vehicular fading at 30 kmph ( ε ( m ) )
• 2.5 dB = Eb/No standard deviation ( σ ( m ) )
• 0.56 = voice activity factor ( ν ( m ) )
• 0.1 = mean square of activity factor ( ψ ( m ) )
• 0.6 = Orthogonality factor ( α( m ) )

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Traffic Load Assumptions: Data @ 19200 bps
• 1 = number of average users at 19200 bps ( L ( m ) )
• 18.1 dB = Processing gain ( PG ( m) ) or 1228800/19200 = 64 linear
• 5.69 dB = average Eb/No for 5% FER with vehicular fading at 30 kmph ( ε ( m ) )
• 2.5 dB = Eb/No standard deviation ( σ ( m ) )
• 0.9 = data activity factor ( ν ( m ) )
• 0.1 = mean square of activity factor ( ψ ( m ) )
• 0.6 = Orthogonality factor ( α( m ) )

Traffic Load Assumptions: Data @ 38400 bps
• 1 = number of average users at 38400 bps ( L ( m ) )
• 15.1 dB = Processing gain ( PG ( m) ) or 1228800/38400 = 32 linear
• 4.94 dB = average Eb/No for 5% FER with vehicular fading at 30 kmph ( ε ( m ) )
• 2.5 dB = Eb/No standard deviation ( σ ( m ) )
• 0.9 = data activity factor ( ν ( m ) )
• 0.1 = mean square of activity factor ( ψ ( m ) )
• 0.6 = Orthogonality factor ( α( m ) )

The first step is to calculate the mean value of the traffic loading factor for the 6 average voice users
at 9600 bps by using Equation 3-56. Using the input variables from the assumptions above,
E[X]9600 is calculated as follows:

2
0.56 ( ( 0.23 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) ) 1
E [ X ]9600 = 6 × ---------- × exp ( 0.23 ) ⋅ ( 6.34 ) + --------------------------------------- × ( 1 – 0.6 ) + ---------- – 1
128 2 0.45

E [ X ]9600 = 0.042583 × exp [ 1.625527 ] = 0.042583 × 5.081096 = 0.216370

Now, calculate the mean value of the traffic loading factor for the 1 average data user at 19200 bps
by using Equation 3-56. Using the input variables from the assumptions above, E[X]19200 is
calculated as follows:

2
0.9 ( ( 0.23 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) ) 1
E [ X ]19200 = 1 × ------- × exp ( 0.23 ) ⋅ ( 5.69 ) + --------------------------------------- × ( 1 – 0.6 ) + ---------- – 1
64 2 0.45

E [ X ]19200 = 0.022813 × exp [ 1.475859 ] = 0.022813 × 4.374791 = 0.099800

Now, calculate the mean value of the traffic loading factor for the 1 average data user at 38400 bps
by using Equation 3-56. Using the input variables from the assumptions above, E[X]38400 is
calculated as follows:

2
0.9 ( ( 0.23 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) ) 1
E [ X ]38400 = 1 × ------- × exp ( 0.23 ) ⋅ ( 4.94 ) + --------------------------------------- × ( 1 – 0.6 ) + ---------- – 1
32 2 0.45

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E [ X ]38400 = 0.045625 × exp [ 1.303164 ] = 0.045625 × 3.680926 = 0.167942

Finally, calculate the total loading factor E[X]Total for all user types by summing together all of the
individual results.

E [ X ]Total = 0.216370 + 0.099800 + 0.167942 = 0.484112

The next step is to calculate the variance for the traffic loading factor for the 6 average voice users
at 9600 bps by using Equation 3-57. Using the input variables from the assumptions above,
Var(X)9600 is calculated as follows:

2
0.1 + ( 0.56 ) 2 1
Var ( X ) 9600 = 6 × -------------------------------- × exp [ 2 ⋅ ( 0.23 ) ( 6.34 ) + 2 ⋅ ( ( 0.23 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) ) ] × ( 1 – 0.6 ) + ---------- – 1
2 0.45
( 128 )

Var ( X ) 9600 = 0.000246 × exp [ 3.582424 ] = 0.000246 × 35.960611 = 0.008836

Now, calculate the variance for the traffic loading factor for the 1 average data user at 19200 bps
by using Equation 3-57. Using the input variables from the assumptions above, Var(X)19200 is
calculated as follows:

2
0.1 + ( 0.9 ) 2 1
Var ( X ) = 1 × ----------------------------- × exp [ 2 ⋅ ( 0.23 ) ( 5.69 ) + 2 ⋅ ( ( 0.23 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) ) ] × ( 1 – 0.6 ) + ---------- – 1
19200 2 0.45
( 64 )

Var ( X ) 19200 = 0.000360 × exp [ 3.283088 ] = 0.000360 × 26.657952 = 0.009608

Now, calculate the variance for the traffic loading factor for the 1 average data user at 38400 bps
by using Equation 3-57. Using the input variables from the assumptions above, Var(X)38400 is
calculated as follows:

2
0.1 + ( 0.9 ) 2 1
Var ( X ) = 1 × ----------------------------- × exp [ 2 ⋅ ( 0.23 ) ( 4.94 ) + 2 ⋅ ( ( 0.23 ) ⋅ ( 2.5 ) ) ] × ( 1 – 0.6 ) + ---------- – 1
38400 2 0.45
( 32 )

Var ( X ) 38400 = 0.001442 × exp [ 2.937699 ] = 0.001442 × 18.872371 = 0.027207

Finally, calculate the total variance Var(X)Total for all user types by summing together all of the
individual results.

Var ( X ) Total = 0.008836 + 0.009608 + 0.027207 = 0.045650

The final step is to calculate the noise rise, Z, for the total traffic load using a 95% probability factor
by using Equation 3-58 (as shown below).

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Z = – 10 × Log10 ( 1 – Pa × Var ( X ) Total – E [ X ]Total )

Z = – 10 × Log 10 ( 1 – 1.644848 × 0.045650 – 0.484112 )

Z = – 10 × Log10 ( 0.164450 ) = 7.84 dB

3.7.4 Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimates for IS-2000 1X

In order to calculate the capacity supported by the air interface in an IS-2000 1X system, it is
important to determine the values of the various factors that affect the capacity. The IS-2000 1X
forward link capacity estimates (throughput and Erlangs) provided in this document are based on
the forward link noise rise capacity estimation equations provided in Section 3.7.2 and utilizing the
parameter value assumptions that follow.

The following are the assumptions for the various IS-2000 1X parameter values to be applied to
the forward link noise rise capacity estimation equations.

3.7.4.1 Noise Rise

For the purpose of determining capacity estimates, a 10 dB maximum noise rise value was selected.
As shown in Section 3.7.1, this 10 dB limit is de-rated to 8 dB in order to account for the overhead
channels. Additionally, each rise has a probability factor, Pa, associated with it. Table 3-11
provides some of the recommended noise rise values and probability factors used for this exercise.

Table 3-11: Interference Rise Scenarios
Percentile Associated
Probability (Pa) Noise Rise (Z)
90% 8 dB
95% 8 dB
98% 8 dB

Since the probability factor is associated with a normal distribution, the 50% probability factor
implies an average noise rise value. Therefore, for the scenarios where the probability factor is
greater than 50%, the average noise rise will be less than the rise value shown. This can be
illustrated further through Figure 3-12, where the 50% probability factor is associated with the
average point in the normal distribution curve. However, a higher probability factor would be
associated with a value that is greater than the average value.

The capacity tables shown in Section 3.7.4.10 provide both the capacity (in Erlangs and
throughput) and the average rise values associated with a 8 dB peak noise rise for the 90%, 95%,
and 98% probability factors. Typical RF designs should strive to keep the peak percentile
probability reverse noise rise value less than 8 dB.

Various probability factors were used in scenarios to estimate the capacity for aggressive (90%),

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moderate (95%), or conservative (98%) cases. Additionally, a rise value of less than 8 dB can be
used to demonstrate the impact on capacity, in order to trade capacity for increased forward link
coverage.

In all of the test cases, the cell loading is considered uniform in each sector (homogeneous network)
and as such the rise is the same across each cell. In practice, the non-homogeneous nature of cell
loading will mean that an individual cell may be able to cope with a peak load higher than the
homogeneous case.

3.7.4.2 I-factor

I-factor is the ratio of own cell interference to own cell plus other cell interference from the
subscriber perspective. The ratio of out of cell to in cell base station power received by the
subscriber is the i ( m ) parameter. The I-factor and i ( m ) parameter have the following relationship.

InCell 1 1
where I = -------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------ = ----------- or
InCell + OutCell OutCell 1 +i
1 + ---------------------
InCell

1
i = --- – 1 [EQ 3-59]
I

The terms I and i are equivalent to the terms F and f for the reverse link (see Equation 3-13), but
from a forward link subscriber perspective. For the forward link, the ratio of out of cell to in cell
base station power received by user m, i ( m ) , is dependent upon the individual user location and is
therefore different for each user.

For this exercise, the following I-factors have been assumed:

Table 3-12: I-factor
Site Type I-factor
Omni 0.60
3-Sector 0.45
6-Sector 0.40

3.7.4.3 Average Eb/No

Eb/No is defined as energy per bit to the noise spectral density. The appropriate value for the
required Eb/No is such that the desired bit, block, or frame erasure rate of the received signal is
achieved. This gives an indication of the lowest signal strength that the subscriber receiver can
detect above a certain noise level. Such items as the subscriber speed, the propagation
environment, and power control impact the required Eb/No.

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The Eb/No numbers used for each data rate in this document are typical numbers that are used for
dimensioning purposes. The Eb/No values were obtained from forward link level simulations. The
Eb/No values used for this exercise are shown in Table 3-13.

In looking at Equation 3-56 and Equation 3-57 again, the number of users is inversely proportional
to the Eb/No in order to maintain the same average and variance load factor. That is, an increase in
the Eb/No will result in a decrease in the number of users. A decrease to the Eb/No will result in an
increase to the number of users.

3.7.4.4 Eb/No Standard Deviation

A standard deviation of 2.5 dB on the Eb/No is assumed for each rate. This standard deviation for
the Eb/No is used to adjust the average Eb/No to compensate for imperfect power control in the real
world environment.

The number of users is inversely proportional to the Eb/No standard deviation in order to maintain
the same average and variance load factor. That is, an increase in the Eb/No standard deviation will
result in a decrease in the number of users. A decrease to the Eb/No standard deviation will result
in an increase to the number of users.

The Eb/No standard deviation has been assumed to be the same for each data rate. In a real world
situation this may not be the case, but for an estimate of the capacity (as used for this exercise), one
value has been assumed for all services.

3.7.4.5 Processing Gain

The processing gain is the ratio of the chip rate to the bit rate. For IS-2000 1X, the chip rate is equal
to 1.2288 x 106 chips/s. The calculation of the processing gain in linear and in dB units are provided
below.

Processing Gain linear = W ⁄ R

Processing Gain db = 10 × Log 10 ( W ⁄ R )

Where:
W Bandwidth (1.2288 Mcps for IS-2000 1X)

R Information rate

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The following table provides a summary of the Eb/No, Eb/No Standard Deviation, and the
processing gain values for the various data rates that were used in this exercise.

Table 3-13: IS-2000 1X Average Eb/No Values
Bearer Rate Data Rate FER Eb/No (dB) Eb/No Std. Proc. Gain
(bits/s) (bits/s) 3 kmph 30 kmph Dev. (dB) (dB)
8600 9600 1% 7.56 6.34 2.5 21.1
14400 19200 5% 6.53 5.69 2.5 18.1
32000 38400 5% 5.65 4.94 2.5 15.1
64000 76800 5% 4.90 4.53 2.5 12.0
128800 153600 5% 5.10 4.86 2.5 9.0

Recall that the Eb/No values shown in the above table were obtained from forward link level
simulations and represent typical values that are used for dimensioning purposes. The Eb/No values
will vary based on the subscriber speed, propagation conditions, percent FER, etc. For detailed
capacity and coverage results, Motorola recommends using the NetPlan simulation tool. This
simulation tool incorporates a family of Eb/No curves as opposed to only a few Eb/No values.

The bearer rate data in Table 3-13 represents a data link layer rate from the subscriber’s
perspective. It does not include any overhead (RLP, framing, etc.). The bearer rates in Table 3-13
are used in the calculation of the throughput capacity (see Section 3.7.4.9).

3.7.4.6 Activity Factor

The activity factor is defined as the percentage of time that a user transmits on an active traffic
channel. With IS-95, a typical industry accepted voice activity factor was 40%. This roughly
equated to 32% of the time the user was at full rate and 68% of the time the user was at eighth rate.
With IS-2000 1X, an adjustment to the voice activity factor of 16% is recommended to account for
the impact of the forward power control bits. Thus a 40% voice activity factor is adjusted up to
56%.

It should be noted that this adjusted activity factor (56%) is utilized in the capacity equation as a
means to derate the capacity due to the forward power control bits. In converting the voice users
to an equivalent throughput, the voice activity factor of 40% (0.4) is used.

For the capacity results provided in this section, two different data activity factors (0.9 and 0.2) are
assumed to shown the impact of a high and low data activity factor user type.

The number of users is inversely proportional to the activity factor in order to maintain the same
average and variance load factor. That is, an increase in the activity factor will result in a decrease
in the number of users. A decrease to the activity factor will result in an increase to the number of
users.

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3.7.4.7 Orthogonality Factor

CDMA utilizes orthogonal Walsh codes to separate the multiple users or multiple channels in the
downlink. In the absence of multipath propagation, the orthogonality of the signal received by the
subscriber would be the same as that which is sent by the base station. However, since multipath
propagation can produce sufficient delay spread in the radio channel, the subscriber will see part
of the base station signal as multiple access interference.

An orthogonality of 1 corresponds to perfectly orthogonal users. Typically, the orthogonality is
between 0.4 and 0.9 in multipath channels.

For the capacity analysis provided in this section, an orthogonality factor of 0.6 is used for the
vehicular (30 kmph) capacity results and a value of 0.9 is used for the pedestrian (3 kmph) capacity
results. These values correspond to the ITU Vehicular A channel and ITU Pedestrian A channel
respectively.

3.7.4.8 Traffic Mix

Four different traffic mix scenarios were analyzed as reflected in the following table.

Table 3-14: Traffic Mix
Scenario Bearer Service
Voice (8.6 kbps) 64 kbps 128.8 kbps
A 100% - -
B 80% 20% -
C 50% 40% 10%
D 10% 60% 30%

The percentage of users can be interpreted, for example, as follows. In Scenario A, 100% of the
users are voice users at 8.6 kbps. In this scenario, all users in the network are continuously
receiving the relevant voice activity and at the required signal level to reach their respective Eb/No
value. For Scenario C, 50% of the users are voice users at 8.6 kbps, 40% of the users are using 64
kbps, and the remaining 10% of the users are at 128.8 kbps.

3.7.4.9 Throughput Capacity

With multiple rate high-speed data services being introduced into the call model traffic mix, the
capacity of a cell/sector should now be quantified with a throughput value in addition to the number
of Erlangs. For the capacity analysis results provided below, the estimated throughput capacity is
calculated by multiplying the bearer rate, the activity factor, and the number of supported users
(continuously transmitting users) together.

For a single data rate user example, consider scenario A with a rise of 8 dB and a probability factor
of 95% (see Table 3-15). The voice rate assumed is 8.6 kbps and as such, approximately 14.3
Erlangs at the pedestrian speed can be supported in a single sector of a 3-sectored cell. This

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corresponds to a throughput capacity of approximately 49 kbps / sector (8.6 kbps x 0.40 AF x 14.3
Erlangs). As stated previously (see Section 3.7.4.6), an adjusted activity factor is utilized in the
capacity equation as a means to derate the capacity due to the forward power control bits. In
converting the voice users to an equivalent throughput capacity, the non-adjusted voice activity
factor of 40% (0.4) is used for the throughput calculation, instead of the adjusted activity factor of
approximately 56% (as calculated in Section 3.7.4.6).

For a multiple data rate mixture of users, the throughput capacity is calculated for each individual
data rate user type and then summed together. For example, consider traffic mix scenario C with a
probability of 95% and a data activity factor of 20%. From the results in Table 3-15, an estimated
6.6 Erlangs at the pedestrian speed can be supported in a single sector of a 3-sectored cell with a
total throughput of 62 kbps. The traffic distribution for scenario C is 50% for 8.6 kbps voice users,
40% for 64.0 kbps data users, and 10% for 128.8 kbps data users. According to the traffic
distribution of scenario C, the throughput capacity is calculated as follows.

8.6 kbps Voice User Thruput = 8.6 kbps x 0.4 AF x (6.6 x 0.5) Erlangs = 11.4 kbps
64.0 kbps Data User Thruput = 64.0 kbps x 0.2 AF x (6.6 x 0.4) Erlangs = 33.8 kbps
128.8 kbps Data User Thruput = 128.8 kbps x 0.2 AF x (6.6 x 0.1) Erlangs = 17.0 kbps
Total Throughput = 62.2 kbps

3.7.4.10 IS-2000 1X Forward Noise Rise Capacity Analysis Results

The following two tables provide capacity values (expressed as kbps throughput and Erlangs) per
sector for the various scenarios assuming an interference rise limit of 8 dB but with varying levels
of probability. For the traffic mix scenarios which include data users (Scenarios B, C, and D),
capacity results for two different Data Activity Factors (AF) are provided. A 90% Data AF is used
to estimate the results of high data activity factor users such as a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) user.
A 20% Data AF is used to estimate the results of lower data activity factor users such as a Low
Speed Packet Data (LSPD) or a High Speed Packet Data (HSPD) user.

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All of the traffic mix scenarios in Table 3-15 below assume pedestrian (3 kmph) Eb/No values with
an orthogonality factor of 0.9.

Table 3-15: Forward Capacity per Sector for Various Probabilities of Rise - Pedestrian
Scenario Rise Data Avg Rise Throughput (kbps/Sector) Erlangs/Sector
Probability AF (dB) Omni 3-Sector 6-Sector Omni 3-Sector 6-Sector
A 98% N/A 3.0 77 44 37 22.3 12.9 10.7
95% N/A 3.5 85 49 41 24.6 14.3 11.8
90% N/A 4.1 93 54 44 27.0 15.6 12.9
B 98% 90% 1.6 88 51 42 6.2 3.6 3.0
98% 20% 2.4 89 52 43 16.7 9.7 8.0
95% 90% 2.0 106 62 51 7.5 4.3 3.6
95% 20% 2.8 102 59 49 19.1 11.1 9.2
90% 90% 2.5 127 73 61 8.9 5.1 4.3
90% 20% 3.4 115 67 55 21.6 12.5 10.4
C 98% 90% 1.1 76 44 37 2.1 1.2 1.0
98% 20% 1.6 89 52 43 9.5 5.5 4.5
95% 90% 1.5 97 56 46 2.7 1.5 1.3
95% 20% 2.0 108 62 52 11.4 6.6 5.5
90% 90% 1.9 121 70 58 3.3 1.9 1.6
90% 20% 2.5 128 74 61 13.6 7.9 6.5
D 98% 90% 1.0 71 41 34 1.0 0.6 0.5
98% 20% 1.2 87 51 42 5.5 3.2 2.7
95% 90% 1.3 91 53 44 1.3 0.8 0.6
95% 20% 1.6 109 63 52 6.9 4.0 3.3
90% 90% 1.7 116 67 56 1.7 1.0 0.8
90% 20% 2.1 134 78 64 8.5 4.9 4.1

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All of the traffic mix scenarios in Table 3-16 below assume vehicular (30 kmph) Eb/No values
with an orthogonality factor of 0.6.

Table 3-16: Forward Capacity per Sector for Various Probabilities of Rise - Vehicle
Scenario Rise Data Avg. Rise Throughput (kbps/Sector) Erlangs/Sector
Probability AF (dB) Omni 3-Sector 6-Sector Omni 3-Sector 6-Sector
A 98% N/A 3.3 78 51 44 22.7 14.9 12.7
95% N/A 3.8 85 56 48 24.8 16.3 13.9
90% N/A 4.4 92 61 52 26.8 17.6 15.0
B 98% 90% 1.6 75 49 42 5.3 3.5 3.0
98% 20% 2.4 82 54 46 15.4 10.1 8.7
95% 90% 2.0 91 60 51 6.4 4.2 3.6
95% 20% 2.9 93 61 52 17.6 11.6 9.9
90% 90% 2.6 108 71 60 7.5 5.0 4.2
90% 20% 3.5 105 69 59 19.8 13.0 11.1
C 98% 90% 1.1 62 41 35 1.7 1.1 1.0
98% 20% 1.6 75 49 42 7.9 5.2 4.5
95% 90% 1.5 78 51 44 2.2 1.4 1.2
95% 20% 2.0 90 59 51 9.6 6.3 5.4
90% 90% 2.0 98 64 55 2.7 1.8 1.5
90% 20% 2.6 107 70 60 11.3 7.5 6.4
D 98% 90% 1.0 57 37 32 0.8 0.5 0.5
98% 20% 1.3 70 46 39 4.4 2.9 2.5
95% 90% 1.3 73 48 41 1.0 0.7 0.6
95% 20% 1.7 87 57 49 5.5 3.6 3.1
90% 90% 1.8 92 61 52 1.3 0.9 0.7
90% 20% 2.2 106 70 60 6.7 4.4 3.8

The results in Table 3-15 and Table 3-16 show the capacity estimates for an IS-2000 1X forward
link under the stated configurations, assumptions, and parameter values. As shown above, the
capacity estimate can vary greatly depending upon the parameter values that are chosen. Although
the stated assumptions and parameter values used for this exercise are deemed to be realistic, the
accuracy of the capacity estimate is highly dependent upon the accuracy of the assumptions and
parameter values used for the capacity estimate.

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The following figure shows the relationship between the forward link noise rise and the throughput
for several probability curves. The input parameters used to create the figure are shown below. The
50%-ile curve corresponds to the average rise.

Figure 3-17: Forward Link Rise vs. Throughput

10

8
Noise Rise (dB)

6

4

2

0
0 50 100 150 200 250

Throughput (Kbps)

98% 95% 90% 85% 75% 50%

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters:
• Traffic mix = Scenario B
• Voice activity factor = 57.6%
• Data activity factor = 100%
• Mean square of activity factor = 0.1 dB
• I-factor = 0.45 (3-sector cell site configuration)
• Vehicular (30 kmph) Eb/No assumptions from Table 3-13 were used
• Forward link orthogonality factor = 0.6 (30 kmph)
• Eb/No standard deviation = 2.5 dB

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The following figure shows the relationship between forward link noise rise and Erlangs of various
data rates. The input parameters used to create the figure are shown below.

Figure 3-18: Forward Link Rise vs. Erlangs for Different Data Rates
10
9
8
7
Noise Rise (dB)

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Erlangs
Voice @ 9600 Data @ 19200 Data @ 38400 Data @ 76800

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters:
• Voice and data activity factor = 57.6%
• Mean square of activity factor = 0.1 dB
• I-factor = 0.45 (3-sector cell site configuration)
• Probability factor = 95%
• Vehicular (30 kmph) Eb/No assumptions from Table 3-13 were used
• Forward link orthogonality factor = 0.6 (30 kmph)
• Eb/No standard deviation = 2.5 dB

The curves in the figure above show the significant impact that data users can have on the capacity
of a system. The voice and data activity factors were purposely set to the same value in order to
reflect the capacity impact of just varying the data rate.

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The following figure shows the relationship between the forward link total throughput and total
Erlangs with respect to the data activity factor. The input parameters used to create the figure are
shown below.

Figure 3-19: Forward Link Total Erlangs & Throughput vs. Data Activity Factor
16.0 80

14.0 70

12.0 60

Total Thruput (Kbps)
Total Erlangs

10.0 50

8.0 40

6.0 30

4.0 20

2.0 10

0.0 0
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

Data Activity Factor

Total Thruput Total Erlangs

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters:
• Traffic mix = Scenario B
• Peak noise rise = 8 dB
• Probability factor = 95%
• Voice activity factor = 57.6%
• Mean square of activity factor = 0.1 dB
• I-factor = 0.45 (3-sector cell site configuration)
• Vehicular (30 kmph) Eb/No assumptions from Table 3-13 were used
• Forward link orthogonality factor = 0.6 (30 kmph)
• Eb/No standard deviation = 2.5 dB

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3.8 Forward vs. Reverse Link Capacity Comparison

The Reverse Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation approach provided in Section 3.4 is almost
identical to the Forward Link Noise Rise Capacity Estimation approach provided in Section 3.7.
The following section will compare the IS-2000 1X capacity results of the forward and reverse
links using the same assumptions and parameter values as stated in the previous sections (refer to
the previous sections for specific details regarding the assumptions and parameter values used).

Figure 3-20 shows a comparison of the IS-2000 1X forward and reverse links for the noise rise vs.
throughput capacity results for a 95% probability factor capacity estimation.

Figure 3-20: Forward and Reverse Link Rise vs. Throughput - 95% Probability Factor
10

8
Noise RIse (dB)

6

4

2

0
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0

Throughput (Kbps)

Fwd 95% Rev 95%

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters: (unless otherwise noted, the parameters below apply to both forward and reverse links)
• Traffic mix = Scenario B
• Voice activity factor = 57.6%
• Data activity factor = 100%
• Mean square of activity factor = 0.1 dB
• F-factor or I-factor = 0.45 (3-sector cell site configuration)
• Vehicular (30 kmph) Eb/No assumptions from Table 3-6 and Table 3-13 were used
• Forward link orthogonality factor = 0.6 (30 kmph)
• Eb/No standard deviation = 2.5 dB

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Figure 3-21 shows a comparison of the IS-2000 1X forward and reverse links for the noise rise vs.
Erlangs, capacity results for the 9600 and 19200 bps data rates.

Figure 3-21: Forward and Reverse Link Rise vs. Erlangs for Different Data Rates
10

9

8

7
Noise Rise (dB)

6

5

4

3

2

1

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Erlangs

Fwd Voice @ 9600 Fwd Data @ 19200 Rev Voice @ 9600 Rev Data @ 19200

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters: (unless otherwise noted, the parameters below apply to both forward and reverse links)
• Voice and data activity factor = 57.6%
• Mean square of activity factor = 0.1 dB
• F-factor or I-factor = 0.45 (3-sector cell site configuration)
• Probability factor = 95%
• Vehicular (30 kmph) Eb/No assumptions from Table 3-6 and Table 3-13 were used
• Forward link orthogonality factor = 0.6 (30 kmph)
• Eb/No standard deviation = 2.5 dB

The voice and data activity factors were purposely set to the same value in order to reflect the
capacity impact of just varying the data rate.

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Figure 3-22 shows a comparison of the IS-2000 1X forward and reverse links for Erlangs and
throughput capacity vs. data activity factor.

Figure 3-22: Forward and Reverse Link Erlangs & Thruput vs. Data Activity Factor
24.0 120

22.0

20.0 100

18.0

Throughput (Kbps)
16.0 80
Total Erlangs

14.0

12.0 60

10.0

8.0 40

6.0

4.0 20

2.0

0.0 0
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

Data Activity Factor

Fwd Erlangs Rev Erlangs Fwd Thruput Rev Thruput

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters: (unless otherwise noted, the parameters below apply to both forward and reverse links)
• Traffic mix = Scenario B
• Forward peak noise rise = 8 dB
• Reverse peak noise rise = 10 dB
• Probability factor = 95%
• Voice activity factor = 57.6%
• Mean square of activity factor = 0.1 dB
• F-factor or I-factor = 0.45 (3-sector cell site configuration)
• Vehicular (30 kmph) Eb/No assumptions from Table 3-6 and Table 3-13 were used
• Forward link orthogonality factor = 0.6 (30 kmph)
• Eb/No standard deviation = 2.5 dB

The results from all of the figures (Figure 3-20, Figure 3-21, and Figure 3-22) above, show the
forward link with less capacity than the reverse link. In a general sense, the forward link may have
less capacity than the reverse link, but the difference between the two may not be as wide as
depicted in the figures above. Keep in mind that utilizing different assumptions and parameters

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may be able to close the gap between the forward and reverse links, or even produce results which
show the reverse link with less capacity than the forward link.

For example, Figure 3-23 shows a comparison of the IS-2000 1X forward and reverse links for
Erlangs and throughput capacity vs. data activity factor using the following parameter changes
mentioned below the figure.

Figure 3-23: Alternate Forward and Reverse Link Erlangs & Thruput vs. Data Activity Factor
24.0 120

22.0

20.0 100

18.0

Throughput (Kbps)
16.0 80
Total Erlangs

14.0

12.0 60

10.0

8.0 40

6.0

4.0 20

2.0

0.0 0
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

Data Activity Factor

Fwd Erlangs Rev Erlangs Fwd Thruput Rev Thruput

Note: The figure above is for demonstration purposes, as it is only valid for the assumptions
applied and for the following parameters:

Parameters: (All of the parameters for Figure 3-22 were used, except for the following changes)
• Forward Eb/No @ 9600 = 4.4 dB (Figure 3-22 utilized a value of 6.34 dB)
• Forward Eb/No @ 76800 = 3.3 dB (Figure 3-22 utilized a value of 4.53 dB)
• Forward link orthogonality factor = 0.7 (Figure 3-22 utilized a value of 0.6)

The results in Figure 3-23 show that the forward link capacity is now equal to or slightly better than
that of the reverse link. It is important to note that the parameter changes stated above are realistic
parameters to use to model certain propagation environments (i.e. depending upon the multipath,
ray imbalance, and geometry environment). Although the forward link may have a higher capacity
than that of the reverse link (similar to the results in Figure 3-23) in some areas of a system, the
general expectation is that the forward link will be the limiting factor from a capacity perspective
(similar to the results in Figure 3-22, but maybe not as wide of a gap). Which link will be the
limiting factor from a capacity perspective will depend upon the assumptions and parameter values
used for a particular system analysis. As stated previously, the accuracy of the capacity estimate is
highly dependent upon the accuracy of the assumptions and parameter values used for the capacity
estimate.

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It should also be mentioned that these results are what the BTS sector may be able to support. The
data applications being used by the subscriber unit may be more demanding on one link over the
other. For instance, the user may request a file to be downloaded. To request the file will place a
small load on the reverse link, but depending on the size of the file to be downloaded, the load on
the forward link may be quite larger. This is commonly referred to as asymmetrical data transfer.
This asymmetrical data transfer will be another reason why one of the links will be the limiting link
with regards to capacity.

3.9 EIA/TIA Specifications and RF Air Interface Limitations

The CDMA RF Air Interface specifications defines the structure of the Forward and Reverse
Channel. These specifications place an upper limitation on the number of channels that can be
served by a CDMA frequency. The following sections provide Forward and Reverse Channel
structure overviews for both IS-95 and IS-2000 Air Interface specifications.

3.9.1 IS-95 Forward Channel Structure

The following figure shows an example of the code channels transmitted by a base station. Out of
the 64 code channels available for use, the example depicts the Pilot Channel (always required),
one Sync Channel, seven Paging Channels (the maximum allowed), and fifty-five Traffic
Channels.

Figure 3-24: Example of IS-95 Forward CDMA Channels

CDMA FORWARD CHANNEL
1.23 MHz

PAGING up to PAGING TCH 1
PILOT CH SYNC CH CH 1 CH 7 TCH 55

WALSH 0 WALSH 32 WALSH 1 WALSH 63

(ADDRESSED BY WALSH CODE) Traffic Power Control
Data Sub-Channel

Code channels on the forward link are addressed by different Walsh codes. Each of these code
channels is spread by the appropriate Pseudo-Noise Sequence at a fixed Chip Rate of 1.2288 Mega-
Chips per second. The uniqueness of the forward channel structure is the use of the Pilot Channel.
It is transmitted by each cell site and is used as a coherent carrier reference for demodulation by all
subscriber stations. The pilot signal is unmodulated and uses the zeroth Walsh code which consists
of 64 zeros. Hence, the pilot simply contains the I and Q spreading code. The choice of this code
allows the subscriber to acquire the system faster. The Walsh codes are generated with a 64 x 64
Hadamard Matrix. Thus, the maximum number of code channels per carrier is 64 which consists
of a Pilot Channel, a Sync Channel, a maximum of 7 Paging Channels and a minimum of 55 Traffic
Channels (TCH). In view of the channel structure, a 1.23 MHz CDMA carrier can support up to 55
TCHs if the effect of interference is not considered. Another possible configuration could replace

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Paging Channels and Sync Channels one for one with TCHs to obtain a maximum of 63 TCHs, 1
Pilot Channel, 0 Paging Channel, and 0 Sync Channel. In practice, due to the intense interference
in the spectrum, a satisfactory quality of service in terms of voice quality and FER is difficult to
maintain if all 55 traffic channels are implemented in the system.

The CDMA equipment requires a carrier frequency, a pilot offset, and a Walsh code to encode/
decode the channel. The Base Station System (BSS) allocates a Traffic Channel in response to the
Assignment Request message from the MSC. The BSS does not allocate traffic channels unless a
request from the MSC is acknowledged. The Traffic Channel will be allocated in the sector with
which the call is associated.

The BSS maintains a pool of Traffic Channels and Walsh codes in each sector for new call setups
and soft/softer handoffs. Traffic Channel allocation for new originations and soft handoffs require
an assignment of a physical Traffic Channel and a Walsh code. Softer handoff requires just the
assignment of a Walsh code, no new Traffic Channel element has to be assigned. The assignment
of Walsh codes and Traffic Channels is separated to allow the allocation process to adjust for the
different needs of soft and softer handoff. In order to reduce the risk of soft/softer handoff
assignment failure during the conversation, the BSS denies assignment of Traffic Channels and
Walsh codes for new call setups if Traffic Channels or Walsh codes are not available or being used
for soft/softer handoffs.

The number of Traffic Channels is defined by the In-Service Hardware in the BSS. It could be less
than the number configured if some of the hardware is out of service. The number of Walsh codes
assigned to a sector is set to 64 which is the maximum specified by the EIA/TIA standard. Limiting
the number of Walsh codes in a sector is a method of controlling service quality. Since Walsh codes
are not associated with any hardware, they cannot go out of service. As a result, 64 is the hard limit
of the number of code channels per sector according to the protocol specifications.

3.9.2 IS-95 Reverse Channel Structure

The Reverse CDMA Channel is composed of Access Channels and Reverse Traffic Channels.
These channels share the same CDMA frequency assignment. Each Traffic Channel is identified
by a distinct user long code sequence and each Access Channel is identified by a distinct Access
Channel long code sequence. The following figure shows as example of the signals received by a
base station on the Reverse CDMA Channel.

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Figure 3-25: Example of IS-95 Reverse CDMA Channels

CDMA REVERSE CHANNEL
(received at the base station)
1.23 MHz

ACCESS ACCESS TCH 1
CH N TCH M
CH 0

(ADDRESSED BY LONG PSEUDO-NOISE CODE)

The reverse link employs the same 32768 length binary short PN sequences which are used for the
forward link. However, unlike on the forward link, a fixed code phase offset is used. A long PN
sequence (242-1) with a user-determined time offset is used to identify the subscriber (analogous
to ESN in AMPS). The sequence is then modulo-2 added with a 42 bit wide mask.

The subscriber unit convolutionally encodes the data transmitted on the Reverse Traffic Channel
and the Access Channel prior to interleaving. The transmitted digital information is convolutional
encoded using a rate 1/3 code of constraint length 9 for the Access Channel and for Rate Set 1 of
the Reverse Traffic Channel. For Rate Set 2 of the Reverse Traffic Channel, the convolutional code
rate is 1/2. The encoded information is then interleaved over a 20 ms interval. The interleaved
information is then grouped in code words which consist of 6 symbol groups each. These code
words are used to select one of the 64 orthogonal Walsh codes for transmission. On the reverse link,
the Walsh codes are used for information transmission. The reverse CDMA frequency channel can
support up to 62 TCHs per Paging Channel and 32 Access Channels per Paging Channel.

3.9.3 IS-2000 1X Forward Channel Structure

The following figure shows the Forward Channel Structure for IS-2000.

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Figure 3-26: Example of IS-2000 Forward CDMA Channels
Forward CDMA
Channels

Common
Pilot Common Paging Dedicated Common
Channels Channels Channels Channels

Pilot Paging Dedicated Control Sync
Channel Channels (0-7) Channel (0 or 1) Channel
[F-PICH] [F-PCH] [F-DCCH] [F-SYNC]

Transmit Diversity Quick Paging Supplemental Code Broadcast
Pilot Channel Channels(0-3) Channels (0-7) Channel
[F-TDPICH] [F-QPCH] [F-SCCH] [F-BCH]

Auxiliary Pilot Supplemental Common Power
Channel Channels (0-2) Control Channel
[F-APICH] [F-SCH] [F-CPCCH]

Auxiliary Transmit Fundamental Common Control
Diversity Pilot Chan. Channel (0 or 1) Channel
[F-ATDPICH] [F-FCH] [F-CCCH]

Common Assignment
Channel
= Channels NOT implemented in CBSC Release 16 [F-CACH]

3.9.3.1 IS-2000 Forward Channels (Motorola Implementation)

The Common Assignment, Common Power Control, Common Control, and Broadcast Channels
are not implemented in CBSC Release 16. In the Common Pilot Channels, only the Forward Pilot
Channel is implemented for CBSC Release 16. The following sections provide a brief description
of the forward channels that are supported for CBSC Release 16.

Forward Pilot Channel (F-PICH)
The IS-2000 Forward Pilot Channel is identical to the Pilot Channel in IS-95A/B, for backwards
compatibility. It is transmitted by each cell site and is used as a coherent carrier reference for
demodulation by all subscriber stations. The pilot signal is un-modulated and uses Walsh code 0,
which consists of 64 zeros. A Walsh code can be expressed as a Walsh Function WnL, where n =
Walsh code number and L = Walsh code length. The Walsh code for a F-PICH can be represented
as W064. The Pilot Channels do not carry any information and essentially consist of Short PN
codes. A Short PN code pair is generated by a modified linear feedback shift register. The pilot
simply contains the I and Q spreading code.

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Forward Sync Channel (F-SYNC)
The Forward Sync Channel is used by the subscriber stations operating within the coverage area
of the base station to acquire CDMA System time and Long PN code synchronization. It also
transmits the system Protocol Revision (P_REV). There is only one Sync Channel per omni-carrier
and there is a Sync Channel for each sector-carrier for sectored cells. The Sync Channel is spread
by Walsh 32 of length 64 (W3264), just as in IS-95A/B. The bit rate for the Sync Channel is 1200
bps and the frame is 26.67ms in duration. For CBSC Release 16, the Sync Channel supports new
redirection fields which can redirect subscribers to carriers that support Radio Configurations
greater than 2 and the Forward Quick Paging Channel (F-QPCH).

Forward Paging Channel (F-PCH)
The Forward Paging Channel functionality is basically the same as an IS-95A/B Paging Channel
except that there exists new messages specified for IS-2000. The base station uses the Paging
Channel to transmit overhead/SMS messages, pages, acknowledgements, channel assignments,
and authentications to idle subscribers. IS-2000 supports up to 7 Paging Channels per sector-
carrier, but as in earlier releases, CBSC Release 16 only supports 1 Paging Channel per sector-
carrier. The primary Paging Channel number is Paging Channel number 1. This is the mode where
the IS-2000 handset emulates an IS-95A/B handset. It is spread by a Walsh i of length 64 (Wi64),
where ‘i’ is the Paging Channel number. The bit rate that a Paging Channel uses is 9600 bps or
4800 bps.

Forward Quick Paging Channel (F-QPCH)
The Forward Quick Paging Channel is introduced in IS-2000 to enhance the subscriber’s idle time
battery life. It is used by the base station to inform subscriber stations, operating in the slotted mode
(where the subscriber only “listens” during an assigned slot), that a page will be transmitted on the
next designated slot on the Paging Channel. It is covered by Walsh code 80, 48, or 112 of length
128 (W80128,W48128,W112128). The bit rate for a Quick Paging Channel is 4800 or 2400 bps and it
is divided into 2048 slots of 80ms duration (the same number of slots as a Paging Channel as
determined by the slot cycle index). A subscriber will hash (based upon the IMSI) to 1 of 376 bits
(for 4800 bps) or 1 of 188 bits (for 2400 bps) to determine whether it needs to monitor the Paging
Channel slot for an impending page message. The slots are sub-divided into Paging Indicators and
Configuration Change or Broadcast Indicators. Two Paging Indicators are transmitted in each
QPCH slot for each subscriber station that will be paged in the associated Paging Channel slot.

Prior to the occurrence of the Quick Paging/Paging slot, the Access/Paging MCC determines the
Paging Indicator bits based on the page messages found which support Quick Paging. It buffers the
bits and transmits them when the Quick Paging Channel slot begins. As shown in Figure 3-27,
approximately 20ms after the QPCH slot, the associated paging messages are transmitted on the
Paging Channel. The Access/Paging MCC schedules only those page messages which have been
quick paged on the QPCH slot which occurred 100ms prior to this PCH slot as shown in the figure.
Each paging indication is a single bit at a data rate of 4800 bps or 2400 bps. The effective rate is
9600 bps or 4800 bps, respectively as each bit is sent twice (time diversity).

The base station enables the Configuration Change Indicators in each QPCH slot for a period of
time following a change in configuration parameters. Configuration Change Indicators are only
used on QPCH number 1 and either 4 or 8 of the Paging Indicators are reserved for Configuration

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Change Indicators depending upon the data rate. Quick Paging capability allows a subscriber to
conserve power and hence support extended battery life, by monitoring certain Paging Indicator
bits within a Quick Paging slot on a Quick Paging Channel. The structure of the QPCH allows the
use of a less complex demodulator which can enhance the battery life even further.

Figure 3-27: QPCH to PCH Timing
Paging
Channel

0 1 2 3

Paging Channel Slot
Quick Paging Channel (80 ms)
Slot (80 ms)
Quick
Paging
Channel
1 2 3 4 11 2 3 4 1

20ms 20ms

Paging Indicators Paging Indicators

Configuration
Change Indicators

Forward Fundamental Channel (F-FCH)
The Forward Fundamental Channel, as in IS-95A/B, is used for transmission of user and signaling
information to a specific subscriber station for voice or low bit rate data applications during a call.
RC 1 and RC 2 channels are backwards compatible to the TCH in IS-95A/B supporting data rates
of 9600 or 14400 bps and 20 ms frames. As in IS-95A/B, this channel may be transmitted at a
variable rate (on a frame-by-frame basis). New to IS-2000 is that each channel is transmitted on a
different variable length Walsh code channel (expressed as WnL, where n = Walsh code number
and L = Walsh code length). For RC 1 or RC 2 and RC 3 or RC 5, each channel is assigned to code
channel Wn64, where 1 < n < 63. For RC 4, each channel is assigned a code channel Wn128, where
1 < n < 127.

Forward Dedicated Control Channel (F-DCCH)
The Forward Dedicated Control Channel introduced in IS-2000 is used to carry user data as well
as signaling and control data while the call is in progress. It does not support voice traffic. The

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Forward TCH channel may contain one Dedicated Control Channel. For RC 3 or RC 5, each
channel is assigned to code channel Wn64, where 1 < n < 63 and for RC 4, each channel is assigned
a code channel Wn128, where 1 < n < 127. This channel uses a data rate of 9600 bps (for RC 3 and
RC 4) or 14400 bps (for RC 5).

Forward Supplemental Channel (F-SCH)
The Forward Supplemental Channel (packet based) introduced in IS-2000 is used for the
transmission of user data to a specific subscriber station during a call. It is always accompanied by
a dedicated FCH or DCCH. In IS-2000, the Forward Supplemental Channel is designed to reach
data rates as high as 1,036,800 bps on a single RF carrier using a Spreading Rate (SR) of 3x. Also
with IS-2000, each Forward TCH can have up to 2 Forward Supplemental Channels. For
Motorola’s CBSC Release 16 implementation, only 1 F-SCH per user with a maximum data rate
of 153,600 bps will be supported using a Spreading Factor of 1x. These channels are shared
resources which are allocated dynamically in order to meet the required data rate. The resources
are scheduled into time slices which leads to a more efficient use of the channel elements. It
supports variable data rates with the use of a variable length Walsh code. For RC 3 or RC 4, each
channel is assigned a code channel WnL, where 1 < n < L-1 [L=4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 (where 128 is
for RC 4 only)].

Forward Supplemental Code Channel (F-SCCH)
The Forward Supplemental Code Channels are used to transmit user’s data from the base station
to the subscriber station during a call and are primarily defined for backward compatibility with
IS-95B for RC 1 and RC 2 only. The F-SCCH in IS-2000 can simultaneously use up to 7
Supplemental Code Channels in order to enable higher data speeds (for 3G-Type Services) on
carriers under RC 1 and RC 2 and each channel is assigned a code channel Wn64, where 1 < n <
63. Motorola’s implementation of the F-SCCH only supports 5 channels for RS1 and 4 channels
for RS2 (similar to Motorola’s implementation of IS-95B).These channels are dedicated resources
which are assigned to a specific user to achieve data rates up to 64 kbps.

3.9.3.2 IS-2000 Forward Link Radio Configurations

The following table briefly explains the Radio Configurations (RC) supported by the forward link
in IS-2000 for Spreading Rates (SR) 1 and 3.

Table 3-17: IS-2000 Forward Link Radio Configurations

Data Rates Coding
RC SR Modulation
(kbps) Rate
RC 1 1 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 1/2 BPSK
RC 2 1 1.8, 3.6. 7.2, 14.4 1/2 BPSK
RC 3 1 1.5, 2.7, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2, 38.4, 76.8, 153.6 1/4 QPSK
RC 4 1 1.5, 2.7, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2, 38.4, 76.8, 153.6, 307.2 1/2 QPSK

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Table 3-17: IS-2000 Forward Link Radio Configurations

Data Rates Coding
RC SR Modulation
(kbps) Rate
RC 5 1 1.8, 3.6. 7.2, 14.4, 28.8, 57.6, 115.2, 230.4 1/4 QPSK
RC 6 3 1.5, 2.7, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2, 38.4, 76.8, 153.6, 307.2 1/6 QPSK
1.5, 2.7, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2, 38.4,
RC 7 3 1/3 QPSK
76.8, 153.6, 307.2, 614.4
1.8, 3.6. 7.2, 14.4, 28.8, 1/4 or
RC 8 3 QPSK
57.6, 115.2, 230.4, 460.8 1/3
1.8, 3.6. 7.2, 14.4, 28.8, 57.6, 1/2 or
RC 9 3 QPSK
115.2, 230.4, 460.8, 518.4, 1036.8 1/3

Motorola IS-2000 BSS Implementation for CBSC Release 16

The following table provides the forward link Radio Configuration and data rates that are
supported with CBSC Release 16.

Table 3-18: Forward Link Radio Configuration Support for CBSC Release 16

Data Rates Coding
RC SR Modulation CBSC Release 16 Notes
(kbps) Rate
Rate Set 1
RC 1 1 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 1/2 BPSK
Backward Compatible
Rate Set 2
RC 2 1 1.8, 3.6. 7.2, 14.4 1/2 BPSK
Backward Compatible
1.5, 2.7, 4.8, 9.6, Supported in 1X Mode
RC 3 1 1/4 QPSK
19.2, 38.4, 76.8, 153.6 only
1.5, 2.7, 4.8, 9.6,
RC 4 1 1/2 QPSK Supported up to 153.6
19.2, 38.4, 76.8, 153.6
RC 5 1 1.8, 3.6. 7.2, 14.4 1/4 QPSK Supported up to 14.4

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The following table shows the number of channel element (CE) resources that are required for the
various data rates for RC 3 and RC 4.

Table 3-19: Forward Link Channel Element Resource Requirement
Data Rate Radio Configuration 3 Radio Configuration 4
(kbps) CE Resources CE Resources
9.6 1 1
19.2 2 1
38.4 4 2
76.8 8 4
153.6 16 8

The maximum data rate (153.6 kbps) supported on the forward link is obtained by utilizing RC 3
or RC 4. As shown above, RC 4 requires half as many CE resources compared to RC 3 to support
the maximum data rate.

3.9.3.3 IS-2000 Walsh Code Allocation

Unlike IS-95A/B, the number of Walsh codes is not hard limited to 64 in IS-2000. To increase the
number of usable Walsh codes, Complex or QPSK modulation is employed where 2 information
bits are mapped into a QPSK symbol. Using the same coding rate, this method allows for an
increase in the number of Walsh codes by a factor of 2 relative to BPSK, thereby allowing longer
Walsh codes (i.e. 128 for RC 4, instead of 64). Implementing QPSK modulation, also allows
doubling the original data rate on the same available bandwidth.

A Supplemental Channel in IS-2000 is designed to reach data rates up to 1,036,800 bps on a single
RF carrier (refer to Section 3.9.3.2 above for the data rates supported by Motorola). With the code
chip rate fixed at 1228800 chips/sec, the length of the Walsh code spreading must be substantially
reduced to achieve the high data rates.

The variable length Walsh code implementation can be visualized as shown in Figure 3-28. As
seen in Figure 3-28, codes on different levels of the tree have different Walsh code lengths. The
new levels in the tree are constructed by concatenating a root code word with a replica or an inverse
of itself generating a long code word. During spreading, each bit is multiplied by an entire code
word and longer codes are associated with lower bit rates. The root code word (which is shorter in
length) is not guaranteed to be orthogonal to the derived long code words. The short code word is
modulated exactly as the long code word is built and hence there is no way to differentiate the
signals. Thus, if a root code is assigned to a certain user, then the derivative code words (the
branches of the tree structure) should not be used because they are not orthogonal to the root code.
Thus assigning a Walsh code at a particular rate will make some higher rate codes and some of the
lower rate codes unavailable for assignment.

In this scenario if Walsh code C2,1 is assigned at a particular rate, Walsh codes C4,1 and C4,2 are
not orthogonal to C2,1and hence they should not be assigned. At each level, all the code words are
the rows of a Hadamard matrix.

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Figure 3-28: IS-2000 Walsh Code Tree
C8,1=(1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1)
C4,1=(1,1,1,1)
C8,2=(1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1)
C2,1=(1,1)
C8,3=(1,1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1)
C4,2=(1,1,-1,-1)

C1,1=(1,1) C8,4=(1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,1,1)

1
C8,5=(1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1)
C4,3=(1,-1,1,-1)
C8,6=(1,-1,1,-1,-1,1,-1,1)
C2,2=(1,-1)
C8,7=(1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1,1)
C4,4=(1,-1,-1,1)
C8,8=(1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1)

Motorola IS-2000 BSS Implementation for Release 16

For the multiple data rates achieved with the CBSC Release 16 implementation, a maximum data
rate of 153,600 bps is achieved with one F-SCH. A Walsh code allocation tree with a 153,600 bps
maximum data rate is shown in Figure 3-29.

As seen in the figure, assigning a Walsh code at a particular rate would make some higher rate
codes as well as lower rate codes unorthogonal and unavailable for assignment. WC0, WC1, and
WC32 are reserved for Pilot, Page, and Sync channels respectively. The figure shows the number
of Walsh codes available for each of the multiple data rates that CBSC Release 16 supports. The
"X" on some of the higher and lower data rate Walsh codes indicates that they are unavailable or
reserved due to the Pilot, Page, and Sync Walsh code allocations.

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Figure 3-29: Walsh Code Allocation Tree

X

X
153.6 kbps

X

X
76.8 kbps

X

X
38.4 kbps

X

X
19.2 kbps

9.6 kbps

WC32 WC0
WC1

Shorter length Walsh codes limit the number of simultaneous users in the forward link, because of
the smaller Walsh code set. If the remaining two high rate (153,600 bps) Walsh codes are also
assigned to data users as shown in Figure 3-30, all of the lower rate Walsh codes below those codes
become unavailable (shaded Walsh codes). In this scenario, only 29 Walsh codes are available for
voice call assignments (9600 bps) as seen in Figure 3-30 below.

Figure 3-30: Walsh Code Allocation Tree
X

X
153.6 kbps
X

X
76.8 kbps
X

X

38.4 kbps
X

X

19.2 kbps

9.6 kbps

WC32 WC0
WC1

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3.9.4 IS-2000 Reverse Channel Structure

The following figure shows the Reverse Channel Structure for IS-2000.

Figure 3-31: Example of IS-2000 Reverse CDMA Channels
Reverse CDMA
Channels

Common
Access Control Traffic Channels Traffic Channels
Channels Channels (RC 1, RC 2) (RC 3-6)

Access Common Fundamental Pilot
Channel Control Channel Channel Channel
[R-ACH] [R-CCCH] [R-FCH] [R-PICH]
+
Pilot Supplemental Fundamental
Enhanced Access Channel
Channel Code Channels (0-7) Channel (0 or 1)
[R-PICH] [R-SCCH] [R-FCH]
[R-EACH]
+
Pilot Supplemental
Channel Channels (0-2)
[R-PICH] [R-SCH]

Dedicated Control
Channel (0 or 1)
= Channels NOT implemented in CBSC Release 16 [R-DCCH]

3.9.4.1 IS-2000 Reverse Channels (Motorola Implementation)

The Reverse link in IS-2000 essentially consists of three new channels. They are Pilot,
Supplemental, and Dedicated Control Channels, in addition to the IS-95A/B Access and
Fundamental Channels. The following sections provide a brief description of the reverse channels
that are supported for CBSC Release 16.

Reverse Pilot Channel (R-PICH)
The Reverse Pilot Channel introduced in IS-2000 is used to assist the base station in detecting
subscriber station transmissions. There exists a Pilot Channel for each subscriber on a TCH in the
uplink and it is used for the timing and phase reference to the BTS for coherent demodulation. As
in the forward link, the pilot signal is un-modulated and it uses zeroth Walsh code 0 but of length
32 (W032). The Pilot Channels do not carry any information and essentially consist of Short PN
codes. It allows the use of Walsh code and simultaneous channel transmission on the reverse link.
It is only supported on Reverse RCs greater than 2, because RC 1 and RC 2 have to be compatible
with IS-95A/B which does not support a Reverse Pilot Channel. The R-PICH also includes a

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Reverse Power Control Sub-Channel when operating on a TCH with RC 3 and RC 4. It is used by
the subscriber station to transmit Forward Power Control commands to the base station.

Reverse Access Channel (R-ACH)
The Reverse Access Channel functionality is the same as an IS-95A/B Access Channel, supporting
RC 1 and RC 2, in order to allow for the backwards compatibility. It is identified by a Long PN
Code offset. There are 32 Access Channels associated to one Paging Channel and the information
on the Access Channel is transmitted at data rate of 4800 bps. Motorola’s implementation supports
only 1 Access Channel per Paging Channel.

Reverse Fundamental Channel (R-FCH)
For RC 1 and RC 2, the Reverse Fundamental Channel functionality is the same as in IS-95A/B.
Only one Reverse Fundamental Channel can be used by the subscriber station during a call. As in
IS-95A/B, it supports the basic rates of 9600 bps and 14400 bps. The R-FCH uses Walsh code 4 of
length 16 (W416) for spreading. It supports orthogonal modulation with RC 1 and RC 2 and
orthogonal spreading with RC 3 and RC 4. It performs discontinuous transmission using repetition
coding, where a subscriber station operating with RCs 3 through 6 may discontinue transmission
of the R-FCH for up to three 5 ms frames in a 20 ms frame.

Reverse Supplemental Channel (R-SCH)
The Reverse Supplemental Channel introduced in IS-2000 is used for the transmission of user data
to the base station during a call. An R-SCH is always accompanied by a dedicated R-FCH or R-
DCCH. They operate with RCs 3 through 6 only (for CBSC Release 16, Motorola only supports
RC 3 and RC 4 for the reverse link). There are up to 2 Supplemental Channels. The data rate is
selected on a time slice basis and it supports data rates up to 307,200 bps. For spreading, R-SCH
uses Walsh code W12 or W24. Although IS-2000 supports up to 2 reverse Supplemental Channels,
CBSC Release 16 supports only 1 R-SCH with a maximum data rate of 153,600 bps. If the second
R-SCH were supported, it would use W24 or W68 for spreading.

Reverse Dedicated Control Channel (R-DCCH)
The Reverse Dedicated Control Channel introduced in IS-2000 is used to carry user data as well as
signalling and control information during a call. One Dedicated Control Channel may accompany
an R-SCH, but the R-DCCH does not support voice traffic. The subscriber transmits at a fixed data
rate of 9600 bps or 14400 bps and it uses Walsh code 8 of length 16 (W816) for spreading. It
supports orthogonal spreading with RC 3 and RC 4

3.9.4.2 IS-2000 Reverse Link Radio Configurations

The following table briefly explains the Radio Configurations (RC) supported by the reverse link
in IS-2000 for Spreading Rates (SR) 1 and 3.

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Table 3-20: IS-2000 Reverse Link Radio Configurations
Data Rates Coding
RC SR Modulation
(kbps) Rate
64-ary
RC 1 1 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 1/3 Orthogonal

64-ary
RC 2 1 1.8, 3.6. 7.2, 14.4 1/2 Orthogonal

1.2, 1.35, 1.5, 2.4, 2.7, 4.8,
1/4 BPSK
RC 3 1 9.6, 19.2, 38.4, 76.8, 153.6
w/Pilot
307.2 1/2
BPSK
RC 4 1 1.8, 3.6. 7.2, 14.4, 28.8, 57.6, 115.2, 230.4 1/4
w/Pilot
1.2, 1.35, 1.5, 2.4, 2.7, 4.8,
1/4 BPSK
RC 5 3 9.6, 19.2, 38.4, 76.8, 153.6
w/Pilot
307.2, 614.4 1/3
1.8, 3.6. 7.2, 14.4, 28.8,
1/4 BPSK
RC 6 3 57.6, 115.2, 230.4, 460.8
w/Pilot
1036.8 1/2

Motorola IS-2000 BSS Implementation for CBSC Release 16

The following table provides the reverse link Radio Configuration and data rates that are supported
with CBSC Release 16.

Table 3-21: Reverse Link Radio Configuration Support for CBSC Release 16

Data Rates Coding
RC SR Modulation CBSC Release 16 Notes
(kbps) Rate
64-ary Rate Set 1
RC 1 1 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 1/3 Orthogonal Backward Compatible
64-ary Rate Set 2
RC 2 1 1.8, 3.6. 7.2, 14.4 1/2 Orthogonal Backward Compatible
1.5, 2.7, 4.8, 9.6, BPSK
RC 3 1 1/4 Supported up to 153.6
19.2, 38.4, 76.8, 153.6 w/Pilot
BPSK
RC 4 1 1.8, 3.6, 7.2, 14.4 1/4 Supported up to 14.4
w/Pilot

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The following table shows the number of channel element resources that are required for the
various data rates for RC 3.

Table 3-22: Reverse Link Channel Element Resource Requirement
Data Rate Radio Configuration 3
(kbps) CE Resources
9.6 1
19.2 1
38.4 2
76.8 4
153.6 8

The maximum data rate (153.6 kbps) supported on the reverse link is with RC 3.

3.10 Handoffs

The new IS-2000 air interface provides the ability to handoff voice and data calls, as well as other
services from an IS-95 system to an IS-2000 system and from an IS-2000 system to an IS-95
system. The following handoff methods are supported in both IS-95 and IS-2000 systems:

• Soft (or Softer) handoff
• Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff
• Hard handoff

3.10.1 Soft Handoff

A soft handoff is a handoff in which a new base transceiver station (BTS) commences
communications with the subscriber station without interrupting the communications from the old
BTS. The BTS can direct the subscriber station to perform a soft handoff only when all Forward
Traffic Channels assigned to the subscriber station have identical frequency assignments. When
performing a soft handoff, the subscriber collects the signal-to-noise ratio (pilot Ec/Io) received
from each active sector on the downlink along with all candidate sectors. Each active BTS that
receives the uplink transmission from the subscriber will relay it to the transcoder (XC). The XC
will make the final decision on the eligibility of candidates and the handoff will proceed. While in
a soft handoff state, more than 1 TCH is assigned to the subscriber.

The soft handoff factor (SHOF) is used to determine the overhead Erlangs to support different
kinds of soft handoffs. The factor is likely to vary from 1.3 to 2.0. It should be noted that the soft
handoff factor defined here is a linear scaling factor of the actual usable Erlangs but not the number
of traffic channels.

Soft Handoff Factor = 1*(1-a-b) + 2*a + 3*b [EQ 3-60]

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where:
• 2-way soft handoff fraction, a = Average 2-way soft handoff duration per hold time
• 3-way soft handoff fraction, b = Average 3-way soft handoff duration per hold time

3.10.2 Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff

Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff (ICBSC-SHO) happens when the subscriber communicates with sectors
of different BTSs and the BTSs are controlled by different CBSCs. In a Motorola system, when the
subscriber reports a handoff pilot that refers to an external sector database that has inter-CBSC soft
handoffs enabled, the call goes into inter-CBSC soft handoff. In this case, the external sector can
reside in the source CBSC or can be backhauled from the target CBSC. The source CBSC remains
in control of the call until no source handoff legs remain, then control is transferred to the target
CBSC by a Anchor Handoff (which is a form of a hard handoff).

3.10.3 Hard Handoffs

Hard Handoffs take place during all "break before make" handoff situations. In an IS-95 and/or IS-
2000 system, hard handoffs can be represented by a change from one radio configuration to
another, or when a multi-mode subscriber station transitions from CDMA operation to operation
on an analog system. In a Motorola system, hard handoffs which result in the subscriber being
supported by a new PDSN will cause the connection to the old PDSN to be dropped. The subscriber
must then initiate a new PPP session as well as an IP registration following a hard handoff.

3.10.3.1 Anchor Handoff

Anchor Handoffs are handoffs triggered when a subscriber is in Inter-CBSC soft handoff, and a set
of criteria have been met within the database. When the criteria are met (typically no source CBSC
handoff legs are active), the target CBSC determines the current strongest Inter-CBSC soft handoff
sector and initiates a hard handoff to that sector. The source CBSC maintains control of the call
until the criteria is met, then control is transferred to the target CBSC resulting in a change in Walsh
codes.

3.10.3.2 IS-95 to IS-2000 Hand-up

Hand-up from IS-95 to IS-2000 happens when an IS-2000 capable subscriber station is directed
from an IS-95 channel to an IS-2000 channel. In a Motorola system, before allocating a channel
element for a handoff request, the MM checks the Radio Configuration Class capability of the
current sector against the candidate sector. If the candidate sector supports a higher Radio
Configuration Class, the MM can pick a channel element with a higher Radio Configuration Class
that is supported by the subscriber. For example, if a IS-2000 capable subscriber is on a call using
IS-95 with RC 2 radio resources and wishes to add a leg from a BTS that has IS-2000 with RC 3
radio resources available, the MM could decide to perform a hard handoff and hand the subscriber
up to the IS-2000 channel with RC 3 radio resources. Increasing the call to a higher Radio
Configuration Class is referred to as a hand-up.

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3.10.3.3 IS-2000 to IS-95 Hand-down

An IS-2000 to IS-95 hand-down happens when an IS-2000 capable subscriber station is assigned
to an IS-2000 channel in the source BTS, and the target BTS has assigned an IS-95 channel. In a
Motorola system, the MM checks the Radio Configuration Class capability of the current sector
against the candidate sector. If the candidate sector supports a lower Radio Configuration Class,
the MM can pick a channel element with a lower Radio Configuration that is supported by the
subscriber. The subscriber would then hand down to the IS-95 channel. An example of this is when
the call starts out on an IS-2000 channel with RC 3 radio resources and the subscriber wishes to
handoff to a BTS that does not have IS-2000 resources available. The MM could decide to perform
a hard handoff and hand the subscriber down from IS-2000 to IS-95. As part of this handoff
process, the source radio channel is also handed down to IS-95. Decreasing the call to a lower
Radio Configuration Class is referred to as a hand-down.

3.10.3.4 Packet Data Handoffs

In a Motorola system, when the base station determines that a Hard Handoff is required for a packet
data call, the base station will transition a packet data call into dormant mode by initiating a call
release. During the release procedure the base station sends the subscriber a Service Option Control
message indicating the minimum amount of time the subscriber must wait before trying to transfer
the packet data. The subscriber will attempt to access the system again using the best serving cell.
Once access has been granted, the subscriber will resume the transfer of the packet data.

3.10.3.5 Inter-Carrier Hand-across

An IS-2000 to IS-2000 inter-carrier hand-across happens when an IS-2000 capable subscriber is
assigned to an IS-2000 channel in the source sector, and the target sector can assign an IS-2000
channel. The subscriber would then handoff to the IS-2000 channel. In the case of the hand-across,
the source and target sectors are located under two different frequencies, and a hard handoff to the
IS-2000 target cell is required. This inter-carrier hand across case can also occur among IS-95
channels.

3.11 Budgetary Estimate of Sites for Capacity (Voice Only)
The following section provides a budgetary estimate of sites from a capacity perspective for a
Chicago Metropolitan Area example. This example provides a simplified traffic engineering
approach to estimating the number of sites required from a capacity perspective for an IS-95 voice
only system. If some simplifying assumptions were made towards the voice and data call models,
a similar approach could also be performed to estimate the number of sites required from a capacity
perspective for a voice and data system as well (IS-95B and/or IS-2000 1X).

It is important to note that the site estimates provided in this section are for budgetary purposes
only. Many other issues such as cell coverage, cell location, antenna configurations, unique traffic
call models (voice and data), etc. have to be taken into consideration for an actual system design.
It is recommended that simulations be performed using a tool like Motorola’s NetPlan tool (see
Section 3.12) before finalizing a system design.

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This example illustrates the case that the cellular operator decides to deploy a single carrier CDMA
system and allocate 1.8 MHz (including the guard band) out of the 12.5 MHz cellular band for
CDMA deployment. The system shall be designed to provide service to 40,000 new CDMA
subscribers. Prior to the design of the system, information concerning the propagation environment
and subscriber distribution has to be gathered for each particular service area.

3.11.1 Required Parameters for Initial System Design

Prior to the design of an IS-95 voice only system, the propagation parameters and the subscriber
profile must be available. This section is intended to give an overview of some important
parameters and the correct way to apply them to system design. A completed example follows.

3.11.1.1 Busy Hour Call Attempts and Completions

Busy hour is defined as the continuous one hour period in the day during which the highest average
traffic density is experienced by the system. Busy Hour Call Attempts (BHCA) is the number of
call setup requests during the busy hour. Busy Hour Call Completion (BHCC) is the portion of the
requests which succeed in making it to the conversation state.

3.11.1.2 Average Holding Time

Holding time is defined as the average length of time an active user occupies a traffic channel.

3.11.1.3 Erlangs per Subscriber

An Erlang is the traffic intensity of a traffic channel which is continuously occupied. Erlang per
subscriber is the product of BHCA per subscriber and the average holding time per access.

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Figure 3-32: Subscriber Distribution of Chicago Metropolitan Area

NORTHWEST
SUBURBS

UPTOWN
AREA

WEST CHICAGO
SUBURBS DOWNTOWN

SOUTHWEST
SUBURBS

SOUTH
SUBURBS

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Table 3-23: Subscriber Distribution of Chicago Metropolitan Area

BHCA per
Subscriber Environment
Area subscriber
Distribution Classifications

1 City core area 50% dense urban 1.40
2 Northwest Suburb 25% suburban 1.40
3 Uptown area 10% dense urban 1.38
4 West Suburb 8% suburban 1.30
5 Southwest Suburb 5% suburban 1.30
6 South Suburb 2% suburban 1.20

System Parameters:

• Spread Bandwidth = 1.23 MHz
• Data Rate = 9600 bps (Rate Set 1)
• Median (Eb/Io) = 7 dB
• Power Control standard deviation = 2.5 dB
• Voice or Data Activity Factor = 0.4
• Noise Rise Threshold (Io/No) = 10

Assumptions:

1. Each subscriber’s required energy per bit-to-interference density ratio (Eb/Io) is varied
according to propagation conditions to achieve the specified FER of 0.01
2. All the sectors support the same number of subscribers.
3. The subscribers are uniformly distributed over each sector.
4. There is no overflow from the CDMA network to the AMPS network
5. There are 40,000 subscribers distributed across the system as shown in Table 3-23.
6. The Average Hold time per Access is 65 seconds.
7. The path loss slope for a dense urban environment of 32.8 dB/decade is assumed with a
shadowing standard deviation of 7.7 dB.
8. The path loss slope for an urban environment of 38.4 dB/decade is assumed with a
shadowing standard deviation of 8 dB.
9. 40% of the subscribers will be in soft handoff between two or more sites.
10. The sectorization improvement going from a single sector to three sectors is 2.4 times.

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From the Figure 3-7: Probability of Blocking vs. Erlangs per CDMA Sector with Various Path
Loss Slope Values with Rate Set 1 Vocoder, Page 28, with fully loaded neighbor cells (worst case),
the maximum capacity for 2% probability of blocking is approximately 15 Erlangs per CDMA
sector for dense urban areas, and 17.8 Erlangs per CDMA sector for suburban areas.

These results in addition to following are approximations based on the curves and the assumptions
which went into generating the curves. Actual system designs will vary from system to system.

For Area 1,

Number of subscribers in the city core = 40,000*50% = 20,000
Required traffic capacity for this area
= BHCA/sub * # of Sub * Average Hold Time per Access(sec) / 3600
= 1.4 * 20,000 * 65 / 3600
= 505.56 Erlangs (0.0253 Erlang per sub)
Required traffic capacity including soft handoff
= Required traffic capacity * soft handoff factor
= 505.56 * 1.4
= 707.78 Erlangs
Required number of CDMA sectors
= 707.78 / 15 Erlangs per CDMA sector
= 48 CDMA sectors
Required number of CDMA sector cells
= 48 / 2.4 (2.4 is the sectorization gain)
= 20 cells

For Area 2,

Number of subscribers in the city core = 40,000*25% = 10,000
Required traffic capacity for this area
= BHCA/sub * # of Sub * Average Hold Time per Access(sec) / 3600
= 1.4 * 10,000 * 65 / 3600
= 252.78 Erlangs
Required traffic capacity including soft handoff
= Required traffic capacity * soft handoff factor
= 252.78 * 1.4
= 353.89 Erlangs

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Required number of CDMA sectors
= 353.89 / 17.8 Erlangs per CDMA sector
= 20 CDMA sectors
Required Number of CDMA sector cells
= 20 / 2.4
= 9 cells

Using a sectorization gain of 2.45 for a three sector CDMA site, a total of 20 sector cells are
required for area 1. Propagation studies have to be performed to determine if the system is coverage
limited as opposed to capacity limited. If the number of sector cell sites required in this case for
coverage is larger than 20 (the system is coverage limited), the system should be designed based
on the number of cell sites required for coverage. Propagation studies could be a detailed system
wide simulation or a simple link budget analysis based on certain well-known propagation model
such as the Okumura Model or the Hata Model (depending on the degree of accuracy required).

By the same method, the calculation of the other areas is summarized in following table:

Table 3-24: Chicago Metropolitan Area Summary

Subs. Required Required Max.
BHCA Traffic SHO Traffic w/ Required
Subs. in Traffic
Area per (Erlangs) Factor SHO Sector
% Region per
Sub (Erlangs) (Erlangs) Cells
(k) Sector

1 1.40 50 20 505.56 1.4 707.78 15.0 20
2 1.40 25 10 252.78 1.4 353.89 17.8 9
3 1.38 10 4 99.67 1.4 139.53 15.0 4
4 1.30 8 3.2 75.11 1.4 105.16 17.8 3
5 1.30 5 2 46.94 1.4 65.72 17.8 2
6 1.20 2 0.8 17.33 1.4 24.27 17.8 1
Total 100 40 997.39 1396.35 39

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3.12 IS-95 and IS-2000 Simulations

Planning a wireless system revolves around three main characteristics: Coverage, Capacity, and
Quality. In a CDMA system, these three characteristics must be carefully balanced against one
another in order to arrive at the desired level of system performance. If high capacity is desired,
there will be some degree of degradation in coverage and/or quality. Likewise, if a better system
quality is desired, there will be some degree of degradation in capacity and/or coverage. The
important point to realize is that these parameters are intertwined.

It is up to the system designer to determine how to balance these parameters to best serve a
particular area. The best balance point will change from cell site to cell site depending on where
that cell site is located in the system or the design objectives. Sites in dense downtown areas will
trade off coverage for capacity. Conversely, cell sites at the edges of a system could sacrifice
capacity for additional coverage.

The capacity of a CDMA site and system is dependent upon many factors which can be unique
from one system to the next. Some of these factors that have an impact to both IS-95 and IS-2000
1X systems are:

• Propagation loss (path loss slope, log normal fading, antenna types)
• Amount of delay spread in the environment
• Terrain and clutter environment
• Traffic distribution of the subscribers
• Speed distribution of the subscribers
• Voice/data call models and activity factors
• Soft and softer handoff factors
• Channel power settings (Pilot, Page, Sync, FCH, SCH, etc.)
• Environmental characteristics (noise, interference from other services, etc.)
• Level of reliability
• Quantity and placement of sites, in addition to the amount of cell overlap

For IS-2000 1X, the dimensioning of a complex traffic model with variable data rates, which
supports both circuit voice call models and packet data call models, creates a new challenge in
capacity design. In IS-95 and IS-2000 1X, voice calls are handled by allocating dedicated channels.
For IS-95B, data calls use dedicated supplemental code channels, but for IS-2000 1X, data calls
employ shared supplemental channels. Therefore, the IS-2000 1X channel structure assures
efficient use of the supplemental channels.

Various formulas can be used, dependent upon the level of complexity and accuracy desired, to
estimate the capacity of a site. The more accurate calculations will require more time to perform
or many simulations executed to obtain results which are statistically and reasonably valid. Due to
the variability of the many different factors mentioned above, there is no single capacity number,
but a range of values over an environment. The forward and reverse link capacity estimation
equations provided in this chapter can only be used as an approximation of capacity of the system
and should be used for budgetary purposes only. They do not take into account the size of the cell
or the spacing between the sites. These equations do not totally account for the benefits of soft

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handoff, since they assume that all sites serving a given subscriber will experience peak rises at the
same time, which in reality is a very small probability. In addition, these budgetary equations
assume that the subscriber distribution is uniform, which is not likely. One sector may need to
support many users, whereas the nearby sectors may be lightly loaded and therefore result in a
lower f-factor which allows for greater capacity. A more accurate estimation can be performed with
a more sophisticated CDMA simulation program, such as Motorola’s NetPlan tool. NetPlan can be
used to model the forward and reverse links for thousands of subscribers in a realistic system
environment with different voice and data traffic mixes.

The NetPlan CDMA Simulator incorporates both IS-95 and IS-2000 1X parameters and can be run
in one of two simulation modes: non time-sliced and time-sliced. Non time-sliced simulations
utilize a simulation technique where all of the dropped subscribers are actively bursting (although
the power is adjusted according to an activity factor) at simulation time, and data rates assigned
according to available capacity. For time-sliced simulations, data subscribers are modeled
according to a dynamic source model, which employs a State machine consisting of the Reverse
Request State, Server Delay State, Forward Reference or Download State, Think State, and
Dormant State. Each subscriber cycles through these states during the time-sliced simulation.
These states represent different bursting and non-bursting stages of the data call. For more
information on the dynamic source model, please refer to the CDMA RF System Design Procedure
(Chapter 6 and Appendix A4). Both of the simulation modes incorporate T-ADD, T-DROP, Soft
Slope, Add Intercept, Drop Intercept, overhead channel power requirements, as well as generic
antenna parameters such as horizontal and vertical antenna patterns, bearing, downtilt, and gain.

Various path loss models (statistical and deterministic) may be used by the simulator to aid in
defining the CDMA coverage area. Each path loss model has its benefits and disadvantages. While
most statistical models, such as Hata, do not consider terrain variation, they do allow for quick
budgetary simulations. The Xlos propagation model incorporates terrain variation, antenna pattern,
overlay (clutter) data, etc., in an attempt to model actual installations. The location of the CDMA
subscriber units within a system will greatly affect total system capacity, coverage and quality, as
well as the achieved data rate and distribution of resources. Subscriber positioning may be uniform
or may be more accurately modeled with a subscriber traffic map.

In essence, the NetPlan CDMA Simulator is a tool to layout a DS-CDMA system resulting in
information on predicted capacity, required system parameter values, system quality, predicted
coverage and hardware loading information. It permits investigations into real cellular system
concerns such as edge effects, propagation anomalies, antenna types, subscriber distribution, call
quality, receiver sensitivity impact on capacity, interference mitigation, power control and
handoffs. It provides statistical information for the cell, and end-user. Cell statistics include the
number of blocked subscribers due to unavailable Walsh codes, good subscriber percentage, total
TCH power per data rate, forward and reverse SCH data rate, sector throughput and end user
throughput, just to name a few. Because of CDMA system complexity and the inter-dependence
between coverage, capacity and quality, it is only when these properties are considered together
that a system representation with a higher degree of accuracy can be developed.

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3.13 References
1. R.H. Owen, Phil Jones, Shirin Dehgan, Dave Lister, "Uplink WCDMA capacity and
range as a function of inter-to-intra cell interference: theory and practice", pp. 298-302,
VTC 2000.

2. Szu-Wei Wang and Irving Wang, "Effects of Soft Handoff, Frequency Reuse and Non-
Ideal Antenna Sectorization on CDMA System Capacity", pp. 850-854, IEEE 1993.

3. William C. Y. Lee, "Mobile Cellular Telecommunications Systems", McGraw-Hill
Book Company, Second Edition 1995, figure 4.3, p. 110.

4. A. Viterbi & Viterbi, "Erlang Capacity of a Power_Controlled CDMA System", IEEE
Selected Areas in Communications, August 1993, pp. 892-900.

5. A. Viterbi, "CDMA Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication", Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, Copyright 1995.

6. R. Padovani, "Reverse Link Performance of IS-95 Based Cellular Systems", IEEE
Personal Communications Third Quarter 1994, page 28-34.

7. Charles Noblet, Ray Owen, Simon Burley, Allan Bartlett, “UMTS Network
Dimensioning From Theory to Simulations”, version 1.00

8. CDG Evolution Study Report, Revision 4.01, January 10,2000

9. H. Holma & A. Toskala, "WCDMA for UMTS", John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Copyright
2000, pp. 163-167.

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4 Link Budgets and
Coverage
Table of Contents

4.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.2 Radio Frequency Link Budget. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.2.1 Propagation Related Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.2.1.1 Building Loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.2.1.2 Vehicle Loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.2.1.3 Body Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.2.1.4 Ambient Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.2.1.5 RF Feeder Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.2.1.6 Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 12
4.2.2 CDMA Specific Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 14
4.2.2.1 Interference Noise Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 14
4.2.2.2 Soft Handoff Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 18
4.2.2.3 Eb/N o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 19
4.2.3 Product Specific Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 20
4.2.3.1 Product Transmit Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 20
4.2.3.2 Product Receiver Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 24
4.2.4 Reliability (Shadow Fade Margin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 29
4.2.5 Example Reverse (Uplink - Subscriber to Base) Link Budget. . . 4 - 36
4.2.6 RF Link Budget Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 40
4.3 Propagation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 41
4.3.1 Free Space Propagation Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 41
4.3.2 Hata Propagation Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 43
4.3.3 COST-231-Hata Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 44
4.3.4 Additional Propagation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 45
4.4 Forward Link Coverage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 46
4.4.1 BTS Equipment Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 47
4.4.2 CDMA Signal Power Distribution Characteristics and PA Sizing 4 - 51
4.4.3 General Power Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 51
4.4.4 Design Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 53
4.4.4.1 Comparison to Average Rated Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 53
4.4.4.2 Comparison to High Power Alarm Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 54
4.4.4.3 Comparison to Walsh Code Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 54

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4.4.5 General Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 54
4.4.5.1 Minimum ARP Based on LT-AVG Estimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 55
4.4.5.2 Minimum HPA Based on VST-AVG Estimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 56
4.4.5.3 Exceeding the High Power Alarm Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 56
4.4.5.4 Carrier Load Management Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 57
4.4.6 Power Allocation in Mixed Mode Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 58
4.4.7 Government Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 65

4.5 CDMA Repeaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 65
4.5.1 CDMA Repeater Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 66
4.5.1.1 Coverage Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 66
4.5.1.2 Cascaded Noise Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 69
4.5.1.3 Interference and Capacity Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 73
4.5.1.4 Filtering Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 73
4.5.2 CDMA Repeater Installation Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 74
4.5.2.1 Antenna Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 74
4.5.2.2 Repeater Antenna Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 77
4.5.2.3 Repeater Gain Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 78
4.5.3 CDMA Repeater Optimization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 79
4.5.3.1 Timing Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 79
4.5.3.2 Optimization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 81
4.5.4 CDMA Repeater Maintenance Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 81
4.5.4.1 Future Expansion Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 82
4.5.4.2 Environmental Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 83
4.5.4.3 Operations and Maintenance Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 83

4.6 Theoretical vs. Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 83
4.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 85

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4.1 Introduction

The RF design of a wireless system revolves around three main principles. Those principles are
coverage, capacity and quality. The coverage of a system relates to the area within the system that
has sufficient RF signal strength to provide for a quality call. The capacity of a system relates to
the ability of the system to support a given number of users. Finally, the quality of the system
relates to the ability of being able to adequately reproduce analog voice with a digital system. With
CDMA, all three of these quantities are interrelated. To improve quality, some coverage and
capacity has to be sacrificed. To improve coverage, capacity and quality would be sacrificed.
Finally, to improve capacity, coverage and quality would be sacrificed.

The CDMA system design process consists primarily of three levels or phases. These levels range
from an initial budgetary design to a final design used to implement the system. The amount of
time and effort required to complete a design increases as the design process moves from a
budgetary design to a final design. However, this additional time and effort results in a more
accurate system design.

The first level of the design process is a budgetary level. It uses the RF link budget along with a
statistical propagation model (such as Hata or COST-231 Hata) to estimate the coverage of the sites
and ultimately determine how many sites are required for the particular system. This type of
propagation model has a slope and intercept value for each type of environment (Urban, Suburban,
Open, etc.) and does not include terrain effects. This relatively simplistic approach allows for a
quick analysis of the number of sites that may be required to cover a given area.

The next level of a system design requires a more detailed propagation model. This propagation
model takes into account the characteristics of the selected antenna, the terrain, and the land use
and land clutter surrounding the site. Since these factors are accounted for, this propagation model
will determine a better estimate of the coverage of the sites than the previous statistical propagation
model. Thus, its use, in conjunction with the RF link budget, produces a more accurate
determination of the number of cells required. This second level of the design process uses the
reverse RF link budget to assist in determining the required propagation path loss. Motorola uses
the NetPlan tool for this portion of the design process.

However to complete a system design, the forward link must also be analyzed to determine power
settings and pilot coverage. The forward RF link budget consists of many variables including
subscriber speed, location, soft handoff, noise figure, voice activity, and pilot range. It is
recommended that a simulation be used to analyze the forward link by accounting for the statistical
variation in these parameters. Such simulator studies are part of the final design phase.

The final level or phase of the design process incorporates further detail into the design by the use
of simulation studies. Motorola uses the NetPlan CDMA Simulator for this analysis. The
simulation studies account for subscriber distributions within a coverage area and also for CDMA
system and site level parameters. The simulator analyzes both the forward and the reverse links.
This final design process is required in the deployment of a system or in determining warranty
coverage.

The one element common to all three levels of a system design is the RF link budget. The following
section discusses this element in greater detail.

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4.2 Radio Frequency Link Budget

There are two main purposes for establishing the RF link budget for CDMA designs. The first
purpose is to establish system design assumptions for all of the gains and losses in the RF path
(such as vehicle loss, building loss, ambient noise margin, maximum subscriber transmit power,
etc.). The second purpose of a link budget is to establish an estimate for maximum allowable path
loss. This maximum allowable path loss number is used in conjunction with the propagation model
to estimate cell site coverage, which ultimately determines the number of cells required for
adequate system RF signal coverage and hence the system cost. Figure 4-1 shows the impact to the
quantity of sites required due to changes in the RF link budget. For example, if the RF link budget
(maximum allowable path loss) was improved by 5 dB, approximately half the number of sites
would be required.

Figure 4-1: Percentage of Cells Based on dB Changes to the Link Budget

The above figure is derived using the COST 231 Hata Suburban propagation model. Other models
may differ slightly from this. This figure can be utilized as a quick aid to help quantify the number
of sites required based upon a change made to the RF link budget. It should be pointed out that
other environmental factors may contribute to the above not holding true. For instance, in a very
hilly terrain location, dB improvements may not provide for extra range if the terrain is blocking
the propagation.

The system designer will need to determine the specific RF link budget parameters to be used when
designing the system. The parameters within the RF link budget can be divided into four major
categories. The following lists some of these parameters:

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1. Propagation related
• Building Loss
• Vehicle Loss
• Body Loss
• Ambient Noise
• RF Feeder Losses
• Antenna Gain

2. CDMA specific
• Interference Noise Rise (other users)
• Eb/No
• Processing Gain (ratio of bandwidth to data rate)

3. Product specific
• Product Transmit Power
• Product Receiver Sensitivity

4. Reliability
• Shadow Fade Margin

The following figure shows the typical gains and losses that are encountered in the RF link.

Figure 4-2: RF Link Budget Gains & Losses

Subscriber Tx Power
Sub. Subscriber Rx Sensitivity
Subscriber Line Loss
Subscriber Antenna Gain
Body Loss
Vehicle Loss
Building Loss RF
Man-made Noise Gains
&
RF Path Loss Losses
Shadow Fade Margin (Reliability)
BTS Antenna Gain
Transmission Line Loss
Jumpers & Connector Loss
BTS Tx Power
BTS BTS Rx Sensitivity

A RF link budget must be determined for each sector of each site. The RF link budget for each
sector must incorporate any specific parameters that have been supplied (such as building
penetrations, antenna heights, antenna gains, cable losses, coverage criteria, coverage reliability,
etc.). It is common that all sectors of a given site may have the same link budget or even that several

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sites may have the same link budget due to common installation practices being followed. If this is
the case, then the same link budget can be used for all of the similarly configured sectors. However,
if the parameters change from sector to sector and site to site, then separate link budgets will need
to be calculated for each unique sector.

CDMA RF link budgets may make simplifying assumptions regarding noise rise and Eb/No
requirements. For instance, in the RF link budget, the Eb/No value is considered a constant. In
actuality, Eb/No is not a constant value but varies with respect to speed, delay spread and other
factors. Some of the simplifying assumptions are addressed in the detailed design phase.

4.2.1 Propagation Related Parameters

Propagation related parameters are those gains or losses of a link budget that are constant,
independent of the multiple access technology chosen or vendor. The values of these parameters,
though, are frequency dependent (i.e. differences would exist between an 800 MHz design and a
1900 MHz design or between a mobile and a fixed environment). These parameters include such
factors as: building loss, vehicle loss, body loss, man-made noise margin, RF feeder losses, and
antennas. If comparing link budget information between vendors, these propagation related
parameters should be set the same so as to obtain a realistic comparison.

4.2.1.1 Building Loss

Building loss is associated with the degradation of the RF signal strength caused by a building
structure, when a subscriber handset operating within a building is communicating with a base
station. An adequate RF signal strength within a building can be accomplished in one of two ways.
One method involves the propagation scenario, where a base station located outdoors
communicates with a subscriber unit that is inside a building (see Figure 4-3). The second method
involves the propagation scenario, where both the base station and the subscriber unit are within
the same building.

Figure 4-3: In-Building Propagation Scenarios

INTO WITHIN
Propagation Scenario where a base Propagation Scenario where both
station communicates with a radio the transmitter and receiver are
transceiver that is inside a building. within the same building.

For this chapter on link budgets, only building losses associated with the building penetration of

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the RF signal from an outdoor source are considered (refer to Figure 4-3, the diagram labeled
INTO). Refer to Section 7.2 of Chapter 7 for further information on in-building designs.

One approach for modeling the “into” building penetration is as an extension of an outdoor
propagation model. This method uses a distance-dependent path loss for a subscriber unit that is
outside a building, and adds a building loss factor.

This typical approach adds building loss factor to the macro cell link budget. This building loss is
highly variable and is a function of such items as: construction material, building layout, user
location inside the building, proximity to the base station, and direction from the base station.

Building losses can range anywhere from 5 to 40 dB or more. If actual field data is not available
for a given area, a value of building penetration may be assumed. The following table of values can
be used for a mobile design as a possible guideline in the absence of field data for the particular
environment:

Table 4-1: Example Building Penetration Losses (800 & 1900 MHz)
Environment Penetration Loss
Dense Urban 20 dB
Urban 15 dB
Suburban 10 dB
Rural 8 dB

This table of building losses represents the average difference in RF signal strength between the
outside environment and numerous points throughout the inside of the building.

Another approach is that radio transmission into buildings should be undertaken separately and not
as an extension of the outdoor propagation models plus the building loss factor. Besides the
antenna heights and path length, the floor area, number of rooms on the floor, angle of illumination
of the building to the base station and the construction of the walls should be considered when
trying to determine a new propagation model. This approached is not addressed in this planning
guide.

For a fixed system, the subscriber unit is not moving around inside the building but is instead fixed
to a position. Since the Fixed Wireless Terminal (FWT) unit is stationary, the installation should
be in a position that allows for the best signal to be received from the base station. The preferred
installation is to have the FWT with its whip antenna located near a window, preferably on the side
of the building closest to the base station. This would minimize the loss required for the signal to
penetrate into the building. In addition, the preferred FWT location would have it being mounted
above desk height. If this optimum location is achieved, the building loss will be minimized.
Careful placement of the fixed wireless terminal’s antenna near a window could reduce the
building loss value down to a 3 to 6 dB value. The following figure shows the preferred location
of the FWT with whip antennas. Refer to the FWT vendor to determine the recommendations of
the FWT placement.

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Figure 4-4: Preferred FWT Locations Without External Antennas

Better
Reception
Install FWT near window
that faces the general
direction of the cell site.

Good
Reception

There are numerous papers that exist which describe building penetration losses. The papers cover
many different factors that affect building loss such as: height of base station antennas, angle of
illumination to the building, differing heights of buildings, various building constructions, and the
impact of frequency on building loss. Some of these papers are contradictory. For example, a paper
by Turkmani1 2 concluded that building penetration losses decrease with an increase in frequency.
On the other hand, Aguirre3 reached the conclusion that higher penetration losses were
experienced at higher frequencies. It should be pointed out that Turkmani’s study had antennas
above the rooftop, whereas Aguirre’s study had antennas below the rooftop.

Due to the differences in the papers, an assumption for building penetration loss can be made by
utilizing the results that are from a test case more in line with how the operator plans to provide for
the building penetration.

As the floors of a building are ascended, the relative signal strength increases. This effect is usually
attributed to the increased probability of line of site propagation between the higher floors of the
building and the base site. This is commonly referred to as a height gain per floor. This height gain
can effectively reduce the building loss by approximately 1.3 to 2 dB per floor. Since the normal
design is for a worst case scenario, the height gain would not be considered unless the particular
design is to provide coverage only to a given floor(s).

1. Turkmani, Parsons and Lewis, "Measurement of building penetration loss on radio signals at 441, 900 and
1400 MHz", Journal of the Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers, Vol. 58, No. 6 (Supplement), pp.
S169-S174, September-December 1988

2. Turkmani and Toledo, "Modelling of radio transmissions into and within multistory buildings at 900, 1800
and 2300 MHz", IEEE Proceedings-I, Vol. 140, No. 6, December 1993

3. Aguirre, "Radio Propagation Into Buildings at 912, 1920, and 5990 MHz Using Microcells", 0-7803-1823-
4/94 IEEE, session 1.6 & 1.7, pp. 129-134

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4.2.1.2 Vehicle Loss

Vehicle loss is the degradation of the RF signal strength caused by a vehicular enclosure. A
subscriber handset communicating to a cell site from within a vehicle will have a lower signal
strength than if that same subscriber unit was operating outside of the vehicle. Vehicle loss has
been seen to range from 5 to 12 dB. If the design for a system is to include a vehicle penetration
loss, an average range is approximately 5 to 8 dB.

Due to the nature of a fixed system, vehicle loss should not be accounted for.

4.2.1.3 Body Loss

Body loss, also referred to as head loss, is the degradation of the RF signal strength due to the close
proximity of the subscriber handset antenna to the person’s body. A 2 dB loss is associated with
the antenna in a vertical position; 6 dB is associated with the antenna in a horizontal position. It is
assumed that the typical user will rotate the phone or move slightly to help improve the quality of
the call. Therefore, a lower body loss of 2 to 3 dB is often used in system designs.

For a fixed system, there will be no body loss since the FWT antenna is either connected directly
to the FWT or is installed outdoors.

4.2.1.4 Ambient Noise

The ambient noise defines the environmental noise that is in excess of kTB for the sector. This
noise could be generated from automobiles, factories, machinery, and other man-made noise. The
ambient noise margin parameter can be added to the link budget to allow for an adjustment to the
thermal noise value. Since each environment is unique, a noise floor study should be performed to
determine if an adjustment is required to the theoretical thermal noise floor value.

Man-made noise is less significant at 1900 MHz than at 800 MHz. Also, galactic or sky noise is at
a minimum.4

4.2.1.5 RF Feeder Losses

RF feeder losses include all of the losses that are encountered between the base station cabinet and
the base antenna, or with respect to a subscriber unit, all of the losses between the PA and the
antenna. Since a majority of subscriber units for a mobility system being sold to customers are
portable, there is minimal feeder loss; therefore, RF feeder loss at the subscriber unit is not
considered in the link budget. However, the feeder loss at the base site can account for several dB
of loss. The example RF link budgets provided in Table 4-6 on page 4-37 and Table 4-7 on page 4-
39 only reflect the line loss at the base site.

For a fixed system, the Fixed Wireless Terminal (FWT) may have an antenna connected directly
to the unit or the antenna may be installed on the outside of the building, thus requiring a

4. Lee, William C.Y. "Mobile Communications Engineering", Copyright 1982, McGraw-Hill Inc. pg. 33-40.

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transmission run from the FWT to the antenna. For the scenario of an external antenna connected
to an FWT, subscriber unit feeder loss needs to be accounted for in the RF link budget. This feeder
loss would be the loss encountered from the FWT to the external antenna, which is a function of
the size of transmission line and the length of the run. Since this transmission line may need to wind
its way from the FWT to the external antenna, the size of the line may be small to allow for better
bending radii. A lightning arrestor will also need to be accounted for in this subscriber unit feeder
loss.

The base station RF feeder line loss calculations include such losses as: top jumper, main
transmission line, bottom jumper, lightning arrestors (surge protector), connectors, duplexers,
splitters, combiners, and couplers (see Figure 4-5). The loss associated with the RF feeder system
can be minimized by reducing the transmission line run between the base station and its antennas,
and/or utilizing lower loss transmission lines. Transmission lines can range from 1/2” to 1-5/8”, or
greater, diameter cables. The larger the diameter of the cable, the less lossy the medium, but the
sacrifice is more rigid lines, larger bending radius, greater weight, more wind loading and larger
area required. Transmission lines are also available with either air or foam dielectrics. The air
dielectric cables are more expensive to install and maintain, but are less lossy than the foam lines.
Figure 4-5 reflects most of the different components that are encountered between the base site
antenna and the base station equipment.

When estimating the amount of transmission line loss, keep in mind that the line loss is frequency
dependent. Transmission cables are more lossy at higher frequencies. At 800 MHz, a 7/8” line may
suffice, but a 1-5/8” line for 1900 MHz may be required to maintain a similar loss. The following
table shows an example of the difference that can exist in transmission line loss as a function of the
operating frequency.

Table 4-2: Example of Main Transmission Line Losses
850 MHz 1900 MHz
7/8” Foam Dielectric Coaxial Cable 1.24 dB/100ft. 1.97 dB/100ft.
4.07 dB/100meters 6.46 dB/100meters
1-5/8” Foam Dielectric Coaxial Cable 0.77 dB/100ft. 1.25 dB/100ft.
2.54 dB/100meters 4.1 dB/100meters

Consult the transmission line vendor for the specifications of the installed transmission line or the
system operator, if actual field measurements have been made.

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Figure 4-5: Typical Components in the RF Feeder Run
Antenna

(A) Top Jumper

(B) Main Transmission Line

Waveguide Entry Port
(C) Antenna Surge Protector

(D) Jumper to Directional Coupler

(E) Directional Coupler

(F) Jumper to Duplexer

(G) Duplexer

(H) Jumper to Tx and Rx Antenna Port

Note: Each Jumper consists of:
BTS Two connectors and
One line

Additionally, the reference point used in the base station specifications should be known. For
instance, the duplexer loss and its jumpers/connectors to the base station may already be included
in the specifications for the base station’s noise figure and PA output. Typically, the specifications
for the base station are at the top of the frame. Therefore, if the duplexer or other components are
located within the base station frame, additional loss would not need to be factored in. If, on the
other hand, the device is located external to the base station frame, this loss would need to be
accounted for.

For sites with multiple CDMA carriers, the Rx signal distribution and the Tx combining schemes
are typically addressed within the equipment specifications of the base station frame. If combining
or splitting of the RF signal is being performed external to the base station frame, the loss
associated with the combining or splitting would need to be added to the link budget.

From a budgetary or approximation viewpoint, one RF feeder loss value could be assumed as the
typical value for all of the sites. In real world situations, however, it is rare that one loss value will

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be common for all of the sites. Some sites (and sectors) may have longer or shorter lengths of
transmission line due to being installed with a taller antenna supporting structure or due to the base
station equipment being located on the top of a building.

In performing propagation predictions, it is important that each site (sector) is represented as
accurately as possible. Therefore, an analysis should be done for each particular sector to determine
the RF feeder line loss. This calculation should include all losses between the antenna and the base
station such as those components depicted in Figure 4-5. The value of the line loss listed in
Table 4-6 on page 4-37 is an example which assumes that the base station will be operating at 1900
MHz and the main transmission antenna run is 30 meters (approximately 100 feet). A 1-5/8” heliax
cable at 1900 MHz has approximately 4.1 dB loss per 100 meters (1.25 dB loss per 100 feet).
Another 0.75 dB was assumed for jumpers and connectors.

Refer to Chapter 6, Section 6.7.3 for additional information on transmission lines.

4.2.1.6 Antennas

Antennas can be either omni or directional. Omni antennas provide approximately the same
amount of gain throughout the entire 360° horizontal pattern. Directional antennas, sometimes
referred to as sector antennas, have a maximum gain in one direction with the backside being 15
to 25 dB below the maximum gain.

The gain of the antenna is a function of the horizontal pattern, vertical pattern, and number of
elements that make up the antenna array. The number of elements will dictate the size of the
antenna. The horizontal and vertical beamwidths are referenced as the amount of degrees between
the points on the pattern where the gain is down 3 dB from the maximum gain.

The following points should be considered when selecting an antenna:

• The size and weight of the antenna will impact tower loading or the ability to place the
antenna in the optimum position.
• Typically, antenna patterns with narrower horizontal and/or vertical beamwidths will
result in a higher antenna gain, assuming similar lengths.
• The horizontal and vertical beamwidths will have an impact upon the performance of the
site at the locations midway between the sectors. The larger horizontal beamwidths will
result in more overlap of signal between sectors and thus increase the amount of softer
handoff between sectors and soft handoff with other sites. This impacts the amount of
interference seen (thus impacting capacity) and the ability to contain pilot pollution.
• The front to back ratio of the antenna also impacts the amount of interference seen at
other sites and the ability to minimize pilot pollution.

The horizontal and vertical patterns provided by the selected antenna should be verified to ensure
that there will be coverage in the desired area. For instance, as a means to improve forward gain of
the antenna, the vertical beamwidth may be reduced. In some situations, this reduction in the
vertical beamwidth may produce unsatisfactory signal strengths near the cell site tower due to the
antenna overshooting the area to be covered.

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Another item to keep in mind is whether the antenna gain is in reference to a dipole or an isotropic
antenna. The difference is usually signified by dBd or dBi. A zero dBd gain antenna would
correspond to a 2.14 dBi gain antenna. Cellular often referenced antennas in dBd, but PCS RF link
budgets normally refer to dBi gain antennas. The important point to be made is that a propagation
model may be referenced to an isotropic or dipole antenna. Thus, care should be taken to ensure
the correct antenna gain is used with the propagation model, and thereby avoiding a potential error
of 4.3 dB.

Refer to Chapter 6 for additional information on antennas.

4.2.1.6.1 Base Station Antenna

The antennas located at the base site can be either omni or directional. In early cellular designs,
most sites started out as omni. Fewer antennas were required and the system was lightly loaded.
As the traffic requirements grew, sites were required to be sectorized to provide for this additional
traffic and to restrict the amount of co-channel and adjacent channel interference.

PCS systems at 1900 MHz initially did not require an abundance of capacity, but utilized
directional antennas because of the extra gain associated with a directional antenna as compared to
an omni antenna. A 4 dB improvement could easily be achieved by using directional antennas
instead of omni antennas. This 4 dB improvement could potentially reduce the quantity of sites
required at 1900 MHz by approximately 40%.

It is not mandatory that all sites use the same antenna. The system planner may deploy either omni
or directional antennas at a cell site to meet the coverage goals desired.

As mentioned above, the antennas need to be selected to ensure coverage will be provided over the
desired area. In addition, antennas need to be selected to minimize the level of interference.
Decreasing the level of interference will allow for greater site capacity and improved system
performance. Antenna patterns that provide a faster rolloff past the half power points (i.e. 3 dB
down from main lobe) will provide for better interference protection. In frequency reuse systems
(AMPS, GSM, USDC), improved interference control, such as through the use of sectorized sites,
allows for a set of frequencies to be used at closer distances (i.e. tighter reuse pattern), thus
providing increased capacity. For CDMA, as mentioned in the chapter on capacity (Chapter 3),
interference from other cells and other sectors has an impact on the capacity that can be supported.

4.2.1.6.2 Subscriber Unit Antenna

Our assumptions here are that the portable subscriber unit antenna has a gain of 0 dBi (-2.14 dBd)
without factoring in body loss and is an omni antenna. It is possible that differences may exist. The
system could be designed for mobile coverage, in which case, the antenna mounted on the external
of the vehicle may have higher gain.

Another scenario is a fixed application. An option for the FWT is to have a whip antenna connected
directly to the FWT unit. This whip antenna gain may differ based upon product or vendor. Another
option is that the FWT installation may utilize yagi or patch antennas with much greater gain and
directivity.

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In some circumstances for a fixed application, particularly for users in fringe coverage areas,
external antennas are appropriate alternatives to the simple whip antenna. The vendor of the FWTs
should be contacted to determine what antenna options may be available.

4.2.2 CDMA Specific Parameters

CDMA specific parameters are those items in the RF link budget which will have different values
based on the technology chosen. CDMA parameters include such factors as: interference margin,
soft handoff gain and Eb/No.

4.2.2.1 Interference Noise Rise

In determining RF coverage in CDMA systems, the effect of interference generated from other
users on the serving cell as well as the neighboring cells must be considered. As discussed in
Chapter 3, this is in contrast to the RF coverage analysis for AMPS cells where interference mainly
affects the frequency assignment, but not the coverage.

The interference noise rise margin is dependent upon the amount of loading assumed in the system.
Different cell deployment strategies can be modeled by varying the interference margin. CDMA
cell deployments could be based on loading individual frequencies one by one, until they achieve
the target load (for instance, a 6 dB noise rise). An alternative deployment could utilize more
CDMA radio carriers, initially operating at a reduced load, to further extend the range of the cells
(for instance, 3 dB noise rise) while trading off capacity (exploiting any immediate spectrum
available). This 3 dB system rise improvement would result in approximately 30% fewer CDMA
cell sites at system turn-on.

The following equation can be used as a first pass approximation for the amount of interference
margin to be added to the reverse RF link budget to account for loading the CDMA system with
users.

NoiseRise = 10 log  ------------
1
[EQ 4-1]
1–X

Where X is the system load, specified as a fraction of pole capacity. For example, a cell site
operating near full capacity has X equal to seventy-five percent (75%). Noise rise varies as a
function of propagation, environment, load, user distribution, etc.

The derivation for Equation 4-1 can be shown as follows.

Assuming a CDMA system with N subscribers in the cell of interest and perfect reverse link power
control such that the power received at the base site due to each subscriber unit is the same,
P r 1 = P r 2 = .... Pr N = Pr , the signal to noise plus total (in-cell and out of cell) inbound
interference ratio on the traffic channel can be defined as:

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Pr
SNR = --------------------------------------------------
- [EQ 4-2]
( N o W + Io W + Ioc W )

Eb W
------ = SNR ⋅ PG = SNR ⋅ ------ [EQ 4-3]
Nt Rb

Eb ⁄ Nt
SNR = --------------- [EQ 4-4]
W ⁄ Rb

Where:
SNR is the signal to noise plus total interference ratio

Pr is the power (in Watts) received at the base site from each individual in-cell
subscriber unit. Note that, although the power received at the base site from a
particular subscriber unit is a function of several factors (i.e. subscriber unit’s
transmit power, subscriber unit antenna gain, base site antenna gain, individual
path loss and fading), the reverse link power control ensures that the received
power from any subscriber unit in the cell is approximately at the same level P r .

W is the spread bandwidth (in Hz) of the CDMA system

No is the thermal noise power spectral density (in Watts/Hz) at the input to the
receiver Low Noise Amplifier (LNA)

( N – 1 )αP
Io = ----------------------------r , is the interference power spectral density (in Watts/Hz) from all
W
of the subscriber units within the cell at the input to the receiver LNA. Note that,
in the cell of interest, out of a total of N subscriber units, only one subscriber unit
is the one of interest, hence there are N – 1 interfering subscriber units.

α is the voice activity factor or the fraction of time voice is transmitted during a call

Ioc is the interference power spectral density (in Watts/Hz) from all of the subscriber
units in other cells at the input to the receiver LNA and is the function of their
respective path loss characteristics, load, size and power control

Eb ⁄ Nt is the figure of merit for digital systems and is defined as energy per bit to noise
plus total interference power spectral density ratio

PG = W ⁄ Rb , is the Processing Gain of the CDMA system. W = 1.2288 MHz for
an IS-95 and IS-2000 1X CDMA system and Rb is the bit rate of the traffic
channel (e.g. 9.6 kbps traffic channel or 14.4 kbps traffic channel).

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Furthermore, the frequency reuse factor or the F-factor of a cell is defined as the ratio of inbound
interference from subscriber units within the cell (intra-cell) to the total inbound interference from
subscriber units in all the cells (including the cell of interest). Since each subscriber unit is a
potential interferer, F-factor is given by

InCell Io
F = -------------------------------------------- = ----------------
- [EQ 4-5]
InCell + OutCell Io + I oc

Some references to the frequency reuse factor may be in terms of out of cell interference to in cell
interference (f = OutCell/InCell). The frequency reuse factors F and f can be equated with the
following equation:

1
F = ----------- [EQ 4-6]
1+f

Substituting the value of Io into Equation 4-5 results in:

( N – 1 )αP r
F = ---------------------------------------------
- [EQ 4-7]
( N – 1 )αP r + I oc W

Substituting the value of I o into Equation 4-2 and dividing both numerator and denominator by
N o W , SNR can be rewritten as

Pr Pr ⁄ ( N o W )
- = -------------------------------------------------------
SNR = --------------------------------------------------------------- - [EQ 4-8]
N o W + ( N – 1 )αPr + Ioc W ( N – 1 )αPr I oc W
1 + ---------------------------- + ------------
No W No W

Pr ⁄ ( N o W ) Pr ⁄ ( N o W )
SNR = ----------------------------------------------------------------
- = -------------------------------------------------------
- [EQ 4-9]
( NαPr + I oc W ) αPr ( N – 1 )αPr + I oc W
1 + ------------------------------------- – ----------- 1 + ----------------------------------------------
No W No W No W

Substituting the value of F-factor from Equation 4-7 into Equation 4-9 results in,

Pr ⁄ ( N o W ) Pr ⁄ ( N o W )
SNR = ------------------------------------------------------ = ------------------------------------------------- [EQ 4-10]
( N – 1 )αPr α ( N – 1 ) Pr
1 + ----------------------  -----------
1
1 + ----------- ⋅ ----------------------------
No W F F No W

s
SNR = ---------------------------------- [EQ 4-11]
α
1 + --- ( N – 1 )s
F

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where, s = Pr ⁄ ( N o W ) .

Solving Equation 4-11 for s,

SNR SNR
s = ----------------------------------------------- = ------------ [EQ 4-12]
α 1–X
1 – --- ( N – 1 ) ⋅ SNR
F

where X is defined as the loading factor of the system and is given by

α
X = --- ( N – 1 ) ⋅ SNR [EQ 4-13]
F

The upper bound on the number of users or the pole capacity of the cell of interest can be obtained
by substituting X = 1 into Equation 4-13 and replacing SNR with Equation 4-4 to yield:

F F W ⁄ Rb
N pole = 1 + ------------------- = 1 + --- ⋅ --------------- [EQ 4-14]
α ⋅ SNR α Eb ⁄ Nt

The system rise is defined as the ratio of thermal noise plus total inbound interference to thermal
noise and is given by

N o W + I o W + I oc W
R = ---------------------------------------------
- [EQ 4-15]
No W

From Equation 4-2 and Equation 4-15 yields the following:

Pr ⁄ ( N o W ) s
R = --------------------------- = ----------- [EQ 4-16]
SNR SNR

Substituting the value of s from Equation 4-12 in Equation 4-16 results in:

1
R = ------------ or R (dB) = –10 log ( 1 – X ) [EQ 4-17]
1–X
R (dB) is the median rise. In other words, noise rise is above (or below) this level 50% of the time.
This is due to the voice activity ( α ) term used in the SNR calculation.

Figure 4-6 is a graphical representation of Equation 4-17 and plots rise versus the loading factor X.
From the plot, 50% loading corresponds to a rise of 3 dB and 75% loading corresponds to a 6 dB
rise.

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Figure 4-6: Rise (dB) at the cell of interest versus X (% load) at the cell of interest

4.2.2.2 Soft Handoff Gain

Soft handoff is the term that is normally associated with the fact that a CDMA system makes a
connection to a target cell prior to releasing (breaking) from the source site, commonly referred to
as “make-before-break”. A hard handoff, associated with AMPS, GSM, or USDC, requires that the
signal strength from the target cell be greater than the signal strength from the source cell by a
hysteresis value in order to reduce the number of handoffs per call and the “ping-pong” effect. This
hysteresis requires an overlap between the cell coverage areas. The soft handoff gain corresponds
to a decreased shadow fade margin required by the CDMA soft handoff over that of a hard handoff
system.

Some proponents of CDMA may have a separate entry in the RF link budget for soft handoff gain.
The purpose of this is to provide information as to the benefits of CDMA over other technologies.
Some system designers believe that the soft handoff gain should be accounted for in the reliability
value (shadow fade margin). The example RF link budget provided in a later section incorporates
the soft handoff gain in with the shadow fade margin. Refer to the section on Reliability for further
discussion on the shadow fade margin.

For a fixed system, the gain offered by soft handoff may or may not be present depending upon the
system design. For instance, a single isolated site supporting a fixed system would have no
neighboring sites to even allow soft handoff to occur. In this situation, the soft handoff gain would
be zero. Another situation is for a fixed system utilizing external FWT antennas. These directional
antennas tend to be sited to the best signal source and therefore minimal advantage from soft

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handoff would be recognized. Even for the situation of a fixed system using the FWT whip
antennas, soft handoff gain may be lower than seen in a mobile environment. The FWT installation
causes a form of building directionality which may decrease the soft handoff advantage.

4.2.2.3 Eb/No

Eb/No corresponds to energy per bit over interference plus noise density for a given target Frame
Erasure Rate (FER, typical voice FER target is 1%). In digital communications, it is customary to
designate one-sided noise density with No. In CDMA, interference is dominated by the noise
generated due to other users in the system. The notation, No, in this section refers to the total power
density due to interference and noise.

Included in the CDMA Eb/No value is diversity improvement arising from performance in
Rayleigh fading. This is distinct from the entry “Soft Handoff Gain” which represents an estimate
of the performance improvement of soft handoff, relative to hard handoff, when experiencing log
normal shadowing.

In general, the required downlink Eb/No, to provide an acceptable audio quality, improves at higher
speeds and in soft handoff. In the uplink path, the required Eb/No improves at lower speeds (which
is the opposite of the downlink). The worst case Eb/No value for voice communication on the
uplink is at about 30 kmph.

The uplink Eb/No value accounts for rake (non-coherent combining) receiver, dual antenna, and
interleaving/coding. The downlink Eb/No value accounts for rake (coherent, maximal ratio
combining) receiver, and interleaving/coding.

For mobile systems, the Eb/No target varies dynamically as the subscriber moves around. However,
FWTs are fixed and the only movement is that of people around the FWT in a building and large
vehicles or pedestrians close to an outdoor FWT antenna. Optimized FWT deployment may
significantly reduce the Eb/No target by avoiding the fading caused by the surrounding
environment.

In a mobile environment, the fading characteristic is Rayleigh. For a fixed system, the fading
environment may be more Rician. The Eb/No value assumes a certain type of fading environment.
The Eb/No requirement for a fixed system will therefore be different than for a mobile environment.
The Eb/No target value may range from 4 dB to 8 dB for CDMA fixed systems. The Eb/No target
value should be set to 8 dB for isolated cells using indoor omni FWT antennas or for cells with
little SHO benefits in the fringe areas. However, if external directional FWT antennas are used and
a Line Of Site (LOS) path exists between the cell site and the FWT antenna, an Eb/No target value
of 4 dB may be used.

As improvements are made to the hardware (chip sets) and to the software (how the energy is
managed), the Eb/No requirement level may be lessened. Typical Eb/No values used for fixed
systems are stated above. The early requirements for a mobile system are approximately 7 to 7.5

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dB for the 8 kbps and 13 kbps vocoder respectively. With the latest chip sets (e.g. Qualcomm
CSM5000, Motorola EMAXX), the Eb/No values are approximately 1.5 to 2 dB less for voice
communications.

IS-95A and IS-95B assume the same Eb/No values. For the IS-2000 RF reverse link, there are
separate Eb/No values provided for the fundamental channel rate and each supplemental channel
rate. The Eb/No values for the supplemental channel rates (19.2 kbps and greater) are less than the
fundamental Eb/No. Two main factors are contributing to this. A higher FER for the higher data
rates may be targeted as compared to lower FER for lower data rates for speech (9600 bps e.g.).
This will reduce the required Eb/No. The RF link budget shown in Table 4-7 on page 4-39 assumes
an FER of 5% for the supplemental channel rates and an FER of 1% for the fundamental channel.
It is viewed that the radio link protocols (RLP) will allow for relaxed FER requirements for the
supplemental channel. The control channel information carried on the fundamental channel
requires the better FER. Turbo coding is the other factor contributing to the lower Eb/No value for
the supplemental channels. Turbo coding improves upon the error correction at the higher data
rates. The higher the data rate, the larger the benefit from Turbo coding (Turbo coding gain grows
as the number of bits sent increases for a given frame size) which results in a lower Eb/No for a
given FER target.

From a link budget analysis, only one Eb/No value can be assumed for a given scenario. The
appropriate Eb/No value to be used in the RF link budget is based upon the system design
assumptions (base station equipment and vocoder rate).

The Motorola NetPlan CDMA Simulator incorporates a family of curves to more accurately
account for the Eb/No requirements needed to meet a desired FER for each link that is being
analyzed between the user and the site. Refer to Section 4.6 for additional discussion on the
simulator.

4.2.3 Product Specific Parameters

Product specific parameters are those items in the RF link budget which can vary based on the
product (base station and subscriber) chosen. There may be differences between products within
Motorola’s base station product line, such as differences in PA power. Differences will also exist
between different equipment vendors. Each equipment vendor will have their own vision of the
type of market their equipment is to satisfy.

4.2.3.1 Product Transmit Power

The transmit power is typically referenced by the power output of the piece of equipment prior to
the RF transmission lines and antennas. The point at which the transmit power is being measured
needs to be determined to ensure that there are no gains or losses left out of the link budget.

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4.2.3.1.1 Subscriber Unit

The IS-95A standard provides the maximum effective radiated power (ERP) for any class of
personal station transmitter in Table 6.1.2.1-1. The Class II personal station is not to exceed 2.5
Watts (34 dBm). For the Class III personal station, the minimum ERP is 0.2 Watts (23 dBm) and
the maximum ERP is 1 Watt (30 dBm).

The CDMA standard for 1.8 to 2.0 GHz (ANSI J-STD-008) provides the maximum effective
isotropic radiated power (EIRP) for any class of personal station transmitter in Section 2.1.2.1. The
Class I personal station is not to exceed 2 Watts (33 dBm). For the Class II personal station, the
minimum EIRP is 0.2 Watts (23 dBm) and the maximum EIRP is 1 Watt (30 dBm).

There is a slight difference between the PCS and Cellular specifications. Cellular references the
output power with respect to a dipole (ERP), whereas PCS makes reference to an isotropic radiator
(EIRP). Therefore, there is approximately a 2 dB difference between the specifications given in the
standards documents.

The latest version of 3GPP2 C.S0011, Recommended Minimum Performance Standards for
cdma2000 Spread Spectrum Mobile Stations, also provides a table of radiated powers for the
various band classes that exist.

The typical subscriber value to be used in the reverse link (uplink - subscriber transmit to base
receive) is 23 dBm.

With respect to the reverse RF link budget, one parameter could be used for the transmit power of
the subscriber unit (the EIRP or ERP value) or it may be desirable to break up this value into three
parts. The three parts are: subscriber PA output, transmission line and connector losses, and the
antenna gain.

Since the subscriber unit, portable or FWT, can be purchased from different vendors, the
specifications for each subscriber unit should be obtained.

With IS-95B, high speed packet data is supported by concatenating multiple RF channels on the
forward link (Walsh codes). To enable the concatenation of multiple channels, IS-95B compatible
subscriber units are required. Motorola’s IS-95B HSPD was not implemented on the reverse link,
thus only one RF channel is supported on the reverse link. It is assumed that the IS-95B subscriber
unit’s physical characteristics will be the same as those that were used for IS-95A voice. If a
different device is used for data than for voice, the subscriber PA output, transmission line and
connector losses, and the antenna gain parameters would need to be determined.

With IS-2000, high speed packet data is supported with the use of supplemental channels. IS-2000
compatible subscriber units are required to support this air interface specification. With IS-2000,
the reverse link can support multiple channels (e.g. reverse pilot channel, fundamental channel,
supplemental channel). The example IS-2000 reverse RF link budget in Table 4-7 on page 4-39 has
two additional rows to show the amount of power that would be dedicated to the fundamental or
dedicated control channel and to the supplemental channel (for reverse data rates greater than 9.6
kbps). The following definitions were obtained from the IS-2000 specifications.

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• The Reverse Fundamental Channel (R-FCH) corresponds to a portion of the Reverse
Traffic Channel, which carries higher-level data and control information from a
subscriber station to a base station.
• The Reverse Supplemental Channel (R-SCH) corresponds to a portion of Radio
Configuration 3 through 6 Reverse Traffic Channel, which operates in conjunction with
the Reverse Fundamental Channel or the Reverse Dedicated Control Channel. The
Reverse Supplemental Channel will provide higher data rate services, and is the channel
on which higher-level data is transmitted.
• The Reverse Dedicated Control Channel (R-DCCH) corresponds to the portion of a
Radio Configuration 3 through 6 Reverse Traffic Channel used for the transmission of
higher-level data and control information from a subscriber station to a base station.
• The Reverse Traffic Channel corresponds to a traffic channel on which data and
signaling are transmitted from a subscriber station to a base station. The Reverse Traffic
Channel is composed of up to one Reverse Dedicated Control Channel (IS-2000), up to
one Reverse Fundamental Channel (IS-95A/B or IS-2000), zero to two Reverse
Supplemental Channels (IS-2000), and zero to seven Reverse Supplemental Code
Channels (IS-95B).

The subscriber unit transmit power associated with the R-FCH or R-DCCH is dependent upon the
processing gain and Eb/No requirements associated with the fundamental channel. The subscriber
unit transmit power associated with the R-SCH is dependent upon the processing gain and Eb/No
requirements associated with the data rate of the R-SCH (19.2, 38.4, 76.8 or 153.6 kbps). When a
supplemental channel is required, some of the subscriber unit’s transmit power needs to be
allocated for the R-FCH or R-DCCH. The remaining transmit power can be utilized for the R-SCH.
The difference in the transmit power between the R-SCH and the R-FCH or R-DCCH is based on
the difference of the processing gain and Eb/No requirements of the different channels. The
following set of equations provide a method to determine the transmit powers for the various
reverse traffic channels.

PT = PFCH + PSCH

PSCH = 10^[(Processing_Gain_DeltadB + Eb/No_DeltadB)/10] * PFCH

PT = PFCH + 10^[(Processing_Gain_DeltadB + Eb/No_DeltadB)/10] * PFCH

PFCH = PT / {1 + 10^[(Processing_Gain_DeltadB + Eb/No_DeltadB)/10]}

Where:
PT is the total subscriber unit transmit power available (mW)

PFCH is the portion of the total subscriber unit transmit power available for the reverse
fundamental channel or reverse dedicated control channel (mW)

PSCH is the portion of the total subscriber unit transmit power available for the reverse
supplemental channel (mW)

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The following set of calculations provide an example of how the subscriber unit transmit powers
associated with the R-FCH and R-SCH for the 19.2 kbps data rate, represented in Table 4-7 on
page 4-39, were obtained. A similar approach would be followed for each of the other
supplemental channel rates.

PT = 200 mW

PFCH = 200 /{1+10^[(10*Log(19200/9600)+(3.5-5.6))/10]}

= 89.7 mW

PSCH = 200 - 89.7 = 110.3 mW

= 10 * Log(PSCH) = 20.4 dBm

4.2.3.1.2 Base Station

The CDMA standard for 1.8 to 2.0 GHz (ANSI J-STD-008) in Section 3.1.2 states that the base
station shall not transmit more than 1,640 Watts of effective isotropic radiated power (62.1 dBm
EIRP) in any direction in a 1.25 MHz band for antenna heights above average terrain less than 300
meters. The base transceiver station power is used in the forward link (downlink - base transmit to
subscriber receive).

With respect to the forward RF link budget, one value could be used for the transmit power of the
base station (the EIRP value) but typically this value is separated into three parts. The three parts
are: base station PA output, transmission line and connector losses, and the antenna gain. The
subscriber units are typically more uniform, having similar line losses and antenna gains. The base
station, on the other hand, can vary quite a bit from one base station to the next. Based on the
configuration of the site, location of antennas with respect to the base station infrastructure, and
power out required, it is not as simple to have one EIRP value that is common across the majority
of the sites. Since each base station site can be unique, the uniqueness of the site needs to be
accounted for to ensure the appropriate EIRP is being designed for. For instance, one site may
require a 100 ft. run of main transmission line, whereas another site may only require a 50 ft. run.
The additional loss for the longer run would alter the EIRP from the site. Another difference would
exist based on differences of antennas and their associated gains.

The power output of the base station is normally assumed to be the power out at the top of the
cabinet. It is possible that each vendor will have different transmit powers for their equipment. In
addition, one vendor may have different transmit powers for each product in their portfolio of base
station products. Obtain the specifications for the particular base station(s) that will be used in the
system design. In looking at the specifications, the power amplifiers may be for multiple carriers
or for a single tone (carrier). Refer to Section 4.4 for additional information on the Motorola BTS
PAs.

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4.2.3.2 Product Receiver Sensitivity

The sensitivity of a radio receiver is a measure of its ability to receive weak signals. The following
equation can be utilized in calculating the sensitivity of a radio receiver.

RxSensitivity = ( kT ) dBm ⁄ Hz + WdB ⋅ Hz + ( NF )dB + ( E b ⁄ N o )dB – ( W ⁄ R )dB [EQ 4-18]

Where:
k Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38x10-23 W/(Hz K)

T Room temperature in degrees Kelvin = 290 K

W Bandwidth of the carrier = 1228800 Hz

NF Noise figure of the equipment

Eb/No Energy bit density over noise

R Information bit rate

RxSensitivity = – 113 dBm + ( NF ) dB + ( E b ⁄ N o ) dB – PG dB [EQ 4-19]

The processing gain, PG, is the result of the bandwidth (W) divided by the data rate (R). For IS-95
Rate Set 1 (8 kbps vocoder), the data rate is 9600 bps. The resulting processing gain for this case
is obtained as follows:

PG = W/R = 1228800 / 9600 = 128

PGdB = 10 * Log (128) = 21.1 dB

The following table provides the data rate (R) and the resulting processing gain for various Rate
Sets and radio configurations. The data rates provided in the table are those that are supported in
CBSC Release 16.0. Refer to the latest IS-95A/B and IS-2000 standards for all of the data rates that
exist in the air interface standards.

Table 4-3: Processing Gain
Air Interface Reverse Link Radio Configurations Data Rate (bps) Processing Gain (dB)

IS-95A/B Rate Set 1 - Standard 8 kbps Vocoder or 9600 21.07
EVRC (Enhanced Variable Rate Coder)
IS-95A/B Rate Set 2 - 13 kbps Vocoder 14400 19.31
IS-2000 1X Reverse Link Radio Configuration 1 9600 21.07
IS-2000 1X Reverse Link Radio Configuration 2 14400 19.31

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Table 4-3: Processing Gain
Air Interface Reverse Link Radio Configurations Data Rate (bps) Processing Gain (dB)

IS-2000 1X Reverse Link Radio Configuration 3 9600 21.07
IS-2000 1X Reverse Link Radio Configuration 3 19200 18.06
IS-2000 1X Reverse Link Radio Configuration 3 38400 15.05
IS-2000 1X Reverse Link Radio Configuration 3 76800 12.04
IS-2000 1X Reverse Link Radio Configuration 3 153600 9.03
IS-2000 1X Reverse Link Radio Configuration 4 14400 19.3
(Only the fundamental is initially
supported by Motorola.)

IS-95B supports high speed packet data, but because of the data applications that were being
deployed, only the fundamental rate was provided on the reverse link. Therefore, the above table
only provides the processing gain for the two different fundamental rates.

Differences in the receive sensitivity will exist between the subscriber unit and base station due to
the differences in Eb/No values, as discussed in Section 4.2.2.3, and the noise figure of the
equipment. The other parameters in the receive sensitivity calculation will be the same for both
ends of the link.

4.2.3.2.1 Base Station

The noise figure, or NF, of a network is a value used to compare the noise in a network with the
noise in an ideal or noiseless network. It is a measure of the degradation in signal-to-noise ratio
(SNR) between the input and output ports of the network. Noise factor (F) is the numerical ratio of
NF, where NF is expressed in dB. The equation for converting noise factor to noise figure is:

NF ( dB ) = 10 log ( F ) [EQ 4-20]

Typically the noise figure value to be used in determining the receiver sensitivity value can be
obtained from the specification sheet for the particular product. The noise figure for the base station
is approximately 6 to 7 dB maximum with a typical value of approximately 4.5 dB. Consult the
base station equipment vendor for the specifics.

In some instances, a tower top amplifier (TTA) may be installed at a site to improve the level of
the received signal at the base station. The TTA includes an amplifier and therefore a new noise
figure needs to be determined since the configuration now has cascaded amplifiers. A TTA will
only benefit the reverse path (subscriber to base station). Since the TTA is only improving the
reverse link, the forward link may become more of the limiting path. It may be that a larger power
amplifier is needed in the forward link in order to balance both paths.

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For a TTA scenario as mentioned above, it will be necessary to calculate the noise figure of a group
of amplifiers that are connected in series. This can be accomplished if the noise figure of each
individual amplifier is known. The equation for determining the cascaded noise factor is:

F2 – 1 F3 – 1 F4 – 1
FTotal = F 1 + --------------- + --------------- + --------------------- … [EQ 4-21]
G1 G1 G2 G1 G2 G3

Where:
Fn is the noise factor of each stage

Gn is the numerical gain of each stage (not in dB)

The equation for converting Gain dB to linear Gain is:

G ( dB ) = 10 log ( G Linear ) [EQ 4-22]

One important point to be made with respect to Equation 4-21 is that if the gain of the first stage
G1 is sufficiently high, the denominators of the subsequent terms will force those terms to be small,
leaving only F1. Therefore, the NF of the first stage will typically determine the NF of the cascaded
configuration.

The NF of two or more cascaded lossy networks can be found by simply adding the losses (in dB)
of each network element. Examples of a lossy network element are: transmission lines, jumpers,
duplexers, filters and mixers. If a duplexer with an insertion loss of 0.5 dB is followed by a main
transmission line loss of 3 dB, the combined noise figure of this cascaded network is 3.5 dB.

The following figure shows two different sites. One site has an amplifier located on the top of the
tower. The other site is the more conventional site, that has no additional amplification beyond the
base station. This diagram will be used to run through an example showing the noise figure
improvement with the TTA. In this diagram, stage 2 in the tower top amplifier example and stage
1 of the without tower top amplifier example represent cascaded lossy network elements which are
able to be summed together.

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Figure 4-7: Example of Two Different Receive Path Configurations
With Tower Top Without Tower
Amplifier Top Amplifier
12 dBd Antenna 12 dBd

B D
0.5 dB Jumper to Antenna 0.5 dB

Stage NF = 2.5 dB, Gain 12 dB
1
Tower Top Amplifier

0.5 dB Jumper
Stage Stage
2 1

Main Transmission Line

Waveguide Entry Port
Antenna Surge Protector

Jumper to Directional Coupler

3 dB Directional Coupler 3 dB

Jumper to Duplexer

Duplexer

A C
Jumper to Tx and Rx Antenna Port

Stage Stage
NF = 9.5 dB 3 2 NF = 6 dB
BTS BTS

The following table lists the noise figures, noise factors, and gains for each stage shown above.

Table 4-4: Receive Path Noise Figures and Gains
With Tower Top Amplifier Without Tower Top Amplifier
NF1 2.5 dB F1 1.78 NF1 3.0 dB F1 2.0
NF2 3.5 dB F2 2.24 NF2 6.0 dB F2 3.98
NF3 9.5 dB F3 8.91
G1 12.0 dB G1 15.85 G1 -3.0 dB G1 0.5
G2 -3.5 dB G2 0.45

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Based upon the information in Table 4-4 and Equation 4-20, Equation 4-21, and Equation 4-22, the
noise factor at reference point B in Figure 4-7 for the receive path with the TTA can be calculated
as follows:

2.24 – 1 8.91 – 1
FB = 1.78 + ------------------- + ------------------------------ [EQ 4-23]
15.85 15.85 × 0.45

FB = 2.97

Using Equation 4-20, the cascaded noise figure would be:

NFB = 4.73 dB

The design without the tower top amplifier would result in the following noise factor at reference
point D shown in Figure 4-7:

3.98 – 1
FD = 2 + ------------------- [EQ 4-24]
0.5

FD = 7.96

NFD = 9.0 dB

The noise figure at point D could have also been determined by just adding the noise figure of stage
1 to the noise figure of stage 2 because the elements which made up stage 1 were all lossy.

From the above calculations, the low noise figure and the gain of the TTA produces a cascaded
noise figure of 4.73 dB at reference point B. This is a 4.77 dB improvement in the noise figure as
compared to the noise figure at point A. Point D, in the non-TTA case, can be compared to point B
to show the improvement in the noise figure and thus the reverse link improvement that can be
achieved with the TTA. The reverse link has improved 4.27 dB (9 - 4.73) with the TTA.

If the impact of the TTA is to be applied to a link budget, the following values would be used:

Table 4-5: Link Budget Inputs
Parameter With TTA Without TTA
Base Rx Feeder Loss 0.5 dB 3.5 dB
Base Noise Figure 4.73 dB 6 dB
Yields Rx Sensitivity @ point B C

Please note that for the example in Figure 4-7, the base station product which includes a TTA was
modified to have a higher noise figure than the typical base station. The higher noise figure for the
base station/TTA configuration was implemented so that the gain of the TTA does not overdrive
the front-end of the base station.

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Though the above scenario shows a reverse link budget advantage when a TTA is installed, not all
aspects of a TTA may be as advantageous. The following lists some of the drawbacks of TTAs:

• Increased susceptibility to reverse interference noise
• Since the TTA only improves the reverse link, an increase to the forward power may be
required to maintain a balanced link
• Timing concerns (How large can a site be without causing timing issues?)
• Active electronics at the top of the antenna structure (more susceptible to lightning,
more difficult for maintenance, etc.)

Due to the increased susceptibility to noise, Motorola does not typically recommend TTAs.
Though in some scenarios (for example in rural applications), TTAs may be beneficial.

4.2.3.2.2 Subscriber Unit

The noise figure for the subscriber unit is approximately 10 dB. The required Eb/No value to
provide acceptable audio quality for the subscriber unit is highly dependent on several parameters.
These parameters include: the speed, the environmental parameters, multipath and soft handoff of
the subscriber unit. This is one of the reasons why it is difficult to determine a forward link budget.
It is best left to a CDMA simulator that takes these situations into account.

4.2.4 Reliability (Shadow Fade Margin)

The shadow fade margin (also known as slow or log-normal fading margin) corresponds to the
variation in mean signal level caused by the subscriber passing through the shadows of hills or
buildings. The log-normal distribution has been found to be a good estimate of the statistical nature
of shadowing and is used to calculate the probability of RF coverage at each point in the cell. At
points near the base station, the average received signal level and the probability of coverage will
be high. At points near the edge of the cell, the average received signal level and probability of
coverage will be lower. The total probability of coverage for the entire cell is determined by
integrating the point probabilities over the cell area. The desired area coverage (e.g. 90%) is
achieved by adjusting the fade margin to the necessary level. A normal distribution of signals can
be used in calculating the reliability. The following figure shows that adding a margin to the link
budget will increase the reliability (confidence) of achieving the desired signal level.

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Figure 4-8: Impact of Fade Margin on Reliability

No Fade Margin
Edge Reliability at 50%

Margin
Edge Reliability at greater than 50%

The desired level of reliability is used to determine the amount of shadow fade margin that is
required, where a 97% design requires several dB more margin than a 95% design. To improve the
RF reliability, going further out on the tail of the distribution, additional margin is added to all
users. For a fixed system this may not be efficient nor cost effective since subscriber unit placement
has a big effect in determining the worst 5% of the users. The cost of increasing the reliability
(increasing dB margin that will impact all users) should be replaced with fixing the worst 5% of
the users, and thus saving the dB margin for the average users. For a fixed system, the fade margin,
building penetration margin, and soft handoff gain should to be considered together to provide for
the best achievable link budget.

The fade margin is the amount of margin necessary to achieve the required area reliability (as per
Jakes’ equations5) for a given standard deviation. The standard deviation is a measured value that
is obtained from various clutter types. It basically represents the variance (log-normally distributed
around the mean value) of the measured RF signal strengths at a certain distance from the site.

5. Jakes, W.C., “Microwave Mobile Communications”, IEEE Press Reissue 1993 (Wiley, New York, 1974),
pp. 125-127

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Therefore, the standard deviation would vary by clutter type. Depending on the propagation
environment, the log-normal standard deviation can easily vary between 5 and 9 dB or even
greater. Assuming flat terrain, rural or open clutter types would typically have lower standard
deviation levels than the suburban or urban clutter types. This is due to the highly obstructive
properties encountered in an urban environment, that in turn will produce higher standard deviation
to mean signal strengths than that experienced in a rural area.

Jakes’ single cell reliability equations (refer to the following equations) that determine the edge and
area reliability of a single cell model are commonly used to approximate the reliability of a site.

1 1  x o – x
Px o ( R ) = --- – --- erf  ------------- [EQ 4-25]
2 2  σ 2

Where:
Pxo ( R ) Edge reliability

xo Signal threshold level

x Signal mean at edge of the cell

σ Log normal standard deviation

1 – 1- 
F u = ---  1 – erf ( a ) + exp  -----------------
1 – 2ab-  ab
 b  
1 + erf -------------- [EQ 4-26]
2 2 
b 

xo – α
a = -------------- [EQ 4-27]
σ 2

10nLog10 ( e )
b = -------------------------------
- [EQ 4-28]
σ 2

Where:
Fu is the fraction of the total cell area where the signal exceeds a threshold
determined by P x o

α Signal mean at edge of the cell

n propagation exponent value
A composite standard deviation can be obtained by the following:

2 2 2
σc = ( σ1 ) + ( σ2 ) … ( σn ) [EQ 4-29]

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Where:
σn Log normal standard deviation for environment, n

This composite standard deviation may sometimes be used if there are two or more environments
(for instance, outdoors and in-building) which have their own standard deviation. For example if
the standard deviation is 6 dB for outdoors and 8 dB for in-building, the composite standard
deviation to use in Jake’s equation would be 10 dB.

The following two figures (Figure 4-9 and Figure 4-10) are results from Jake’s single cell model.
The edge reliability, Figure 4-9, has been shown for three different standard deviations (6.5, 8, and
10 dB) to demonstrate the impact of the standard deviation.

Figure 4-9: Edge Reliability vs. Fade Margin
100%

90%

80%
Edge Reliability

6.5
70% 8.0
10.0

60%

50%

40%
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Uplink Shadow Fade Margin (dB)

Figure 4-9 shows that edge reliability is dependent on the standard deviation and fade margin
assumed. The following observations can be seen.

• As the standard deviation increases, the edge reliability is reduced for the same fade
margin.
• As the standard deviation increases, a larger fade margin is required to maintain the
same edge reliability.

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The area reliability, Figure 4-10, assumes a standard deviation of 8 dB for the three curves. The
difference in the curves is due to three different path loss slopes (32, 35, and 40 dB/decade).

Figure 4-10: Area Reliability vs. Fade Margin

100%

95%

90% 40, 6.5
Area Reliability

35, 6.5
32, 6.5
40, 8
85% 35, 8
32, 8
40, 10
35, 10
80% 32, 10

75%

70%
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Uplink Shadow Fade Margin (dB)

Note: Within the legend of Figure 4-10, the first value corresponds to the propagation loss
slope in dB per decade. The second value corresponds to the standard deviation in dB.

Figure 4-10 shows that the area reliability is dependent on the standard deviation, fade margin, and
propagation loss slope (the slope is dependent on the height of the antennas). The following
observations can be seen.

• As the standard deviation increases, a larger fade margin is required to maintain the
same area reliability, assuming the same propagation slope.
• As the level of area reliability increases, a larger fade margin is required, assuming the
same standard deviation and propagation slope.
• As the propagation slope (path loss exponent) increases, a smaller fade margin is
required to maintain the same area reliability, assuming the same standard deviation.

The preceding information is for a single cell. When multiple cells and soft handoff are accounted
for, the probability of meeting a given signal strength is increased. Soft handoff is not an absolute

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gain but can be viewed as a reduction in the fade margin requirement needed to meet a desired edge
or area reliability goal. For isolated sites, there would be no improvement since there would be no
sites to enter into soft handoff with.

Since most systems are comprised of more than a single cell, the benefit of multiple cell effects
could be used. Simulations can be performed, given various assumptions (path loss slope, standard
deviation, correlation), to determine the appropriate shadow fade margin to be added to the link
budget to provide for the reliability desired. This multiple cell effect accounts for the overlap of
adjacent cells and the fast handoff capability of the CDMA soft handoff method. As mentioned in
the previous soft handoff section, the gain associated with soft handoff can be rolled into one
shadow fade margin.

Motorola has performed various simulations for a multiple cell system and generated some
reliability curves. The curves in Figure 4-11 show that 4.7 to 5.6 dB fade margin is required to
reach 95% area reliability for a sector site. The curves show that the area reliability is a function of
the configuration of the site, as well as the standard deviation and site-to-site correlation assumed.
Motorola typically recommends the 5.6 dB shadow fade margin to design systems with an area
reliability of 95% or slightly better.

The following two figures illustrate examples of the required fade margin based on simulations.
These simulations account for the soft handoff advantage in a multi-cell system. The two figures
illustrate the cell area and edge reliability as a function of shadow fade margin. Note that the
required margin varies as a function of the propagation model and sectorization. The notation (x1,
x2, x3), in the figures refer to the propagation model, where x1 is the path loss slope, x2 is the
lognormal shadow fading standard deviation, and x3 is the site-to-site correlation (Note: path loss
slope x1 converts to path loss dB/decade by multiplying x1 by a factor of 10).

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Figure 4-11: Area Reliability as a Function of Shadow Fade Margin

Omni (3.5, 6.5, 0.5)

Omni (4, 8, 0.5)
Area Reliability

Sector (3.5, 6.5, 0.5)

Sector (4, 8, 0.5)

Uplink Shadow Fade Margin (dB)

For the above analysis, the sector sites assumed an antenna with 90° horizontal beamwidth. For a
given area reliability, the sector sites required a larger fade margin to account for the reduction of
gain experienced between the sectors.

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Figure 4-12: Edge Reliability as a Function of Shadow Fade Margin

Omni (3.5, 6.5, 0.5)
Edge Reliability

Omni (4, 8, 0.5)

Sector (3.5, 6.5, 0.5)

Sector (4, 8, 0.5)

Uplink Shadow Fade Margin (dB)

As mentioned in the section on soft handoff gain, some RF link budgets may have separate entries
for soft handoff gain and shadow fade margin. Typically when this is done, Jakes’ single cell model
fade margin is used to obtain the reliability level desired. The CDMA RF link budget, though, still
needs to account for the benefit of soft handoff. Therefore, an approximation for the benefit of soft
handoff gain is required in the link budget. In the RF link budget spreadsheet analysis, Motorola
typically assumes the benefit for soft handoff in a mobile environment to be approximately 3.5 dB
for a cluster of sties. If there is only a single entry in the RF link budget for the fade margin, then
the composite fade margin would be the single cell shadow fade margin minus the benefit
associated with soft handoff and multiple cells. For example, assuming a 9.1 dB shadow fade
margin and 3.5 dB benefit from soft handoff and multiple cells, the composite fade margin would
be 5.6 dB (9.1 minus 3.5).This is an approximation based on a single cell model plus an assumed
soft handoff benefit.

4.2.5 Example Reverse (Uplink - Subscriber to Base) Link Budget

The following table provides an example of a reverse path RF link budget for both a mobile/
portable system and a fixed IS-95 system. This basic RF link budget example could be applied
towards an IS-95A or IS-95B system. Antenna gains, feeder losses, noise rise, building losses,
vehicle losses, shadow fade margins, etc. will differ from system to system and from site to site

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(possibly even from sector to sector) based on the design objectives of the system planner.

Table 4-6: Example of an IS-95 CDMA Reverse RF Link Budget
Parameter Unit Reference Mobile Mobile Fixed
13 kbps 8 kbps 8 kbps
Subscriber Unit Tx Power dBm Pp Section 4.2.3.1.1 23 23 23
Subscriber Unit Tx Feeder dB Lfp Section 4.2.1.5 0 0 0
Loss
Subscriber Unit Antenna dBd Gp Section 4.2.1.6 -2.1 -2.1 -1.0
Gain
Body Loss dB Hm Section 4.2.1.3 2 2 0
Vehicle Loss dB Vm Section 4.2.1.2 7 7 0
Building Loss dB Bm Section 4.2.1.1 0 0 6
Base Antenna Gain dBd Gb Section 4.2.1.6 14.5 14.5 14.5
Line Loss dB Lfb Section 4.2.1.5 3 3 3
kTB dBm kTB Section 4.2.3.2 -113.1 -113.1 -113.1
Noise Figure dB Nfb Section 4.2.3.2.1 6 6 6
Eb/No (Note: 1) dB E Section 4.2.2.3 6.0 5.6 5.6
Processing Gain dB PG Section 4.2.3.2 19.3 21.1 21.1
Base Rx Sensitivity dBm S Section 4.2.3.2 -120.4 -122.6 -122.6
Interference Margin dB Im Section 4.2.2.1 3 3 3
(Note: 2)
Ambient Noise Rise dB Tm Section 4.2.1.4 0 0 0
Shadow Fade Margin dB Fm Section 4.2.2.2 & 5.6 5.6 5.6
(Note: 3) Section 4.2.4
Max. Allowable Path Loss dB Lp 135.2 137.4 141.5
Isotropic Path Loss dB Li 139.5 141.7 145.8

Note: 1. It is assumed that the latest version of chip sets are being utilized.
2. Path Loss values shown assume a medium traffic load on the reverse link for the
CDMA system.
3. The shadow fade margin assumes the effects of soft handoff and multiple cells.

Where:
Sensitivity and path loss are calculated as follows:

S = kTB + Nfb + E - PG

Lp = Pp - Lfp + Gp + Gb - Lfb - S - Im - Tm - Hm - Vm - Bm - Fm

Li = Lp + (2 * 2.14)

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In comparing the link budget between mobile (portable) and fixed, there are three main differences.
The first being that the fixed link budget has a subscriber antenna gain of 1.1 dB better than the
mobile case (assumes FWT has the whip antenna installed, but could be higher with external
antennas). It is also assumed that the FWT whip antenna is connected directly to the FWT base unit
and therefore there is no line loss between the FWT base and antenna. Other scenarios may require
that a line loss be added for antennas not connected directly to the base unit. A second difference
is that there is no body loss assumed for the fixed case. The antenna gain and body loss differences
give a 3.1 dB link budget advantage of fixed over mobile.

The third difference is with respect to the building/vehicle penetration loss. For the fixed case, a
building loss value of 6 dB is shown based upon the assumption that the FWT with whip antenna
will be placed close to a window and in a location that will minimize the impact of the building
loss. The amount of building penetration will need to be adjusted (could be greater or less than the
6 dB value assumed here) based on the installation location of the FWT antenna and the building
characteristics (some buildings may allow RF to pass better than others).

For the mobile case, 7 dB is assumed for a vehicle penetration value. If in-building is desired, then
this value would need to be modified accordingly. If it is desired to provide in-building coverage,
additional margin would be required.

The fade margin is set the same for fixed and mobile for these link budget examples. One view is
that the fade margin should be increased to provide for better reliability for a fixed system. This
increased fade margin, though, would apply to all subscribers. Another way to improve the
reliability for a fixed system is not by adding margin in the link budget, which effects all users, but
to take the worst performing FWT and replace the whip antenna with an external antenna. This will
improve its performance, which ultimately improves the overall reliability. Another view is that
the reliability for fixed should be higher since fixed is competing with the wireline service. The
amount of fade margin is related to the reliability. If the reliability criteria is increased, the fade
margin will also need to be increased.

Another value which differs between the fixed and mobile is the subscriber antenna height. This is
not part of the link budget above, but would be required in the propagation models. The typical
subscriber antenna height assumed for the mobile (portable) case is 1.5 meters. The FWT antenna
has the ability of being positioned at various heights (on a desk, on a wall, externally on the roof),
therefore the height of the FWT could range from 1 to 3 or more meters.

The following table provides an example of an IS-2000 1X reverse path RF link budget for a
mobile/portable system. It represents the reverse Radio Configuration 3. A similar approach can
be done for reverse Radio Configuration 4 by replacing the subscriber transmit power, processing
gain and Eb/Nos with the appropriate values. Antenna gains, feeder losses, noise rise, building
losses, vehicle losses, shadow fade margins, etc. will differ from system to system and from site to
site (possibly even from sector to sector) based on the design objectives of the system planner.

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Table 4-7: Example of an IS-2000 1X CDMA RF Link Budget
Parameter Unit Reference 9.6 9.6 19.2 38.4 76.8 153.6
kbps kbps kbps kbps kbps kbps
Reverse Traffic Channel FCH SCH SCH SCH SCH SCH
Total Subscriber Unit Tx mW PT Section 4.2.3.1.1 200 200 200 200 200 200
Power
Subscriber Unit R-FCH or mW PFCH Section 4.2.3.1.1 200 111 90 63 41 25
R-DCCH Tx Power
Subscriber Unit R-SCH mW PSCH Section 4.2.3.1.1 - 89 110 137 159 175
Tx Power
Subscriber Unit Tx Power dBm Pp Section 4.2.3.1.1 23 19.5 20.4 21.4 22.0 22.4
(for the specified reverse
traffic channel)
Subscriber Unit Tx Feeder dB Lfp Section 4.2.1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0
Loss
Subscriber Unit Antenna dBd Gp Section 4.2.1.6 -2.1 -2.1 -2.1 -2.1 -2.1 -2.1
Gain
Body Loss dB Hm Section 4.2.1.3 2 2 2 2 2 2
Vehicle Loss dB Vm Section 4.2.1.2 6 6 6 6 6 6
Building Loss dB Bm Section 4.2.1.1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Base Antenna Gain dBd Gb Section 4.2.1.6 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5
Line Loss dB Lfb Section 4.2.1.5 3 3 3 3 3 3
kTB dBm kTB Section 4.2.3.2.1 -113.1 -113.1 -113.1 -113.1 -113.1 -113.1
Noise Figure dB Nfb Section 4.2.3.2.1 6 6 6 6 6 6
Eb/No dB E Section 4.2.2.3 5.6 4.6 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.1
Processing Gain dB PG Section 4.2.3.2 21.1 21.1 18.1 15.1 12.0 9.0
Base Rx Sensitivity dBm S Section 4.2.3.2 -122.6 -123.6 -121.6 -119.1 -116.6 -114.0
Interference Margin dB Im Section 4.2.2.1 3 3 3 3 3 3
(Note: 1)
Ambient Noise Rise dB Tm Section 4.2.1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0
Shadow Fade Margin dB Fm Section 4.2.2.2 & 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6
(Note: 2) Section 4.2.4
Max. Allowable Path Loss dB Lp 138.4 135.9 134.8 133.3 131.4 129.2
Isotropic Path Loss dB Li 142.7 140.2 139.1 137.6 135.7 133.5

Note: 1. Path Loss values shown assume a medium traffic load on the reverse link for the
CDMA system.
2. The shadow fade margin assumes the effects of soft handoff and multiple cells.

An observation of the above table shows that the allowable path loss decreases as the data rate
increases. This means that a smaller cell radius would be required to support higher data rates. For
example, more sites would be required if a system was to be designed based on a reverse link

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assuming 76.8 kbps than if the system requirement was for 9.6 kbps. Assuming a propagation
exponent of 3.5, the 7 dB path loss difference between these two data rates would correspond to
the 76.8 kbps scenario requiring approximately 2.5 times the number of sites as the 9.6 kbps
scenario.

IS-2000 provides the ability to have asymmetrical data transmission. That is, the data rate on the
forward link can be different than the data rate employed on the reverse link. Initial data
applications for IS-2000 are assumed to demand more data to be transferred on the forward link
than on the reverse link (i.e. the forward link data rate will need to be faster than the reverse link
data rate). Additionally, it is viewed that the reverse link will be the limiting link with regards to
coverage, whereas the forward link will be the limiting link with regards to capacity. It is possible
that an RF reverse link based on a fundamental rate of 9.6 kbps would allow for sufficient path loss
so that a forward link of 76.8 kbps could be achieved. This means that the reverse link coverage to
support 9.6 kbps may provide for sufficient coverage on the forward link to support a user needing
76.8 kbps. This is not saying that a user rate of 153.6 kbps is not supported. A user, in close
proximity to the site, could have a forward and/or reverse supplemental channel at 153.6 kbps, but
not at the fringe of the site. Given these views, a system design based on the RF reverse link for
reverse data rates above 19.2 kbps may not be necessary. If data applications require a high volume
of reverse data, then higher data rates need to be considered.

These link budgets are examples and may need to be modified to accommodate specific design
goals for a system. Refer to the previous discussion on each of the parameters to determine if
alterations are required for a specific design.

4.2.6 RF Link Budget Summary

The RF link budget propagation related parameters have the most variability. These propagation
related parameters are typically vendor and technology independent. The link budget parameters,
but not the values, listed above can apply to all technologies and frequencies. For instance, the loss
associated with the transmission line is dependent upon the frequency of operation, but not that it
will be used for CDMA instead of GSM.

The following figure demonstrates the impact to the quantity of sites required if one assumption is
made over another. The figure only shows 5 examples. There are many other combinations that are
possible.

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Figure 4-13: Impact of dB Trade-off to Number of Sites

4.3 Propagation Models

The propagation model is used in conjunction with the RF link budget to obtain an estimate of the
cell radius based on the allowable path loss from the link budget. Statistical propagation models
are used in budgetary designs to give quick estimates of cell radii within various environments and
ultimately to estimate the number of cells required for a system.

There are many RF propagation factors which could extend or restrict the coverage of a site (e.g.
proximity to buildings, actual terrain, antenna heights, topology, morphology, etc.). More detailed
propagation models, which include some or all of these factors, will produce more accurate
predictions of cell radii. The following sections give additional detail concerning statistical
propagation models.

4.3.1 Free Space Propagation Model

The free space power received by a receiver antenna, which is at a distance of d from the transmitter
antenna, is given by the Friis free space equation.

λ 2
P R = PT ⋅ G T ⋅ G R ⋅  ----------  [EQ 4-30]
4πd

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Where:
PT is the transmitted power

GT is the transmitting antenna gain

GR is the receiving antenna gain

d is the separation distance between antennas

The path loss, which represents the signal attenuation as a positive quantity, is defined as the
difference between the effective transmitted power and the received power. It may or may not
include the effects of the antenna gains. The path loss for the free space model, when the antennas
are assumed to have unity gain, is provided by the following equation.

P 4πd 2 4πdf 2
-----T- =  ----------  =  ------------  [EQ 4-31]
PR  λ   c 

Expressed in dB as:

PT
LFS ( dB ) = 10 log  ------ = 20 log  ------ + 20 log ( f ) + 20 log ( d )

[EQ 4-32]
PR c

Where:
d is in meters

f is in Hertz

c is equal to the speed of light (3 x 108 meters per second)

L FS ( dB ) = – 147.56 + 20 log ( f Hz ) + 20 log ( d meters ) [EQ 4-33]

LFS ( dB ) = 32.44 + 20 log ( f MHz ) + 20 log ( d km ) [EQ 4-34]

L FS ( dB ) = – 27.55 + 20 log ( f MHz ) + 20 log ( d meters ) [EQ 4-35]

LFS ( dB ) = 36.58 + 20 log ( f MHz ) + 20 log ( d miles ) [EQ 4-36]

L FS ( dB ) = – 37.87 + 20 log ( f MHz ) + 20 log ( d feet ) [EQ 4-37]

The above free space equations show that 6 dB of loss is associated with a doubling of the
frequency. This same relationship also holds for the distance, if the distance is doubled, 6 dB of
additional loss will be encountered.

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4.3.2 Hata Propagation Model

Among the many technical reports that are concerned with propagation prediction methods for
mobile radio, Okumura’s6 report is believed to be the most comprehensive one. In his report, many
useful curves to predict a median value of the received signal strength are presented based on the
data collected in the Tokyo area. The Tokyo urban area was then used as a basic predictor for urban
areas. The correction factors for suburban and open areas are determined based on the transmit
frequency. Based on Okumura’s prediction curves, empirical formulas for the median path loss,
Lp, between two isotropic antennas were obtained by Hata and are known as the Hata empirical
formulas for path loss7. The Hata propagation formulas are used with the link budget calculation
to translate a path loss value to a cell radius.

For Urban Area:

L = 69.55 + 26.16 × log ( f ) – 13.82 × log ( H ) – A + [ 44.9 – 6.55 × log ( H ) ] × log ( r ) [EQ 4-38]
U c b Hm b

For Suburban Area:

fc 2
L S = L U –2 × log  ------ – 5.4 [EQ 4-39]
28

For Quasi Open Area:

2
L q = LU – 4.78 × [ log ( f c ) ] + 18.33 × log ( f c ) – 35.94 [EQ 4-40]

For Open Rural Area:

2
L q = LU – 4.78 × [ log ( f c ) ] + 18.33 × log ( f c ) – 40.94 [EQ 4-41]

Where:
AHm Correction Factor For Vehicular Station Antenna Height
For a medium-small city:
A Hm = [ 1.1 × log ( f c ) – 0.7 ] × H m – [ 1.56 × log ( f c ) – 0.8 ] [EQ 4-42]

For a large city:
2
AHm = 3.2 × [ log ( 11.75 × H m ) ] – 4.97 [EQ 4-43]

6. Okumura, Y., Ohmori, E., Kawano, T., Fukada, K.: "Field strength and ITs Variability in VHF and UHF
Land-Mobile Radio Service", Rev. Elec. Commun. Lab., 16 (1968), pp. 825-873

7. Hata, M.: "Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services", IEEE Trans. on Vehicu-
lar and Technology, VT-29 (1980), pp. 317-325

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Lu, Ls, Lq Isotropic path loss values

fc Carrier frequency in MHz (valid 150 to 1000 MHz)

Hb Base antenna height in meters (valid 30 to 200 meters)

Hm Subscriber antenna height in meters (valid 1 to 10 meters)

r Radius of site in kilometers (valid 1 to 20 km)

This model is valid for large and small cells (i.e. base station antenna heights above roof-top levels
of buildings adjacent to the base station).

4.3.3 COST-231-Hata Propagation Model

The COST 231 Subgroup on Propagation Models proposed an improved propagation model for
urban areas to be applied above 1500 MHz8. Like Hata’s model, the COST-231-Hata model is
based on the measurements of Okumura. The COST-231-Hata propagation model has been derived
by analyzing Okumura’s propagation curves in the upper frequency band. Hata’s analysis was
restricted to frequencies below 1000 MHz. The COST-231-Hata propagation model extended the
range of parameters to include 1500 to 2000 MHz. Their modified model was based on Hata’s
formula for the basic transmission loss in urban areas (see above).

For Urban Area:

L U = 46.3 + 33.9 × log ( f c ) – 13.82 × log ( H b ) – A Hm + [ 44.9 – 6.55 × log ( H b ) ] × log ( r ) [EQ 4-44]

For Suburban Area:

fc 2
L S = L U –2 × log  ------ – 5.4 [EQ 4-45]
 28

For Quasi Open Area:

2
L q = LU – 4.78 × [ log ( f c ) ] + 18.33 × log ( f c ) – 35.94 [EQ 4-46]

For Open Rural Area:

2
L q = LU – 4.78 × [ log ( f c ) ] + 18.33 × log ( f c ) – 40.94 [EQ 4-47]

8. COST 231 - UHF Propagation, "Urban transmission loss models for mobile radio in the 900- and 1,800-
MHz bands", COST 231 TD (91) 73 The Hagne, September, 1991

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Where:
AHm Correction Factor For Vehicular Station Antenna Height
For a medium-small city:
A Hm = [ 1.1 × log ( f c ) – 0.7 ] × H m – [ 1.56 × log ( f c ) – 0.8 ] [EQ 4-48]

For a metropolitan center:
A Hm = [ 1.1 × log ( f c ) – 0.7 ] × H m – [ 1.56 × log ( f c ) – 0.8 ] – 3 [EQ 4-49]

Lu, Ls, Lq Isotropic path loss values

fc Carrier frequency in MHz (valid 1500 to 2000 MHz)

Hb Base antenna height in meters (valid 30 to 200 meters)

Hm Subscriber antenna height in meters (valid 1 to 10 meters)

r Radius of site in kilometers (valid 1 to 20 km)

This model is valid for large and small cells (i.e. base station antenna heights above roof-top levels
of buildings adjacent to the base station).

A comparison between the Hata and COST-231-Hata equations show that they are similar except
for the following terms:

Hata yields 69.55 + 26.16 log ( f c ) – AHm

COST-231-Hata yields 46.3 + 33.9 log ( f c ) – AHm

Measurements which have been taken at 1900 MHz have shown the path loss difference between
800 MHz and 1900 MHz closer to 11 dB. The COST-231-Hata model was developed to account
for this difference.

4.3.4 Additional Propagation Models

The above propagation models are widely known and are usually referenced when conversing in
more general terms. Numerous books can be referenced for further discussion on these models,
such as those listed in references9,10.

9. Parsons, David, "The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel", Copyright 1992, Reprinted 1996 by John Wiley
& Sons Ltd.

10. Rappaport, Theodore S., "Wireless Communications Principles & Practices", Copyright 1996 by Prentice
Hall PTR

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These propagation models can be used to obtain an estimate of the expected radius of a site.
However, they do not include the effects of the antenna patterns, ground clutter and terrain
experienced between the transmitter and receiver. In addition, the Hata and COST-231-Hata model
are dependent upon the environment classification. Defining the area types are fairly subjective and
the entire cell site is considered to be the defined area type. For instance, if an area is assumed to
be urban but is more realistically suburban, a 12 dB impact results (many more sites would be
specified than what would really be needed). In addition, these propagation models do not portray
ground clutter such as a forested area, though modifications can be made to the propagation model
or the link budget to account for loss due to foliage or forest.

One model that does include these effects is the Xlos propagation model in Motorola’s NetPlan
propagation analysis tool. This propagation model is based on work from Longley & Rice,
Okumura, Bullington and Motorola’s extensive field measurement data. It takes into account the
effects of ground reflections, diffractions and line of sight propagation. It defines the path loss with
respect to dipole antennas. Hata or COST-231-Hata propagation models assume path loss is
defined with respect to isotropic antennas.

As was mentioned in the introduction, this sophistication in a propagation tool is required to
provide a more realistic portrayal of the coverage for a system.

4.4 Forward Link Coverage
In Section 4.2, the CDMA subscriber-to-base link (reverse or uplink) was discussed. This is a
many-to-one link, where many subscribers communicate with a single base station (or a fixed
number of base stations). Hence, the link can be simply characterized using a link budget with
additional margin included for interference. This margin is typically measured in terms of noise
rise at the cell, which is specified in terms of the operating point relative to a fixed asymptotic
capacity (pole) (e.g. operating at 75% of the pole results in a 6 dB noise rise).

The CDMA base-to-subscriber (forward or downlink) is a one-to-many link, where a single base
station (or a fixed number of base stations) communicates with many subscribers. This link is
somewhat more complicated to analyze, and it does not lend itself easily to a simple RF link budget
method. The reason for the difficulty is:

• In the absence of multipath, the use of orthogonal Walsh codes on the downlink removes
the intra-cell interference. With multipath, intra-cell interference causes a reduction in
signal-to-noise ratio. However, this is mitigated (in most cases) by the fact that
multipath improves the subscriber receiver sensitivity.
• Subscriber receiver sensitivity is characterized in terms of Eb/(Ioc+No), energy-per-bit
over other-cell interference (plus noise) power density. It is assumed that there is
sufficient power allocated on the downlink such that thermal noise does not significantly
effect the performance. It has been determined, using simulations, that 13 Watts is
sufficient to balance the uplink and downlink of the IS-95A/B CDMA system (assuming
that the Base Station receiver uses the CSM (MCC8) demodulator.) Otherwise, in newer
Base Stations (the SC4812T series, the JCDMA SC9640, SC4840, and SC2440, the
SC300 and SC340), that have receivers with the EMAXX (MCC24) chip set which

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offers improved receiver sensitivity, 27.5 Watts is needed to balance the uplink and
downlink of the IS-95A/B CDMA system. These simulations assumed a subscriber
noise figure = 10 dB, base noise figure = 6 dB, and subscriber PA power of 200 mW. It
has also been determined by simulations that 25 Watts is sufficient to balance the uplink
and downlink of an IS-2000 1X system. These simulations assumed EMAXX equivalent
Base Station receiver performance, forward Radio Configuration 4 (RC 4), subscriber
noise figure = 10 dB, base noise figure = 5 dB, and subscriber PA power of 200 mW.
• The downlink Eb/Ioc varies substantially with multipath (or soft handoff) and subscriber
speed. For example, Eb/Ioc in 1-path (i.e. no multipath) Rayleigh fading at slow
subscriber speed can be as high as 20-25 dB, whereas with 3-path, Eb/Ioc can be less
than 8 dB.
• Soft handoff also complicates the downlink, because typically subscribers in soft
handoff require less power (from each cell site). On the other hand, the subscribers at the
edge of the soft handoff region experience high interference, and the Eb/Ioc performance
(without multipath) is the worst. Thus, for downlink, it is not sufficient to balance the
link to the edge of the cell, but it has to be balanced to the edge of the soft handoff
region. Note that the soft handoff regions vary dynamically as a function of load in the
desired and the surrounding cells, as well as the propagation environment.

Though a forward link budget is not addressed, it is important to account for the power
requirements when designing (simulation studies) and optimizing a CDMA system. Forward link
power at the base station may limit coverage and capacity. The following sections provide some
guidelines to assist the system engineer.

4.4.1 BTS Equipment Capabilities

In these guidelines, two PA parameters are frequently referred to: the Average Rated Power (ARP
or Steady State Rating) and the High Power Alarm Rating (HPA). The table below is neither
comprehensive nor, necessarily, current; refer to equipment specifications for details on the Base
Transmission Station (BTS) product of interest.

Table 4-8: PA Ratings for Some BTS Productsef
BTS Product Frequency Number of Average High Power High Power
(MHz) PA Rated Power Alarm Rating Alarm Rating
Modules (W) (W) (dB)a
Sector Sector/Carrier Sector/Carrier Sector/Carrier

SC300 1X 800/1900 1 10 31.6 5
Microcell
SC340 1X Japan 800 1 0.2 N/A N/A
Picocell
SC340 1X Japan 800 1 5 20 6
Microcell

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Table 4-8: PA Ratings for Some BTS Productsef

BTS Product Frequency Number of Average High Power High Power
(MHz) PA Rated Power Alarm Rating Alarm Rating
Modules (W) (W) (dB)a
Sector Sector/Carrier Sector/Carrier Sector/Carrier

SC611 1900 1 7c 28 6
SC614T 1900 (4b) 16/48 32b/76 3b/2
SC4812T/ 1900 (4d) 22.5/67.5 70.8d/107.2 5d/2
ET/ET Lite
SC4852E 1900 2 20 32 2
SC4852R 1900 4 45 71 2
SC604 1900 2 10c 24 3.8
SC611 800 1 7c 32 6.6
SC614 800 2 20 32 2
SC2450 800 2 20 40 2
SC4812 800 2 22.5 36 2
SC4812T/ 800 (4d) 22.5/67.5 70.8d/107.2 5d/2
ET/ET Lite

a. The High Power Alarm Rating (dB) is represented here in terms of dB above the Average Rated Power. It
is also a worst case specification; typical ratings are 0.5 to 1.0 dB better.
b. This is a TrunkedPower™ BTS. It has four LPA modules serving one three-sector carrier. Its Carrier ARP
is shared across all three sectors. The High Power Alarm functions on a total carrier power basis, as
opposed to an individual sector basis as for non-trunked BTSs. A sector-equivalent HPA rating is shown
here only for comparative purposes, and is based on a conservative trunking benefit of 1.1 dB.
c. This product, having no fans, has its Average Rated Power thermally limited.
d. This is a TrunkedPower TM BTS. It has four Trunked LPA modules serving one three-sector carrier. Its
Carrier ARP is shared across all three sectors. (A six-sector carrier is served by two sets of Trunked LPA
modules.) The High Power Alarm functions on a total carrier power basis, as opposed to an individual
sector basis as for non-trunked BTSs. A sector-equivalent HPA rating is shown here only for comparative
purposes, and is based on B1 specifications.
e. At the time of this revision, it is believed that the power ratings listed above will be the same for the IS-
2000 1X modes.
f. The models compatible at this time with IS-2000 1X are those in the SC4812T family, the SC300 1X, the
JCDMA models, SC9640, SC4840, and SC2440, and the JCDMA microcellular SC340 1X.

The following table illustrates the pilot RF power adjustment range capability for several different
CDMA BTS products. The upper specification is determined by the BTS RF gain when the BTS
is operating with a pilot digital gain of 127. The lower specification, corresponding to the sum of
the pilot, page, and sync signals, depends on a specific BTS transmit dynamic range. For a BTS

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equipped with a Single Tone LPA, an external attenuator is required when operating at lower than
the minimum specification. For a BTS equipped with a multitone LPA, the minimum total power
(shown in note b. of the table) must be maintained for proper operation. This can be achieved by
implementing one of the following: 1) multi-carrier operation, 2) raising the minimum operating
level, or 3) adding an external attenuator. The table below is neither comprehensive nor,
necessarily, current; refer to equipment specifications for details on the BTS product of interest.

Table 4-9: BTS Pilot Power Adjustment Rangeae
Pilot Power Adjustment Range
BTS Product Frequency Minimum PPSa Maximum Pilot
(MHz) (dBm) (dBm)
SC300 1X Microcell 800/1900 +14.0d +33.0
SC340 1X Picocell Japan 800 -2.0d +16.0
SC340 1X Microcell Japan 800 +14.0d +32.0
SC604 1900 +24.0 +33.0
SC604 800 +27.0 +36.0
SC614T 1900 +27.0 +36.0
SC6x1 800/1700/1900 +23.0 +33.0
SC2400 ELPA 800 +23.0b +40.0
SC2450 800 +30.0 +33.0c
SC4820 1700 +27.0 +36.0
SC485x/SC485xE 1900 +27.0 +36.0
SC4812 800 +23.0 +36.0
SC4812T/ET/ET Lite 800 +28.0 +36.0
SC4812T/ET/ET Lite 1900 +28.0 +36.0
SC9600/SC9620 800 +23.0b +40.0
SC9640/SC4840/SC2440 800 (JCDMA) +23.0b +40.0

a. Maximum pilot RF power as determined by the BTS RF gain with pilot digital gain of 127. The
minimum limit is with overhead channels (pilot+page+sync) except SC300 and SC340, see note d.
b. LPA power must be converged first before operating at the minimum level, which is assumed for the pilot
beacon application. The minimum level for the LPA to converge depends on the LPA types: 36 dBm for
125W ELPA; 40 dBm for 70W NAMPS/SC9600 LPA; and 42 dBm for 125W NAMPS/SC9600 LPA.
c. Maximum pilot power limits to 36 dBm with SGLF4009KE BBX.
d. Pilot only.
e. The models compatible at this time with IS-2000 1X are those in the SC4812T family, the SC300 1X, and
the JCDMA models, SC9640, SC4840, SC2440 and SC340 1X.

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Additional factors that will have an impact on the power amplifier are:

• The use of external duplexers should be accounted for by including an additional 0.5 dB
of loss, nominally. For Motorola’s SC4800-series “E” options (i.e. outdoor products)
and the SC600-series, duplexers are included and the specifications will already reflect
the duplexer loss.
• For multiple carriers, the use of external combining should be accounted for. Nominal
figures include ~3.5 dB of loss; although low-loss combiners (~1.8 dB) are available.
For example, if the insertion loss of cavity combiners and associated cabling was on the
order of 1.8 dB, then the 20 Watts associated with the SC2450 would drop to 13.2 Watts.
For Motorola products with internal combiners (e.g. SC4812T), the specifications will
already reflect the combiner loss.
• Products exploiting PA trunking across sectors (e.g. SC4812T) have both sector-carrier
and site-carrier limits of which to be aware. For example, a three-sector SC4812T at
either 800 MHz or 1900 MHz can deliver 67.5 Watts total for the site-carrier, but is rated
for 22.5 Watts for an individual sector-carrier (not including duplexer loss).
• Verify that the Pilot, Page, Sync, and Traffic Channel power relationships can be
established. Although the PA may be rated to deliver the desired total power output,
other devices may limit the input signals into the LPA or the ratios among them. For
example, there are gain limits on the Paging, Sync, and Traffic channels of 127 (7FHEX),
but the Pilot has an upper limit of 1023 (3FFHEX). Adjusting the Pilot power to achieve
~4 Watts or more may require the Pilot gain setting to exceed 127, and thereby impact
the ratio of maximum traffic channel gain to Pilot gain, which may impact performance.
• Account for any thermal limitations. Typically for indoor products, the operating
temperature range is 0°C to 50°C. The ARP is expressed in dBm or Watts at 25°C, the
midpoint in the temperature range. An allowance for variation due to temperature is
provided. For example, the 800 MHz SC4812T specification is as follows.

Transmitter Sector Output Power with equal power sharing per sector (non-duplexed):
43.5 dBm (22.5 W) @25°C ±2 dB over temperature.

When the base station is to be operating inside an air conditioned environment, then the
43.5 dBm would be used for planning purposes. But, if the base station is to be subjected
to warm extremes (i.e. close to 50°C), then greater consideration should be given to the
anticipated power requirements.

Some self-contained products have their ARP “thermally limited” due to lack of fans.
Additionally, to protect against overheating, the SC601 and SC604 products have a
thermal “foldback” feature that dynamically and proportionately reduces the output
power beginning at 35°C (for operation at the specified ARP) up to a maximum of 3 dB
at 50°C. (Note that IS-97 tolerates a power out variation of +2 dB to -4dB over the
temperature range.) Conversely, the SC611, SC614, and SC614T products only
foldback output power above the ARP or maximum operating temperature
specifications.

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The SC4852E is rated for 180 Watts or 18 PA modules. This permits 3 sectors of 2
carriers with each sector-carrier at 30 Watts or, alternatively, 2 sectors of 2 carriers with
each sector-carrier at 40 Watts. The SC4852 is rated for 40 Watts ARP for all 6 sector-
carriers.

4.4.2 CDMA Signal Power Distribution Characteristics and PA Sizing

There are three characteristics of the CDMA signal power distribution that are useful in discussions
on PA requirements, which can be compared to PA equipment capabilities. These include:

1. The Long Term Average (LT-AVG): represents an average over 30 minutes or more.
For the PA to be sized correctly, the LT-AVG must be less than or equal to the Average
Rated Power (ARP).
2. The Short Term Average (ST-AVG): represents an average over 5 minutes.
For products that are not thermally limited, it may prove useful, as a rule of thumb, to
compare the ST-AVG to the ARP. Greater detail on this can be found in the next section.
3. The Very Short Term Average (VST-AVG): represents an average over less than 2
seconds.
For the PA to be sized correctly, the VST-AVG must be less than or equal to the High
Power Alarm Rating.
Note that any peak excursions significantly higher than the VST-AVG are of very short
duration and are managed by PA overload protection mechanisms.

4.4.3 General Power Relationships

As a result of various simulation studies, the following characteristics of a system that is
interference limited (i.e. fully loaded) have been derived and may be considered rules of thumb:

1. The LT-AVG is approximately 5 times the Pilot power.
2. The ST-AVG is approximately 10 times the Pilot power. This is 3 dB over the LT-AVG.
3. The VST-AVG is approximately 15 times the Pilot power. This is ~4.8 dB over the LT-
AVG and ~1.8 dB over the ST-AVG.

Given the deviation of the power distribution, the system designer will generally find the indoor
products (i.e. SC4852, SC2450, and SC4812) and the outdoor products with fans (i.e. SC614,
SC614T, SC4852E) to be High Power Alarm (HPA) limited. Since the ST-AVG is ~1.8 dB below
the VST-AVG and the Average Rated Power (ARP) is 2 dB below the HPA (worst case), using a
ST-AVG comparison to the ARP can provide a convenient rule of thumb for estimating the PA
requirements for these products. Specifically, the ST-AVG should be no greater than the ARP.

Those products that have no fans (i.e. are thermally limited) include the SC601, SC604, and the
SC611. Both the SC601 and the SC604, with their HPA rating 3.8 and 4.8 dB over the ARP (worst
case), respectively, are close to being balanced in terms of HPA and ARP limits relative to the
CDMA signal power distribution. Conversely, the SC611, at 1900 MHz and 800 MHz, is an
exception; with its HPA of 6 dB or more over the ARP, it is definitely ARP limited.

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Based on simulations of CDMA carriers at capacity, the average forward link power per traffic
channel relative to the Pilot power can be estimated. For Rate Set 1 (RS1), ~13.5% of the Pilot
power would be consumed on average. For Rate Set 2 (RS2), ~27.8%. For a 2 Watt Pilot, the
average traffic channel power is ~270mW and 556mW for RS1 and RS2, respectively. These
figures take into account the Voice Activity Factor. IS-2000 forward link RC 3, RC 4, and RC 5
may have up to twice the Forward Link capacity of IS-95A/B; therefore, the average TCH powers
in these modes may be approximately 1/2 that indicated above. [Greater detail on these estimates
can be found in Section 4.4.5.] The number of forward links associated with this estimate is the
98th percentile of forward links and would include soft/softer links (i.e. 2% Erlang B on Walsh
code usage). This would also correspond to the ST-AVG.

Since RS2 consumes approximately double the power of RS1, a RS2 system can only support
approximately half the subscribers. Consequently, an LPA sized correctly for a RS2 carrier at
capacity would be sized correctly for RS1 as well. The transition, therefore, between RS2 and RS1
(i.e. EVRC) would not require any additional PA power.

The RS1 and RS2 traffic channels correspond to the fundamental rates of 9600 bps and 14400 bps
modes of RC 1 and RC 2 of IS-2000. The IS-2000 1X BTS will also support RC 3, RC 4, and RC
5. These Radio Configurations employ different error correcting schemes, and offer higher data
rates than RC 1 and RC 2 (up to 153,600 bps will be supported in RC 3 and RC 4). In general, data
rates higher than 14400 bps will require proportionately higher traffic channel powers (and lower
traffic channel capacities) than discussed above.

There is a level of Pilot power which will balance the reverse link. To increase the Pilot power
beyond this level will not significantly improve the composite area reliability, since the reverse link
becomes limiting. For this reason, it is recommended that the Pilot powers be designed to levels
sufficient to balance the reverse link, but not excessively so as to conserve the PA resource.

The introduction of the EMAXX chip set (supported in CBSC Release 8.0 and only with certain
BTS products) improves the reverse link budget by an approximate 3 dB for systems that are fully
loaded (average rise levels > 2 dB). This improvement would, for initial system designs,
necessitate a compensatory increase in forward power by 3 dB to balance the links.

Note: In IS-2000 1X upgraded models, the Qualcomm CSM5000 chip set is used in place of the
EMAXX chip set. Thus, in these upgraded models, the full reverse link improvement is not
available in RC 1 and RC 2.

The introduction of a tower-top amplifier will improve the reverse link by effectively negating the
losses between the antenna and the top of the rack (approximately 3 to 4 dB, refer back to
Section 4.2.3.2.1). This improvement (as with the introduction of the EMAXX chip set) would
necessitate a compensatory increase in forward power to balance the links. When a TTA is
introduced under the assumption of light loading (e.g. “highway site”), it is more likely that the
links can be balanced. It is not recommended to use TTAs elsewhere.

A 2:1 deployment in overlaying analog will require an approximate 3 dB increase in forward power
to overcome the Inter-System Interference (ISI). For a 1:1 overlay of analog, the PA requirements
are no different than normal.

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4.4.4 Design Guidelines

When initially designing a CDMA system, the following two points should be kept in mind in order
to minimize the chance of sectors not having sufficient power out capabilities.

• Design the system with low pilot powers in mind. It may be advisable to consider using
a 1 Watt pilot as the default.
• Inter-system Interference (ISI) will require higher pilot powers.

Motorola’s NetPlan CDMA Simulator (or comparable design tool) can be utilized to generate
statistics for a CDMA design. These statistics can be analyzed to determine if any sectors will have
a potential PA issue.

• Evaluate the coverage/capacity/quality impacts of reduced pilot powers.
• The confidence level is impacted by the number of Monte Carlo runs performed in
generating the data.
• Evaluate the power requirements of each sector-carrier. Outputs from the CDMA
Simulator include statistics on traffic channel (TCH) power and forward links (i.e.
Walsh codes). Details on this evaluation should be found in the RF Design Procedure.

For conventionally powered BTS products (i.e. no sharing of PA resources across
multiple sectors and/or carriers), it is only necessary to determine the LT-AVG and
VST-AVG requirements for the sector-carrier and then compare them with the ARP and
HPA ratings, respectively. The ratings must exceed the requirements.

For TrunkedPower™ BTS products, there are two steps:
1. Determine the LT-AVG and VST-AVG requirements over the appropriate set of
sector-carriers over which the PA resource is shared and then compare them with the
ARP and HPA ratings, respectively. The ratings must exceed the requirements.
2. Determine the LT-AVG requirement for each individual sector-carrier and then
compare this with the ARP rating for a sector-carrier. The rating must exceed the
requirement.

As has been stated earlier, the SC4812T is rated for 22.5 Watts ARP in any individual
sector-carrier and 67.5 Watts total for 3 sectors of 1 carrier (not including duplexer loss).

4.4.4.1 Comparison to Average Rated Power

The following steps can be performed to obtain the LT-AVG for the sector-carrier(s) which can be
compared with the product ARP specification (for many products, these values are provided in
Table 4-8).

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1. Take the average of the TCH power distribution.
For trunked PAs, generate the average for the individual sector-carrier for comparison
against sector-carrier ARP limits and then again for all the sector-carriers over which the
resource is to be shared for comparison against total ARP limits. For the total ARP
comparison, the power statistics must first be summed across the appropriate set of
sector-carriers within each Monte Carlo run. Although this will not impact the average,
it will impact the deviation.
2. Add in the constant power components associated with the Pilot, Page, and Sync
channels.
3. Compare this with the ARP of the PA. It must be lower.

Note: to compare the ST-AVG to the ARP, use the 98th percentile of the TCH power distribution.

4.4.4.2 Comparison to High Power Alarm Rating

The following steps can be performed to obtain the VST-AVG for the sector-carrier(s) which can
be compared with the product HPA specification (for some products, these values are provided in
Table 4-8).

1. Determine the 98th percentile of the TCH power distribution.
For trunked PAs, generate the average for all the sector-carriers over which the resource
is to be shared for comparison against total HPA limits. The power statistics must first
be summed across the appropriate set of sector-carriers within each Monte Carlo run.
The 98th percentile is then taken across the summed set of statistics.
2. Scale it up by a factor of 1.5. This compensates for variations in the voice activity factor
(up to a level that corresponds to the 98th percentile of the binomial distribution).
3. Add in the constant power components associated with the Pilot, Page, and Sync
channels.
4. Compare this with the High Power Alarm Rating. It should be lower.

4.4.4.3 Comparison to Walsh Code Limit
1. Take the average number of forward links. This may be interpreted as Walsh code
Erlangs.
2. Calculate a maximum number of forward links based on 2% GOS Erlang B for the
number of Walsh code Erlangs derived in step 1.
3. Compare step 2 results to the Walsh code limit. It should be lower.

4.4.5 General Power Requirements

In the absence of more precise simulations, here are some definitions and equations that can be
used to provide power requirements as a function of Rate Set, pilot power, and number of forward
links.

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Definitions:
• Ppilot is the Pilot power.
• Ppage is the Page power (commonly 75% of P_pilot).
• Psync is the Sync power (commonly 10% of P_pilot).
• FwdLinks50th-ile is equivalent to Walsh code Erlangs. It can be derived from the
Effective Traffic Load using the Soft/Softer Handoff Factor.
• FwdLinks98th-ile is equivalent to the number of Walsh codes that result from taking
Walsh code Erlangs at 2% Erlang B.
• Veff (Effective Voice Activity Factor) is scaled up from the normal VAF (Voice
Activity Factor) to compensate for Power Control Bit puncturing on the forward link.
The PCB bits are transmitted at a constant high power to maintain the integrity of the
closed loop power control mechanism. Scaling the VAF is one method of compensating
for the effect on forward power output. V_eff is 0.55 and 0.47 for Rate Sets 1 and 2 of
IS-95 systems, and Radio Configurations 1 and 2 of IS-2000 1X systems, respectively.
• Vwc represents, for the VAF binomial distribution, a ratio of the 98th percentile to the
mean. A value of 1.5 is used.
• Ptch_avg is the Average Traffic Channel Power. As a fraction of Ppilot, these powers are
typically 24.6% and 59.1% for Rate Sets 1 and 2, respectively.

Assume:
PPilot + PPage + P Sync = 1.85 × PPilot [EQ 4-50]

4.4.5.1 Minimum ARP Based on LT-AVG Estimate

The following equations can be used to determine the minimum ARP specification based on the
Pilot power and the average number of links.

AverageRatedPower = P Pilot + P Page + P Sync + FwdLink 50th – ile × P tch_avg × Veff [EQ 4-51]

Rate Set 1:

AverageRatedPower = P Pilot × [ 1.85 + ( F wdLink 50th – ile × 0.1353 ) ] [EQ 4-52]

Rate Set 2:

AverageRatedPower = P Pilot × [ 1.85 + ( F wdLink 50th – ile × 0.2778 ) ] [EQ 4-53]

Notes:
1. To compare the ST-AVG to the ARP, use FwdLinks98th-ile in place of FwdLinks50th-ile
2. Formulas for Rate Set 1 and 2 also apply to RC 1 and RC 2 respectively.
3. IS-2000 1X RC 3, RC 4, and RC 5 are expected to have twice the Forward Link capacity
of IS-95A/B for the same ARP; therefore, the average TCH powers in these modes may
be approximately 1/2 those indicated above.

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4.4.5.2 Minimum HPA Based on VST-AVG Estimate

The following equations can be used to determine the minimum HPA specification based on Ppilot
and FwdLinks98th-ile.

HighPowerAlarmRating = P Pil ot + P Page + P Sync + FwdLink 98 t h – i le × P tch_avg × V ef f × V wc [EQ 4-54]

Rate Set 1:

HighPowerAlarmRating = P Pilot × [ 1.85 + ( F wdLink98th – ile × 0.2030 ) ] [EQ 4-55]

Rate Set 2:

HighPowerAlarmRating = P Pilot × [ 1.85 + ( F wdLink98th – ile × 0.4167 ) ] [EQ 4-56]

Alternatively, an upper estimate on FwdLinks98th-ile can be determined based on the HPA rating
and Ppilot. This may serve as a Walsh code limit that will block traffic at levels that near the HPA
rating.

Rate Set 1:

FwdLink 98th – ile = [ ( HighPowerAlarmRating ⁄ P Pilot ) – 1.85 ] ⁄ 0.2030 [EQ 4-57]

Rate Set 2:

FwdLink 98th – ile = [ ( HighPowerAlarmRating ⁄ P Pilot ) – 1.85 ] ⁄ 0.4167 [EQ 4-58]

4.4.5.3 Exceeding the High Power Alarm Rating

On systems lacking carrier load management features, an LPA module which exceeds its High
Power Alarm Rating will enter an OOS_RAM maintenance state. The consequences and possible
operational response to this event were outlined in FYI No. SCCDM-1997.84 March 20, 1997.
LPA modules in systems having these features installed will not enter OOS_RAM.

If OOS_RAM events are occurring, the following design and optimization options could be taken:

• Add more PA power. Depending upon the BTS product and the installed configuration,
there may be an ability to add an additional PA module.
• Reoptimize the pilot power to a lower level. Be careful to review the potential
consequences on coverage. If the sites involved have the potential for significant
overlap, then lowering pilot powers may be the appropriate response.
• Reoptimize the forward power control parameters. For example, reducing the Nominal
Traffic Channel Gain can reduce the overall output power and PA requirements.

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• A Walsh code limit can be implemented which will maintain traffic on a sector-carrier
basis to levels which should not exceed the High Power Alarm Rating of the PA.
Determining this threshold can be based on the information provided here. Once Walsh
code limits are in place, Walsh code usage and blocking statistics may be monitored and
projected against the limit per standard traffic engineering guidelines.

4.4.5.4 Carrier Load Management Overview

With feature 1225B, a Fixed Power Threshold (dBm) sets the maximum output allowed per sector/
carrier and will limit the LPAs providing power to that sector/carrier. This parameter is used only
when the system has the Activate Fixed Overload Protection parameter enabled. This attribute
establishes a high water mark at which the CDMA transceivers will actively reduce gain if this
power threshold is exceeded for the given sector/carrier.

With feature 415B, the decision by the mobility manager (MM) to allocate a Walsh code or channel
element for subscriber originations and terminations is conditional upon the RF load in the forward
and reverse directions on the carrier selected for an allocation attempt.

The Group Line Interface (GLI) or Motorola Advanced Wideband Interface (MAWI) card at each
BTS is responsible for gathering real time forward and reverse link quality data from the traffic
channel elements and CDMA transceivers within each sector-carrier under its control. Forward and
reverse channel RF quality information is sent to the MM via SCAP (Application Protocol)
messaging and used by the MM to make decisions about whether or not to allow new call channel
allocation within a sector-carrier and to load balance channel allocation among carriers within a
particular sector. Forward and reverse FER statistics for each sector-carrier are reported to the MM,
where they are used to automatically adjust per sector-carrier thresholds and to allow/disallow
channel allocation within each sector-carrier.

The GLI or MAWI will also set a flag in the SCAP measurement report when the sector-carrier's
CDMA transceiver exceeds a user defined power output. The MM will deny origination/
terminations in the sector-carrier until the flag is cleared in a subsequent SCAP message.

The GLI or MAWI will also calculate the actual power being used by each sector-carrier's CDMA
transceiver, as well as the total power output of the LPA associated with the sector-carrier, and
forward the information to the MM via the periodic SCAP RF metrics reporting messages. This
data is for statistics collection and not used by the MM to make channel allocation decisions.

With feature 4472C (available starting with CBSC Release 16.0), in addition to gathering real-time
forward and reverse link quality data from the traffic channel elements and CDMA transceivers
within each sector-carrier under its control, the RF Load Manager at each BTS is responsible for
using the received forward and reverse FER statistics for each sector-carrier to automatically adjust
per sector-carrier thresholds and to provide near real-time updates of forward and reverse load
conditions to the Time Slice Manager. The Time Slice Manager is a BTS based mechanism to
schedule data activity in a series of small periods of time to maximize use of the forward and
reverse power capacity.

The RF Load Manager will also inhibit supplemental allocation in the sector-carrier when the

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sector-carrier’s CDMA transceiver exceeds a user-defined fixed limit power output or if the sector-
carrier’s LPA is in gain limiting mode due to an LPA overload condition. It accomplishes this by
manipulating the various thresholds.

4.4.6 Power Allocation in Mixed Mode Systems

Note: IS-2000 CDMA is not used in mixed mode with analog cellular.

The subject of base station transmitter power considerations in mixed-mode (IS-95 CDMA plus
analog) systems is generally not well understood by those responsible for setting the levels. The
following sections provide an explanation on estimating the CDMA forward channel carrier power
requirements and a calculation of the derated LPA power specification. The formulas for derating
the rated power output of AMPS Band ELPA, the Combined-Shelf AMPS Band ELPA, and the
AMPS Band LPAs for any combination of analog and CDMA carriers are presented. Other linear
power amplifier models will have different derating recommendations. Also provided is an
example on how to allocate available transmitter power between IS-95 CDMA carriers and the
analog carriers on a sector of a mixed-mode base station, which is intended to illustrate the
concepts and considerations involved in determining these requirements. It should be noted that
each mixed-mode site will be unique, and that in general, the results will differ from the example.
System Engineering must design the site for the desired coverage, performance, and traffic channel
capacity, without exceeding the PA power limitations of the base station, preferably by using the
best sophisticated simulation tools available, such as the CDMA Simulator option of the NetPlan
system design tool package. In the absence of a sophisticated simulation tool, the following
calculations can be used to estimate the mixed mode power allocation of available transmitter
power of a linear power amplifier.

CDMA Forward Channel Carrier Power

CDMA forward channel carrier power varies greatly depending on how many traffic channels are
in use, the characteristics of the users voices, the Forward Power Control settings as requested by
each subscriber unit in use, and the power allocated for overhead functions (Pilot, Page and Sync).
An approximation of the CDMA forward channel carrier power can be defined as the power under
the following conditions:

Number of Forward Links (or total Traffic Channels): The number of traffic channels
required at the 2% Blocked-Calls-Cleared (Erlang B) Grade of Service level plus the
number of traffic channels that are in Soft Handoff with another cell, and/or in Softer
Handoff with another sector of the same cell, i.e., Nfwd_links = N2%_GOS x SSHOF,
where SSHOF is the Soft plus Softer Handoff Factor

Traffic Channel power: The power of the average traffic channel due to average
modulation plus full rate Power Control Bits, i.e., approximately 0.15 x Ppilot for Rate
Set 1, and approximately 0.27 x Ppilot for Rate Set 2

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Forward Power Control: The average Forward Power Control setting, at this setting the
average traffic channel power is still approximately 0.15 x Ppilot for Rate Set 1, and
approximately 0.27 x Ppilot for Rate Set 2

Overhead power: Pilot plus Page plus Sync power is equal to Ppilot plus 0.75 x Ppilot plus
0.1 x Ppilot = 1.85x Ppilot

Since the component parts of the CDMA carrier power are all expressed in terms of Pilot power,
and since Pilot power is generally determined by the site coverage requirements, the power may be
summed up as follows:

Pcdma = Overhead power + Traffic Channel power

Pcdma = 1.85 x Ppilot + Nfwd_links x 0.15 x Ppilot (for Rate Set 1) or,

Pcdma = 1.85 x Ppilot + Nfwd_links x 0.27 x Ppilot (for Rate Set 2)

It must be realized that these formulas are approximations, since the power level of the overhead
components and the number and power level of the traffic channels continuously vary in the real
world.

Linear Power Amplifier Derating

A. AMPS Band ELPA

The present AMPS band version of ELPA may contain two, three, or four ELPA modules,
depending on the site or sector power requirement.

The four-module AMPS band ELPA can provide up to 120 Watts of output power at the output of
the ELPA frame for either 1 CDMA carrier or up to 20 analog carriers. When more than 20 analog
carriers or more than 1 CDMA carrier are being amplified, the output power specification follows
a derating curve from 120 Watts to about 109 Watts for a very large number of analog and CDMA
carriers. This is due to the increasing peak to average power ratio of the composite signal. There
are similar derating curves when three or two modules are installed.

For purposes of determining the derated power specification of the ELPA amplifier in system
planning scenarios, each CDMA carrier is counted as 20 equivalent analog carriers (EAC). For
example, if the ELPA is going to be used to amplify 36 analog carriers and 3 CDMA carriers, it
will be expected to handle 96 equivalent analog carriers.

The derating equations for all of the possible four-module ELPA configurations follow:

The derating equation for two ELPA modules installed is:

EAC = equivalent analog carriers
EAC = (# of analog carriers) + 20 * (# of CDMA carriers)

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Pout = ELPA maximum output power rating
if EAC = 20:
Pout = 60 Watts
if EAC > 20
Pout = 54.55 + (72 / EAC) + (720 / (EAC)2) Watts

The derating equation for three ELPA modules installed is:

EAC = equivalent analog carriers
EAC = (# of analog carriers) + 20 * (# of CDMA carriers)
Pout = ELPA maximum output power rating
if EAC = 20:
Pout = 90 Watts
if EAC > 20
Pout = 81.825 + (108 / EAC) + (1080 / (EAC)2) Watts

The derating equation for four ELPA modules installed is:

EAC = equivalent analog carriers
EAC = (# of analog carriers) + 20 * (# of CDMA carriers)
Pout = ELPA maximum output power rating
if EAC = 20:
Pout = 120 Watts
if EAC > 20
Pout = 109.1 + (144 / EAC) + (1440 / (EAC)2) Watts

Four installed modules in an ELPA with 96 EAC has a Pout rating of 110.8 Watts. Four installed
modules with 40 EAC (1 CDMA & 20 Analog Carriers) has a Pout rating of 113.6 Watts. Four
installed modules with 35 EAC (1 CDMA & 15 Analog Carriers) has a Pout rating of 114.4 Watts.

This power is available to be divided between the analog and CDMA carriers with any ratio. Valid
examples follow for 96 EAC:

Three 25 Watt CDMA carriers and Thirty-six 0.99 Watt analog carriers = 110.6 Watts.
Three 10 Watt CDMA carriers and Thirty-six 2.24 Watt analog carriers = 110.6 Watts.
Three 1.6 Watt CDMA carriers and Thirty-six 2.94 Watt analog carriers = 110.6 Watts.

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B. Combined-Shelf AMPS Band ELPA

Higher power output is available from the combined-shelf ELPA models. Within these ELPA
frames, two four-module ELPA shelves are combined. The number of ELPA modules in each four-
module ELPA shelf must be the same, i.e., two, three, or four. The resulting combinations therefore
consist of four, six, or eight ELPA modules.

An eight-module AMPS band ELPA can provide up to 200 Watts of output power at the output of
the ELPA frame for either 1 CDMA carrier or up to 20 analog carriers. When more than 20 analog
carriers or more than 1 CDMA carrier are being amplified, the output power specification follows
a derating curve from 200 Watts to about 182 Watts for a very large number of analog and CDMA
carriers. This is due to the increasing peak to average power ratio of the composite signal. There
are similar derating curves for the cases when six or four modules are installed.

For the purposes of determining the derated power specification of the ELPA amplifier in system
planning scenarios, each CDMA carrier is counted as 20 equivalent analog carriers (EAC). For
example, if the ELPA is going to be used to amplify 36 analog carriers and 3 CDMA carriers, it
will be expected to handle 96 equivalent analog carriers.

The derating equations for all of the possible combined ELPA configurations follow:

The derating equation for four ELPA modules installed is:

EAC = equivalent analog carriers
EAC = (# of analog carriers) + 20 * (# of CDMA carriers)
Pout = ELPA maximum output power rating
if EAC = 20:
Pout = 100 Watts
if EAC > 20
Pout = 90.9 + (120 / EAC) + (1200 / (EAC)2) Watts

The derating equation for six ELPA modules installed is:

EAC = equivalent analog carriers
EAC = (# of analog carriers) + 20 * (# of CDMA carriers)
Pout = ELPA maximum output power rating
if EAC = 20:
Pout = 150 Watts
if EAC > 20
Pout = 136.4+ (180 / EAC) + (1800 / (EAC)2) Watts

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The derating equation for eight ELPA modules installed is:

EAC = equivalent analog carriers
EAC = (# of analog carriers) + 20 * (# of CDMA carriers)
Pout = ELPA maximum output power rating
if EAC = 20:
Pout = 200 Watts
if EAC > 20
Pout = 181.8 + (240 / EAC) + (2400 / (EAC)2) Watts

Eight installed modules in a combined ELPA with 96 EAC has a Pout rating of 184.6 Watts. Eight
installed modules with 40 EAC (1 CDMA & 20 Analog Carriers) has a Pout rating of 189.3 Watts.
Eight installed modules with 35 EAC (1 CDMA & 15 Analog Carriers) has a Pout rating of 190.6
Watts.

This power is available to be divided between the analog and CDMA carriers with any ratio. Valid
examples follow for 156 EAC (6 CDMA carriers and 36 analog carriers) which has a Pout rating of
183.4 Watts:

Six 25 Watt CDMA carriers and Thirty-six 0.92 Watt analog carriers = 183.1 Watts.
Six 10 Watt CDMA carriers and Thirty-six 3.42 Watt analog carriers = 183.1 Watts.
Six 0.9 Watt CDMA carriers and Thirty-six 4.94 Watt analog carriers = 183.2 Watts.

C. AMPS Band LPA

The derating equation for the standard power (70 Watt) LPA is:

For 5 or less EAC: Pout = 110 Watts
For more than 5 EAC: Pout = 64 + 80/EAC + 800/(EAC)2 Watts

The derating equation for the high power (125 Watt) LPA is:

For 12 or less EAC: Pout = 140 Watts
For more than 12 EAC: Pout = 114.2 + 144/EAC + 1440/(EAC)2 Watts

D. Other Linear Power Amplifiers

Other LPA and ELPA models may have different power derating equations, or may require no
derating at all. This information should be available from the literature for the product of interest.

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Example of a Mixed-Mode Site with Rate Set 1:

In this example of a mixed-mode SC9600 type of site, a sector is being planned to have one CDMA
carrier and 20 AMPS/NAMPS carriers; the equivalent number of analog carriers is therefore 40.
Under these conditions, the power output rating of a four-module AMPS band ELPA at the top of
the ELPA frame is determined as follows:

The derating equation for four ELPA modules installed is:

EAC = 40
Pout = 109.1 + (144 / 40) + (1440 / (40)2) Watts
Pout = 113.6 Watts

Note that the power rating given above is at the output of the AMPS Band ELPA frame. At the
output of the Site Interface Frame (SIF), this power level will be reduced by the insertion loss of
the cables and hardware in the transmit path. The maximum value for this loss is about 1.5 dB
(about 71% remaining power). Using this value, the resulting maximum available power level at
the output of the SIF would be:

Pout_sif = 80.4 Watts (worst loss)

Alternatively, the actual measured loss from the ELPA frame output to the SIF frame output may
be used to determine the maximum available power level at the output of the SIF. Doing so will
result in a slightly higher output power.

In this example, the CDMA carrier will have Rate Set 1 voice traffic channels (for Rate Set 1, the
maximum bit rate of each voice traffic channel is 9.6 kbps). Also assume that for sector coverage
reasons, the required Pilot Power of the CDMA carrier has been determined to be 2 Watts. The
approximation of the CDMA carrier power is as follows:

Pcdma = 1.85 x Ppilot + Nfwd_links x 0.15 x Ppilot

Ppilot = 2 Watts

Pcdma = 1.85 x 2 Watts + Nfwd_links x 0.15 x 2 Watts

Pcdma = 3.7 Watts + Nfwd_links x 0.3 Watts

An estimate of the maximum number of Forward Links (traffic channels) expected on the CDMA
carrier is required to complete this calculation.

Nfwd_links = N2%_GOS x (SSHOF)

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For a multi-Sector site, a conservative value for the Soft Plus Softer Handoff Factor is:

SSHOF = 2

Therefore,

Nfwd_links = N2%_GOS x 2

The maximum value for the number of Erlangs on a heavily loaded sector during Busy Hour is:

NErlangs = 14

The number of Traffic Channels required to handle this traffic load with 2% Blocked Call Grade
of Service (Erlang B) is:

N2%_GOS = 21

Including the Traffic Channels that are in Soft or Softer Handoff, the maximum number of Forward
Links required on this CDMA carrier (with 14 Erlangs, 2% GOS, & SSHOF=2) is expected to be:

Nfwd_links = 42

Note that under no circumstances can this number exceed the number of available Walsh codes (i.e.
42 Walsh codes for IS-95A/B).

The power required by the CDMA carrier is therefore:

Pcdma = 3.7 Watts + 42 x 0.3 Watts

Pcdma = 3.7 Watts + 12.6 Watts

Pcdma = 16.3 Watts

In a conservative mixed-mode site design, the total power available for the analog carriers is:

Panalog = Pout_sif - Pcdma

Panalog = 80.4 Watts - 16.3 Watts

Panalog = 64.1 Watts

If there are 20 analog carriers, the power available for each one is:

Ptch_analog = 64.1 Watts / 20 = 3.21 Watts

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If the power needed for each analog channel is higher than 3.21 Watts, the maximum number of
analog channels will need to be reduced to something less than 20. For example, if each analog
carrier is required to be 6.41 Watts, the analog carrier capacity would be reduced to a maximum of
10.

Of equal importance, if the CDMA Busy Hour traffic load was higher than 14 Erlangs (if it was
possible), this would cause the CDMA carrier to consume more than its allocated share of the
power available from the ELPA.

In the presence of all 20 analog carriers, excessively high CDMA power can result in activation of
the ELPA RF Overdrive Protection (approximately 20 dB ELPA gain reduction). The combination
can also cause distortion of the CDMA signal (poor voice quality and dropped calls), generation of
higher than normal CDMA sidebands, interference to the adjacent analog cellular channels, and
excessive thermal stress on the ELPA.

If an increased traffic load on the CDMA carrier is expected to be possible, then either the power
allocated to each analog carrier or the maximum number of analog carriers must be reduced.

4.4.7 Government Regulations

Certain government rules and regulations may exist which prohibit an operator from transmitting
an excess of power. For instance, the FCC regulations limit the Base Station output power to 1640
Watts EIRP per carrier for PCS systems.11 Knowing the maximum power for a sector at the top of
the rack, this FCC limit will translate into a limit on antenna gain offset by cable losses. For
example, the three-sector SC4812T is rated for 45 Watts maximum for a sector-carrier.
Consequently, the maximum gain permitted between the top of the rack and the effective radiated
power would be Gmax:

G max = 10 × log ( P out ⁄ Pin ) = 10 × log ( 1640 ⁄ 45 ) = 15.62 dB [EQ 4-59]

The RF system designer is advised to determine if any regulations exist in the area of their system.

4.5 CDMA Repeaters

Repeaters have been successfully deployed in CDMA markets. By carefully following the
guidelines provided by the repeater vendor, it should be possible to deploy a repeater to enhance
system coverage for most repeater applications. The following sections provide considerations
regarding the design, installation, optimization, and maintenance of a repeater system. All of the
repeater information provided should be evaluated prior to deciding upon a specific repeater
application.

11. Title 47, Part 24, Sub-Part E, Section 24.232.

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4.5.1 CDMA Repeater Design Considerations

The following sections provide useful information that should be considered during the design
phase of a repeater deployment.

4.5.1.1 Coverage Impact

CDMA system coverage can be traded off for more capacity. This is reflected in the link budget of
the reverse link by determining the acceptable interference margin allowed, which will determine
the reverse link coverage. By designing the system with a relatively small interference margin, less
users can be supported, but a larger coverage area is supported. For a relatively larger interference
margin, more users can be supported, but for a smaller coverage area. Similarly on the forward link,
it is the required PA power that is used to determine the desired mixture of coverage and capacity.
For a given load, a smaller coverage area produces a smaller PA power requirement, while a larger
coverage area produces a larger PA power requirement. For a given coverage area, the required PA
power is directly proportional to the load. This relationship is maintained up to the point where the
system becomes forward link interference limited, such that increasing PA power does not
maintain or improve SNR.

4.5.1.1.1 Typical CDMA Repeater Applications

In some cases, it is desirable to use transceivers called repeaters (see Figure 4-14) to boost CDMA
signals, which in effect spreads the capacity of the BTS to a larger coverage area. This is especially
useful in areas where the signal from the BTS is blocked by some kind of RF obstruction. In this
case, a repeater can be used between the donor BTS and the served subscriber to boost the signals.
The repeater helps to get both the BTS and subscriber signals around or through such RF
obstructions.

Figure 4-14: Typical Repeater Application

BTS Cell
Coverage Subscriber
Antenna

Donor Repeater
Antenna Coverage

Base
Station Repeater

Repeaters can typically be used to provide improved coverage for the following applications:
terrain limited coverage, in-building coverage, and tunnel/subway/parking garage/underground
coverage. Using repeaters in this way maintains the coverage of the donor BTS while eliminating

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the need for another BTS (assuming the donor BTS has enough capacity availability to accept the
additional load from the repeater). This is economical as long as the repeater is significantly
cheaper than the type of BTS to be added (in comparison to a macro-cell, micro-cell, or pico-cell)
and/or the site costs are less expensive. In the overlap areas of coverage between the donor BTS
and the repeater, there is enough delay in the repeater signal path such that the subscriber can
resolve the signals between the two sources. The same will be true for the reverse link.

4.5.1.1.2 CDMA Repeaters Used for Range Extension

Another application for repeaters are to use them to extend the range of a CDMA cell site or sector
for the case where there is no RF obstruction, such as down a highway. For this type of application,
the range extension obtained is largely limited by the following:

• How much the repeater desensitizes the base station (for maximizing range of the
repeater, typically a 3 dB desense of the donor BTS allows optimum range of the BTS &
repeater combination). Note: maximizing overall coverage of the BTS and repeater will
cause a 3 dB desense reduction in the donor BTS’s range.
• The cascaded noise figure at the repeater (determined by the noise figures of the repeater
and base station including the transmission gain between them).
• Repeater receiver sensitivity on the reverse link and ability to maintain diversity
reception back at the donor base station (repeater with transmit diversity is used for link
back to donor base station to compensate for repeater not having diversity reception and
rake receiver for subscriber to repeater link).
• The effect of the loss of soft handoff of the donor site at the repeater location.
• The size of the repeater PA used on its forward link (typically 6 Watts).

Given these assumptions, it has been determined that approximately 24-26% increase in range
extension may be achieved by using existing commercial repeaters (see Figure 4-15).

Figure 4-15: Repeater Range Analysis Results
R ange Impr ov ement U s i ng R epeater
1 0 0%

9 0% B T S NF =4 .5 dB R ev L ink Incr eas e
R ptr NF =7 .0 dB F w d L ink Incr eas e
8 0%
NIM=0 dB or 3dB des ens e
Percent Increase in Range

7 0%

6 0%

5 0%

4 0%

3 0%

2 0%

1 0%

0%
CS M CS M
CS M 17 dB i CS M 2 3dB i E MA X X 1 7 dB i E MA X X 23 dB i
T T A .17 dB i T T A .23 dB i

R ev L ink Incr eas e 26% 26% 26 % 2 6% 24% 24%
F w d L ink Incr eas e 58% 59% 35 % 3 8% 10% 13%
S ys t e m Co n f igu r at io n

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Figure 4-15 shows the percent improvement in range due to adding a repeater (normalized to the
BTS range without the repeater) for different BTS donor configurations. This analysis used a
typical noise figure value of 4.5 dB. For a guaranteed coverage calculation or prediction, it may be
necessary to use the six sigma value for the noise figure specification which is usually 1.5 to 2.5
dB higher than the typical value. A 20Watt LPA was assumed for all cases above. The dBi numbers
represent antenna gain and TTA indicates a tower top LNA was used at the BTS to reduce the BTS
effective noise figure. The range is largely limited by the reverse link allowing about a 25%
increase in range. While the forward link range extension can be large (above 50%) for a donor site
using a CSM chip set, it quickly drops as the receiver sensitivity is improved by using an EMAXX
chip set and then again if tower top low noise amplifiers (LNAs) are used to reduce antenna cable
loss. Going from left to right, the CSM to the EMAXX, and then to the CSM w/TTA, each
configuration improves the receiver sensitivity of the BTS, which in effect increases the
normalized range of the BTS. This also increases the power requirements of the BTS LPAs, which
is why the forward link improvement decreases quickly due to the fixed 20Watt LPA assumption.
By observing the increase in normalized range with each configuration change, the overall reverse
link improvement in range is increasing, but the percentage improvement due to the repeater is still
around the 24% range. Figure 4-16 represents an alternate repeater analysis with the following
assumptions.

• The total loss/gain is the same between the forward and reverse links
• The forward link loss/gain is measured from the Forward Tx output of the base station to
the Forward Tx output of the repeater
• The reverse link loss/gain is measured from the Reverse Rx input of the repeater to the
Reverse Rx input of the base station
• The base and repeater antennas have the same cable losses and antenna gains serving the
subscribers
Figure 4-16: Alternate Repeater Analysis
B T S an d R epeat er R X R an ge
3 .2 6 R F pr o p l o s s
B T S l os es -4 dB s of t h an dof f gai n R epeater l os es -1 dB f adin g to B T S - 0 .5 dB E c/Io F i n ger s

L in k L os s = P at h L os s + Cabl e L os s es + An ten n a Gain s + R epeater G ain
As s u m pti on
P ath L os s R ev er s e L i n k R epeat er to B T S = F or war d L in k B T S t o R epeat er
Mobile to B T S

P ath L os s
Repeater Forward TX power relative to BTS

Mobile to R epeater

dis tance B T S di s tance R epeater
0 .0

- 5 .0

-1 0 .0

-1 5 .0

-2 0 .0
0 .0 0 0 .1 0 0 .2 0 0 .3 0 0 .4 0 0 .5 0 0 .6 0 0 .7 0 0.8 0 0 .9 0 1 .0 0 1 .1 0 1 .2 0 1 .3 0 1 .4 0 1 .5 0 1 .6 0 1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1 .9 0 2 .0 0

N o r m ali z ed R X Cel l co ver age r ef er en ced t o B T S n o i s e f i gu r e

The Y axis in Figure 4-16 represents the difference in repeater forward Tx power relative to the
BTS power plus the difference in the repeater forward Tx gain relative to the repeater reverse Rx

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gain. This is identical to that of Figure 4-25 (see page 78 for further details). In a maximum range
extension application, the repeater Tx and Rx gains are typically equal and thus cancel themselves
out. As a result, the title in the above figure only mentions the difference in repeater to BTS Tx
powers. This alternate analysis also shows a ~26% increase in range. An interesting point to note
is that in this type of repeater configuration (maximum range), the donor BTS range is reduced by
over 40%, primarily due to the lack of soft handoff gain and the repeater desense of the BTS
receiver. It also shows the expected reductions in overall range as the relative power levels are
changed.

4.5.1.2 Cascaded Noise Figure

The calculation of the cascaded noise figure for multiple amplifiers in a cabled system is different
than that for a non-cabled repeater system. The following sections provide an explanation of how
to calculate the cascaded noise figures for both cabled and repeater (non-cabled) systems.

4.5.1.2.1 Cascaded Noise Figure for Cabled Systems

In a multiple amplifier cabled system (i.e. only one antenna input), Equation 4-20 and Equation 4-
21 can be used to calculate the cascaded noise figure, if the noise figure (or noise factor) for each
of the individual amplifiers which are connected in series is known.

Figure 4-17: Cabled Cascaded Noise Figure
F1 - 1 F2 - 1 F3 - 1
1

G1 G2 G3
Input Output
kTB=1

For the example in Figure 4-17 Cabled Cascaded Noise Figure where the noise figures are
illustrated by setting the thermal noise, kTB = 1 (-113 dBm for CDMA), the cascaded noise
referenced to the first amplifier input is as follows (note that all values are linear, not dB).

F2 – 1 F3 – 1
Cascaded Noise @ Input = F1 + ---------------- + ---------------------
G1 G1 • G2

To simplify the calculation, let’s assume that the noise figures for F1, F2, and F3 are 3 dB (2.0
linear) and the gain for G1, G2, and G3 are 10 dB (10 linear). For the example in Figure 4-17
Cabled Cascaded Noise Figure, the cascaded noise at the input is as follows (assuming no cable
loss between the amplifiers):

2–1 2–1
Cascaded Noise @ Input = 2 + ------------ + ----------------- = 2.101 = 3.2 dB
10 10 • 10

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4.5.1.2.2 Cascaded Noise Figure for Single Repeater System

The reverse link cascaded noise figure for a BTS repeater system can be easier to comprehend if a
few simplifying assumptions are made. First, the total loss/gain is assumed to be the same between
the forward and reverse links. Second, the BTS and repeater antennas have the same cable losses
and antenna gains serving the subscribers. Using the above assumptions, the forward loss/gain is
measured as the difference between the Forward Tx output of the BTS and the Forward Tx output
of the repeater. Also, the reverse loss/gain is measured as the difference between the Reverse Rx
input of the repeater and the Reverse Rx input of the BTS. Using the simplifying assumptions, the
cascaded noise figure looking into the repeater Rx will be higher than the cascaded noise figure
looking into the BTS Rx by the reverse loss/gain (in dB).

Figure 4-18: Base Station & Repeater Diagram
Forward Loss = 10 dB

BTS Repeater
Tx_BTS Pilot = 2 watts Tx_R Pilot = 0.2 watts

Rx_BTS Rx_R

Reverse Loss = 10 dB

For the simple example in Figure 4-18 Base Station & Repeater Diagram, the repeater Tx pilot is
10 dB lower than the BTS Tx pilot. Knowledge of the individual components of the forward loss
is not required (i.e. the cable losses, antenna gains, and repeater gain are all hidden to our analysis).
Using symmetry between the forward and reverse links, the reverse loss is also 10 dB. A CDMA
subscriber received at the repeater at a level of -110 dBm will be presented to the BTS receiver at
-120 dBm. Using the simplifying assumptions, the cascaded noise figure looking into the repeater
Rx is 10 dB higher than the cascaded noise figure looking into the BTS Rx.

An important point to note is that a cascaded noise figure calculation for a repeater system (non-
cabled) is not the same as the cascaded cabled amplifier equation. In a repeater system (non-
cabled), Equation 4-21 cannot be used to calculate the cascaded noise figure. Cascaded amplifiers
only have one antenna input. Therefore, thermal noise (kTB) is only injected at the 1st amplifier
input. Also, subscribers are only received at the 1st amplifier. A repeater and BTS system has two
input antennas. Thermal noise (kTB) and the subscriber signal are injected at both receiver inputs.
Figure 4-19 Repeater Cascaded Noise Figure provides an example of a reverse link cascaded noise
figure for a simple repeater system.

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Figure 4-19: Repeater Cascaded Noise Figure
Base Station (BTS) Repeater
F1 - 1 kTB F2 - 1 kTB
kTB Subscriber kTB Subscriber

2.2(kTB)
1.0 0.2(kTB) 0.1

F1 = 3dB Reverse Loss = 10 dB F2 = 3dB

As an alternate approach, the calculation of a cascaded noise figure for a repeater system reverse
link can be analyzed as follows (see Figure 4-19 Repeater Cascaded Noise Figure). Thermal noise
(kTB) is introduced at the repeater Rx by the source impedance of the antenna. The 3 dB noise
figure of the repeater doubles the noise by adding another kTB. A reverse loss of 10 dB will lower
the repeater noise at the BTS antenna to 0.2(kTB). The BTS receiver antenna and noise figure add
another 2(kTB). As a result, the total noise at the BTS receiver is 2.2(kTB). Thus, the cascaded
noise figure is 3.4 dB (10log(2.2)) looking into the BTS Rx. A simple equation for the cascaded
noise figure at the BTS receiver can be written as follows. All of the variables are in linear units
(i.e. 2.2 = 2 + (2 * 0.1)).

Cascaded NF @ BTS = BTS NF + (Repeater NF * reverse loss) [EQ 4-60]

Now, a subscriber looking into the repeater receiver will see a different cascaded noise figure than
a subscriber looking into the BTS receiver. Referenced to the repeater receiver input, the 2.2(kTB)
noise at the BTS receiver is ten times (10dB) higher at 22(kTB). As a result, the repeater cascaded
noise figure is 10 dB higher at 13.4 dB (10log(22)). Notice that the 10 dB difference is exactly the
same as the reverse loss. A simple equation for the cascaded noise figure at the repeater receiver
can be written as follows. Again, all variables are linear (i.e. 22 = 2.2 / 0.1).

Cascaded NF @ Repeater = Cascaded NF @ BTS / reverse loss [EQ 4-61]

In this example, the repeater is 10 dB less sensitive than the BTS. For a subscriber signal to be
received at the BTS at -120 dBm, it must received at the repeater at -110 dBm. A subscriber signal
going straight to the BTS would be received at the BTS at -120 dBm.

As a result, the cascaded noise figures for a repeater and base station system are easy to calculate.
They are determined by the repeater and BTS noise figures and the ratio of repeater pilot power to
BTS pilot power. The simplifying assumptions are that the forward and reverse links are balanced.
For unbalanced forward and reverse links or to include the effects of CDMA load, first calculate
the simple cascaded noise figure and then add in the other effects.

4.5.1.2.3 Cascaded Noise Figure for Cascaded Repeater Systems

For some highway applications where linear range needs to be maximized, a cascaded repeater

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system may be a viable choice. Similar to the approach used in Section 4.5.1.1.2, a cascaded
repeater system will impact the capacity and range of the donor BTS in order to maximize the range
of the entire BTS/repeater system. Utilizing the same simplifying assumptions, the same approach
to calculating the cascaded noise figure for the single repeater system can be applied to the
cascaded repeater system. Figure 4-20 Multiple Repeater Cascaded Noise Figure provides an
example of a reverse link cascaded noise figure calculation for a cascaded repeater system. (Note:
The values used in the following example are not indicative of a cascaded repeater system
optimized for maximum range extension. The values are chosen to simplify the calculations.)

Figure 4-20: Multiple Repeater Cascaded Noise Figure
Base Station (BTS) Repeater #1 Repeater #2 Subscriber
F1 - 1 kTB F2 - 1 kTB F3 - 1 kTB
kTB Subscriber kTB Subscriber kTB

1.0 0.1 0.1
0.22(kTB) 0.2(kTB)
2.22(kTB)

F1 = 3dB F2 = 3dB F3 = 3dB
Reverse Loss = 10 dB Reverse Loss = 10 dB
Reverse Loss = 20 dB

The following calculations are similar to the single repeater example. Thermal noise (kTB) is
introduced at Repeater #2 Rx by the source impedance of the antenna. The 3 dB noise figure of the
repeater doubles the noise by adding another kTB. A reverse loss of 10 dB will lower the repeater
noise at the Repeater #1 antenna to 0.2(kTB). The Repeater #1 receiver antenna and noise figure
add another 2(kTB). Another reverse loss of 10 dB will lower the combined repeater noise at the
BTS antenna to 0.22(kTB). Finally, the BTS receiver antenna and noise figure add another 2(kTB).
As a result, the total noise at the BTS receiver is 2.22(kTB), which produces a cascaded noise
figure of 3.46 dB looking into the BTS Rx. A simple equation for the cascaded noise figure at the
BTS receiver is as follows. All variables are linear (i.e. 2.22 = 2 + (2 * 0.1) + (2 * 0.01)).

Cascaded NF @ BTS = BTS NF + (Repeater #1 NF * reverse loss to BTS) +
(Repeater #2 NF * total reverse loss to BTS) [EQ 4-62]

Similar to the single repeater example, the cascaded noise figure looking into Repeater #1 and
Repeater #2 are as follows. Referenced to Repeater #1 receiver input, the 2.22(kTB) noise at the
BTS receiver is ten times (10 dB) higher at 22.2(kTB). As a result, the Repeater #1 cascaded noise
figure is 10 dB higher at 13.46 dB. Referenced to Repeater #2 receiver input, the 22.2(kTB) noise
at the Repeater #1 receiver is ten times (10 dB) higher at 222(kTB). As a result, the Repeater #2
cascaded noise figure is 10 dB higher at 23.46 dB. A simple equation for the cascaded noise figure
at the Repeater #1 and #2 receiver is as follows.

Cascaded NF @ Repeater #1 = Cascaded NF @ BTS / Repeater #1 reverse loss [EQ 4-63]

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Example. Cascaded NF @ Repeater #1 = 2.22 / 0.1 = 22.2 = 13.46 dB

Cascaded NF @ Repeater #2 = Cascaded NF @ BTS / Repeater #2 reverse loss [EQ 4-64]

Example. Cascaded NF @ Repeater #2 = 2.22 / 0.01 = 222 = 23.46 dB

It is important to note that the reverse loss for Repeater #2 is the total reverse loss from Repeater
#2 to the BTS (which includes the loss from Repeater #1 to the BTS). For the example given in
Figure 4-20 Multiple Repeater Cascaded Noise Figure, the total reverse loss from Repeater #2 to
the BTS is 20 dB.

4.5.1.3 Interference and Capacity Issues

The interference and capacity impact of a repeater will most likely depend upon its specific
application and installation/optimization. The interference and capacity impact should be minimal
for a repeater, that is used for a typical application (i.e. to overcome RF obstructions) and that has
been properly installed and optimized. A repeater that has not been properly installed or optimized
can have an impact on the interference and capacity of the donor BTS.

A CDMA repeater application that is set up for maximum range extension can have a significant
capacity impact upon the donor BTS. Since this repeater application is designed to trade-off
capacity for coverage, the donor BTS capacity impact depends upon the amount of interference
margin that is traded-off for coverage. Again, a repeater that has not been properly installed or
optimized for the range extension desired can have a greater capacity impact on the donor BTS than
what it was originally designed for.

In order to reduce the number of BTSs for a new system deployment, a system operator may
consider implementing a wide scale repeater deployment. A system with a wide scale deployment
of repeaters can create multiple paths of interference (direct path from the subscriber, indirect path
through the repeater, and indirect paths through multiple other repeaters). Depending upon the
system design, a system of this type may increase the reverse link noise rise which may decrease
the system capacity. Reverse link simulations of a couple of wide scale repeater design scenarios
have shown a decrease in RF carrier capacity of approximately 9-16%. In order to estimate the
capacity impact, simulations are highly recommended for any specific wide scale repeater
deployment design.

The probability of interference from IM and spectral regrowth are increased with the use of a
repeater. The situation may be worse for repeaters because the repeater receiver will add some
additional amount of IM and regrowth to the signal that is transmitted. The receiver absorbing this
undesired energy at the end of the chain will need to cope with these increased levels of IM and
regrowth.

4.5.1.4 Filtering Issues

Depending upon the specific system design (i.e. repeater application, spectrum planning, adjacent
band technology, etc.), additional filtering may be required to minimize the interference between
the repeater and the adjacent band technologies that are being used. The Sideband Noise (SBN)

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performance of the repeater may require additional filters to be installed at the repeater site. A
detailed guard band interference analysis should be performed to determine the appropriate guard
band and filter requirements to allow the repeater and the adjacent band technologies to co-exist
with an acceptable interference impact. An analysis of both repeater links (Rx and Tx) is necessary
to determine if filtering is required for either link. Separate filters may be required for each of the
repeater links.

If additional filtering is required, the additional space requirements must be taken into account
when designing the repeater site. If two separate filters are required, then the amount of space
required to house and mount the filter hardware needs to be considered. With the potential use of
filters at the CDMA donor BTS, at the receiver input of the repeater, and at the output of the
repeater, the total group delay of the filters can become a concern. Too much group delay will
distort the CDMA waveform, which may cause unacceptable "rho" performance (a measure of
waveform quality). The total maximum group delay must be split between the three filters. Since
the group delay for the built-in filters of the donor BTS and of the repeater are already established,
a lower group delay specification for the additional repeater filter may be required. It may be
difficult to find an economical and compact filter to satisfy the group delay requirements in
addition to the other filter requirements determined from the detailed analysis.

If it has been determined that additional filtering is required, then the cost impact of the additional
filtering should be taken into consideration when designing a repeater site. Since a repeater does
not add any capacity to the system, the additional cost of the filtering should be added to the total
cost analysis to determine if a regular BTS (macro-cell, micro-cell, or pico-cell) may be more
appropriate for the application.

4.5.2 CDMA Repeater Installation Considerations

When using repeaters for a typical application to overcome an RF obstruction within a BTS’s
coverage area or for a highway application to maximize linear range extension, it is important to
follow the repeater vendor’s installation engineering guidelines.

4.5.2.1 Antenna Isolation

Antenna isolation is a critical parameter for an over-the-air repeater system. If the repeater’s
antennas do not have adequate isolation from each other, the repeater’s amplifiers may start
oscillating. Proper donor to subscriber antenna isolation at the repeater may be difficult to achieve
for some applications. The amount of antenna isolation that is normally required is equal to 15 dB
plus the gain of the repeater (refer to the repeater vendor’s recommendation for the actual value to
use). Antenna isolation values of 80 dB (repeater gain = 65 + 15 = 80 dB) or greater are not
uncommon. Since the environmental surroundings and the physical construction of the site can
have an impact, it is highly recommended to actually measure the antenna isolation for each and
every repeater site. The ability to measure the antenna isolation properly and accurately is an
important step in the repeater installation. Do not rely on estimated antenna isolation calculations
to validate the isolation requirements.

The repeater diagram in Figure 4-14 shows the donor antenna at a higher elevation than the

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subscriber antenna. This represents a repeater application which takes advantage of vertical
separation between the donor and subscriber antenna in order to achieve the isolation requirements.
Placing the donor antenna at a higher elevation may also provide a direct line-of-sight path to the
donor base station, which is highly recommended for all repeater implementations. In some
applications, the subscriber antenna may be mounted at a higher elevation than the donor antenna
(see Figure 4-21).

Figure 4-21: Alternate Repeater Antenna Configuration
Subscriber
Antenna

BTS Cell
Coverage Repeater
Coverage
Donor
Antenna

Base
Station Repeater

A viable configuration which utilizes horizontal separation along with a barrier is shown in
Figure 4-22. For this application, the building is acting as a physical barrier in order to increase the
attenuation between the antennas, which will increase the antenna isolation.

Figure 4-22: Horizontal Separation Using a Barrier
Repeater Subscriber
Antenna
BTS Cell
Coverage
Repeater
Coverage

Donor
Antenna

Base
Station Building

Just as long as the measured isolation and the direct line-of-sight requirements are satisfied, the
optimal antenna locations may depend upon the particular application.

In some cases where vertical and/or horizontal separation does not provide enough antenna
isolation, it may be possible to install custom RF shielding between the donor and subscriber
antennas in order to achieve the desired antenna isolation requirements. RF shields can be

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constructed with various materials (hardware cloth, cyclone chain-link fence, metal screen, solid
metal, etc.) and various types of configurations (flat shield, flat shield with corners, curved shield,
etc.). The actual attenuation will depend upon the specific application, but nominal values in the
range of 10-30 dB of attenuation may be achievable.

As an alternate solution, a micro-wave or fiber linked repeater may be used instead of an over-the-
air type repeater. A linked repeater does not have the same antenna isolation requirements as an
over-the-air repeater. An example of a micro-wave linked repeater is shown in Figure 4-23.

Figure 4-23: Micro-wave Linked Repeater

Subscriber
Antenna
BTS Cell
Coverage
Micro-wave Link Repeater
Coverage

Base
Station Repeater

Since the micro-wave link is operating at a different frequency and transmitted in a different
format, the isolation between the subscriber antenna and the micro-wave antenna is not as critical
as the over-the-air repeater. An example of a fiber linked repeater is shown in Figure 4-24.

Figure 4-24: Fiber Linked Repeater

Subscriber
Antenna
BTS Cell
Coverage
Repeater
Coverage

Base Fiber Link
Station Repeater

Since the fiber link is not transmitting over the air, antenna isolation is not even a factor for this
repeater application.

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4.5.2.2 Repeater Antenna Considerations

The following sections provide information regarding the repeater donor and subscriber antennas.

4.5.2.2.1 Repeater Donor Antenna

The repeater donor antenna should have a very narrow beamwidth in order to isolate a single donor
BTS. In an area with a dense population of BTSs, isolating a single donor BTS may be difficult. If
more than one BTS is seen by the repeater, the performance in the repeater’s coverage area may be
degraded. As a result, it is typically recommended to use a highly directional, high gain, high front-
to-back ratio (for horizontal separation), and/or high side lobe attenuation (for vertical separation)
donor antenna with 15° of horizontal beamwidth or less. Parabolic antennas (solid or grid) are
suited very well for this application, which also have an added advantage of high side lobe
attenuation, which can help achieve the vertical antenna isolation requirements for the site.

Pilot pollution can be made worse if the repeater donor antenna is not narrow enough and localized
to the desired donor base station sector. Since the repeater repeats the entire CDMA carrier (signal
plus noise), it is important that the repeater location be line-of-sight to the donor BTS with a
dominant PN. It is highly recommended to choose a repeater application that will allow a line-of-
sight (LOS) path with a clear Fresnel zone (ideally with 60% of the first Fresnel clearance) between
the repeater and the donor BTS. A LOS path will ensure a highly reliable repeater link, which can
utilize a smaller fade margin. If a LOS path is not possible, then a path loss measurement is
required to estimate the mean path loss of the donor link.

Since a LOS path which isolates a single donor BTS is important, donor antenna alignment is also
very critical to the installation of a repeater site. A mis-aligned highly directional donor antenna
can also create significant performance issues with the operation of a repeater site.

4.5.2.2.2 Repeater Subscriber Antenna

The subscriber antenna should be chosen (i.e. gain, H/V beamwidth, etc.) to cover the desired area.
For over-the-air repeater applications, it is typically recommended to use an antenna with 105° of
horizontal beamwidth or less, due to isolation/interference concerns and the unreliability of the
beam patterns. It would be very difficult to achieve the antenna isolation requirements using an
omni subscriber antenna with an over-the-air repeater application and as such, they are not
recommended. On the other hand, micro-wave and fiber linked repeaters do not have the same
isolation requirements as the over-the-air repeaters. Thus, the horizontal beamwidth restrictions do
not apply towards the micro-wave/fiber linked repeater applications.

For those repeaters which have a diversity receive path capability, two subscriber antennas will be
required. The same subscriber antenna restrictions mentioned above would apply for over-the-air
diversity receive repeaters. As an alternative, a dual polarized slant 45° antenna may be a logical
choice for diversity receive repeaters. Dual pole antennas (see Chapter 7) with the desired
horizontal and vertical beamwidths have an advantage of providing two separate antennas in a
single housing.

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4.5.2.3 Repeater Gain Settings

The repeater gain settings are a critical component to the successful installation and performance
of the repeater. Setting the gain too high for the repeater’s Tx path to the subscriber could cause
the repeater Tx PA to be over driven under a loaded condition. Although this may not be a major
concern if the repeater PA is designed with gain compression, a significant amount of
intermodulation (IM) distortion and spectral regrowth may be generated, which can impact the
spectral purity (rho) of the CDMA signal beyond acceptable levels.

Setting the repeater’s Rx path back to the donor BTS too high could cause the BTS receiver to
desense. To ensure that the repeater does not desense the donor BTS in a normal application (i.e.
the repeater is NOT being used for maximum range extension), the repeater vendors typically
recommend that the repeater Rx gain back to the BTS should be set lower (up to 10 dB) than the
repeater Tx gain to the subscriber.

It is important to set the repeater gain levels for the Rx & Tx paths properly. Figure 4-25 below
shows the potential effects of reducing the range of a donor BTS if the gain settings are not set
properly.

Figure 4-25: Potential Range Reduction Due to Repeaters
B T S R X R an ge
1, 2, or 4 R epeat er s
BT S 3.26 R F pr op los s

L in k L os s = P ath L os s + Cable L os s + An ten na Gain + R epeater Gain
As s u mption
P ath L os s R ever s e L in k R epeater to B T S = F or war d L in k B T S to R epeater
Mobi le to B T S
Relative Tx & Rx Link Differences

dis tance B T S with 1 R epeater
0.0

1 R epeater
- 5.0 2 R epeaters
4 R epeaters

-1 0.0

-1 5.0

-2 0.0
0.0 0 0.1 0 0.2 0 0 .30 0 .40 0 .50 0 .60 0 .70 0.8 0 0.9 0 1.0 0
Nor maliz ed R X Cell cover age r efer en ced to B T S n ois e figu r e

With the assumption stated in the chart, the Y axis in the figure above represents the difference in
repeater forward Tx power relative to the BTS power plus the difference in the repeater forward
Tx gain relative to the repeater reverse Rx gain. Table 4-10 provides an example of how to
calculate the relative Tx & Rx link difference.

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Table 4-10: Relative Tx & Rx Link Difference Example

BTS Tx Pilot Power 30 dBm a
Repeater Tx Pilot Power 25 dBm b
Repeater Tx Path Gain 70 dB c
Repeater Rx Path Gain 65 dB d
Relative Tx & Rx Link Differences -10 dB (b-a) + (d-c)

With this example, the donor BTS’s normalized Rx cell coverage at a -10dB relative Tx & Rx link
difference is ~96% of the BTS’s coverage area without the repeater (i.e. the repeater reduced the
coverage area by ~4%). Typical settings of the relative Tx & Rx link differences are -15 dB or
better which will cause little to no effect on the normal coverage area of the donor BTS.

4.5.3 CDMA Repeater Optimization Considerations

This section discusses some of the optimization considerations around repeater applications.

4.5.3.1 Timing Impacts

The following sections provide some optimization considerations regarding the timing impacts of
adding a repeater to a system.

4.5.3.1.1 Search Windows and Parameters

One of the main optimization considerations for the deployment of a repeater is the adjustment of
the network parameters associated with search windows and timing. Since the repeater unit itself
will add approximately 5-8 micro-seconds (µs) of delay (typically around 6 µs) in both the forward
and reverse links, certain timing related parameters need to be expanded in order to handle this
extra timing delay. There are four basic timing related considerations for repeaters.

• Access Channel Search Window (Cell Radius - PamSz & AchPamWinSz)
• Traffic Channel Search Window (TchAqcWinSz)
• Subscriber Search Windows (SrchWinA, SrchWinN, SrchWinR)
• PN Offset Interference Protection (Pilot_Inc)

Access Channel Search Window. The access channel search window establishes the maximum
round trip propagation delay that the BTS will search for subscriber origination attempts. In effect,
it establishes the maximum radius that the BTS will be able to receive an origination attempt. Since
a repeater not only increases the radius (distance) of the donor BTS, it also adds delay to the signal
which is similar to adding propagation delay. The added delay can be translated back to distance.
Thus, the access channel search window of the donor BTS needs to be expanded to compensate for
the added distance (repeater coverage plus repeater delay) that the repeater provides. For the

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Motorola infrastructure, the access channel search window is set by adjusting the Cell Radius
parameter (which automatically adjusts the PamSz & AchPamWinSz parameters). Adjustments to
the Cell Radius parameter can be calculated as follows:

Cell Radius = Donor BTS Range (km) + Repeater Delay (µs) * 0.299 (km/µs) + Repeater Range (km) [EQ 4-65]

Traffic Channel Search Window. For the Motorola infrastructure, the traffic channel search
window is set by the TchAqcWinSz parameter. This parameter defines the traffic channel
acquisition in PN chips, which is used during the handover acquisition of a call. For normal
applications (including repeater applications), it should be set at least as large as the
AchPamWinSz parameter (which is established by the Cell Radius parameter).

Subscriber Search Windows. The subscriber search window parameters are SrchWinA,
SrchWinN, and SrchWinR. SrchWinA is the active/candidate pilot set search window size which
should be made large enough to incorporate ~95% of the expected delay spread energy. Since a
repeater has an internal delay of 5-8 µs and a subscriber will find itself in places where the BTS
and repeater signals are both strong enough to demodulate, a repeater will normally increase the
effective delay spread of the donor BTS. The default setting for SrchWinA is 5 which corresponds
to 20 PN chips (16 µs or +8 µs from the earliest arriving “usable” delay spread component). The
default setting may be adequate for some repeater applications. An evaluation of the specific
repeater application is necessary to determine if the SrchWinA parameter for the donor BTS needs
to be increased.

The SrchWinN and SrchWinR parameters represent the search window sizes associated with the
Neighbor Set and Remaining Set pilots. The size should be made large enough to account for
differential time delay between the subscriber and a potential handoff BTS given in the
subscriber’s neighbor list. The worst case differential delay would be a scenario where the
subscriber is next to a serving site and the subscriber attempts to handoff to a distant site. Since a
repeater can increase the differential delay, increasing the SrchWinN and SrchWinR parameters
may be necessary for some repeater applications. It is important to note that handoff relationships
are symmetrical and reciprocal for the neighboring cells which are candidates for the donor sector.
Thus, the SrchWinN and SrchWinR parameters will need to be adjusted for both the donor BTS
and the neighbor cells to the donor BTS.

PN Offset Interference Protection. Some level of PN Offset interference protection is provided
with the Pilot_Inc parameter. An increase in the Pilot_Inc increases the separation between
adjacent PN offset pilots which provides improved adjacent offset interference protection. The
increased separation between adjacent PN offsets also reduces the total number of valid PN offsets.
A Pilot_Inc of 2 will decrease the total number of valid PN offsets from 512 to 256. Since the cell
radius (or propagation delay) is a factor to consider when selecting the appropriate Pilot_Inc
setting, adding repeaters to a system may require a re-evaluation of the Pilot_Inc setting. In most
cases, adjustments to the Pilot_Inc parameter due to repeater applications will not be necessary, if
proper PN offset planning is performed. In some cases, a re-evaluation of the Pilot_Inc setting may
be necessary and an adjustment to the setting may be required.

For more detailed information on PN offset planning and search window parameters please refer
to Chapter 5.

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4.5.3.1.2 Location Based Services

Another timing related issue to consider is that some implementations of location based services
may be affected by the use of repeaters. For a fixed network equipment based solution, Time
Difference of Arrival (TDA) measurements are made which will now include both repeater and
propagation delays. The repeater delay will add variance to the TDA measurements and may make
it difficult to achieve accurate location calculations. There is also a handset based GPS solution
which still requires some coordination with the fixed network equipment. Both of these location
based service implementations may require some sort of custom solution in order to make the
location based feature accurate for repeater applications.

4.5.3.2 Optimization Considerations

Once the repeater site has been fully designed, installed, and verified (i.e. repeater gain settings
verification, donor BTS-to-repeater link verification, antenna isolation verification, etc.), the next
step is to conduct drive test optimization. After the timing related parameters have been evaluated
and adjusted appropriately, there are six drive test areas that need to be analyzed.

• Donor BTS coverage area
• Repeater coverage area
• Donor BTS to repeater transition zone coverage area
• Donor BTS to adjacent cell handoff zones
• Repeater to adjacent cell handoff zones
• Donor BTS to repeater transition zone to adjacent cell handoff zones

Most of the same basic drive test data collection and optimization techniques used for a normal
BTS can also be applied towards a repeater site. Although, the added complexity and functionality
of a repeater should be taken in account during the troubleshooting of any performance issues that
are identified through the drive test optimization process. Since one PN offset will be transmitted
from two separate antennas at two different locations, the optimization engineer needs to be
familiar with the donor BTS and repeater antenna configurations, in order to optimize the coverage
of the one PN offset.

Since the repeater repeats the entire CDMA carrier (signal plus noise), it is important that the
repeater location be line-of-sight to the donor BTS with a dominant PN. Pilot pollution can be
made worse if the repeater donor antenna is not narrow enough and localized to the desired donor
BTS sector. A repeater deployment should create a dominant pilot area and improve the pilot signal
strength coverage.

4.5.4 CDMA Repeater Maintenance Considerations

This section discusses some of the maintenance considerations around repeater applications.

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4.5.4.1 Future Expansion Considerations

As the capacity of a system grows over time, a natural progression is to deploy an additional
CDMA carrier to the system. Prior to deploying a repeater for a specific repeater application, the
long term expansion planning of the repeater site should be considered. The following sections
provide information about two future expansion considerations.

• Multiple Repeater Expansion
• Repeater to BTS Conversion

4.5.4.1.1 Multiple Repeater Expansion

The expansion design of a multiple carrier repeater system becomes more complex. Duplication of
repeater hardware & installation is required with each additional carrier added to the donor BTS.
If a new carrier is added to an area where repeaters are deployed, re-engineering of the repeater site
is required to accommodate a multiple repeater configuration. Below are a few design issues to
consider when looking at multiple carrier repeater sites.

• Antenna sharing configuration (splitters, combiners, duplexers, etc.)
• Separate antennas

If the additional repeater is required to share the antennas of the existing repeater, the antenna
sharing combining/splitting/filtering losses for the new antenna configuration will need to be
evaluated. Adjustments to the repeater design may be required to overcome the additional
combining/splitting/filtering losses of the new antenna sharing configuration. If the additional
repeater requires separate antennas, an evaluation of the interference and antenna isolation is still
required. For either antenna configuration (antenna sharing or separate antennas), a re-evaluation
of the following is required.

• Re-evaluation of interference for additional filtering
• Re-evaluation of repeater gain settings
• Re-evaluation of repeater antenna isolation requirements
• Re-evaluation of donor BTS-to-repeater link engineering

Once the new antenna configuration has been designed and implemented, the new repeater
configuration should be reverified (i.e. repeater gain settings verification, donor BTS-to-repeater
link verification, antenna isolation verification, etc.). The long term planning and design of a
repeater application (i.e. multiple repeaters for multiple carrier support) should be considered
during the initial design and deployment of a specific repeater site.

4.5.4.1.2 Repeater to BTS Conversion

Typically, a new carrier is added to expand the capacity of the system. A repeater does not provide
any capacity benefit to the system (it only provides expanded coverage). If a new carrier is added
to an area where repeaters are deployed, it may make sense to convert the repeater to a regular
capacity bearing cell site.

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A significant amount of cell site design, installation, and optimization work at the repeater site is
necessary to convert the repeater site to a capacity bearing cell site. All of the initial work in the
repeater design, installation, and optimization including RF propagation modeling, antenna
isolation measurements, custom shielding, linked network equipment installation, donor antenna
alignment, subscriber antenna adjustments, repeater gain settings and verifications, parameter
settings, and drive test optimization, will not apply to the capacity bearing cell site. Most of the cell
site design, installation, and optimization work required to deploy a new cell site into a system is
also required to convert a repeater site to a regular cell site. The long term planning and design of
a repeater application (i.e. repeater to BTS conversion) should include a cost analysis of the
repeater site which incorporates the cost of all of the rework to convert the repeater to a capacity
bearing site.

4.5.4.2 Environmental Changes

Future changes in the environmental conditions surrounding an over-the-air repeater site can have
an impact on the performance of the repeater. Changes in the surrounding environment (i.e.
changes in the ground clutter such as new buildings, changes to landscaping, seasonal changes to
the surrounding foliage, etc.) can have a negative impact on the donor BTS-to-repeater link
performance. It may also have a negative impact on the donor-to-subscriber antenna isolation. Both
of these conditions can affect the performance of an over-the-air repeater.

4.5.4.3 Operations and Maintenance Considerations

The Operations and Maintenance (O&M) of a repeater network will be different than that of a BTS
network. The hardware, software, monitoring access (POTS line w/modem, wireless modem, etc.),
configuration management, and alarm monitoring O&M practices and procedures for a repeater
network will be different and will require specialized knowledge and skill sets. Different resources
or additional training will be required to properly plan, design, install, operate, and maintain a
repeater system.

System Capacity planning becomes more complicated with repeaters. Since repeaters connected to
one sector will cover more area than sectors without repeaters, the site’s capacity limit will be
reached more quickly due to the additional area the sector with the repeater is covering. This may
cause a highly imbalanced system where one sector is lightly loaded while another sector is heavily
loaded. To overcome capacity loaded donor sectors, a new carrier can be added, the repeater can
be replaced with a new cell site, or the repeater can be moved to a lightly loaded donor sector.

4.6 Theoretical vs. Simulator

It should be emphasized that a RF link budget and associated statistical propagation model (i.e.
Hata), although useful as an analysis technique to evaluate relative differences between radio
systems or to obtain a qualitative description of a CDMA system, cannot be used to guarantee
capacity or coverage reliability. A detailed system design needs to be completed which takes into
account the specific characteristics of the given area. Some of the specific characteristics to be
accounted for are: site locations, subscriber distribution, terrain, and ground clutter. The generic
assumptions of flat terrain, uniform subscriber distribution, and ideal site locations implied within

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the propagation and traffic distribution models do not adequately account for specific
characteristics of actual systems.

The actual terrain of the area to be covered can greatly influence the range to which a site will
propagate. Instead of an ideal line of sight propagation, reflections, diffractions and shadowing of
the RF signal are taken into account to adjust the distance that the signal will propagate. In addition
to the terrain, what is on the terrain, ground clutter, is quite important. A given RF signal will
propagate further in an area that is desolate (little to no buildings or foliage), than in an area which
is comprised of many buildings. Also, the placement of the site within this terrain is very important.
Simply stated, if the site is surrounded by obstructions, the coverage of the site will be less than if
there are no obstructions.

The actual traffic characteristics of systems are non-uniform with large variations possible from
sector to sector. The more spectrally efficient a given radio technology is, the more economical it
is to maintain the grade of service in these sectors by simply adding additional traffic channels. In
less efficient radio systems, cell splitting is the only option available to maintain the grade of
service. This often requires the addition of several cells to resolve the blocking problem in a single
sector. This characteristic is not accounted for in the RF link budgets.

Many different criteria exist for determining the CDMA coverage area of a system. Among these
criteria, differentiation should be made between the forward and reverse links, as well as, between
the criteria that can be simulated as opposed to being field test measured. Differentiation of the
subscriber unit needs to be considered. Fixed systems need to have different assumptions or
considerations applied to the design that will be different from a system being designed to support
mobility. Finally, a distinction must be made between coverage area as defined in the loaded
system as opposed to the unloaded system. Coverage will change with loading. Any coverage test
needs to keep loading in perspective.

Because of the interrelated nature of CDMA coverage, quality and capacity, and all of the issues
highlighted above, Motorola utilizes the NetPlan CDMA Simulator to estimate the performance of
individual system installations.

The Motorola NetPlan CDMA Simulator may be used for analyzing DS-CDMA performance in
proposed and existing systems resulting in predicted capacity, required system parameters and
hardware loading information. It provides for a method of understanding the inter-relationship
between coverage, capacity, and quality. It permits investigations into real Cellular/PCS system
concerns such as edge effects, excess background noise, propagation anomalies, antenna
beamwidth, subscriber distribution, receiver sensitivity impact, interference mitigation, power
control and handoff. It also provides performance levels and determines required power allocation
for page, sync, pilot, forward and reverse traffic channels (TCH) for different channel models, cell
loading, and receiver characteristics. Both the reverse and forward link are simulated.

It should be noted that the accuracy of the simulator is dependent on the accuracy of the input it
requires (such as path loss, traffic distribution, vehicle speed, etc.).

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4.7 References
1. Turkmani, Parsons and Lewis, "Measurement of building penetration loss on radio
signals at 441, 900 and 1400 MHz", Journal of the Institution of Electronic and Radio
Engineers, Vol. 58, No. 6 (Supplement), pp. S169-S174, September-December 1988

2. Turkmani and Toledo, "Modelling of radio transmissions into and within multistory
buildings at 900, 1800 and 2300 MHz", IEEE Proceedings-I, Vol. 140, No. 6, December
1993

3. Aguirre, "Radio Propagation Into Buildings at 912, 1920, and 5990 MHz Using
Microcells", 0-7803-1823-4/94 IEEE, session 1.6 & 1.7, pp. 129-134
4. Lee, William C.Y. "Mobile Communications Engineering", Copyright 1982, McGraw-
Hill Inc. pg. 33-40.

5. Jakes, W.C., "Microwave Mobile Communications", IEEE Press Reissue 1993, (Wiley,
New York, 1974), pp. 125-127

6. Okumura, Y., Ohmori, E., Kawano, T., Fukada, K.: "Field strength and ITs Variability
in VHF and UHF Land-Mobile Radio Service", Rev. Elec. Commun. Lab., 16 (1968),
pp. 825-873

7. Hata, M.: "Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services", IEEE
Trans. on Vehicular and Technology, VT-29 (1980), pp. 317-325

8. COST 231 - UHF Propagation, "Urban transmission loss models for mobile radio in the
900- and 1,800- MHz bands", COST 231 TD (91) 73 The Hagne, September, 1991

9. Parsons, David, "The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel", Copyright 1992, Reprinted
1996 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

10. Rappaport, Theodore S., "Wireless Communications Principles & Practices", Copyright
1996 by Prentice Hall PTR

11. Title 47, Part 24, Sub-Part E, Section 24.232.

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5 PN Offset Planning and
Search Windows
Table of Contents

5.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3

5.2 Number of Pilot Offsets per CDMA Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3

5.3 PN Offset Planning - General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.3.1 Consequences and Sources of Offset Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.3.2 PN Offset Planning - Parameters and Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
5.3.3 Converting Between Chips and Time or Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.3.4 Search Windows and Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
5.3.5 Search Windows and Scan Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 11
5.4 PN Offset Planning - Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 12
5.4.1 Mitigating Adjacent Offset Interference - General . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 12
5.4.1.1 Adjacent Offset Interference Protection Based on Timing . . . . . . . 5 - 12
5.4.1.2 Adjacent Offset Interference Protection Based on Signal Strength 5 - 14
5.4.2 Protection Against Co-Offset Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 15
5.4.3 Incorrect Identification of an Offset by the Base Station . . . . . . . 5 - 18
5.4.4 PILOT_INC and the Scan Rate of Remaining Set Pilots . . . . . . . 5 - 19
5.4.5 Summary of Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 20
5.4.6 Guidelines for Assigning Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 22
5.4.7 Guidelines for Changing PILOT_INC
at Inter-CBSC Boundaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 25
5.5 Reuse Patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 26
5.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 27

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5.1 Introduction

This chapter will discuss the PN Offset Planning. Section 5.3 provides insight into the sources and
consequences of offset interference. The definition of important terms and parameters are given.
Also, since a knowledge of search windows is considered fundamental, a detailed explanation of
this topic is included. Section 5.4 provides the theory that justifies placing certain boundaries on
the value of PILOT_INC, which is central to PN Offset Planning. Section 5.4.5 and Section 5.4.6
will prove very useful to the offset planner by providing a summary of the factors pertinent to
PILOT_INC selection along with a concise listing of all the planning guidelines. Section 5.4.7
provides guidelines for offset planning at an Inter-CBSC boundary when different PILOT_INC
values are involved. Some information has been provided that will benefit system optimizers. This
includes information on scanning rates (Section 5.3.5 and Section 5.4.4). Finally, references are
provided for further study of this important topic.

Please note that all of the information provided on this topic applies equally to IS-95A, IS-95B,
and IS-2000 specifications.

5.2 Number of Pilot Offsets per CDMA Frequency

The Pilot Channel is a spread spectrum signal carrying no data and is always transmitted on a
downlink CDMA channel. The subscriber stations use the pilot to acquire the system, and to assist
in several signal processing functions such as synchronization, demodulation (phase reference),
soft handoff and channel estimation. The uniqueness of the pilot is achieved through time shifts of
a basic sequence known as zero shift pilot or short PN sequence. Since sectors are distinguished by
time shifts of a given pseudo-noise sequence, enough separation between time offsets must be
provided to avoid “mutual pilot interference”. Per TIA/EIA IS-95 Interim Standard, the chosen
length for the pilot PN sequences is 32,768 chips (Section 7.1.3.1.9) with a minimum separation of
64 chips (Section 7.1.3.2.1) between adjacent offsets. This leaves a maximum of 512 (32768/64)
distinct pilot offsets available for a CDMA frequency.

5.3 PN Offset Planning - General

Before actually doing a PN offset plan, it will be beneficial to have a general understanding of
scenarios to avoid when designing the PN offset plan, to learn the general terms and definitions that
are associated with PN offset planning, and to gain an understanding to the various search
windows.

5.3.1 Consequences and Sources of Offset Interference

The design of a PN offset plan for CDMA is comparable to that of a signalling channel frequency
plan in analog. The consequences of poor offset planning include the following:

• Active Set Pilot Interference - This phenomenon would occur in the active area and
involve the active search window (SRCH_WIN_A). The interfering signal would need

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to be strong enough to be processed as an active finger (except in the less likely case
where the timing was perfectly coincident with a true active finger).
• Neighbor Set Pilot Falsing - A neighbor set pilot may falsely appear strong enough for
the subscriber to promote the pilot to the candidate set and recommend to the base
station (BS) to perform a soft handoff ‘add’ via the Pilot Strength Measurement
Message (PSMM). This falsing would occur in the neighbor area and involve the
neighbor search window (SRCH_WIN_N). The falsing signal strength would need to
meet the T-ADD threshold criteria.
The probability for interference or falsing is dependent upon two factors: timing and
strength. Time differentials can be translated into geographic regions and have as their
threshold the search window size. A detailed discussion of this topic will be found later
within this chapter. If a signal falls outside of a search window, its energy becomes
nothing more than uncorrelated interference. Note that the term active area is meant to
refer to the area in which a signal may be (or is intended to be) actively demodulated. The
term neighbor area refers to the area in which a signal will be sought as a candidate. In
geographic terms, the neighbor area greatly expands the region where problems may
occur since the search for a neighbor signal lies in many areas outside of the active area.
The use of large or generous neighbor lists along with the technique of merging neighbor
lists when in soft/softer handoff creates further expansion. Mitigating this expansion of
the geographic space in which falsing may occur is the heightened signal strength
threshold at which interference may occur (a T-ADD of -14dB versus a finger-locking
threshold of approximately -24dB).
• Incorrect BS Identification - A signal may travel far enough to be incorrectly
identified by the BS when it translates the subscriber reported phase into a PILOT_PN
offset index.
In this document, the phrases interference and falsing may be used interchangeably.

In analog systems, ‘co’ and adjacent channel interference are major factors in the system design.
The co-channel interference was managed via the antenna configuration and the reuse pattern/
distance. The adjacent channel interference was managed through the application of a simple
frequency planning rule.

With the CDMA channel, all sites reuse the same frequency. Interference isolation on the forward
CDMA channel is obtained via short PN code offsets (inter-sector) and Walsh codes (intra-sector).
The possible sources of interference/falsing include ‘co’ and adjacent offsets.

Since CDMA pilots are distinguished through offsets of the same short PN code, adjacent channel
interference has its counterpart in CDMA when phase shifts occur caused by propagation delays.
Using phase for cell identification may therefore cause falsing problems as depicted in Figure 5-1.

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Figure 5-1: PN Offset Planning
Avoid ambiguity
which could result from phase delay.

t0 = 102 µsec
PN 0

t1 = 50 µsec
PN 1
∆t = t0 - t1 = 102 µsec - 50 µsec = 52 µsec
PN 1 - PN 0 = 64 chips = 52 µsec = 9.6 miles
Traversing the additional distance of 9.6 miles, the PN 0 signal has phase
shifted sufficiently so as to be received by the subscriber with essentially the
same phase as PN 1.

The phase delay used in the figure above need not be so exact to create problems. The falsing of
one signal need only fall within the search window of the subscriber.1

The valid set of offsets is limited to multiples of PILOT_INC. In Figure 5-2 below, a PILOT_INC
of 2 was chosen. Offset 4 is adjacent to and can interfere with 6 if it arrives ~2 offsets late which
implies that 4, the interfering signal, is traversing a significant distance. Conversely, offset 6 may
interfere with 4, but 6 would need to arrive ~2 offsets early which implies that the subscriber is
acting at a significant distance from the site using offset 4. If the PILOT_INC is chosen carefully,
there should be little concern with 2 interfering with 6 or 6 with 2.

Figure 5-2: Short PN Sequence w/PILOT_INC = 2

2 4 6 8 10

As with analog, a reuse distance must be maintained between sectors implementing the same PN
offset to avoid interference. Since the pilot signal is integral to the operation of a CDMA system,
careful PN offset planning should be performed to mitigate interference between sites using the
same offset and falsing between adjacent PN codes which result from phase delay.

5.3.2 PN Offset Planning - Parameters and Terms

There are various parameters and terms which come into play when discussing PN offsets and their
function in CDMA.

1. Note also how time, distance, and chips are all related. Refer to Section 5.3.3.

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System Time

All base station digital transmissions are referenced to a common CDMA system-wide time scale
that uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) time scale, which is traceable to and synchronous
with Universal Coordinated Time (UTC).2

Time Reference

The subscriber establishes a time reference which is used to derive system time. This time
reference will be the earliest arriving multipath component being used for demodulation.3 This
reflects the assumption that the subscriber’s fix on system time is always skewed by delay
associated with the shortest active link.

PILOT_PN

The Pilot PN sequence offset (index), in units of 64 PN chips. It ranges from 0 to 511. Every
transmit sector will have an offset assigned to it.

Active Set

The pilots associated with the Forward Traffic Channels assigned to the subscriber.4 It is the base
station that assigns all active set pilots to subscribers.

Candidate Set

The pilots that are not currently in the Active Set but have been received by the subscriber with
sufficient strength to indicate that the associated Forward Traffic Channels could be successfully
demodulated. As a property of the Mobile Assisted HandOff (MAHO), the subscriber promotes a
Neighbor Set or Remaining Set pilot to the Candidate Set when certain pilot strength criteria are
met and then recommends the pilot to the base station for inclusion in the Active Set.

Neighbor Set

The pilots that are not currently in the Active Set or the Candidate Set and are likely candidates for
handoff. Neighbor Set pilots are identified by the base station via Neighbor List and Neighbor List
Update messages.

Remaining Set

The set of all possible pilots in the current system on the current CDMA frequency assignment,
excluding pilots in the other sets. These pilots must be integer multiples of PILOT_INC (defined
below).

2. EIA/TIA/IS-95A, Mobile Station - Base Station Compatibility Standard for Dual-Mode Wideband Spread Spectrum Cellular System,
§1.2.
3. Ibid., §6.1.5.1.
4. Ibid., §6.6.6.1.2.

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SRCH_WIN_N, SRCH_WIN_R

These parameters represent the search window sizes associated with Neighbor Set and Remaining
Set pilots.5 The subscriber centers the search window for each pilot around the pilot’s PN sequence
offset using timing defined by the subscriber’s time reference.

In general, a neighbor search window, SRCH_WIN_N, will be sized so as to encompass the
geographic area in which the neighbor may be added (a soft handoff “add” zone or “initial
detection area”). The largest a neighbor search window need be is such that it is sufficient to cover
the distance between the neighbors, 3R , plus an accommodation of the time-of-flight delay
(approx. 3 chips).

SRCH_WIN_A

This parameter represents the search window size associated with the Active Set and Candidate Set
pilots.6 The subscriber centers the search window for each pilot around the earliest arriving usable
multipath component of the pilot. Note that in contrast to the neighbor or remaining set search
windows, the active/candidate search windows "float" with the desired signals. That is to say that
the center position of the search window is updated every scan to track the new location of the
earliest arriving multipath component.

To better illustrate the relationships between search windows, consider the following scenario:

A subscriber monitors a neighbor pilot. The neighbor search window is centered on the neighbor
pilot offset. This centering is relative based on timing derived from the time reference. When the
pilot strength of a neighbor pilot recommends promotion to the candidate set, then the search
window will be tightened to the active search window size. The active search window is sized to
compensate for delay spread only and is, therefore, smaller than the neighbor search window. In
addition, the active search window locks onto and tracks the candidate pilot.

PILOT_ARRIVAL

The pilot arrival time is the time of occurrence of the earliest arriving usable multipath component
of a pilot relative to the subscriber’s time reference.7

PILOT_PN_PHASE

The subscriber reports pilot strength and phase measurements for each active and candidate pilot
in the Pilot Strength Measurement Message when recommending a change in the handoff status
(i.e. mobile assisted handoff). The subscriber computes the reported PILOT_PN_PHASE as a
function of the PILOT_ARRIVAL and the PILOT_PN.8 The pilot arrival component represents
the time delay of the pilot relative to the time reference or, in other words, how skewed the pilot is

5. Ibid., §6.6.6.2.1.
6. Ibid.
7. Ibid., §6.6.6.2.4.
8. Ibid.

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from the subscriber’s concept of system time. Both the PILOT_ARRIVAL and
PILOT_PN_PHASE measurements are in chips (15 bits, 0 to 32,767 or 215-1) while the
PILOT_PN is in offsets (9 bits, 0 to 511). The difference (6 bits) corresponds to the 64 chip interval
between successive PN offsets.

Note also that the subscriber does not identify pilots by their offset index directly, but by their
phase measurement. If the pilot arrival was larger than 32 chips (1/2 of a pilot offset or 4.8 miles),
then this could undermine the ability of the base station to properly translate pilot phase into pilot
offset index (given a PILOT_INC of 1).

PILOT_INC

The pilot PN sequence offset index increment is the interval between pilots, in increments of 64
chips. Its valid range is from 1 to 15. The subscriber uses this parameter in only one manner, to
determine which pilots to scan from among the Remaining set. Only valid pilots (i.e. those pilots
that are multiples of PILOT_INC) will be scanned. For the subscriber, PILOT_INC impacts only
the scanning rate applied to Remaining pilots. It accomplishes this by reducing the number of
Remaining pilots that need to be scanned.

For the base station, the effect of the PILOT_INC is different. In the base station, it is used in
properly translating pilot phase back into pilot offset index. The consequence is that the operator
may artificially increase the separation between valid time offsets. By selecting a PILOT_INC of
2, for instance, an operator chooses to limit the number of valid offsets to 256 (i.e. 0, 2, 4,..., 508,
510) instead of 512. The increased separation means that the pilot arrival must be larger before
adjacent offset ambiguity is possible and consequently the likelihood of a strong adjacent interferer
is reduced.

5.3.3 Converting Between Chips and Time or Distance

Chips are related to time by the following relationship:

Chips
Time (us) = ------------------------------- = Chips × 0.8138 us/chip [EQ 5-1]
1.2288 Mcps

Chips are related to distance by the following relationship:

Distance (miles) = Chips × 0.8138 us/chip × 186,000 miles/1,000,000 us = Chips × 0.1514 miles/chip [EQ 5-2]

Or, in kilometers:

Distance (km) = Chips × 0.8138 us/chip × 299,311 km ⁄ 1,000,000 us = Chips × 0.244 km/chip [EQ 5-3]

Note that the chip rate (1.2288 Mcps) and the speed of light (186,000 miles/sec) are fundamental
to these conversions.

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5.3.4 Search Windows and Geography

Before discussing offset planning in any detail, a brief discussion of search windows and their
spatial relationships to cell sites and subscribers is needed. Base Stations, by virtue of their GPS
tracking, have an exact concept of system time. This, in turn, means that signals leaving these sites
have precise offsets and identities. On the other hand, subscribers derive their timing from a time
reference. Their concept of system time is skewed late by the time-of-flight delay associated with
this time reference signal. The greater the distance between the subscriber and the time reference
site, the greater the skewing.

Consider the diagram below:

Figure 5-3: Subscriber Location Relative to Search Window
1 chip

2 A 1
B’ B
C
D = distance between Site 1 and Site 2
X = D/2

Let subscriber A, Site 1 and Site 2 be co-linear with subscriber A positioned exactly between Sites
1 and 2 and with Site 1 active. The subscriber’s concept of system time is skewed from real system
time by X, the distance between the subscriber’s concept of time and its time reference. When the
subscriber searches for a neighbor, it will center the search window on the offset associated with
the neighbor, but based on its own system time (which, of course, is a little late compared with real
system time). Assuming Site 2 to be a neighbor of interest, its signal traverses a distance to
subscriber A that is exactly as late as the subscriber’s time reference. Under these circumstances,
the time differential between the two signals is zero (i.e. X-X = 0) and the signal from Site 2 will
fall directly in the center of the neighbor search window in which the subscriber is searching for
Site 2.

Now, consider subscribers B and B’. Subscriber B is located 1 chip closer to Site 1 with Site 1
active; therefore, subscriber B’s system time is skewed by only X-1. The signal from Site 2
traverses X+1 and the time differential between the two signals is (X-1) - (X+1) = -2; consequently,
the signal from Site 2 is arriving 2 chips late and will appear 2 chips off center in the neighbor
search window. Please note that a 1 chip shift in spatial location has had a 2 chip impact on
the location within the search window. Conversely, subscriber B’ has timing skewed by X+1
while Site 2’s signal traverses only X-1 chips, leading to a time differential of (X+1) - (X-1) or 2
chips. Site 2’s signal is arriving early by 2 chips. To design a search window large enough to
encompass locations B and B’, a search window of at least 4 chips or + 2 chips wide would be
required.

The worst case time differential is when the subscriber is located directly adjacent to one site while
trying to detect or demodulate the signal from the other site. For example, subscriber C effectively
has timing that is coincident with system time (i.e. its skewing is 0). Site 2’s signal is arriving D

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chips late. For this signal to fall into the search window, it must be sized + D chips or 2D chips
wide. Since this is the worst case scenario, the following should be understood: if a search window
is sized large enough to compensate for the distance between the two sites (i.e. 2D), then there is
no location where a subscriber would have one site as its time reference and not see the other site
in its search window.

Here is a more generalized depiction of search windows in space:

Figure 5-4: Search Windows in Space

Diff = -4 Diff = 4
Diff = -6 Diff = -2 Diff = 2 Diff = 6
Diff = -8 Diff = 8

Diff = -10 Diff = 10

The two sites are located at (0,0) and (10,0) and are 10 units apart. The curves represent constant
time differentials between the two sites and will correspond to the edges of certain search window
sizes. Search windows will be centered on the perpendicular line half-way between the sites. The
width of the search window in space will correspond to half of the search window size in chips.
For example, the two lines corresponding to time differentials of -4 and +4 demarcate an area that
corresponds to a search window that is + 4 units or 8 units in width. In geographic space, the width
of the area on the line between the two sites will only be 4 units wide or 1/2 of the search window
size. Between the curves, a subscriber tied to one site will see the other site fall within its search
window. Conversely, no matter how strong a neighbor signal may be, if the subscriber is located
outside of the search window area, it will not detect the signal.

Note how the curves bend as the search window is enlarged. When the search window is made
large enough to compensate for the distance between the two sites, the curves collapse upon
themselves indicating that there is no longer any region in space where the signal will not fall
within the search window. In general, a generous attitude toward search window sizing should
exist. The ability to demodulate a signal depends on being able to see it. The table below correlates
distance between neighbors to search window sizes.

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Table 5-1: Search Window Size vs. Neighbor Separation
SrchWin 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Window Size (chips) 4 6 8 10 14 20 28 40
Delay (µs) 1.6 3.3 4.9 6.5 9.8 14.6 21.2 30.9
Neighbor Separation (mi) 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.4 2.0 2.9
SrchWin 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Window Size (chips) 60 80 100 130 160 226 320 452
Delay (µs) 47.2 63.5 79.8 104.2 128.6 182.3 258.8 366.2
Neighbor Separation (mi) 4.4 5.9 7.5 9.7 12.0 17.0 24.2 34.2

The SrchWin sizes come from their definition in IS-95A/J-STD-8. The equation correlating
Window Size (in chips) to distance between neighbors (in miles) is:

( Window Size – 2 )
distance ( miles ) = ---------------------------------------------- × 0.1516 [EQ 5-4]
2

The two chips removed from the Window Size compensate for time-of-flight (i.e. real world)
delays. If starting with a distance between sites to calculate a window size, two chips would need
to be added.

This discussion on search windows was designed to help the system engineer visualize the spatial
relationship of search windows to cell sites. An individual out in the field can estimate how large
a search window would need to be for a particular location by estimating the time differential
between the two sites of interest (use the absolute value only), adding 1 chip (to compensate for
time-of-flight delays), and multiplying by 2.

5.3.5 Search Windows and Scan Intervals

The following information is provided to give insight to system optimizers and is based on
Motorola’s general understanding of subscriber vendor pilot scan algorithms. It is important to note
that such algorithms are not specified through IS-95A/J-STD-008 and are, therefore, manufacturer
specific. Also, pilot scanning rates/intervals are a function of many variables.

In general, active and candidate pilots are scanned at a rate of 50 times/second or better. This would
be valid for up to a total of 6 pilots and is not impacted by the number of neighbors or remaining
set pilots.

Neighbor set pilots are scanned anywhere between 2 to 40 times/second with a common range
being 4 to 15 times/second. The rate is dependent on the number of actives/candidates and
neighbors.

Remaining set pilots are scanned on the order of seconds. The remaining set pilots will be scanned
NR times slower than the neighbors (where NR represents the number of remaining set pilots, a
function of PILOT_INC).

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5.4 PN Offset Planning - Solutions

Current concepts for PN offset planning generally center on finding an appropriate value for
PILOT_INC. A large value would provide good protection against adjacent offset interference
since the pilot needs to travel a greater distance before potentially falsing (since signal attenuation
is highly correlated with propagation distance). However, too large a value implies too few valid
PN offsets and too small a reuse distance, thereby increasing the likelihood of co-offset
interference. Conversely, a small value of PILOT_INC delivers a large set of valid PN offsets, a
large reuse pattern and reuse distance, thereby reducing the likelihood of any co-offset
interference. However, too small a value will not provide good isolation against adjacent offset
interference or ambiguity.

Prior to discussing in detail the planning limits for PILOT_INC, it is important to note the
following concerning R, the radius of the cell site. CDMA’s use of soft handoff makes the radius
of the active area significantly larger than that which is accustomed with analog and which is
associated with a hexagonal grid. Speaking of the radius of a site conveys significant information
since both reuse distance, D, and cluster size, N, are related as follows:

D
---- = 3×N [EQ 5-5]
R

However, with CDMA and soft handoff there is significantly greater overlap between sites. If the
hexagon/analog oriented radius is labeled as Rhex and the CDMA active area radius is labeled as
Rcdma, then it needs to be understood that Rcdma can easily be twice as large as Rhex, perhaps
slightly larger. Many discussions of offset planning have failed to characterize this difference and
consequently lead to faulty conclusions. Specifically, consider a recommendation that suggests
that 5R is sufficient separation for reusing sites. If the R is taken to be Rhex, then D/R would be 5
and the cluster size would be 9. However, if it is understood that R is Rcdma, then D/R would be
more on the order of 10 and the cluster size would be 36, which is a significant difference.

5.4.1 Mitigating Adjacent Offset Interference - General

The following explanations, which define the limits of adjacent offset interference based on timing
and signal strength considerations, are not impacted by antenna configuration (whether the sites
are omni, 3-sector, or 6-sector). This attribute simplifies the discussion.

5.4.1.1 Adjacent Offset Interference Protection Based on Timing

For an adjacent offset to have the potential of falsing, it must meet a timing criteria. That is to say
that it must fall into the search window. This is depicted below:

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Figure 5-5: Minimum Distance for Adjacent Offset Interference

PILOT_INC

3 6
SRCH_WIN_X = + S

A signal from a potential adjacent interferer must traverse a minimum distance to be able to fall
into the search window of the adjacent offset.

Minimum Distance = PILOT_INC – S [EQ 5-6]

In this equation, S is 1/2 of the search window size. For example, with a PILOT_INC = 3 and
SRCH_WIN_N = + 30 chips, this minimum distance corresponds to 3 x 64 - 30 = 162 chips = 39.5
km = 24.6 miles. A larger PILOT_INC provides greater isolation; conversely, larger
SRCH_WIN_N values mitigate the isolation.

Table 5-2: Distance/Timing Restriction on Adjacent Interference
(assuming SRCH_WIN_N = + 30 chips)a

Minimum Minimum Minimum
PILOT_INC PILOT_INC
Distance Distance Distance
(offsets) (chips)
(chips) (km) (miles)

1 64 34 8.3 5.2
2 128 98 23.9 14.9
3 192 162 39.5 24.6
4 256 226 55.1 34.3
5 320 290 70.8 44.0
6 384 354 86.4 53.7
a. For ease of performing mental math, note that each offset of 64 chips contributes a little less
than ~10 miles (9.7) or a little more than ~15 km (15.6). The 30 chip search window accounts
for a 7.3 km or 4.5 mile reduction.

Of course, the value of 60 chips for SRCH_WIN_N is a recommended starting value and will take
on larger or smaller values. Since SRCH_WIN_A is always smaller than SRCH_WIN_N, an
adjacent offset interferer must always travel a greater distance to potentially interfere in the active
search window.

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Due to this timing requirement, a general rule can be established concerning placement of an
adjacent offset and its neighbors. They should be located under the PILOT_INC - S umbrella
(Equation 5-6) within the cluster. To the degree that this criteria is met, it eliminates the potential
for adjacent interference within the cluster. The limit of this example is to place adjacents with
sectors that are co-located. Under these conditions, there is no time differential between signals
leaving the site and only distant reflections can possibly achieve the time constraints of
interference, which is highly unlikely.

5.4.1.2 Adjacent Offset Interference Protection Based on Signal Strength

The timing discussion can be expanded by taking into account signal strength considerations. The
lower bound on PILOT_INC is identified and will correlate to an acceptable C/I threshold.
Consider this equation which seeks to guarantee a bounded interference between correlated pilots,
effectively yielding the PILOT_INC.9

a ⁄ ( law × 10 )
m ≥ ( 10 – 1) × R + S = k × R + S [EQ 5-7]

In this equation, R is the radius of the cell in chips, S is 1/2 of the search window size, a is the
desired C/I in dB, and law represents the propagation exponent. The result, m, represents the
required offset, in chips, between any two pilots so that the desired C/I can be achieved. The
relationship can be interpreted as recommending that for each chip of R, there should be k chips of
separation for an adjacent offset so that a minimum C/I threshold is achieved. In this equation, the
presence of S reflects the fact that the correlation need not be perfect for interference to exist. The
adjacent signal need only fall into the search window (a less stringent timing criteria).10 Note also
that Equation 5-6 and Equation 5-7 are identical in form. Equation 5-7 is stating that at a distance
of PILOT_INC - S (or m - S), the C/I threshold will be achieved. The following table shows a few
different examples of the calculation:

Table 5-3: Pilot Sequence Offset Index Assignment
(assuming a = 18.0 dB, law = 3.0, k = 2.98)

Number Cluster
R R R S m PILOT_INC
of Valid Size
(km) (miles) (chips) (chips) (chips) (offsets)
Offsets (3-sector)
24.9 15.5 102 80 384 6 85 28
20.9 13.0 85.5 65 320 5 102 34
16.9 10.5 69.1 50 256 4 128 42
12.4 7.7 51.0 40 192 3 170 57
8.0 5.0 32.9 30 128 2 256 85
4.1 2.5 16.8 14 64 1 512 170

9. Qualcomm, “The CDMA Network Engineering Handbook”, March 1, 1993, §9.4.2.

10. An earlier, more conservative version of this relationship had S also scaled by k.

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A conservative propagation exponent was chosen to compensate for the simplicity of the approach
(for example, the assumption of uniform power at both sites). The C/I threshold was set at 18.0 dB
to correspond to a 12 dB C/I threshold (6 dB fade margin, 90% area reliability w/8dB deviation)
for a 2 cell system. This 12 dB imbalance seems sufficient to predict that the searcher will not select
the interfering energy within the active window. Under unloaded conditions (worst case), this
threshold corresponds to an interferer Ec/Io of -14.9 dB which is below the normal range for the
T-ADD setting; therefore, neighbor window falsing is unlikely. Additionally, to generate the table
values, neighbor search window sizes, which vary with cell radius, were used.

Although these table values seem fairly generous, there is one element mitigating the results. An
appropriate value for R must take into account two factors. First, the R is Rcdma. Additionally, since
path loss is not isotropic and systems are not ideally laid out on grids (i.e. are non-uniform) the
selection of R should reflect a limiting case. Since a system-wide value of PILOT_INC is being
determined, the value of R should more closely represent the 90th percentile rather than the mean.
The radius of highway sites and other larger radius sites that are not clustered need not dominate
the analysis since spatial separation may be used to mitigate interference in those cases.

5.4.2 Protection Against Co-Offset Interference

The following explanations, which define the limits of co-offset interference based on timing and
signal strength considerations are impacted by both the antenna configuration (i.e. omni or sector)
and whether the subscriber is in the active area or in the larger neighbor area. As such, they will
need to be more extensive.

The study of co-offset interference is started by looking at the timing considerations involved in
interfering within the active search window. Consider the following diagrams:

Figure 5-6: Active Window Interference Timing Criteria
OMNI SECTOR

B

R
B
SActive
SActive
A R A R

It has been stated elsewhere11 that if two users of the same offset where positioned 2R + S away
from each other (where S is 1/2 of the search window size), then the potential for co-offset
interference is avoided due to the timing criteria not being met. From the discussion on search
windows in Section 5.3.4, it can be seen that if two sites met this criteria for separation, then the

11. Qualcomm, “The CDMA Network Engineering Handbook”, March 1, 1993, §9.4.2.

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search window would spatially fall completely outside of R. For the sectorized case, the
requirement was modified to R+S.

While meeting this criteria is sufficient to protect against interference within the active search
window, it does not protect against falsing within the neighbor search window. From a timing
perspective, neighbor falsing will be limiting. Consider the following diagrams:

Figure 5-7: Neighbor Window Interference Timing Criteria
OMNI SECTOR
B
R B
SNeighbor
C R
R S Active
R R
SActive SActive
A A
us
R
Radi R
a
Are
a Ar e
bor bor
igh e igh s
Ne N diu
Ra

Here are some guidelines used in generating these approximations:

• There can be no common neighbors among users with the same offset, no sector may
share an offset assignment with one of its neighbors nor may any of its neighbors share
the same offset assignment.

• The distance 2R + SActive is sufficient to define non-neighbors.

• A’s Neighbor Area is limited to 3R + SActive for omni and 2R + SActive for sector.

• For omni systems, B must be separated by SNeighbor from A’s Neighbor Area to avoid
neighbor falsing.
• For sector systems, B possesses back-side neighbors (i.e. the co-located sectors) which
must be separated by SActive from A’s Neighbor Area to avoid sharing common
neighbors.

The conclusions from this exercise are summarized in the following table:

Table 5-4: Estimates of Reuse Distance and Cluster Size Based on Timing
(assuming Rcdma = 2Rhex, SNeighbor ≅ 2Rhex and SActive ≅ 1Rhex)
Antenna Configuration Reuse Distance Equation Reuse Distance Cluster Size
Omni 4Rcdma + SActive + SNeighbor 11Rhex 43
Sector 3Rcdma + 2 x SActive 8Rhex ~21

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The previous analysis, though simple, can help establish a safe margin easily. A somewhat more
detailed analysis below may help determine an absolute minimum reuse distance based on timing.

Figure 5-8: Active and Neighbor Areas

Sector 0
Top 10 Neighbors
11 - 16 Neighbors

1 2
1 1
1 1 2
2 0 2
1 1 2
1 1
1 2

To help visualize the true requirements of the situation, consider Figure 5-8. The sector labelled
with 0 represents the sector of interest. The active area for this sector is depicted in yellow.
Depicted in blue is all of the active area pertaining to the top 10 neighbors. (As with search window
sizing, it is also recommended to be generous with neighbor lists.) Keep in mind that the blue area
represents the neighbor area to which is being referenced. That is to say, areas where a subscriber
might be looking for the offset of sector 0 even though it is well outside of the area where sector 0
is actively demodulated. By this means alone, the neighbor area represents an expansion of greater
than 300% over the active area. If the next six most significant neighbors (sectors labelled 2) were
included as neighbors, the neighbor area expands even further (area depicted in cyan). Note how
both the front and back of sector 0 have neighbor search areas. The front is more pronounced while
the back is affected mostly by the co-located sectors. (These neighbor relationships and subscriber
locations are based on soft handoff relationships identified through CDMA static simulations for
an ideal grid and uniform distribution.)

Estimates based on this perspective will prove more optimistic than those derived earlier since they
account for the overlapping of cells and they better estimate the true neighbor area size.

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Table 5-5: Calculation of Reuse Distance
(Assuming SNeighbor ≅ 2R, SActive ≅ 1R and Active Area Radius (A) ≅ 2.2R)
Front Back Reuse Reuse Cluster
(F) (B) Equation a Distance Size
Top 10 Neighbors - Sector 3.1 R 2.2 R F+S + Bb 6.3 R
Active
13
Expanded Neighbor List - Sector 4.3 R 2.2 R F + SActive + B 7.5 R 19
1 Tier - Omni 2.7 R - F + SNeighbor + A 6.9 R 16
2 Tier - Omni 4.4 R - F + SNeighbor + A 8.6 R 25
a. The reuse equation is based on spatial relationships depicted in Figure 5-7. The Front range corresponds
to the Neighbor Area Radius.
b. Under these conditions, the back-side requirement for 2A + S Neighbor ≅ 6.4R would become limiting.

Note: To take advantage of sectorization, the planner must reuse offsets with the same orientation.

5.4.3 Incorrect Identification of an Offset by the Base Station

The CBSC (i.e. the XC subsystem) translates phase measurements to offsets by pooling them to
the nearest valid offset based on its knowledge of PILOT_INC. For correct identification, this
process assumes that the PILOT_ARRIVAL component of the phase measurement never exceeds
1/2 of PILOT_INC. As a check on the selection of PILOT_INC, planners should ask whether or
not locations exist within the system where subscribers may be active with a site at a distance
greater than 1/2 of PILOT_INC. [Note: the process by which phase measurements are translated to
offset indices is not specified by IS-95A/J-STD-008.

Figure 5-9: Phase Measurement Translations
PILOT_INC = 3 = spacing between ‘valid’ offsets

0 3 6 9 12
pilot phase reported by subscriber in PSMM

0 3 6 9 12
SRCH_WIN_N

Now, compare the relationship between SRCH_WIN_N and PILOT_INC. It is a rule that
SRCH_WIN_N (and SRCH_WIN_R) never exceed PILOT_INC. The consequences of doing so
are that the two adjacent windows would overlap. The BS may incorrectly identify the offset and
the subscriber may report multiple signals where only one is present. This guideline, easy to
express and understand, is frequently the truly limiting factor on the lower bound for PILOT_INC

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(and conversely, the upper bound on cluster size). When situations arise where an area of the
system requires very large search windows, so as to permit soft handoff between distant neighbors
(across water or mountains with large time differentials), the PILOT_INC (a global parameter)
must be resized large enough to accommodate the search window.

5.4.4 PILOT_INC and the Scan Rate of Remaining Set Pilots

The following information is provided to give insight to system optimizers and is based on
Motorola’s general understanding of subscriber vendor pilot scan algorithms. It is important to note
that such algorithms are not specified through IS-95A/J-STD-008 and are, therefore, manufacturer
specific.

As was noted in the definition of PILOT_INC, according to IS-95A/J-STD-008, the only impact
of PILOT_INC on the subscriber is to influence the scanning rate of remaining set pilots. Please
note that for optimum system performance, the scanning rate of remaining set pilots is not
considered a dominant factor in determining the size of PILOT_INC. Remaining set pilots are at a
distinct disadvantage over neighbor set pilots due to the scanning prioritization of pilot sets. For
example, all active and candidate set pilots are scanned between scans of individual neighbor or
remaining set pilots. All neighbor set pilots are scanned between scans of individual remaining set
pilots. The scanning order is represented as follows for 3 active set pilots and 1 candidate set pilot
[please remember that the actual scanning order is subscriber manufacturer specific]:

A1A2A3C1N1A1A2A3C1N2A1A2A3C1N3...
A1A2A3C1NNA1A2A3C1R1A1A2A3C1N1...
A1A2A3C1NNA1A2A3C1RN
Begin again from the top.

A remaining set pilot is scanned N times slower than a neighbor set pilot where N is the number of
remaining set pilots. In addition to their low scanning priority, IS-98 specifies no performance
criteria for remaining set pilots.

Any remaining set pilot that appears strong enough (and long enough) to recommend promotion to
the active set needs to be analyzed as part of the optimization process. Perhaps, it should be added
to the neighbor list (or have its coverage adjusted). Feedback on these events can be derived from
callproc logs in the pre-commercial phase and Call Detail Logs (CDLs) in the commercial phase.

Note: Since remaining set pilots are prioritized low and, currently, Motorola does not honor
requests to enter into soft handoff with a remaining set pilot, some operators have considered
reducing SRCH_WIN_R to a minimum (i.e. 4 chips) and trading off the remaining set scan time
for improved scan time on actives, candidates and neighbors. This is not recommended. The most
significant reason is that the remaining set search window provides a means by which “truncated”
neighbors can be recognized by the system. When in soft/softer handoff, a merging of neighbor
lists take place. If the merge yields more than 20 neighbors, the subscriber limit of 20 neighbors
requires that the list be truncated to only higher prioritized neighbors. Although these neighbors
may not be identified to the subscriber as neighbors, they nevertheless may be detected through a
remaining set scan. The system will recognize and honor these remaining set pilot requests. A
secondary motivation for permitting the windows to stay “open” is that they provide a means for

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5
optimizing neighbors lists by recognizing those sites which should be neighbors, but are not on the
neighbor list. On the other hand, the improvement in the scan interval will only be modest on
average (~6%).

5.4.5 Summary of Guidelines

The table below and the following text provide a summary of the PN offset planning guidelines.

Table 5-6: Summary of PN Offset Planning Guidelines

PILOT_INC
Comments
8 6 4 3 2 1

Cluster Size (3-sector) 19 25 37 52 76 148 co-offset

D/R (3-sector) 7.5 8.7 10.5 12.5 15.1 21.1 co-offset

Extra Sites (3-sector) 2 3 5 4 8 20 insurance

Cluster Size (6-sector) 9 13 19 25 37 76 co-offset

D/R (6-sector) 5.2 6.2 7.5 8.7 10.5 15.1 co-offset

Extra Sites (6-sector) 1 1 2 3 5 8 insurance

C/I (5km/10km)a 40.3/ 36.6/ 31.3/ 27.8/ 20.4/ 16.1/ adjacent offset -
31.9 28.3 23.4 20.2 15.9 10.4 PCS

C/I (8km/16km) 34.5/ 30.9/ 25.9/ 22.5/ 18.0/ 12.1/ adjacent offset - 800
26.4 23.0 18.5 15.6 11.9 7.4

S (chips) 80 65 50 40 30 14 varies w/cell radius

PILOT_INC - S 432 319 206 152 98 50 adjacent offset
(chips)

PILOT_INC - S (km) 105.4 77.8 50.2 37.1 23.9 12.2 adjacent offset

PILOT_INC (chips) 512 384 256 192 128 64 compare w/
SRCH_WIN_N

PILOT_INC/2 (chips) 256 192 128 96 64 32 Neighbor Proximity
Check?

PILOT_INC/2 (km) 62.5 46.8 31.2 23.4 15.6 7.8 Neighbor Proximity
Check?

a. C/I = 30 log ( ( m – S ) ⁄ R + 1 ) Refer to Section 5.4.1.2.

To summarize the key guidelines for sectorized systems on sizing PILOT_INC are:

1. Minimum cluster size is 19 for 3-sector or 6-sector systems. Refer to Section 5.4.2 for
details.

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2. Maximum PILOT_INC is 8 for 3-sector and 4 for 6-sector. This correlates to the
minimum cluster size.
3. For Suburban environments at 1900 MHz, minimum PILOT_INC is 3 (based on a
minimum C/I threshold of 18.5 dB and unloaded carriers). This will serve the Urban/
Dense Urban areas as well.
Note: Due to the approximate 9 dB difference between path loss at 1900 MHz and 800
MHz, PCS systems have smaller sites and consequently lower minimum PILOT_INC
values.
4. For Suburban environments at 800 MHz, minimum PILOT_INC is 4 (based on a
minimum C/I threshold of 18.5 dB and unloaded carriers). This will serve the Urban/
Dense Urban areas as well.
5. PILOT_INC must be larger than the Neighbor and Remaining Set search windows,
SRCH_WIN_N and SRCH_WIN_R. All timing differentials must be less than
PILOT_INC/2. Carefully review the system design for any neighbors that are separated
by more than PILOT_INC/2 since potentially these neighbors can generate sufficiently
large timing differentials to cause translation errors (i.e. Neighbor Proximity Check).
Refer to Section 5.4.3 for details.
6. To eliminate the potential for adjacent interference within a cluster, an adjacent offset
and its neighbors should be separated from the potential interferer by a distance no
greater than PILOT_INC - S. The distance PILOT_INC/2 is a safer limit (since S is a
variable with an upper limit of PILOT_INC/2). This criteria can best be met by either
co-locating the adjacent offsets within the same site or by assigning them to 1st tier
neighbors. Refer to Section 5.4.1.1 for details.
7. If the system is truly characterized by Urban/Dense Urban environments, then smaller
PILOT_INC values may be justified. If an entire CBSC is characterized by smaller radii,
then that CBSC may have its PILOT_INC set lower.
8. Small sized trials are very easy to plan for. The largest PILOT_INC which will not
require the trial system to have any reuse at all is suggested. Under these conditions, co-
offset interference is non-existent and adjacent interference protection is maximized. If
the PILOT_INC is selected to be a multiple of that which will ultimately be
migrated to, then implementing changes in PILOT_INC later will not force a
change to the sector level PN offset assignments.
9. Multiple carriers in a sector are all assigned the same PN offset.
10. The implementation of CDMA at 1900 MHz is, generally, not tied to an already existing
analog base with its locations and antennas where significant cell splitting has taken
place. The site grid should be more uniform than the mature analog counterpart. This
should lend itself to a simpler repeat pattern implementation.
11. From a practical perspective, it should be understood that the majority of Motorola
systems that are commercial use a PILOT_INC in the range of 2 to 4. The systems using
a PILOT_INC of 2 can be characterized as possessing small radius sites. The systems
employing a PILOT_INC of 4 can be characterized as possessing some areas of
extensive propagation (water, mountains) that have required resizing SRCH_WIN_N,
and consequently PILOT_INC, larger.

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5.4.6 Guidelines for Assigning Offsets

It has already been explained that there should be a goal for locating adjacent offsets close to each
other. In the figure below, the Adjacent Sectors configuration shows co-located sectors containing
adjacent offsets. This represents the absolute limit on how close adjacent offsets can be located.
Under these conditions, two-thirds of all adjacent assignments (for 3 sector sites) will have reduced
the time differential to zero. For the remaining third, the adjacent offset is located in an adjacent
site. This approach also has the benefit of easy recognition of co-located sectors during system
optimization.

Figure 5-10: Adjacent Sector and Adjacent Site Offset Assignment Approaches
ADJACENT SECTORS ADJACENT SITES

3 6
6 174
9 342

12 9
15 177
18 345

Previously, this has been the only recommendation. There is now an alternative recommendation,
Adjacent Sites, which locates all adjacent offset assignments within adjacent sites (and not within
adjacent sectors of the same site). The Adjacent Sites approach has Offset Groupings associated
with it that are found in Table 5-7 and Table 5-8. Although this represents a slight compromise with
respect to the timing margin of the Adjacent Sectors configuration, there are several characteristics
with this approach that make it worth recommending:

• Virtually all adjacent offsets possess the same antenna orientation (as co-offsets
normally do). This provides an additional measure of interference protection and
simplifies system optimization.
• A uniform increment of 168 exists between co-located sectors regardless of the
PILOT_INC in use. This will help optimization through easier recognition of co-site
offsets. (The Adjacent Sectors approach also benefits from easy recognition of co-site
offsets.)
• A 3-sector site uses one group while a 6-sector site uses 2 groups. (The Adjacent Sectors
approach possesses this benefit as well.)
• Table 5-7 contains 84 groupings for a PILOT_INC of 2. Subsets of this table apply to
PILOT_INC values of 4 (42 sets), 6 (28 sets), 8 (21 sets), and 12 (14 sets). These
groupings will prove useful in any transition or migration between different
PILOT_INCs.

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• Table 5-8 contains 56 groupings for a PILOT_INC of 3. Subsets of this table apply to
PILOT_INC values of 6 (28 sets) and 12 (14 sets). These groupings will prove useful in
any transition or migration between different PILOT_INCs.
For example, to transition between PILOT_INCs 2 and 3, the design would need a
transition zone of 6. All of the appropriate groupings for a PILOT_INC of 6 already exist
within the separate 2 and 3 sets.

Table 5-7: Offset Groupings for PILOT_INC = 2 (also 4, 6, 8, and 12)
Alpha 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42
Beta 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206 208 210
Gamma 338 340 342 344 346 348 350 352 354 356 358 360 362 364 366 368 370 372 374 376 378
Alpha 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84
Beta 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 250 252
Gamma 380 382 384 386 388 390 392 394 396 398 400 402 404 406 408 410 412 414 416 418 420
Alpha 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126
Beta 254 256 258 260 262 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294
Gamma 422 424 426 428 430 432 434 436 438 440 442 444 446 448 450 452 454 456 458 460 462
Alpha 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168
Beta 296 298 300 302 304 306 308 310 312 314 316 318 320 322 324 326 328 330 332 334 336
Gamma 464 466 468 470 472 474 476 478 480 482 484 486 488 490 492 494 496 498 500 502 504

Table 5-8: Offset Groupings for PILOT_INC = 3 (also 6 and 12)
Alpha 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 63
Beta 171 174 177 180 183 186 189 192 195 198 201 204 207 210 213 216 219 222 225 228 231
Gamma 339 342 345 348 351 354 357 360 363 366 369 372 375 378 381 384 387 390 393 396 399
Alpha 66 69 72 75 78 81 84 87 90 93 96 99 102 105 108 111 114 117 120 123 126
Beta 234 237 240 243 246 249 252 255 258 261 264 267 270 273 276 279 282 285 288 291 294
Gamma 402 405 408 411 414 417 420 423 426 429 432 435 438 441 444 447 450 453 456 459 462
Alpha 129 132 135 138 141 144 147 150 153 156 159 162 165 168
Beta 297 300 303 306 309 312 315 318 321 324 327 330 333 336
Gamma 465 468 471 474 477 480 483 486 489 492 495 498 501 504

Generic information on reuse patterns can be found in Section 5.5. Here are some possible cluster
configurations:

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5
The 19-cell repeat pattern is easy to use. A site number, N,
within the pattern can easily be translated into a PN offset 14 6 17
assignment for a particular sector.
15 7 18 10
For Adjacent Sectors, 6-sector, and PILOT_INC of 4:
SECTOR x OFFSET= ((N-1) * 6 + x) * 4 16 8 19 11 3

For Adjacent Sites, 6-sector, and PILOT_INC of 4: 17 9 1 12 4
SECTOR x OFFSET= N*4 + (x-1)*168; (x = 1,2,3)
10 2 13 5
SECTOR x OFFSET= (N+21)*4 + (x-4)*168; (x = 4,5,6)
3 14 6

The 25-cell repeat pattern is easy to use. A site
number, N, within the pattern can easily be translated 24 1 6 15
into a PN offset assignment for a particular sector.
25 2 10 11 16
For Adjacent Sectors, 6-sector, and PILOT_INC of 3:
SECTOR x OFFSET= ((N-1) * 6 + x) * 3 21 3 9 12 20 21

For Adjacent Sites, 6-sector, and PILOT_INC of 3: 22 4 8 13 19 22 4
SECTOR x OFFSET= N*3 + (x-1)*168; (x = 1,2,3)
SECTOR x OFFSET= (N+28)*3 + (x-4)*168; 5 7 14 18 23 5
(x = 4,5,6)
6 15 17 24 1

11 16 25 2

The 37-cell repeat pattern is easy to use. A site
number, N, within the pattern can easily be translated 31 20 9 35
into a PN offset assignment for a particular sector.
32 21 10 36 25
For Adjacent Sectors, 3-sector, and PILOT_INC of 4:
SECTOR x OFFSET= ((N-1) * 3 + x) * 4 33 22 11 37 26 15

For Adjacent Sites, 3-sector, and PILOT_INC of 4: 34 23 12 1 27 16 5
SECTOR x OFFSET= N*4 + (x-1)*168; (x = 1,2,3)
24 13 2 28 17 6

14 3 29 18 7
4 30 19 8

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The 52-cell repeat pattern is easy to use. A site number,
N, within the pattern can easily be translated into a PN 10 36 16 42
offset assignment for a particular sector. 11 37 17 43 23
12 38 18 44 24 50
For Adjacent Sectors, 3-sector, and PILOT_INC of 3:
SECTOR x OFFSET= ((N-1) * 3 + x) * 3 39 19 45 25 51 5 31
40 20 46 26 52 6 32 12
For Adjacent Sites, 3-sector, and PILOT_INC of 3:
SECTOR x OFFSET= N*3 + (x-1)*168; (x = 1,2,3) 41 21 47 1 27 7 33 13

42 22 48 2 28 8 34 14

23 49 3 29 9 35 15

50 4 30 10 36 16

5 31

5.4.7 Guidelines for Changing PILOT_INC at Inter-CBSC Boundaries.

PILOT_INC is a CBSC global parameter. As such, PILOT_INC can only be changed at CBSC
boundaries. When such a change is required, the preferred methodology includes the following
guidelines:

Figure 5-11: Inter-CBSC PILOT_INC Boundary
multiple of 2, but not of 4
CBSC A CBSC B
PILOT_INC = 2 PILOT_INC = 4
6 4

multiple of 4

8 16

TRANSITION ZONE

• One side shall have a PILOT_INC which is a multiple of the other side. For example,
transitioning between 2 and 4 or 3 and 6.
• The challenge in transitioning is characterized by subscribers on one side seeing a site
from the other side, but the home CBSC does not interpret the phase correctly because a
different PILOT_INC is in use. For the example in Figure 5-11, CBSC A is using 2 and
CBSC B is using 4. A subscriber tied to B sees an A site using offset 6 and reports it in a
PSMM. CBSC B will interpret the offset as either 4 or 8, because it does not recognize
6. This problem does not manifest itself in the other direction since all multiples of 4 are
already multiples of 2.

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• A transition zone should be planned on the A side (using PILOT_INC = 2) of the border
such that for a few layers of cells, all sites are using multiples of 4. In other words the
transition is planned as an extension of the B side.
• If the PILOT_INC on one CBSC is not the multiple of the PILOT_INC in use on the
other CBSC, then a transition zone consisting of offsets based on a common multiple
should be used. For example, to transition between 2 and 3, the common multiple of 6 is
used.
• A pseudo-requirement of Inter-CBSC Soft Handoff is that PILOT_INCs should be the
same across all CBSCs that are connected. Since target CBSC BTSs are being controlled
by a source/anchor CBSC, they are subject to using the anchor PILOT_INC during an
Inter-CBSC soft handoff. If No Legs-Wait or No Legs is used as the anchor handoff
trigger, then this technique may still work and may require a larger transition area.

5.5 Reuse Patterns

This table can help in defining reuse patterns through use of i & j coordinates. For example, to
create a normal analog 7 cell reuse pattern, follow along the i axis for 2 cells and then follow the j
axis (either clockwise or counter-clockwise, but be consistent) for 1 cell. The grayed out table
elements pertain to cluster sizes not likely to be used in CDMA.

Table 5-9: Reuse Pattern Coordinates, i & j,
and Cluster Size, N, and D/R
i j N D/R i j N D/R
1 0 1 1.73 7 1 57 13.08
1 1 3 3.00 5 4 61 13.53
(4 ring)
2 0 4 3.46 6 3 63 13.75
2 1 7 4.58 8 0 64 13.86
(1 ring)
3 0 9 5.20 7 2 67 14.18
2 2 12 6.00 8 1 73 14.80
3 1 13 6.24 5 5 75 15.00
4 0 16 6.93 6 4 76 15.10
3 2 19 7.55 7 3 79 15.39
(2 ring)
4 1 21 7.94 8 2 84 15.87
5 0 25 8.66 6 5 91 16.52
(5 ring)
3 3 27 9.00 7 4 93 16.70
4 2 28 9.17 8 3 97 17.06
5 1 31 9.64 6 6 108 18.00
6 0 36 10.39 7 5 109 18.08
4 3 37 10.54 8 4 112 18.33
(3 ring)

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Table 5-9: Reuse Pattern Coordinates, i & j,
and Cluster Size, N, and D/R
i j N D/R i j N D/R
5 2 39 10.82 7 6 127 19.52
(6 ring)
6 1 43 11.36 8 5 129 19.67
4 4 48 12.00 7 7 147 21.00
5 3 49 12.12 8 6 148 21.07
7 0 49 12.12 8 7 169 22.52
(7 ring)
6 2 52 12.49 8 8 192 24.00

5.6 References
Prior discussions of topics significant to PN Offset Planning which are useful references include
the following:
1. TIA/EIA/IS-95A, Mobile Station-Base Station Compatibility Standard for Dual-Mode
Wideband Spread Spectrum Cellular System, version 0.07, §6.1.5.1, §6.6.6.1.2,
§6.6.6.2.1, §6.6.6.2.4.

2. Qualcomm, “The CDMA Network Engineering Handbook”, March 1, 1993, §9.1.1,
§9.2.3, §9.4.

3. Scott M. Hall (Motorola), “Simple CDMA PN Search Windows”, January 5, 1995.

IEEE Conference Papers on this topic include:
4. Chu Rui Chang, Jane Zhen Wan and Meng F. Lee (NORTEL Wireless Engineering
Services), “PN offset planning strategies for non-uniform CDMA networks”, 1997 IEEE
47th Vehicular Technology Conference, May 4-7, 1997.

5. Jin Yang, Derek Bao and Mo Ali (Airtouch Cellular), “PN offset planning in IS-95
based CDMA systems”, 1997 IEEE 47th Vehicular Technology Conference, May 4-7,
1997.

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NOTES
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Chapter CDMA/CDMA2000 1X RF Planning Guide

6 RF Antenna Systems
Table of Contents

6.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3

6.2 CDMA Cell Site Antenna Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
6.2.1 Antenna Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
6.2.2 Antenna Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
6.2.3 Antenna Beamwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
6.2.4 Voltage Standing Wave Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
6.2.5 Return Loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
6.2.6 Power Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
6.2.7 Front to Back Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
6.2.8 Side Lobes & Back Lobes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
6.2.9 Antenna Downtilting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
6.2.10 Antenna Height. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8

6.3 CDMA Antenna Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
6.3.1 Antenna Isolation Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
6.3.1.1 CDMA/AMPS Transmit/Receive Antenna Isolation Requirements 6 - 10
6.3.1.2 Measuring Port-to-Port Antenna Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 13
6.3.1.3 Reducing the Required Antenna Isolation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 13
6.3.1.4 Typical Antenna Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 14
6.3.1.5 CDMA Antenna Placement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 14
6.3.2 Antenna Diversity (Spacial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 15
6.3.2.1 Horizontal Antenna Diversity and Recommended Separation . . . . 6 - 16
6.3.2.2 Vertical Antenna Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 16

6.4 CDMA Antenna Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 17
6.4.1 Multiple Frame Antenna Sharing with 800 MHz BTS Products . 6 - 17
6.4.2 Multiple Carrier Cavity Combining
With 1900 MHz BTS Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 20
6.4.2.1 Output Power Without Combining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 20
6.4.2.2 Type of Combining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 20
6.4.2.3 Multiple Carrier Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 21
6.4.3 Duplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 22
6.4.3.1 Pre-Engineered Kits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 23
6.4.3.2 Duplexers and Intermodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 23
6.4.3.3 Proper Installation and Maintenance of Duplexed Antennas . . . . . 6 - 24

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6
6.5 CDMA Antenna Sharing With Other Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 28
6.5.1 SC9600 BTS/HDII Shared Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 28
6.5.1.1 Common Transmit Antenna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 29
6.5.1.2 Common Receive Antenna(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 32
6.5.2 Duplexed AMPS/CDMA Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 39

6.6 GPS Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 41

6.7 Ancillary Antenna System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 41
6.7.1 Directional Couplers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 41
6.7.2 Surge (Lightning) Protectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 41
6.7.3 Transmission Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 42
6.7.3.1 RF Performance of Transmission Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 42
6.7.3.2 Physical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 42
6.7.3.3 Choice of Transmission Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 43
6.7.4 Transition Feeder Cables (Jumper Cables). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 43

6.8 RF Diagnostic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 44

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6.1 Introduction

This chapter will outline RF engineering considerations that should be incorporated into the design
of CDMA "antenna systems". The antenna system is defined as those elements between the BTS
equipment cabinet (top of rack) and the Tx or Rx antenna. A detailed discussion of the various
available equipment and antenna sharing configurations and requirements are discussed, including
those involving co-location with other technologies, duplexing, and multiple carrier combining.

The guidelines below are intended to assure the most efficient implementation of Motorola’s
CDMA system while minimizing the risk to other fixed and mobile radio operators.

6.2 CDMA Cell Site Antenna Parameters

This section of the document will outline the main antenna parameters that the system engineer
should consider when choosing the optimum antenna to be used in a CDMA system. Guidelines
are provided where possible, although it is recognized that a number of issues are beyond the scope
of this document and may require site specific engineering.

6.2.1 Antenna Type

If separate omni-directional type transmit antennas are to be used for the CDMA system (e.g. no
antenna sharing), a type similar to those used for other cellular technologies, such as AMPS or
GSM, can be used, obviously dependent on the required antenna operating frequency
specifications.

The same convention is basically held for sector type directional CDMA antennas, with the
exception of the consideration of desired beamwidths. Typically, antennas with narrower
horizontal beamwidths than their AMPS or GSM supporting counterparts are used for CDMA to
help limit noise contribution to adjacent sectors. As a result, suitable antenna types should be
chosen if the CDMA system being installed is not to share antennas currently existing at the site.

Sufficient isolation between CDMA antennas and other existing antennas at the site should be
readily obtained. Considering that physical separation between co-located antennas may be
required to assist in achieving this isolation, physically smaller antenna types may be required to
allow for proper installation on the tower.

In general, the log-periodic reflector type directional antennas have smaller height and width
dimensions for the same forward gain than dipole panel antennas or collinear dipole reflector type
antennas. They, of course, have a larger dimension in the direction of maximum gain due to the
length of the log-periodic array(s) which form the overall antenna system. Because of the smaller
area occupied on the face of the tower or its platform, it should be possible to fit at least seven of
these antennas in the same space originally allocated for the AMPS sector antennas.

Log-periodic reflector type antennas also appear to have excellent front-to-back and front-to-side
ratios. It appears that the isolation between adjacent antennas is significantly higher than for dipole
type directional antennas. This is based on measured data taken by Allgon System AB on their line

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of log-periodic reflector antennas. This provides the same isolation with closer spacing than for
comparable gain panel antennas or greater isolation for the same spacing.

Special consideration should be given to the antenna bandwidth. If the use of duplexers is required
then a wideband antenna capable of supporting the primary and the secondary CDMA carriers
should be selected (see tables below)

Table 6-1: CDMA Carrier Frequency Range

Primary CDMA Carrier -
Frequency Frequency Range in MHz
Center Channel
Band (Base Rx/Tx)
(& Broadband Channel Range)

A 283 (263-303) 832.89-834.09 / 877.89-879.09

B 384 (364-404) 835.92-837.12 / 880.92-882.12

Frequency Secondary CDMA Carrier - Frequency Range in MHz
Band Center Channel (Base Rx/Tx)
(& Broadband Channel Range)

A 691 (671-711) 845.13-846.33 / 890.13-891.33

B 777 (757-797) 847.71-848.91 / 892.71-893.91

Table 6-2: PCS Carrier Frequency Range

Frequency Range in MHz
Frequency Band
(Base Rx/Tx)

A 1850-1865/1930-1945
D 1865-1870/1945-1950
B 1870-1885/1950-1965
E 1885-1890/1965-1970
F 1890-1895/1970-1975
C 1895-1910/1975-1990

Refer to Chapter 2 concerning other frequency bands that might be utilized.

6.2.2 Antenna Gain

This is often referred to as "power gain" and is the ratio of the maximum radiation in a given
direction to that of a reference antenna in the same direction for equal power input. Usually this
gain is referenced to either an isotropic antenna or a half wave dipole in free space at 0° elevation.

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An isotropic reference (dBi) generally pertains to a theoretical antenna having a spherical radiation
pattern with equal gain in all directions. When used as a gain reference, the isotropic antenna has
a power of 0 dBi. The halfwave dipole (dBd) is an antenna which is center fed as to have equal
current distribution in both halves. When used as a theoretical reference antenna it has a power gain
of 0 dBd, which equates to a 2.14 dB difference compared to an Isotropic antenna. For a graphical
representation of the different antenna patterns, please refer to the following figure.

dBi = dBd + 2.14 dBd = dBi - 2.14

Figure 6-1: dBd vs. dBi

The gain of the antenna will impact other antenna characteristics such as: size, weight, horizontal
beamwidth, vertical beamwidth, cost. The RF Engineer will need to select the appropriate antenna
for the particular situation. A trade-off will need to be made by the RF Engineer as to whether a
higher gain or lower gain antenna should be chosen. The higher gain antenna typically is physically
larger, more expensive and has a narrower vertical beamwidth than would a lower gain antenna.

The gain of an antenna has a direct interaction with other antenna parameters, (the technical depth
of which is beyond the scope of this document). The following paragraphs will provide the system
engineer with general guidelines:

Vertical Beamwidth - Generally, the greater the gain of the antenna, the narrower the vertical
beamwidth. The vertical beam can be used to focus coverage in some circumstances, but the
engineer should ensure that the optimum vertical beamwidth is used to prevent the creation of
"nulls" or coverage holes near to the site.

Physical Size - The size of an antenna will generally be greater as an antenna gain increases. This
is due to the greater number of dipole array and electrical elements required to reach the desired
gain. The system engineer should remember that PCS frequencies are approximately half the
wavelength of 800 MHz and therefore the antennas will typically be smaller for a common gain.

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6.2.3 Antenna Beamwidth

Antenna beamwidth is measured in degrees between the half power points (3 dB) of the major lobe
of the antenna. Beamwidth can be expressed in terms of azimuth (horizontal or H-plane) and
elevation (vertical or E-plane).

The predominant type of antenna configuration within urban areas will be three sectored. This
implies that each sector should utilize an antenna with 120° horizontal beamwidth; however, it has
been found through simulation that the use of 120° antennas provide too much overlap. As the
coverage of any sector within a CDMA system is directly affected by the noise generated by its
neighboring sectors and traffic within those sectors, the use of 120° can lead to reduced coverage
area through the rise in system noise. The excessive overlap of sectors can also lead to increased
softer handoff and therefore the reduction of call processing capability.

If narrow horizontal beamwidth antennas are used, for example 60°, simulation has shown that
insufficient coverage (i.e. coverage holes) can exist between adjacent sectors. The use of 60° high
gain antennas can also restrict the vertical beamwidth and can lead to coverage nulls close to the
cell site.

From current simulation, the optimum horizontal antenna beamwidth for PCS systems has been
found to be between 90° and 100°. This beamwidth has been proven to minimize softer handoff
while providing adequate coverage. However, before choosing an antenna of this beamwidth, the
system engineer should ensure that all factors outlined within this "Antenna Parameters" section
have been identified.

6.2.4 Voltage Standing Wave Ratio

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) is another parameter used to describe an antenna
performance. It deals with the impedance match of the antenna feed point to the feed or
transmission line. The antenna input impedance establishes a load on the transmission line as well
as on the radio link transmitter and receiver. To have RF energy produced by the transmitter
radiated with minimum loss or the energy picked up by the antenna passed to the receiver with
minimum loss, the input or base impedance of the antenna must be matched to the characteristics
of the transmission line. The VSWR of a CDMA antenna should be less than 1.5:1.

6.2.5 Return Loss

Return Loss (RL) is the decibel difference between the power incident upon a mismatched
continuity and the power reflected from that discontinuity. Return loss is related to the reflection
coefficient (p) and VSWR as follows;

RLdB = 20 log (1/p)
Where p = (VSWR-1)/(VSWR+1)
VSWR = Vmax/Vmin

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In other words, the return loss of an antenna can be considered as the difference in power in the
forward and reverse directions due to impedance mismatches in the antenna design.

All other things being equal, the higher the antenna return loss, the better the antenna. The system
engineer should choose an antenna with a return loss of 14 dB or better. Note that 14 dB
corresponds to a VSWR of 1.5:1 as per the following example;

VSWR = 1.5/1 = 1.5
p = (1.5-1)/(1.5+1) = 0.5/2.5 = 0.2
RLdB = 20log (1/0.2)
RLdB = 13.979 dB

6.2.6 Power Rating

The Power Rating of an antenna is the maximum power, normally expressed in Watts that the
antenna will pass without degraded performance. Typical values for the power rating of an antenna
are between 300 and 500 Watts. As CDMA will employ a smaller number of carriers and due to
the losses associated with combining, the power rating of an antenna is not expected to be a limiting
factor for antenna choice. Even so, when choosing an antenna, the system engineer should consider
system expansion and the theoretical maximum configuration of carriers that could be placed onto
a single antenna (please refer to Section 6.4.2).

6.2.7 Front to Back Ratio

The front to back ratio of an antenna is an important measure of performance. It is the ratio of the
power radiated from the main ray beam forward to that radiated from the back lobe behind the
antenna. Front to back ratio is normally expressed in terms of dB. This means that a signal at the
back of the antenna should be X dB down on a signal at a mirror angle in front of the antenna. The
front to back ratio for a typical CDMA antenna should be in the region of 25 dB.

6.2.8 Side Lobes & Back Lobes

Side and Back lobes are those undesirable directions where the chosen "directional" antenna may
present gain. The system engineer should pay particular attention to these characteristics when
downtilting an antenna, the mechanical downtilting of an antenna will directly affect the radiation
of both side and back lobes. The mounting of panel antennas on buildings or the use of antenna
with electronic down/up tilt are two possible ways to limit back lobe interference.

The system engineer should choose the optimum directivity and gain of an antenna while limiting
the number of side lobes and the strength of the back lobe (refer to previous paragraph - front to
back ratio).

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6.2.9 Antenna Downtilting

Downtilting is the method of effectively adjusting the vertical radiation pattern of the antenna to
direct the main energy more downwards and reduce the energy directed towards the horizon.
Downtilting can be used to increase the amount of coverage close to the site where "nulls" (holes)
may exist due to the effective height of the antenna. Downtilting can also be used to reduce "pilot
pollution" caused by reflections or undesired RF propagation beyond a predetermined footprint.
There are principally two types of antenna downtilting possible, mechanical and electronic.

Mechanical downtilting can be achieved through the mechanical adjustment of an antenna’s
physical position. The main advantage of the mechanical type of downtilting is the ease (dependent
upon location) of mechanically adjusting the antenna’s direction following system optimization.
Note that any CDMA network will require some degree of system optimization based upon site
specific variables. The adjustment of antenna downtilt has historically been one of the principle
methods of tuning system performance, therefore the system engineer should consider if the chosen
antenna can be downtilted and if so, by how much?

The second method of downtilting that can be used is electronic downtilt. This is the only way to
implement downtilt for an omni directional antenna. The level of electronic downtilt for an antenna
can be preset and ordered directly from the antenna manufacturer. The system engineer should be
aware that electronic antenna downtilt is preset. Thus, the field adjustment of downtilt and
therefore vertical radiation can not normally be reduced. There are antenna suppliers that provide
the capability of being able to alter the downtilt characteristics of the antenna from the base of the
cell site. This may take the form of motors to perform the physical downtilt or electronics used to
alter the electrical characteristics of the antenna. Refer to the numerous antenna vendors for the
various antennas that they supply.

The system engineer should also remember that the amount of gain in the antenna will also have a
direct affect both on the physical size of the antenna and the vertical beamwidth. If a low gain
antenna is utilized, the vertical beamwidth will be relatively broad and therefore the benefits of
downtilting will be minimal.

6.2.10 Antenna Height

In general the 6 dB per octave rule will apply to the cell site antenna height in a flat terrain, that is
doubling the antenna height causes a gain increase of 6 dB. The system engineer should compare
this possible gain height increase with the effects of doubling the transmission line loss and the
possible appearance of nulls close to the site.

Figure 6-2 shows the comparative number of cell sites required for a given area based upon
differing base station antenna heights and the Cost-231 Hata propagation model (i.e. flat terrain
only). If 100 ft. (30 m) is considered as the reference point, the system engineer should note that
by doubling the antenna height to 200 ft., there is a reduction of 50% in cell sites required.

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Figure 6-2: The Relationship of Antenna Height to Number of Cell Sites.

6.3 CDMA Antenna Placement

The placement of required CDMA antennas will typically depend on two main factors:

• the isolation required between the CDMA antennas to be installed and other antennas
existing at the site
• the amount of spatial diversity provided between CDMA Rx antennas.

It is important that enough physical separation be used between affected antennas to ensure the best
possible performance of the CDMA BTS while minimizing the threat of interference to/from other
co-located technologies. The following sections discuss the above considerations in more detail.

6.3.1 Antenna Isolation Considerations

The following recommendations are general guidelines on the base station antenna isolation
required between two or more of the following radio systems:

• 800 MHz AMPS
• 800 MHz CDMA
• 1900 MHz CDMA PCS

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Typical examples of site sharing are an 800 MHz CDMA system overlayed on an existing 800
MHz AMPS system, or a 1900 MHz CDMA PCS system sharing the same tower/rooftop with an
existing 800 MHz AMPS/CDMA system. This section describes the RF isolation requirements
between the various transmit and receive antennas of two or more of the above radio systems which
share a common tower/platform/rooftop location. The following antenna isolation scenarios need
to be considered.

Tx to Tx Antenna Isolation: There must be sufficient isolation between any two transmit antennas
to attenuate the signals from one antenna sufficiently before they enter another transmit antenna
and create transmitter IM products in the associated transmitters that are strong enough to cause a
problem for the system.

Rx to Rx Antenna Isolation: For adequate receive diversity performance there must be sufficient
spacing between the two antennas to achieve the desired degree of de-correlation of the two
receiver feeds for the signals being received.

Tx to Rx Antenna Isolation: The isolation between the transmit and receive antennas at a cell site
must be high enough to provide sufficient attenuation to eliminate the following three potential
problems:

1. Receiver overload caused by the high level transmit carriers being picked up by the
receive antennas and causing receiver desensitization and/or generating IM products
within the receiver which interfere with the reception of the desired signals.
2. Interference with the reception of the desired signals caused by transmitter sideband
noise and/or spurious signals generated in the transmitter which fall in the receive band
and whose energy is radiated from the transmit antennas and picked up by the receive
antennas.
3. Interference with the reception of the desired signals caused by transmit IM products
falling in the receive band that are generated in the transmit antenna systems consisting
of feed line and jumper connectors and/or the transmit antennas themselves. These IM
products are produced after the transmitter output filtering and therefore cannot be
eliminated by any transmitter filtering. These IM products will be radiated by the
transmit antennas and picked up by the receive antennas.

Also included in this section are several antenna placement examples as well as a discussion of
some typical isolations that can be expected between various combinations of 800 MHz and 1900
MHz antennas.

Additional base station antenna isolation requirements, involving scenarios such as the co-location
of 800 MHz CDMA and TACS antennas, the co-location of DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 CDMA
antenna and the co-location of PCS 1900 CDMA and microwave antennas, are considered in
Chapter 9.

6.3.1.1 CDMA/AMPS Transmit/Receive Antenna Isolation Requirements

The following sections provide the calculations for antenna isolation requirements.

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800/1900 MHz Tx-Tx ANTENNA ISOLATION

CDMA Tx - CDMA Tx
The maximum Tx reverse signal that can be applied to a BTS Tx port is +30 dBm (1 Watt). A
typical high power LPA can deliver +50 dBm (100 Watts) to the antenna system. Taking into
consideration the coupling from the adjacent sectors, the minimum antenna-to-antenna isolation
should be:

50 dBm + 3 dB - 30 dBm = 23 dB
Since the minimum AMPS transmit antenna-to-antenna isolation is typically 20 dB, the worst case
antenna isolation required between any AMPS and CDMA transmit antenna combination will be
chosen to be 23 dB. (This applies to both 800 and 1900 MHz transmit antennas.)

800/1900 MHz Rx-Rx ANTENNA ISOLATION

A minimum isolation of 20 dB is desired between any two antennas. This would apply to separate
AMPS and CDMA receive antennas mounted in close proximity to each other. When evaluating
two receive antennas connected to the same BTS for diversity reception, a more important factor
is the spatial separation of the two antennas. If their responses are uncorrelated to fading, good
diversity reception is assured. (According to Lee, William C.Y. in “Mobile Cellular
Telecommunications Systems”, uncorrelated antennas require from 8 to 14 wavelengths of
horizontal separation. This equates to about 3 to 5 meters at 800 MHz or about half that much at
1900 MHz.) The internal requirement of the BTS is 20 dB isolation, so the antenna system need
only be 20 dB also. The physical spacing required for spatial separation greatly exceeds 20 dB of
isolation between the two receive antennas.

800/1900 MHz Tx-Rx ANTENNA ISOLATION

In Cases 1 through 3 below, Transmit to Receive Antenna Isolation requirements are estimated
based on reducing transmitter noise and spurs in the receive band to the point where only 0.5 dB
of receiver noise floor rise or receiver threshold sensitivity is produced. If either more or less
degradation is tolerable, the information given in Table 6-3 can be used to modify them as desired.
Similarly, if specific information as to the transmitter noise and spurious signal levels for a
particular Base Station model of interest is known, Cases 1 through 3 can be used as a guide.
Table 6-3: Degradation to Sensitivity Based on Noise Level Below kTBF
Noise level below kTBF Degradation to sensitivity
16 dB 0.1 dB
13 dB 0.2 dB
9 dB 0.5 dB
6 dB 1.0 dB
3 dB 1.8 dB
0 dB a 3.0 dB

a: The added noise at this level is equal to kTBF

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Case 1: CDMA Tx - CDMA Rx

From Table 6-3, a 0.5 dB sensitivity degradation occurs when the transmitter noise is at
a level of 9 dB below kTBF. For a CDMA receiver with a Noise Figure of 4 dB, kTBF is
-109 dBm. This results in a maximum acceptable interference power of -118 dBm.

Typical CDMA Tx noise level due to CDMA spurs (CDMA Tx IM) in the receive band
is less than -85 dBm in a 1 MHz bandwidth. In the CDMA receiver bandwidth of 1.2288
MHz this is -84 dBm. The resulting antenna-to-antenna isolation requirement for 0.5 dB
sensitivity degradation is:

-84 dBm - (-118 dBm) = 34 dB

Case 2: AMPS Tx - CDMA Rx

The AMPS Tx specification requires the AMPS Rx band spurs to be at a maximum level
of -90 dBm/30 kHz. The total Tx SBN and spurs in the CDMA Rx band is maintained at
-85 dBm/1 MHz with proper frequency planning (no 3rd order IM inside CDMA Rx).
The resulting antenna-to-antenna isolation requirement for a 0.5 dB degradation is:

-84 dBm - (-118 dBm) = 34 dB
For a multitone LPA application, the worst case Tx SBN measured in the Rx band should
be less than -85 dBm/1 MHz.

Case 3: CDMA Tx - AMPS Rx

Typical CDMA Tx noise level due to CDMA spurs (CDMA Tx IM) in the receive band
is less than -85 dBm in a bandwidth of 1 MHz. This is -100 dBm in the AMPS receiver
bandwidth of 30 kHz. The kTBF for a typical AMPS receiver is -123 dBm. Using
Table 6-3, 0.5 dB sensitivity degradation occurs when the Transmitter noise is 9 dB below
kTBF, which is -132 dBm in this case. The resulting antenna-to-antenna isolation
requirement for 0.5 dB sensitivity degradation is:

-100 dBm - (-132 dBm) = 32 dB
The worst case AMPS or CDMA transmit antenna to AMPS or CDMA receive
antenna isolation will be chosen to be 34 dB. (This also holds for any combination of
800 and 1900 MHz antennas.)

Since the required isolation between the Tx-Tx, Rx-Rx, and Tx-Rx pairs of antennas is for the most
part identical for all of the combinations of both 800 MHz AMPS/CDMA and 1900 MHz CDMA
PCS systems, it is appropriate that a single set of isolation requirements should be adopted. Table
6-4 summarizes the isolation requirements between two transmit antennas, two receive antennas,
or a transmit and receive antenna pair which share a common location and are operating in the 800
MHz Cellular and/or 1900 MHz PCS bands and utilizing analog or CDMA technology.

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Table 6-4: Antenna Isolation Requirements

Cellular Band (824-894 MHz) PCS Band (1.7-2.0 GHz)

Tx-Tx Rx-Rx Tx-Rx Tx-Tx Rx-Rx Tx-Rx
Cellular 23 dB 20 dB 34 dB 23 dB 20 dB 34 dB
PCS 23 dB 20 dB 34 dB 23 dB 20 dB 34 dB

The antenna isolation requirements in Table 6-4 represent the port-to-port isolation between the
equipment end of the bottom jumper of one antenna system to the equipment end of the bottom
jumper of the other antenna system. Therefore, if the combined jumper and main transmission line
losses of the transmit and receive antenna systems are say 5 dB then the required isolation between
the two antennas themselves would only have to be 29 dB to achieve the required 34 dB port-to-
port isolation listed in Table 6-4.

6.3.1.2 Measuring Port-to-Port Antenna Isolation

The Tx-Rx isolation can be measured by feeding a test signal into the transmit antenna bottom
jumper input (normally connected to the transmitter output port) and measuring the level of the
signal at the output end of the receive antenna bottom jumper (normally connected to the receiver
input port).

A typical measurement setup for port-to-port isolation between two antennas is a signal generator
feeding the desired transmit frequency (at a level of about -20 dBm) into the transmit antenna
bottom jumper and a spectrum analyzer or calibrated test receiver (adjusted to measure the level of
the transmit test signal) connected to the receive antenna bottom jumper. The difference between
the received level and signal generator test level is the port-to-port isolation. For example, if the
level of the received signal is -60 dBm for a signal generator output level of -20 dBm, the port-to-
port isolation would be 40 dB.

6.3.1.3 Reducing the Required Antenna Isolation

Except for overload of the victim receiver front ends by interfering transmit carriers, which require
a minimum isolation between the transmit and receive antennas of 20 dB, all of the isolation
requirements above 20 dB outlined above are due to the effects of either the noise energy or IM
products that are produced in the interfering base station PAs/LPAs and which fall in the receiver
band.

If the receive band attenuation of the bandpass filter in the output of an interfering LPA is increased
(or additional external receiver band filtering is added), the required antenna isolation may be
reduced. However, transmitter IM products generated by hardware in the RF path following the
bandpass or an added external filter may limit the amount of improvement that can be achieved.

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6.3.1.4 Typical Antenna Isolation

For 800 MHz directional panel antennas it should be possible to achieve 25-30 dB of isolation with
0.45-0.6 meters of spacing and 35 dB or so at 1 meter of horizontal spacing. However, reflections
from the tower structure and coupling effects from other antennas may reduce the isolation
obtainable. This is especially true for the advertised front-to-back ratios for many directional
antennas which do not have metal reflector panels on the back sides of the panel structures.

1900 MHz PCS directional panel antennas should be able to achieve isolation levels comparable
to similar 800 MHz types at spacings approaching half of the 800 MHz spacings. Because of this
the tower platform sizes at 1900 MHz can be significantly smaller than those at 800 MHz.

On the basis of limited testing by several of the antenna vendors it would appear that the cross band
isolation between 800 MHz and 1900 MHz antennas in close proximity can run 10-15 dB better
than the same band isolation would be for similar physical spacings. Because of differences
between various antenna types, the actual antenna isolation of a proposed site sharing configuration
should be measured using the techniques in Section 6.3.1.2.

6.3.1.5 CDMA Antenna Placement

In consideration of the above isolation requirements, Motorola recommends that any required
CDMA antennas be mounted on the tower above or below any existing antennas being used by
other wireless technologies such that superior isolation provided by vertical spacing is obtained
while at the same time providing the required CDMA coverage to the surrounding area.

The goal of this approach is to leave any existing antennas untouched. If, however, CDMA
antennas are to be installed on a tower platform that is already supporting antennas from other
technologies (provided that enough isolation is provided), it may be necessary to replace the
existing antennas with smaller antennas to physically accommodate the newly-added CDMA
antennas. Figure 6-3 provides an antenna placement example using a “shared” platform approach.

Figure 6-3: Antenna Placement - Shared Platform

AMPS CDMA AMPS CDMA CDMA AMPS
Rx Rx Tx Tx Rx Rx
(Main) (Main) (Diversity) (Diversity)

20 dB of isolation 34 dB of isolation 23 dB of isolation 34 dB of isolation 20 dB of isolation
desirable required desirable required desirable
Notes: 1. Only 1 face of a 120° S/S implementation is shown here.

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Figure 6-4 provides an antenna placement example using a “separate” platform approach.

Figure 6-4: Antenna Placement - Separate Platforms

AMPS AMPS AMPS
Rx Tx Rx
(Main) (Diversity)
1 m min.
vertical
separation

CDMA CDMA CDMA
Rx Tx Rx
(Main) (Diversity)

34 dB of isolation 34 dB of isolation
required required

Notes: 1. Only 1 face of a 120° S/S implementation is shown here.

With reference to Figure 6-3, the shared platform approach can be readily utilized for an 800 MHz
AMPS/CDMA configuration with shared receive antennas and one or two sets of separate transmit
antennas. An eight antenna configuration involving two receive and two transmit antennas for each
of the AMPS and CDMA systems, can get rather unwieldy, and the separate platform approach in
Figure 6-4 might be more appropriate.

For 800 MHz and 1900 MHz shared sites, the separate platform approach would appear to be the
better choice, not that sufficient isolation could not be obtained with the single platform but
because of the potential for conflicts should either of the systems want to change existing antennas
or add additional antennas. Any physical changes in the antennas for one system could impact the
other system because of a reduction in antenna isolations on the same platform. Separate platforms
will normally provide a higher degree of isolation between the two systems which reduces the
possibility of "political problems" between the two systems when either system desires changes in
their antennas.

6.3.2 Antenna Diversity (Spacial)

The CDMA system employs time, space and frequency diversity. Spatial diversity is implemented
through the use of two receive antennas at the base station, commonly called "Antenna Diversity".
Receive antenna diversity is employed at the base site to improve the uplink by approximately 3 to
5 dB. The gain obtained by spatial diversity is based on the assumption that the signals received by
the two separated antennas are not correlated or have a low degree of correlation, the affects of

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fading on one path will therefore be independent from the second. The 3 to 5 dB improvement is
already incorporated into the equipment Eb/No receiver sensitivity specification. Note that if
horizontal diversity is not utilized, the equipment performance may degrade.

6.3.2.1 Horizontal Antenna Diversity and Recommended Separation

The conventional method for determining the minimum separation for horizontal antennas to
achieve non correlation is normally expressed as a factor of the wavelength (equal to the speed of
light/frequency). The recommendation for standard cellular implementation (800 MHz) has
generally been accepted as 10 times the wavelength (lambda). This figure should only be
considered as an average distance as the level of correlation for horizontal diversity can also be
affected by a number of variables, for example; the height of the antennas, the type of surrounding
clutter (i.e. the level of multipath) and the typical angular arrival of the signals (i.e. are the antennas
mounted perpendicular to a highway).

As the wavelength of PCS frequencies is approximately half that of conventional cellular, it seems
fair to assume that the diversity antenna separation for PCS will effectively be half that of 800 MHz
systems. At this time, the antenna separation of 10 lambda at the base site is considered sufficient
for the non correlation of uplink signals within an urban environment (obviously greater than 10
lambda will provide even less correlation).

Note that Lee’s equation utilizes the antenna height in addition to frequency to determine the
minimum horizontal diversity separation. This equation can be used as a more accurate planning
guideline where the antenna height is known.

Frequency: 1850 MHz Wavelength: 16 cm Diversity distance (x10): 1.6 m (5.3 ft.)

Lee’s Equation: d = 77.27*h/f
Where d = Rx antenna separation, h = Rx antenna height (ft.), f = frequency (MHz)

Example (1850 MHz @ 100 ft.)d = 77.27*100/1850
d = 4.2 ft.

It is believed that the horizontal separation of 5.3 (ft.) is an achievable separation distance for PCS
cell site installations. Field trials and performance tests on PCS systems will determine if this
minimum separation can be reduced under certain conditions.

6.3.2.2 Vertical Antenna Diversity

The vertical separation of two diversity antennas could be an appealing alternative for CDMA
operators where the location of two horizontally separated antennas is hard to achieve.
Unfortunately, the system engineer should be aware that the vertical separation of antennas
provides poor diversity performance. This is due to a higher degree of correlation for a given
distance compared to horizontal separation. In other words, the vertical separation distance
required between two base site antennas is much larger than the horizontal separation required to
gain the same correlation coefficient of two received branches.

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The preferred method of implementing diversity at a base site is horizontal diversity. While vertical
separation of receive antennas will provide a degree of non correlation, the performance of vertical
diversity is not considered as effective as horizontal diversity.

6.4 CDMA Antenna Sharing

The following section discusses the various antenna sharing strategies that are currently available
with respect to the Motorola CDMA BTS.

6.4.1 Multiple Frame Antenna Sharing with 800 MHz BTS Products

This section provides some of the multiple frame antenna sharing configurations for the Motorola
BTS product lines at 800 MHz that are currently supported.

Each 800 MHz SC4812T frame is capable of supporting up to two IS-95A/B or IS-2000 1X six-
sector carriers or up to four IS-95A/B or IS-2000 1X three-sector carriers. The SC4812T starter
frame can currently support one or two SC4812T expansion frames, depending on the frequency
of operation. External low-loss cavity combining for transmit antenna sharing is not supported. An
optional duplexer can be used to share Tx and Rx antennas (see Figure 6-5). The SC4812T differs
from the earlier SC4812 in that it contains Trunked LPAs in place of the dedicated per-sector
LPAs. The Trunked LPA contains 4 LPA modules and supports 1 CDMA RF carrier for all sectors.
Its power output capacity is shared between all sectors proportional to the traffic on each sector.
Internal 2:1 or 4:1 cavity combiners are used to combine the Trunked LPAs to increase the number
of CDMA RF carriers available.

Figure 6-5: SC4812T to SC4812T Expansion Frame
Optional
Duplexer

D D
Tx Rx-m Rx-div Tx

Rx Exp.

SC4812T
SC4812T Exp. Frame

Note: m = main, div = diversity, exp = expansion

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The 800 MHz SC4812T expansion frame can also share Rx antennas with some of the existing 4-
digit 800 MHz BTS products, which include the following.

• SC2450 STPA
• SC2400 with ELPA
• SC9600 with LPA or ELPA

There are three versions of the SC4812T frame, a starter frame, an expansion frame, and a modem
frame. The general differences between the three different versions are as follows. A starter frame
is a standard stand-alone BTS frame which is designed to amplify the Rx & Tx signals while
connected directly to the antenna feed line jumpers. An expansion frame shares the Rx signals from
a starter frame and thus it is designed with a lower Rx gain in the front end, since the starter frame
provides the first stage of amplification. The Tx signals of an expansion frame are independent
from that of the starter frame and are typically connected to their own antenna (unless some sort of
external combining technique is used). An SC4812T modem frame is functionally similar to the
SC9600 modem frame. In this case, the modem frame shares the Rx signals from another frame
(typically a SIF) as well as providing a low level Tx output signal which requires further
amplification from yet another frame (typically an LPA or ELPA frame). The following figures
provide some of the antenna sharing configurations for the various SC4812T frame versions as it
shares the Rx antennas from various 4-digit 800 MHz BTS products.

Figure 6-6: SC2450 to SC4812T Expansion Frame

Optional Duplexer
D D
Rx-m Rx-div Tx
Tx
Rx Exp.
10 dB
Pad
SC4812T
SC2450 Exp. Frame

Note: m = main, div = diversity, exp = expansion

Each SC2450 or SC2400 starter frame is capable of supporting as many as three expansion frames.
The expansion frames can be of the SC24XX series or SC4812T expansion frames (three-sector
configuration only, see Figure 6-6 & Figure 6-7). There are no transmit antenna sharing
configurations that are currently supported between these frames. For expansion kit ordering

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information refer to the latest version of the equipment planning guide or contact the Product
Management group for more information.

Figure 6-7: SC2400 ELPA to SC4812T Expansion Frame

Rx-m Rx-div Tx

Rx Exp.

SC2400 10 dB SC4812T
Pad
ELPA Exp. Frame

Note: m = main, div = diversity, exp = expansion

For the SC2400 frames using CDMA only, the Tx output from the ELPA can be duplexed with the
Rx antenna (this is not shown in Figure 6-7). Although it is typically not recommended, the output
signals from the SC2400 ELPA frame can also be duplexed for mixed mode analog and CDMA
frames onto the Rx antenna, but extreme care should be used in frequency planning to prevent IM
products from effecting system performance.

Figure 6-8: SC9600 SIF to SC4812T Expansion Frame

Rx Tx

Rx Exp.

SC9600