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PRETREATMENTPROCESSESFOR

POTABLEWATERTREATMENT
7 May 2014

PLANTS
JEFFLINDGREN ENGINEERINGMANAGER
B&V WATER
AGENDA
ConventionalPretreatment
FocusonClarification(includingSedimentation)
Theory/GoalsofClarification
ReviewofHighRateClarificationTechnologies
ComparisonofTechnologies
ProjectExamples

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CONVENTIONAL
PRETREATMENT

Typically.
RapidMixFlocculationSedimentationFiltration

Advantages
Simplicity
Widelyused
Handlevaryingwaterquality
Familiarity(Regulatory,Operations)

Disadvantages
LargeFootprint
Highercost,particularlywithlimitedsite
Wind/algaegrowth/solidsremoval 3
THEORY/GOALSOF
CLARIFICATION

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THEORY/GOALSOFCLARIFICATION

Clarification
Partofpretreatmentprocess
Multiplegoals turbidity/particles,TotalOrganicCarbon
(TOC),etc.
Removesolidspriortofiltration maximize
filtrationprocesses
Sizingoftendefinedinhydraulicloadingrate
(gpm/sform/hr) translatestosettlingvelocity
0.5gpm/sf=1.2m/h=0.066ft/min

Vo = Depth/Detention Time
= Q/A (gpm/sq. ft. or m/hr)

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THEORY/GOALSOFCLARIFICATION

Whyconsidersomethingbesidesconventional
clarification?
Limitedrealestateavailable
Costadvantages oftensitespecific
Rawwaterquality
Algae
Lightfloc
Regardlessofclarificationprocesschosen:
Coagulation/flocculation conditioningoffloc
iscritical
Settledturbidityisnotendgoal

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REVIEWOFHIGH
RATE
CLARIFICATION
TECHNOLOGIES

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HIGHRATECLARIFICATIONOPTIONS

PlateandTubeSettlers
UpflowSolidsClarifiers(Pulsator)
SolidsContactClarifiers(Densadeg)
BallastedFlocculation
DissolvedAirFlotation(DAF)
Others:
ContactAdsorptionClarifiers
DirectFiltration

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RELATIVELOADINGRATES
SurfaceLoadingRate
gpm/sq.ft.

Conventional TubeSettler Super PlateSettler DAF Densadeg Ballasted


Pulsator Flocculation

Higher Loading Rate = More Capacity 9


CLARIFICATIONTECHNOLOGIES
CONDITIONSOFAPPLICABILITY
Coagulant Dose, mg/l

50 DAF
(Heavy DAF (Light Particles)
Particles)
40 Conventional Sedimentation
30 Tube and Plate Settlers
Solids Clarifiers
20 Ballasted Flocculation
10 DF
CAC
0
0 15 25 50 75 100 125 150
Turbidity, NTU
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INCLINEDPLATESEDIMENTATION

Courtesy:JMS

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Courtesy:MRI
1. PARTICLES FALL
VERTICALLY THEREFORE
SEE THE AREA = TO THE
HORIZONTAL PROJECTED
AREA
3. AS A RESULT
A BASIN WITH
PLATES
2. THE HORIZONTAL
REQUIRES
PROJECTED AREA OF
MUCH LESS
ALL OF THE PLATES
AREA THAN A
ARE ADDED UP
BASIN WITHOUT
PLATES
INCLINEDPLATESEDIMENTATION

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INCLINEDPLATESEDIMENTATION

Effectivesurfaceloadingrates withoutplates
SurfacewaterwithAlumorFerric
0.250.50gpm/ft2
Presedimentation
0.751.50gpm/ft2
Equivalentsurfaceloadingrates withplates:

Courtesy:JMS
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INCLINEDPLATESEDIMENTATION

Advantages
Smallfootprintarea/easilycovered
Widelyused
Potential$savingsvs.conventional
Disadvantages
Deeperbasinrequired
Notalwaysamenabletoretrofitsinexistingbasins
Obstructaccessandviewofsludgecollectionequipment
Considerations
Consistencyofflocsize
Sludgewithdrawal
Retrofits spacebeneathplates
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TUBESETTLERS

Similarconcepttoplatesettlers
Shorterlengthcanoftenmore
easilyfitinexistingbasins
Less$thanplates
Lesscontrolofflowascompared
toplates
Wherelargesolidsvolume,canbe
susceptibletoreentrainmentof
solids
Longevity

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UPFLOWSOLIDSCLARIFIER
(IDISUPERPULSATOR)

Sludgeblanketclarifier(2 4gpm/ft2)
Flocculationandsedimentationinonebasin
Pulsedflowthroughthebasin createdbyvacuum
pump
Inclinedplateswithandwithouttubesettlers
20+Yearsofinstalledexperience over150US
installations

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Superpulsator Clarifier
Vent Vacuum Pump
Valve
Vacuum
Chamber
Collection
Channel

Collection
Laterals
Blowdown
Pipes

Settling
Plates
Concentrator

Distribution
Channel Distribution
Laterals
Courtesy:IDI

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Superpulsator Type U Clarifier
Vacuum Pump
Vent Valve

Collection Vacuum
Channel Chamber

Lamellar
Collection Tubes
Laterals

Blowdown
Pipes

Settling
Plates
Concentrator

Distribution
Channel Distribution Courtesy:IDI
Laterals

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VENTINGANDPULSING

Vent Valve Vent Valve


Vacuum Pump
Vacuum Pump Closed
Open

Vacuum
Vacuum
Chamber
Chamber

Sludge Blanket
Sludge Blanket Contraction
Expansion

Periodic sludge discharge


0.2 to 0.5% solids

Venting: 8 to 12 seconds Pulling a Vacuum: 40 to 50 seconds


Courtesy:IDI

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UPFLOWSOLIDSCLARIFIER
(IDISUPERPULSATOR)

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UPFLOWSOLIDSCLARIFIER
(IDISUPERPULSATOR)
Advantages
Nomovingpartsbelowsurface
AbilitytoincorporatePACinsludgeblanket(T&O/TOC)
Potential$savingsvsconventional
Capableofhighflocculationefficiency
Provenperformance/stateacceptance
Disadvantages
Heavysolidscansettleandrequireperiodicremoval
Canbedifficulttocontrolwhenflowrateorwaterqualitychange
Considerations
Settlingvelocityofsolids homogeneousandcontrolled
Susceptibletoupsetwithtemperaturechange
Needtomanageblowdown
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SOLIDSCONTACTCLARIFIER(IDIDENSADEG)

Highratesolidscontactclarifier
(8 12gpm/ft2 ascomparedto
0.75 1.5fortraditionalSCUs)
Mixing,solidsrecirculation,
clarification/thickening
Versatile clarification,
softening,residualshandling
Waterandwastewater
applications
20Yearsofinstalledexperience
over50USinstallationsand
150installationsworldwide 23
SOLIDSCONTACTCLARIFIER(IDIDENSADEG)
Clarifier / Thickener
Rapid Mix Reactor Recirculation Cone Settling
Turbine Drive Launder Lifting Assembly Tube
Turbine Reactor Assembly Assembly
Draft Tube

Coagulant

Settling
Tube Support
Polymer

Sludge Sludge
Flow Recycle Pump Recirculation Sludge
Splitter Blowdown
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DESIGNCRITERIA
REACTOR RETENTION:
LOADING RATE:
8-10 min
8 to 10 gpm/ft2 (clarification)
10 to 15 gpm/ft2 (softening)

CAPACITY per UNIT:


1 to 22 MGD (concrete)
0.15 to 14 MGD (steel)

RAPID MIX RETENTION:


2 to 3 min (clarification)

SLUDGE BLOWDOWN:
SLUDGE RECYCLE: CLARIFIER RETENTION:
2% to 4% (clarification)
3% to 6% 23 to 28 min
5% to 20% (softening)

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SOLIDSCONTACTCLARIFIER(IDIDENSADEG)

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SOLIDSCONTACTCLARIFIER(IDIDENSADEG)

Advantages
Smallfootprintarea
AbilitytoincorporatePAC
Potential$savingsvs.conventional
Disadvantages
Pilottestingrequirements
Lotofsteelinternals maintenance
Needssludgeinventory longerstartuptimes
Considerations
Needspolymer effectonfilterability
Needtomanageblowdown
Susceptibletoupsetwithtemperaturechange
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BALLASTEDFLOCCULATION ACTIFLO

Kruger Actiflo
Traditional

Kruger Actiflo
Turbo

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BALLASTEDFLOCCULATION

Highrateballastedflocculationclarifier(1530
gpm/sq.ft)
Useofmicrosandtoballastflocs makesparticles
sinkfaster
50 100microneffectivesize(smallersandtendstowork
better)
Useofhydrocyclones microsandrecoveryfromthe
sludge
Dilutesolids
15Yearsofinstalledexperience over120US
installations
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BALLASTEDFLOCCULATION

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BALLASTEDFLOCCULATION

Coagulation 1 - 2 minutes
(Flash Mix)
Injection 1 - 2 minutes
(Flash Mix)
Maturation 4 - 6 minutes
(Flocculation)
Settling (20 gpm/sf): 2 minutes

: 8 - 12 minutes
Total Detention Time

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BALLASTEDFLOCCULATION

Advantages
Smallfootprintarea
Quickresponsetoadjustments
Potential$savingsvs.conventional
Disadvantages
Higherpowerconsumption
Pilottestingrequirements
Lowsolidscontentinsludge
Moreprocesselementstocontrolandoptimize
Considerations
Needspolymer effectonfilterability
Sandisconsumed(loss) ~8lbs/MG
Sandpumps/pipingneedspecialdesign 32
DISSOLVEDAIRFLOTATION

Reaction Separation
Zone Zone
Float Sludge
Weir
Aerated Layer
Waste
Solids
Clarified Layer
Baffle
Effluent Collection

Air
Compressor Recycle
Receiver Recycle
Saturated Pump
Recycle
Saturator 33
DISSOLVEDAIRFLOTATION

Floatsolidsinsteadofsettle
Primarilyforlowturbidity/lowsolidsapplications
Excellentforalgaeremoval(algaelikestofloat)and
waterswiththermalvariation
Options
Conventional(25gpm/ft2)
StackedDAF Filtration(46gpm/ft2)
HighRateDAF(620gpm/ft2)

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DISSOLVEDAIRFLOTATION

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DAFDESIGNPARAMETERS

Recyclestreampressure:60 90psi
Flocculationtime:5 20minutes
Flotationzonedetentiontime
5 15Minutes
SurfaceLoadingRate:2 6gpm/ft2
Highrate:6 20gpm/ft2

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DISSOLVEDAIRFLOTATION

Advantages
Smallfootprintarea
Generallynotpolymerdependent(lesslikelytoreducefilterruns)
Idealforlightsolids
Highsludgesolidsconcentration(2 5%)w/mechanicalscraping
Disadvantages
Highpowercosts
Pilottestingrequirements
Considerations
Definitionofloadingrates(basinarea,recycle)
RawwaterDO
Sludgetransportw/mechanicalscraping
Heavysolidscancreatedifficulties
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COMPARISONOF
TECHNOLOGIES

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COMPARISONOFALTERNATIVE
CLARIFICATIONPROCESSES

Eachcaseneedstobeevaluatedonitsown
individualcircumstances
Waterquality
Treatmentgoals
Regulations
Existinginfrastructure/personnel
Spaceavailability
Costsensitivity
Soletslookatsomeexamples
Nospacelimitations
Warmweather/water
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SPACE/VOLUMERELATESTOCONCRETE

Conventional
31,500 sq ft

Plates
9,600 sq ft

DAF
6,000 sq ft

Actiflo
4,000 sq ft 40
EVALUATIONOFDIFFERENTIALCAPITALCOSTS
(24MGDWTP)

$6,000,000

$5,000,000

$4,000,000
EquipmentCost
$3,000,000
Concrete
$2,000,000

$1,000,000

$0
Conv Plates DAF Actiflo

Concrete matters but equipment does too 41


EVALUATIONOFOPERATINGCOSTS,
EXCLUDINGLABOR
(24MGDWTP)
$80,000
$70,000
$60,000 AdditionalPolymer
$50,000
Microsand
$40,000
$30,000 ElectricalCost
$20,000 ($.10/kWh)

$10,000
$0
Conv Plates DAF Actiflo

Power is a major variable to consider 42


COMPARISONOFTECHNOLOGIES
SUMMARY
Manychoicesforhighratesedimentation
Availablefornewplants,retrofits
Selectionissitespecificbasedon
Watersource
Existingfacilities
Spaceavailability
Enhancedcoagulationneeds/DBPreduction
Weather
Cost
Pilottestingmaybeneeded
Includefiltration
Effectivecoagulationstillcritical
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PROJECTEXAMPLES

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EWEB
HaydenBridgeWaterTreatmentPlant

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EWEB Contact Basin No. 2 (of 3) 46
EWEB Contact Basin No. 3 (of 3)
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UNITEDWATER
20mgdLakeDeForestWTP
Retrofit
Clarkstown,NewYork

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InsightH2O High-Rate Clarification Alternatives 26 March 2013

INITIALPROCESSFLOWDIAGRAM

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InsightH2O High-Rate Clarification Alternatives 26 March 2013

REVISEDPROCESSFLOWDIAGRAM

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InsightH2O High-Rate Clarification Alternatives 26 March 2013

ORIGINALSITEPLAN 10MGD

Sedimentation Flocculation
Aerator

Filter
Building

Control
Building

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InsightH2O High-Rate Clarification Alternatives 26 March 2013

REVISEDSITEPLAN 20MGD

Sedimentation Flocculation
DAF

12gpm/sfdesign
15gpm/sfpilottestedandpermitted
Filter
Building
FiltersReratedfrom10to20mgd
Control
Building
6,000sq.ft.preengineeredbuilding

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BALLASTEDFLOCCULATION
PRETREATMENTATTHE
CHANDLER,AZPECOSWTP
VICTORIASHARP CITYOFCHANDLER
CHANDLERPECOSWTPSUPERINTENDENT
PROJECTOVERVIEW
30mgd
Conventional
30mgd
Ballasted
Flocculation

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AHYBRIDPLANT
FWPS2

FWPS1 Conv
Basin 1

Conv Presed
Res 2 Res 1 Basin 2 Basins

RWPS1
Conv
Basin 3 Keptexisting30mgdof
Filters
1-8
BF
conventional
Basin 4
pretreatment.
Filters
BF
9-12
Basin 5 RWPS2
Added30mgdofnew
ballastedflocculation
pretreatment.
Operatebothinparallel
PROJECTOVERVIEW

upstreamofanthracite
monomediafilters.

Section Headingoptional 55
WHYBALLASTEDFLOCCULATION?

Resultedinlongerfilterruns.
Lesstendencyforturbiditybreakthrough.
Muchsmallerfootprintthanconventionalbasins.
Shorterdetentiontimesallowingchangesinwater
qualitytobeapparentquicker.
Positivefeedbackfromtheoperationsand
maintenancegroupduringatourofthePassaic
PILOTINGSTUDY

ValleyWaterCommissionplantinNewJersey.

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OPERATIONALOBSERVATIONS

Handlesturbiditychangeswell.
Changesinwaterqualityshowupin20minutes,
ratherthanhoursinaconventionalbasin.
Usesmorechemicals.
Lesssandisneededthanwasoriginalassumedby
operations.

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30mgdBFBasins

30mgdConventionalBasins

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PASSAICVALLEY
WATERCOMMISSION
110mgdLittleFallsWTPRetrofit
Clifton,NewJersey

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InsightH2O High-Rate Clarification Alternatives 26 March 2013

LITTLEFALLSWTP PROCESSSEQUENCE

Filter
Building

Existing
Basins 3 & 4
Existing Basins 1 & 2

Control
Building

Existing
Chemical
Building

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InsightH2O High-Rate Clarification Alternatives 26 March 2013

LITTLEFALLSWTP PROCESSSEQUENCE

Filter
Building

Existing
Basins 3 & 4
Existing Basins 1 & 2

Control
Building

New ACTIFLO
Building

Four Trains at 40 gpm/sf 61


InsightH2O High-Rate Clarification Alternatives 26 March 2013

LITTLEFALLSWTP PROCESSSEQUENCE

Filter
Building
New
Chemical
Residuals Storage
Storage

Control
Building New Ozone
Facilities

New ACTIFLO
Building

3,600 ppd Ozone 3.5 mg/L dose 62


InsightH2O High-Rate Clarification Alternatives 26 March 2013

LITTLEFALLSWTP PROCESSSEQUENCE
GAC
Filter
Building
New
Chemical
Residuals Storage
Storage

Control
Building New Ozone
Facilities

New ACTIFLO
Building

Converted from anthracite/sand to 42 GAC 63


CALIFORNIAWATERSERVICE
COMPANY
NEBAKERSFIELD,CAWTP
PRETREATMENT
PROJECTDESCRIPTION
CAPACITY:22MGD
STARTUP:JUNE2003
RAWWATERSOURCE KERNRIVER
PREOXIDATION&COAGULATION
TWOSTAGEFLOCCULATION
HIGHRATESEDIMENTATION
MEMBRANEFILTRATION
SOURCEDESCRIPTION
KERNRIVER
NORMALCONDITIONS
TURBIDITY:3TO6NTU
TOC:2.5 3.0
COLOR:50 100
EXTREMECONDITIONS
TURBIDITY:16000NTU
TOC:6+
COLOR:500+
PROCESSDESCRIPTION
RAPIDMIX
TWOSTAGEFLOCCULATION
HIGHRATECLARIFICATION
PARKSONPLATESETTLERS
0.32GPM/SQFTLOADINGRATE
TRACKGUIDEDSLUDGEREMOVALSYSTEM
NORTHTEXAS
MUNICIPALWATER
DISTRICT
900mgdWylieWTPRetrofit

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InsightH2O High-Rate Clarification Alternatives 26 March 2013

NTMWD WYLIEWTP

Plant III
328 mgd
Plant IV
164 mgd

Plant II
328 mgd Plant I
82 mgd
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InsightH2O High-Rate Clarification Alternatives 26 March 2013

INTEGRATINGOZONATION

Ozone Contactors

North Ozone Building

South Ozone Building

Ozone
Contactors

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InsightH2O High-Rate Clarification Alternatives 26 March 2013

REPLACEDTWOOFEIGHTBASINSWITHPLATES

Flocculation

Plates

Ozone
Contactors
Flumes

Two basins of 41 mgd each 0.4 gpm/sf 73


QUESTIONS?

74
Black & Veatch 3 June 2014

CONTACTINFO

JeffLindgren,P.E.*,P.L.S.**
EngineeringManager

Black&Veatch
5885MeadowsRd,Suite700
LakeOswego,OR97035

5034434415|LindgrenJM@BV.com

*Licensedin*OR,WA,&CA**OR

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