Vol.

(1996) 37

REPORTS ON ~ATH~~ATICAI,

PHYsIfS

No. 3

WSTORS

AND NEARLY AUTOP~LEL
SERGIU I. VACARU

MAPS

Institute of Applied Physics, Moldovan Academy of Sciences, 5 Academiei str., Chiginau, 2028 Republic of Moldova (e-mail: lises@cc.acad.md)

and
SERGIU Department of Mathematics V. OSTAF 2062

and Physics, Tiraspol State University, 5 Iablochkin str., Chi$&u, Republic of Moldova
(Received December 6, 1994)

The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the problem of definition of twistors on generic curved spaces. Firstly, we consider nearly geodesic (autoparallel) maps of (pseudo)-Rieman~an spaces. Secondly, we shall define nearly autoparallel hvistor equations which are compatible on nearly ~nfo~aily Aat spaces. Finally, we shall study nearly autoparailel twistor structures generating curved spaces and vacuum Einstein spaces.

1. Introduction: Spinors and maps of curved spaces with deformation of connections Our geometrical constructions will be realized on pairs of 4-dimensional (pseudo)Riemannian spaces (V, IL) with the signature (- + + +) and i-l local maps of spaces f: V + g given by functions f’(x) of class CT(U) (r > 2, T = w for analytic functions) and the inverse functions f?“) with co~esponding non-zero Jacobians at every point x = {x”} c U c V and : = {@} c U c IL (U and g are open regions). We shall attribute the regions U and u to a common, for a given f-map, coordinate system, when every point q E U with coordinates d‘(q) is mapped onto a point q c U with the same coordinates xp = c&‘(q) = x”(q), i.e. f: d‘(q) -+ x”(q). We note that all calculations in this work will be ha1 and will refer to common coordinates, for given f-maps, on open regions of spaces into considerations. The metric tensor, the connection, differential operator and the tetrads (frames) are denoted on U as g~~(x),~~~(x), I), and h;(x), respectively, where s/N(x) = qxY$M?as, and on u as gPy(x)=gPy(x), -&~(x)+~(x),QP v,b = const, = D, and &t(x) = h;(x), where (1)

(2)
(the Greek indices ~1,v, p,y, . . . range from 0 to 3). Throughout the present paper

310

S. I. VACARU

and

S. V. OSTAF

we shall use the terminology and definitions of the abstract and coordinate tensor and spinor index formalisms described in the monographs [l, 21. For simplicity, we shall write the Latin symbols a, b,a,b, . . . for both the abstract and the tetrad indices implying that in the first case Latin indices are abstract labels and in the second case (for decompositions on tetrads) we shall specify their explicit values (a, b, . . . = 0, 1,2,3). We consider spinor decompositions of metrics (1) and (2): S&AU cp = AA’(Z)~,BB’(Z)E~~t~,~,, where O,““‘(X) = h;(~)~,A~‘,cr~~’ = cons& are the Infeld-van der Waerden cients and EAB = -CBA, EA~B/= -EB/A~(A, B, A’, B’ = 0,l) are spinor metrics 9 -P where azA’(z)
EABYEA~B/~& A,A’ A-

(3) coeffi-

=fl_;A’(x)G?fB’(x)~AB~AtB5 if necessary,

(4)

= O,““‘(X) = $(z)a,AA’;

we shall write, for example,

in order to point out that these spin-tensor values are ,W or 5:: associated to the spinor decomposition (4) on the space E. For mutual transformations of the tensor and spinor indices one introduces the inverse Infeld-van der Waerden coefficients $J,,(z) and azA,(z), for example, B” = GA, BAA’ and &B, = AE~EB,. Covariant derivation of spinors on V is defined in terms of the spin coefficients and r~$?~, : Y&B
DAA’~ B -

azA,(~)D,eB

= ~AAJ<~ + y2zCEB,

and DAA~<B~= u~~,(x)D~<B~ = ~AA~[BJ - ~;4.,$i,<p. In a similar manner the spin coefficients r,,“,,, and r,,“:,, are considered in order to define the covariant derivation of spinors on v. Below we present formulae interrelating spin coefficients r;,” and y;$ with Christoffel symbols in the case of orthonormalized bases when CA/B’ = ~,JB =

and, inversely, for (T:,’ = const,
p.AA’ BB’CC, = ~i;.&q$’ + ~&&, E;CA (&&&, = _BB,Cgg: yA + r,&c;CA),

where ~2 = 6:, 6;: = 6: and T&$~, denotes the complex conjugation of Y;~,~,. Our first objective in this paper is to study deformations of spinor objects as a result of the superposition of local l-l maps f: V+y with the deformation of connection r,;(x) = T$(Z) + P$(x), (6)

TWISTORS AND NEARLY AUTOPARALLEL

MAPS

311 for (7) the of be
(8)

and, as a consequence example,

of formulae r,“,(x)

(5), deformations = Y,S) + *Y;&)J

of the spin coefficients,

where P$(s) and *r,“, = P..?’ - nk,,~?,oz~‘) are called PBC - ~(&B,~pc$‘“’ deformation tensor and the deformation spin tensor, respectively. Deformations the covariant derivation operator, caused by splittings of type (6) or (7) will denoted as & = D, + *Dll, DA.& = DAA’ + *DAA’. In a particular case of conformal 9 = Q29atl, --ab
L?(cc) CAB

maps c: U + U, when
= acAB, tA’B’ f%A’B’,

is a nonzero

real function on U,
*D, = fT’D,fi’ = D&R.

(9)

Conformal transforms are largely used, for example, in the twistor [2] and conformal field theories. We note that there are classes of l-l local maps with the deformation of connection ((6) or (7)) more general than that for the conformal maps (9) (see, for example, (r~- 2)-projective spaces [3], nearly geodesic maps (ng-maps [4]) and nearly autoparallel maps (na-maps) of spaces with torsion and nonmetricity [5, 61, of fibre bundles [7] and of Finsler and Lagrange spaces [S]). In our papers [5, 9-111 we have proposed to apply the ng- and na-maps for the definition of conservation laws on the curved spaces. Na-maps were used for definition of the nearly autoparallel twistors in connection to a possible twistor-gauge interpretation of vacuum gravitational fields [7, 1l-141. The second objective is the investigation of na-map deformations of the twistor equations [2] (for our purposes written on space v)
DcAuB) = f(&,gB --A’-+ &g”) = 0, (10)

where ( ) denotes symmetrization. Because for the uncharged twistors we have D A’(C&Jr) where
=@ C -abcd--ABCD~AJBfkDt + EA~Lv~~LI~&~BSCLI (12)

= _,+r,C$Q~,

(11)

is the conformal Weyl tensor on space v, there is a hard compatibility condition for twistor equations (IO), namely, g_ABcDg D = 0, which characterizes, for example, conformally flat spaces. That is why a mathematically rigorous, and generally accepted definition of twistors was possible only for conformally flat spaces and this fact is the main impediment to the twistor interpretation of general gravitational fields (for details see [2]).

312

S. I. VACARUand S.V. OSTAF

Our main idea [ll, 7, 13, 141 was to define twistors not on the generic curved spaces V, where twistor equations are incompatible, but to remove the problem on auxiliary conformally flat (or more simply, flat M) background spaces V, interrelated with the fundamental space-time V by means of chains of na-maps (nearly conforma1 maps, nc-maps). On the space M, twistor equations (10) become compatible; we can define twisters in a standard manner as pairs of spinors, z* = (gA,7_rA). Then, transferring z* on V, by using nc-maps, we can define nearly autoparallel twistors, na-twistors, as satisfying the na-twistor equations, being the na-images of equations (10). For simplicity, in this paper we shall restrict ourselves only to the nearly geodesically flat (ng-flat) spaces V which admit ng-maps to the Minkowski space M. We shall analyse conditions when na-twistor equations contain information on the vacuum Einstein fields. 2. Nearly geodesic maps and spinors The aim of this section is to present a brief introduction to the geometry of ng-flat spaces. We shall specify basic ng-map equations and invariant conditions [4] to the case of the vacuum gravitational fields on V. Proofs are mechanical, but, in most cases, calculations are rather tedious, and similar to those presented in [4, 131. They are omitted. 2.1. Definition of ng-maps
Let us parametrize curves on U c V by functions ZY = z?(n), the corresponding tangent vector field defined as up = F.

nr < 71< 112,with vector field (13)

DEFINITION 1. A curve 1 is called a geodesic on V if its tangent satisfies the autoparallel (a-parallel) equations

UD@ = u%pu” where ~(77) is a scalar function.

= p(q)@,

We note that for (pseudo)-Riemannian spaces the extremal curves, the geodesics, coincide with the straightest curves, a-parallels, and that is why we shall use the term geodesics for both classes of curves (for spaces with locally isotropic or anisotropic torsion and nonmetricity we have started with a-parallel equations [5-81). On the space v we consider a new class of curves: Let a curve 1 c v be given We say that a 2-dimensional parametrically as zQ = zY(rj),nr < 9 < QZ,U* = s#O. distribution E$) is coplanar along 4 if in every point 1c E 1 there is defined a %-dimensional vector space I&(z) c T,y (T,V is the tangent space at x E V) and every vector p%$$ c E2(I), ~(“0, E I, is contained in the same distribution after parallel transports along I, i.e. p*(zp(v)) c: IQ(l). DEFINITION 2. A curve [ is called a nearly geodesic on space E if along i there is defined a coplanar distribution I??&) containing the vector field ~~(7) tangent to 1. Ng-maps are introduced [4] according to the

TWISTORS AND NEARLY AUTOPARALLEL MAPS

313

Riemannian 1 on y.

DEFINITION 3. Nearly geodesic maps (ng-maps) are focal l-l mappings of (pseudo)spaces, ng: V-v, changing every geodesic 1 on V into a nearly geodesic

Let a geodesic 1 c U be given by functions xa = F(n), ua = T, ~1 < 7 < 772, satisfying equations (12). We suppose that to the geodesic 1 there corresponds a nearly geodesic i c u given for a chosen ng-map by the same parametrization in a common local coordinate system on U and u. This requirement is satisfied if and only if vectors zF, g;, = uQF and U+ = U&J;) are linearly depended in every point 2 E U, i.e., UC, = a(77F + b(n)u& for some scalar functions ~~(17) and b(n). Putting splitting (6) into expressions for 2;) and I& on U, and from the just presented linear dependence we obtain
u~uyu6(DpP~~ + P&?P$) = bUyU6P$ + aua > (14)

where b(q, U) = 6 - 3p and a(% u> = C? bp + are called the deformation
2.2. Classification
ubabp p2 (15)

parameters

of the ng-maps.

of ng-maps

Ng-maps were classified [4] by considering the possible polynomial dependencies on 2~~ of deformation parameters (15). We shall consider the maps ng : V --f r satisfying the reciprocity conditions (ng-‘: V --f V is also an “g-map). This requirement is fulfilled if
P&P;; = dCqP+; + c&$),

for a vector de, and a tensor cap on V.
THEOREM 1. Four classes of the ng-maps are characterized by the corresponding paramettiations of the deformation tensors and basic equations: -for the trivial ng-maps, the geodesic maps (or 7r(o)-maps) P$W = ~(P~,*,~ (16)

where 6p” is Kronecker symbol and +p = $0(x) is a covariant vector field; -for the 7r(l)-maps, Pi;(x) is the solution of the equations 3D,P$ -for the n(2)-maps, Pi; where F; = F;(x) = 24(&, + 2cr(,F& = e@ (e = fl): = 0 (19) (18) = 2Riz,r,a - 214i,ra, + 6bcc,P&j + 6a(,&);

(17)

is such that Ft = F; 8,pF,iFx’

- d,xF,jF;

314

S. I. VACARU and S. V. OSlXF

([ ] denotes antisymmetrization) and solves the equations D,jF,’ + pLyF$Y; - pQF; = 0 for a covariant vector field pLr = &x); -for the n(3)-maps, P$- = 2&S,; where the contravariant vector field yT = q’(x) + Oy6(PT, satisjies the equations (22) and (p,, = (pv(x), (21) (20)

D,cpp = uS,p+ pL,cpB, for some scalar field u = u(x), covariant vector fields pLr = p?(x) and a symmetric tensor field gap = a,p(x).

We emphasize that for (pti = 2 particular case of conformal maps, maps [15]). 2.3. Invariant
DEFINITION

=
TV:

gpvpy gpLv

and a,o(x)
= &'gpv

= gap(x) we obtain a (the so-called concircular

criterions
4. A

for ng-flat

spaces
space

(pseudo)-Riemannian

V is ng-flat if it admits

a map

ng: V-a. We shall consider four classes of na-flat spaces denoted respectively as nCij-flat spaces, where (i) = ((0), (l), (2), (3)). It is significant that the na-maps are characterized by the corresponding invariant conditions for values similar to the Thomas parameters and the Weyl tensor (the invariants of conformal maps [16]). Below we present the criterions for a space V
to be ng-flat. PROPOSITION 1. For the ng-flat spaces there are satisfied the following conditions: the 7r(())-spaces,

-for

W$, -for the 7rCl)-spaces,

= R.” u.y6 - ;R ,,&,

= 0;

(23)

3D-,Pi,$ = 2RiLp), + 6b(aP,2y, + ~u(,,S,‘,; -for the T(~)-spaces,

(24)

where

(26) R,, = - R,, + eF,“(F,pR&, - 2eFiDc,F:D,FF + F,pR&, - 2D,D16F,q (27)

+ eFiDc,FgDrF,“);

TWISTORS AND NEARLY AUTOPARALLEL

MAPS

315

-for

the r(+puces,

Rprvys Atgu,m - gamy) + 4L7ptgarm - gawr) - vGhw45- mw~)l~ (28) =
where A=-1[~--2(~~~‘)1; for

A+B+($+ru2)

=O,

e=&l,

(29)

scme gradient vector p, =

-$f$and

scalar

v(p) welds.

We note that for the Ricci tensor follows the expression

of the ;?s-flat spaces from (28) and (29) it

2.4. The integrability conditions for q-maps

equations

Ail presented in this paper basic equations for the ng-maps (equations (17) (18) and (ZO)-(22)) are systems of the first-order partial differential equations with algebraic constraints of type (19). The integrability conditions for the ng-map equations have been studied in [4] and, in the language of the Pffaf systems [17-201, in [5, 6, 131. The most important conclusion made in the mentioned works is that we can always verify, by using algebraic methods, whether a given system of the ng-map equations on V is, or is not, integrable for maps to the Minkowski space. Let us illustrate this for maps nl: V -+ &J specified by the equations 3(&P;-; f P;;P<;) = 2Ri;‘a,p)r + 6a(,&) (31)

(these equations can be obtained from (14) by using auxiliary rro-maps, v ZV --i hf, see [4]). The integrability conditions of (32) can be written as

where K&E = - ~~~~~.~~~ + LV&), f 6P~~~R~.~~ + 4”&&‘& + (33) (34)

-f- fiP;lS&ap,) - 6~~~~~~a~~~. From (32) we obtain 3&a& = $f-,(,,), - s.‘,o,,.

Equations (31) and (34) form a Cauchy system of the first-order partial differential equations (with the coefficients given by such geometrical objects as connection and curvature on V) for the unknown variables P&T and a,B. The first set of integrability conditions for the system of equations (31) and (34) can be found from (32) by excluding the covariant derivations of a,@ according to (34). As a result we obtain the integrability conditions in the form of linear equations for the deformation tensor Pii. Introducing the second, third and higher sets of the

316

S. I. VACARU and S. V. OSTM

integrability conditions, we are able, in general, to clarify the question of existence of solutions of (31) and (34). We note that in a similar manner we can construct sets of the integrability conditions for the nc2)-, and r(j)-maps, cf. (20) and (22). 2.5. Spinor formalism
and the ng-map theory

This question was studied in detail in [13, 141 by means of deformations (by ng-maps) of spin coefficients (7) in spinor covariant derivation operator (8). Using the g-coefficients we can transform basic ng-map equations (18), (20) and (22) and flat projectivity conditions (23), (24) and (28) into a spinor form. We omit these considerations here. For our purposes it is important that for every deformation of the spin coefficients *r,:(z) (see splitting (7)) we can define a corresponding deformation tensor (see expressions (5)-(7)) (35) Putting (35), for example, into (33) we obtain a system of algebraic equations, if necessary in spinor variables with a spinor representation of the curvature and deformation parameters, which permits us to answer the question whether the given deformation of the spin coefficients generates, or not, a map rC1): V + M. Finally, in this section, we note that every curved space V, if corresponding conditions on differentiability of the components of metric, connection and curvature on V are satisfied, admits a finite chain of ng-maps, i.e. a nc-transform, to the Minkowski space M [5-9, 131. So, it is possible a new classification of the curved spaces in terms of minimal chains of ng-maps characterized by the corresponding sets of invariant conditions of type (23)-(25) and (28). This ng-map classification of curved spaces differs from the well-known Petrov algebraic classification [21]. 3. Nearly conformal twistors

The purpose of this section is to define twistors on ng-flat spaces.
3.1. Spinor equations for massless fields with spin irn (m = 0, 1,2,. . .) and twistor

equations Let a spinor $AB...L have m indices and be symmetric:
+A&L = #(A&-L).

(36)

The dynamic equations

for a massless spin

$rn

field are written as (37) spinor field (36) can (38)

DAA’~~~...~

= 0.

The compatibility be written as

conditions

[22, 23, l] of (37) for uncharged (m ~)~AJ~M(cT.,.K*~~~~ = 0,

TWISTORS AND NEARLY AUTOPARALLEL

MAPS

317

where @LABM is the Weyl spinor on space V. Because conditions (38) are not satisfied on the generic curved spaces, there is an essential difficulty in definition of physical fields (36) as solutions of equations (37). The same difficulty appears for twistor equations (lo), rewritten on the space V:
DjqqwB) = 0 >

(39)

with the compatibility

conditions DA’(CDA wB) = _@A.BJ’, ..D
A’

3.2. Systems of first-order

partial

differential

equations

The above-mentioned field and twistor equations ((37) and (10)) are systems of the first-order partial differential equations. We shall study the general properties of such systems of equations using methods of the geometrical theory of differential equations [17-201. Let us consider, in general form, a system of the first-order partial differential equations on a space V”, dim V/” = n:

fs x1
).“)

(

xn,yl,...,

y$$

)...)

g)

=o,
. . . , yT

s = 1,2,

. . .) q,

where x1,. . .,x” are independent variables and y’, traducing new unknown variables (functions) dy” P%=@ we reduce equations

are unknown functions. In-

6 = 1)“‘) r; & = l)... ;n,

(40) to a Pffaf system 8” = dy” _ #dxb = 0, (41)

where the variables p$ satisfy a set of finite relations: f&a, y”,&) = 0. (42)

Solving (42) for q independent values p” = {pi} and putting them into (41) we obtain a system of T Pffaf equations on i = T + nr -q unknown functions of independent variables z? (differentials dz& play the role of distinguished variables). Let ti be an open region locally isomorphic to Ri+n. We write the new Pffaf system as 0” = @i(z’,
p”)dp” +

bf (z”, p’)dz” = 0,

(43)

where A = 1,2,. . ., r; iL = 1,2,. . ., T + TV_ q. Equations (42) are linearly independent if rank I]c$]~ 5 r at every point x& of an open region U c V”. We mention that the integral varieties IO of the system (43) should be defined by the equations (the closure of (43)):

318

S. I. VACARU and S. V. OSTAF
0” = 0,

DOA = 0,

(44)

where the quadratic
Dt+

exterior forms are written as
= a;&dp” A dp’ + C&&dp” A dx” + b/i,bdx:a A dx!

If a solution ya = yQ@“) of equations (40) (or equivalently grability conditions (45) (41) and (42)) is found, it must satisfy the intedy” dxfldya ’
= a&p;,

dy” -=dy”ldxP or, equivalently,
a,p;

(46) to total

i.e., if equations (40) are compatible, differential relations

the Pffaf system (41) can be reduced = 0.

dX” = dy” -p%dz* In this case solution (45) should be obtained
P(yb,xb) =

from the relations C” = const,

c”,

where rank I/$$

#O. If conditions

(46) are not satisfied, one tries to solve equation X”
Xa

(40) by introducing

new unknown functions
jyg = pi - e

(47)

and considering

a new Pffaf system -e” = dy” - pzdz” = 0, (48) relation, we multiply (48) by

where yS(xir, y&,5:) = 0. To obtain a total differential a nondegenerate matrix function 1_1j(x”, y”):

dXb = +jdyb - Cl&&&+ = 0. Integrating system (49) we obtain relations -. Xb(x”, y”) = C”, Cb = const,

(49)

from which the solution y” = y&(x”) of equations (40) can be found in an explicit form. We note that if the deformation functions <‘” from (46) and the integrating matrix p$ from (48) exist, the Pffaf system (41) can be expressed as 0” = dy” _ && = d<” + (p-1);&“,

TWISTORS

AND

NEARLY

AUTOPARALLEL

MAPS

319

where (p-‘)b” is inverse to phi,. As particular cases we can consider the trivial inteb grating matrix, ,L$ = Sk, and (or) vanishing deformation when <” = const. We also emphasize that introducing new deformed variables (47) and a matrix bf into relations (42) we obtain new finite relations fs(za, @,pE) = 0 which, as a matter of principle, reflect deformation of the first-order partial dffferential equations (40) into another ones (actually, for every given system (40), there exists an infinite number of deformations (46) and integrating matrices pf). Considering equations (40) as fundamental physical equations of type (37) or (39) one arises the problem of the definition of a unique deformation, motivated from the physical and geometrical point of view, transforming mentioned, in general incompatible on the curved spaces, equations into the compatible ones, on some auxiliary spaces, 3.3. Ng-deformations
of twistor equations

As was shown, the twistor equations happen to be incompatible on a given curved space V. Our aim is to formulate an algorithm of transporting the above-mentioned differential equations, by using ng-maps, from a space V to another one, y, on which compatibility conditions (11) will be satisfied. In this case we extend our system of the twistor equations by introducing into consideration additional variables (deformation parameters (15) a,p and b,, and the deformation of connection, Pi;), and we supplement the initial twistor system on V by a system of basic ng-map equations on E. Let us illustrate this construction for the twistor equations (39) rewritten as a Pffaf system (41):
dwA - pC’CAdzcc, = 0, (50)

where the unknown functions
P
C’CA _
i3W

A

dXCC~

satisfy finite relations of type (42):
A’(AWu~ P A’(AB) + y,,D = o. 7 (51)

are spin-coefficients on space V. Twistor equations (39) and their associated &f” Pffaf system (50) and (51) are incompatible on the generic curved space-time V. We suggest to extend this system of equations by considering a new system of differential equations:
DA’(A;B) = n~$A.Wzn >

(52)

or equivalently,

a new Pffaf system associated to (52):
dw
-A

-p -C’CA&CC,

= 0,

(53)

where the unknown functions jjCfCA = * must satisfy the relations azc,, A’(A.QD + I1~;A-B)ij~ = o. ijA’(AB) + y,,n

(54)

320

S. I. VACARU and S.V. OSTAF

Spinors II,., B from (52) can be considered as those resulting from a deformation A’A of type (47) and a multiplication by an integrating matrix as in (49). Introducing the ng-maps we identify A-spinors with the deformation of spin-coefficients *$ (see relation (7)):
A...B ‘J'AD = dye&). (55)

PROPOSITION 2. Deformed twistor equations (52) (and associated twistor PfJkf systern (53) and (54)) are compatible if spinors (55) solve one of the ng-map equations ((16), (17), (18)-(20) and (21)-(22)) and satis& one of the corresponding ng-put criterions ((23), (24), (25) and (28)). Proof: Let us define new spin-coefficients

which according to our proposition become the trivial (with the vanishing curvature) spin-coefficients on a flat space M. In this case equations (52) can be written as
fj~'(~p) -.o _ (56)

Equations (56) are compatible because on the flat space % the Weyl tensor vanishes (see relations (11) (12)). The proposition is proved. n of the ng-maps, we can consider chains of ng-maps (nc-transforms) nc: V -+ M. Nc-twistors are defined as solutions of the deformed twistor equations with A-spinor, being a superposition of the spin tensors Instead

(57)
associated to a finite chain of ng-maps. In a particular (55), we obtain ng-twistors. 3.4. Ng-images
of twisters

case when (57) reduces

to

On the flat space M twistors are defined as a pair of spinors, z” where WA $,, = (o)~A, = const, - = &‘),A _ izAB’U’)~B,, is a general solution of the twistor equations D A’(AWB)= 0. -

= (gA, EA),

Nc-twistors on space V, being an nc-coimage of the space M, for a given map nc : V t iW, are defined as a pair of spinors 2” = (uA, TA,), where wA is a general solution of the nc-twistor equations DA’(A~B) _ AA’tA.B)W~ > - ..D
(58)

with A-spinors defined by (57). F or a local common spinor coordinate system on spaces under consideration, we can write tiA = wA and define a second spinor TAl

TWISTORS AND NEARLY AUTOPARALLEL MAPS

321 have
(59)

as

TAG

=

~DAA’w~.

Taking into account that ‘A, = iDAA,wA, TA, 3)
TA’ 1 .n...A 28 AA’& C .

we

In a similar manner we can define the dual nc-twistors on V as the pairs of spinors W, = (AA, p”), where AA = (‘)x/i + $~.;i&,~A’
and p,A’ = (0)pA’ + ixAA’(‘)XA 7

(‘)xA = const,

is a general solution of the dual nc-twistor equation DA(A’~B’) = npl;j’J’$D’.

The spinors AA$~, are defined as a superposition of the ng-transformation like in equation (57). We end this section by considering the question of the geometrical interpretation of nc-twistors. To an isotropic twistor Z” = (gA, TA’) # 0, Z”Z, = 0 (I, = (?&, aA’) denotes the complex conjugation of z”) one associates [2] an isotropic line on the space M: xa = CO),,+ n<a,
711< rl <

r/2,

(60)

where cO)za = (i (“)~“.(Ill?rg,)-lO)~A~O,~~~, <” = (‘J),A(a)#‘. _ and z” on the space V are defined = (?TA,gA’), where as 2”

The nc-coimages of z” = (wA, ?r,&) and, respectively, as z,

WA = - = (QWA_ izAA’(0),rA,, WA and ~~ =(a)~~ _ +;i,,$,,;C’,wA’

=A, = (‘&A, - ;i&‘&#,

(61)

= y-4’. U sing spinors (61) we can verify that Z”Z, # 0, (62)

i.e., an nc-twistor Za defined by an isotropic twistor z* is not isotropic. So the nc-twistors on space V parametrize a class of curves on this space as theirs nc-images (of type (60)) on the flat space A4, but unlike to the usual isotropic twistors, to an nc-twistor one must associate a nearly geodesic on V being a corresponding nc-deformation of an isotropic line in the flat space. Indeed, the nc-image of isotropic line (60) on M is a curve I on V (because of (62)) with the tangent vector ECZ KATA’ and a complementary 2-dimensional distribution defined, for example, by = <;“1,= EbDbE” and t(az, = [bDb[[l,, where Db = & + *Db,*Db is a deformation of connection associated to the map nc: JJ + V. 4. Deformation
of spinor and twistor structures and generation of curved spaces

Let on a flat space M with given primitive spin-coefficients ~~i,o, or a connection F$ ( with vanishing curvature) be defined a global twistor structure as a solution of twistor equations on M. Our task is to specify conditions under which a deformed

322

S.I.VACARU and S.V. OSTAF

twistor structure, obtained as a solution of deformed twistor equations (58) with the deformation A-spinor of type (55) will generate an ng-flat (pseudo)-Riemannian space-time. Firstly, we fix a spinor Ai,:o. It is still not clear if the new connection $;, defined as to satisfy the relations (63) where
p(.$q = _A,.$.$ _ X-C’
aBtEB

.c

(64)

(for simplicity we consider torsionless connections) will generate both the compatible ng-twistor equations (56) and the basic ng-map equations associated to a mutual transform ng: V + M. We try to answer this question in the following way. Calculating auxiliary curvature and the Ricci tensor for connection (63) and putting both these expressions and deformation tensor (64) into relations (32)-(34), we obtain an algebraic system of equations. If this system is satisfied for some deformation parameters a,p and b, (see formulae (15)) it is clear that we have obtained a 7rclj-flat space V.
PROPOSITION 3. Deformation spinor A.;i2,o and its corresponding deformation tensor P&T (see (64)) generate a vacuum Einstein field if and only if it is compatible with the system of partial differential equations: 8, Pijy = 2(bc,.Ptiyj + awq (b, and a,0 are some covariant vector and symmetric tensor fields, respectively).

(65)

Proof: We sketch the proof by observing that equations (65) can be obtained by contracting the indices Q and T in equations (18) written for a map ~(1): M, where R aB = 0 and RorPyb = 0. Of course, to find general solutions of equations (65) in an explicit form is also a difficult task. But we can verify, by solving algebraic equations w (see Subsection 2.4), if equations (65) are, or are not, integrable.

In a similar manner we can analyse the problem of generation of the rr(z)-flat and r(s)-flat spaces. Let us consider, for example, the 7rc2)-transforms. In this case we shall parametrize the deformation spinor (55) in such a form as to induce a deformation tensor of type (18). A-spinors should be also chosen in such a way as to induce a deformation tensor (64) satisfying conditions (25) for the r(2)-maps. Calculating an auxiliary curvature and the Ricci tensors for connection (63), and putting both tensors into (26) and (27) and taking into account the basic T(z)-map equations, we obtain that criterion (25) is an algebraic equation on the tensors Rap+, Rng, F,$ and the covariant vector field p_,. It is evident that the foregoing considerations point out at a to mutual interrelation between integrable deformations of the twistor equations and the criterions of invariance and integrability of basic equations for the ng-maps rather than constitute a method to solve the Einstein equation because no explicit constructions of metric have been considered in our study. Perhaps the twistor-gauge formulation of gravity

TWISTORS

AND

NEARLY

AUTOPARALLEL

MAPS

323

on flat nearly autoparallel backgrounds [7, 12, 141 is more convenient for the twistor treatment of gravity. The interrelation between nc-twistors and gauge gravity is a matter of our further investigations. Finally, we remark that this paper contains a part of results (concerning the definition of nc-twistors on locally isotropic spaces) communicated by us during the Colloquium on Differential Geometry (Debrecen, Hungary, 25-30 July 1994) [24]. There we have also presented some generalizations on the spinor and twistor calculus for locally anisotropic spaces (which generalize the Lagrange and Finsler spaces) [25, 261. The geometric constructions developed in this paper and in [12, 71 (in the framework of the so-called twistor-gauge treatment of gravity) admit a straightforward extension to locally anisotropic spaces if we apply the formalism of locally anisotropic spinors and twistors [27, 281 and use the gauge-like formulations of locally anisotropic gravity [26, 11, 10, 13, 141.
REFERENCES

[II PI
[31

R. Penrose 1984. R. Penrose 1984.

and and

W. Rindler: W. Rindler:

Spinors

and Space-time,

V.l.,

Cambridge

University University si Pedagogica,

Press, Press,

Cambridge Cambridge 1977

Spinors and Space-time, V.2., Cambridge differentiala, V.2., Ed. Didactica

G. Vranceanu: (in Romanian).

Lectii de Geomettie

Bucuresti

[41 N. S. Sinyukov: Geodesic Maps of Riernannian Spaces, Nauka, Moscow 1979 (in Russian). S. Vacaru: Romanian J. Phys. 39 (lYY4), 37. PI 161 S. Vacaru and S. Ostaf: Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Repuhlicii Moldova, fzica si tehnica 3
(1993) 4. Buletinul Academiei de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova, fizica si tehnica 3 (1993) and Finsler Geometry, P. L. Antonelli and R. Miron 17. (eds.).

[71 PI PI

S. Vacaru:

S. Vacaru and S. Ostaf: in Lagrange Kluwer, Dordrecht 1996, p. 241. S. Vacaru and (1994) 64. S. Ostaf: and

Buletinul Academiei Yu. Goncharenko:

de Stiinte a Republicii Moldova, fizica si tehnica 1 19Y. et al. (eds.).

[lOI S. Vacaru, 1111 S. Vacaru:
Kazani

S. Ostaf

Romanian .f. Phys. 39 (1994)

Contr. Int. Conf “Lobachevski and Modem University Press, 1992, p. 64. tistnik Most. University 28 (1987)

Geometry”, Part II, V. Bajanov

1121
[I31 [I41 WI [I61
[17] [1X] [lo] [20] [21]

S. Vacaru: S. Vacaru: Condensed S. Vacaru: K. Yano:

5 (in Russian).

Applications of Nearly Autoparallel Maps and Twistor-Gauge Methods in Gravity and States, PhD Thesis. “Al. I. Cuza” University, Ia$, Romania 1993 (in Romanian). Twistors and Nearly Autoparallel Maps of Curved Spaces (subm. Concircular Geometry, I-IV. Proc. Imp. Acad. Tokyo, 16 (1940), and D. Struik: Einfihrung in die neucren Medoden to Rep. Rom. Phys. ), 195; 354; 442; 505.

S. A. Schouten 1, 2, 1938. E. Cartan: 1945.

den Differentiol Geometrie, Bund Geometriques, Herman, Paris

Les Systems Differentielles Exterieurs et Leurs Application

M. Haimovichi: Selected Papers, Finsler Geometry, “ALL Cuza” Univ., la$i, Romania lY84. S. V. Finnikov: The Method of the Cartan Exterior Differential Forms in Differential Geometry, Gostekhizdat, Moscow 1948 (in Russian). P. K. Rashevsky: Geomettic Theory of Differential Equations, Gostekhizdat, Moscow 1947 (in Russian). A. Z. Petrov: Einstein Spaces, Pergamon Press, Oxford 196Y.

324
[22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]
[28]

S. I. VACARU and S. V. OSTAF H. Buchdahl: Nouvo Cim. 10 (1950), 96. .I. Plebadski: Actu Phys. Polon. 27 (1965) 361. S. Vacaru and S. Ostaf: in Abstracts of Contributions to the Colloquium on Differential Geometry, 25-30 July 1994, Lajos Kossuth University, Debrecen, Hungary 1994, p. 56. R. Miron and M. Anastasiei: The Geometry of Lagrange Spaces: Theory and Applications, Kluwer, Dordrecht, Boston, London 1994. S. Vacaru and Yu. Goncharenko: Int. J. Theor. Phys. 34 (1995) 1955. S. Vacaru: Spinor structures and nonlinear connections in vector bundles, generalized Lagrange and Finsler spaces (to appear in J. Math. Phys. 36 (1995)). S. Vacaru: Spinors in multidimensional and locally anisotropic spaces (in preparation).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful