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Low Cost Spectrum


Guided by: By:

Prof. KhyatiVachhani Jigar Chauhan (14bec037)
Hardik Pandey(14bec046)

Electrical Engineering Department

Electronics & Communication Engineering Program
Institute of Technology,
Nirma University
Presentation Outlines

Why Spectrum Analysis

Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram


GNU Radio

Software and Hardware Used

Important Specifications

Important Steps Involved



Future Scope

Why Spectrum Analysis!!
SDR-Software define radio
SDR is an emerging technology built on one of the great
developments of the 20th Century: fast and cheap
SDR is the direct implementation of the mathematics of signal
processing on real world signals.
A number of platforms are available for implementing SDR
systems. These include Universal Software Radio Peripheral
(USRP) , Soft Rock, Flex Radio Systems , High Powered
Software Defined Radio and others.
With the help of SDR we make our hardware and software
reconfigurable and reprogrammable.
Software radios have significant utility for the military and cell
phone services, both of which must serve a wide variety of
changing radio protocols in real time.
GNU Radio
It is an open source software used for development and simulation of
It was founded by Eric Blossom in 1998.
It contains blocks for generators, filters, modulator/demodulators,
synchronizers, graphical sinks, etc.
There are basically three ways to use GNU Radio.
In a high-level perspective, we can use GNU Radio Companion (GRC), which is
a graphical tool where we can build an SDR system by connecting signal
processing blocks, establishing a processing chain or flow, from signal input to
system output.
In an intermediate-level, we can use the programming language Python as a way
to describe the block connections
In its lowest level, we can modify and even create new processing blocks using
C++, chosen due to performance issues, and use these blocks in the higher
levels (Python or GRC).
The Simplified Wrapper and Interface Generator (SWIG) tool is used to create
the interface between C++ and Python
Software & Hardware Reqd.

SDR The main idea of an SDR is to transfer tasks

performed by hardware to software.

GNU An open-source toolkit that provides tools

for development and simulation of SDR
Radio systems

Raspberry The Raspberry Pi computer was chosen for

this application due to its computational
Pi power and its relative low cost
RTL-SDR Raspberry Pi 2
Receiving bandwidth: 0.1- It is based on Broadcom
55MHz BCM2836 system on chip
Blocking dynamic range:110 900 MHz quad-core ARM
dB Cortex A7 CPU
Sensitivity:0.05uv at 20M Video core 4 dual GPU
Sample rate: Up to 1.5-
3MHz 4 USB ports,40 GPIO Pins
IQ resoulation:24 bit Full HDMI Ports
RF input:(SMA connector, up 3.5mm audio jack
to 15kv ESD protection) Camera interface
Operating temperature: - Display interface
10*C to 60*c Micro SD card slot
Video iv 3d graphic core
Power rating 800mA(4 W)
The Steps Involved:-

Step 1 Installing Linux Operating

System on the Laptop

Step2 Installing GNU Radio

Companion in Laptop

Step3 Interfacing of RTL-SDR and

Installing steps on Raspberry Pi-2
Step 1 Step 2 Step3

Format the Install GRC Interface

SD Card on Operating RTL-SDR
Install the System of with
OS on SD Raspberry Raspberry Pi
Card Pi. by writing
on command
1st objective:-
Design an FM Receiver using GRC
FM Receiver code on GRC:-
Output for 91.1MHz
So after completion of this project we can conclude that for
designing and manufacturing of any Electrical System or Device
we need to analyze the electrical signals that are going to pass
through the device and to analyze the signals we need a
Spectrum analyzer as the information of any electrical signal is
contained in frequency. Design of low cost Spectrum analyzer
can be done using RTL-SDR and GNU Radio Companion
together with the help of any Computer. We can make this
device accessible for remote usage by providing it the processor
of Raspberry Pi.
Future Work
To troubleshoot the problem occurring in using Raspberry Pi.
To make this device into a marketable product so that it can be
well utilized in the society.
Using Software Defined Radio (SDR) To Demonstrate Concepts In Communications
and Signal Processing Courses by Sharlene Katz and James Flynn.
Prototyping with GNU Radio and the USRP -Where to Begin by D. Casey Tucker
and Gene A. Tagliarini.
Software Defined Radio on Digital Communications: a New Teaching Tool by Andr
L. G. Reis, Andr F. B. Selva, Karlo G. Lenzi, Slvio E. Barbin and Lus G. P. Meloni.
Low Cost SDR Spectrum Analyzer and Analog Radio Receiver Using GNU Radio,
Raspberry Pi2 and SDR-RTL Dongle by E. G. Sierra and G. A. Ramrez Arroyave.
Thank You