You are on page 1of 9

1. Explain different types of research methodologies?

Highlight the key


challenges faced by a researcher in collection and analysis of primary data
required for the research.

Basic Research
This research is conducted largely for the enhancement of knowledge, and is research which
does not have immediate commercial potential. The research which is done for human
welfare, animal welfare and plant kingdom welfare. It is called basic, pure,fundamental
research. The main motivation here is to expand man's knowledge, not to create or invent
something.According to Travers, Basic Research is designed to add to an organized body
of scientific knowledge and does not necessarily produce results of immediate practical
value. Such a research is time and cost intensive.
Applied Research
Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to
acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. The goal of applied research is to improve the
human condition. It focuses on analysis and solving social and real life problems. This
research is generally conducted on a large scale basis and is expensive. As such, it is often
conducted with the support of some financing agency like the national government, public
corporation, world bank, UNICEF, UGC, Etc. According to Hunt, applied research is an
investigation for ways of using scientific knowledge to solve practical problems for
example:- improve agriculture crop production, treat or cure a specific disease, improve the
energy efficiency of homes, offices, how can communication among workers in large
companies be improved? Applied research can be further classified as problem oriented and
problem solving research.
Qualitative Research
Qualitative research presents non-quantitative type of analysis. Qualitative research is
collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say. Qualitative
research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols, metaphors, and
description of things. Qualitative research is much more subjective and uses very different
methods of collecting information,mainly individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups.
Problem solving
This type of research is done by an individual company for the problem faced by it.
Marketing research and market research are the applied research. For eg:- videocon
international conducts research to study customer satisfaction level, it will be problem
solving research. In short, the main aim of problem solving research is to discover some
solution for some pressing practical problem

Quantitative Research
This research is based on numeric figures or numbers. Quantitative research aim to
measure the quantity or amount and compares it with past records and tries to
project for future period. In social sciences, quantitative research refers to the
systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and
their relationships. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ
mathematical models, theories or hypothesis pertaining to phenomena.
Problem oriented research
Research is done by industry apex body for sorting out problems faced by all the companies.
Eg:- WTO does problem oriented research for developing countries, in india agriculture and
processed food export development authority (APEDA) conduct regular research for the
benefit of agri-industry.
As the name indicates, Problem identifying researches are undertaken to know the exact
nature of problem that is required to be solved.
Here, one clarification is needed when we use the term Problem, it is not a problem in true
sense. It is usually a decision making dilemma or it is a need to tackle a particular business
situation.
It could be a difficulty or an opportunity.
For e.g.:-Revenue of Mobile company has decreased by 25% in the last year. The cause of
the problem can be any one of the following:
Poor quality of the product. Lack of continuous availability. Not so effective advertising
campaign

2.Explain the key qualities / attributes of a good research


report
1.Purpose of research (that is the problem involved or the decision to be made) is clearly
defined
2. Research procedures should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher
to repeat the research. This includes the steps to acquire participants, informed consent,
sampling methods and representativeness, and data gathering procedures.
3. The research procedural design of the research, and its choice among competing
designs, should be clearly described and carefully planned to yield results that are as
objective as possible. Efforts should be made to minimize the influence of personal bias in
selecting and recording data.
4. High ethical standards applied. Careful consideration must be given to those research
situations in which there is a possibility for physical or psychological harm, exploitation,
invasion of privacy, and/or loss of dignity.
5. The researcher should report, with complete frankness, flaws in procedural design and
estimate their effect on the findings. (Remember, there are very few perfect research
designs).
6. Analysis of the data should be extensive enough to reveal its significance, what managers
call insights. The methods of analysis used should be appropriate. However, adequate
analysis of the data is the most difficult phase of research for the novice. The validity and
reliability of data should be checked carefully.

7. Some evidence of the competence and integrity of the researcher may be found in the
report itself. Presentation of data should be comprehensive, reasonably interpreted, easily
understood by the decision maker, and the organized so that the decision maker can readily
locate critical findings.

8. Conclusions should be limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis.
Good researchers always specify the conditions under which their conclusions seem to be
valid.

9. Greater confidence in the research is warranted if the researcher is experienced, has a


good reputation in research, and is a person of integrity. For this reason the research report
should contain information about the qualifications of the researcher.
Good business research has an inherent value only to the extent that it helps management
make better decisions to achieve organizational goals. Interesting information might be
pleasant to have, but its value is limited if the information cannot be applied to a critical
decision. Anonymous

3.Highlight the important advantages and disadvantages of


Primary Data and Secondary data, with suitable examples?

Primary Research

It is the information taken first-hand by the researchers, who collects the data and completes
the study process without referring to any second-hand sources. Large companies with good
funding prospects can perform primary research such as surveys, face-to-face interviews,
social media surveys/polls/feedback, analysis of customer feedback, getting response via
email etc.

Advantages

1. Research is oriented for specific goals and purpose, cutting out possibility of wasting
resources

2. The researchers can change the course of study whenever needed, and choose platforms
for observation well-suited for projects.

3. Gives original research quality, and does not carry bias or opinions of third parties.

Disadvantages

1. Primary research may ask for huger expense than secondary research.

2. The procedure is more time consuming, and costs a lot of assets.

3. The outcome from research audience may not be always feasible.


Secondary Research

It is the information that someone has already researched on, prepared, and analyzed. The
results are available for use, and can help other future researchers in referring the data for
studies. Some of the examples of secondary researches are government consensus, public
agency annual reports, magazines, newspapers, journals, online databases etc.

Advantages

1. Cost-effect, ready made observations, less time spent on gathering information.

2. Statistically reliable, less requirement of expertise from internal team.

3. Trustable and ethical practices existing to support or organize other researches.

Disadvantages

1. Information may be unsuitable for current research project.

2. The data may lack details that fulfill goal of the client at present.

3. Not customized, may require intensive study to judge validity of data.

4.Write a short note on contents of a research proposal

Abstract: Describe the proposed research, the aim of your research project, and briefly
discuss the methods you will be using. (~ 300 words).
Background and Specific Aims: Briefly outline the background leading up to the present
application, critically evaluate existing knowledge, and specifically identify the gaps that
the project is intended to fill. State what you intend to achieve with your proposed
research. Link the specific aims of this particular research project to broader, long-term
objectives. (~ 700 words).
Research Design and Methods: Describe the research design, conceptual or clinical
framework, procedures, and analyses to be used to accomplish the specific aims of the
project. Include how the information will be collected, analyzed, and interpreted. (~ 700
words).
Significance/ Career Goals: State the importance of the research to your field of study
and/or society. Describe your overall career/academic goals and explain how the research
grant will enable you to reach these goals. Identify the skills, theories, conceptual
approaches, etc. to be learned or enhanced in this project. (~ 300 words).
Timeline: provide a tentative sequence or timetable for the project.
Budget: Provide a fully itemized budget of all expenses related to the project and give
appropriate explanation for all items on budget that are not self-explanatory. The funds
requested should not exceed R.O 5,000. List all other funds that have been sought and/or
awarded for this research. Fund should not be used for salaries/ stipends for investigators,
or to purchase computers and accessories for office use. Each project will receive, a
maximum award of R.O 5000 to be used as follow:
5.Explain different types of research reports? What is the
relevance of ethics in performing research
Types of Research Report

There are a variety of research reports. The audience to whom a research report is
addressed has to be kept in view in the preparation of a research report.

The research report may be divided into following types:

Technical report
Popular reports
Interim reports
Summary report

Technical report:

The technical report is essentially technical in nature and written in technical language. It
also contains technical appendix for methodological details, copies of measuring
instruments, scale etc.

Popular report:

The popular report is for audience like executives/administrators and other non technical
users. Complicated statistical techniques and table can be used otherwise using graphical
and pictorial representations will be used.

Interim report:

When there is a long time lag between data collection and the presentation of the results.
Interim report will be a suitable kind of a report to present data as and when the phase of the
project work gets completed. The interim report contains a narration of what has been done
so far and what was the outcome. It presents a summary of the findings of that part if
analysis which has been completed.

Summary report:

A summary report is generally prepared for the consumption of the lay audience. It is
written in non-technical, simple language with a liberal use of pictorial charts. It just contains
brief reference to the objectives of the study and major findings and their implications.
6.Write A Short Note On The Essential Rules To Be
Followed For Writing A Research Report
Rule 1: Make It a Driving Force
Never separate writing a paper from the underlying research. After all, writing and research are
integral parts of the overall enterprise. Therefore, design a project with an ultimate paper firmly in
mind. Include an outline of the paper in the initial project design documents to help form the research
objectives, determine the logical flow of the experiments, and organize the materials and data to be
used. Furthermore, use writing as a tool to reassess the overall project, reevaluate the logic of the
experiments, and examine the validity of the results during the research. As a result, the overall
research may need to be adjusted, the project design may be revised, new methods may be devised,
and new data may be collected. The process of research and writing may be repeated if necessary.

Rule 2: Less Is More


It is often the case that more than one hypothesis or objective may be tackled in one project. It is also
not uncommon that the data and results gathered for one objective can serve additional purposes. A
decision on having one or more papers needs to be made, and the decision will be affected by various
factors. Regardless of the validity of these factors, the overriding consideration must be the potential
impact that the paper may have on the research subject and field. Therefore, the significance,
completeness, and coherence of the results presented as a whole should be the principal guide for
selecting the story to tell, the hypothesis to focus upon, and materials to include in the paper, as well
as the yardstick for measuring the quality of the paper. By this metric, less is more, i.e., fewer but
more significant papers serve both the research community and one's career better than more papers of
less significance.

Rule 3: Pick the Right Audience


Deciding on an angle of the story to focus upon is the next hurdle to jump at the initial stage of the
writing. The results from a computational study of a biological problem can often be presented to
biologists, computational scientists, or both; deciding what story to tell and from what angle to pitch
the main idea is important. This issue translates to choosing a target audience, as well as an
appropriate journal, to cast the main messages to. This is critical for determining the organization of
the paper and the level of detail of the story, so as to write the paper with the audience in mind.
Indeed, writing a paper for biologists in general is different from writing for specialists in
computational biology.

Rule 4: Be Logical
The foundation of lively writing for smooth reading is a sound and clear logic underlying the story
of the paper. Although experiments may be carried out independently, the result from one experiment
may form premises and/or provide supporting data for the next experiment. The experiments and
results, therefore, must be presented in a logical order. In order to make the writing an easy process to
follow, this logical flow should be determined before any other writing strategy or tactic is exercised.
This logical order can also help you avoid discussing the same issue or presenting the same argument
in multiple places in the paper, which may dilute the readers' attention.
An effective tactic to help develop a sound logical flow is to imaginatively create a set of figures and
tables, which will ultimately be developed from experimental results, and order them in a logical way
based on the information flow through the experiments. In other words, the figures and tables alone
can tell the story without consulting additional material. If all or some of these figures and tables are
included in the final manuscript, make every effort to make them self-contained (see Rule 5 below), a
favorable feature for the paper to have. In addition, these figures and tables, as well as the threading
logical flow, may be used to direct or organize research activities, reinforcing Rule 1.
Rule 5: Be Thorough and Make It Complete
Completeness is a cornerstone for a research paper, following Rule 2. This cornerstone needs to be set
in both content and presentation. First, important and relevant aspects of a hypothesis pursued in the
research should be discussed with detailed supporting data. If the page limit is an issue, focus on one
or two main aspects with sufficient details in the main text and leave the rest to online supporting
materials. As a reminder, be sure to keep the details of all experiments (e.g., parameters of the
experiments and versions of software) for revision, post-publication correspondence, or importantly,
reproducibility of the results. Second, don't simply state what results are presented in figures and
tables, which makes the writing repetitive because they are self-contained (see below), but rather,
interpret them with insights to the underlying story to be told (typically in the results section) and
discuss their implication (typically in the discussion section).

Rule 6: Be Concise
This is a caveat to Rule 5 and is singled out to emphasize its importance. Being thorough is not a
license to writing that is unnecessarily descriptive, repetitive, or lengthy. Rather, on the contrary,
simplicity is the ultimate sophistication [10]. Overly elaborate writing is distracting and boring and
places a burden on the readers. In contrast, the delivery of a message is more rigorous if the writing is
precise and concise. One excellent example is Watson and Crick's Nobel-Prize-winning paper on the
DNA double helix structure [11] it is only two pages long!

Rule 7: Be Artistic
A complete draft of a paper requires a lot of work, so it pays to go the extra mile to polish it to
facilitate enjoyable reading. A paper presented as a piece of art will give referees a positive initial
impression of your passion toward the research and the quality of the work, which will work in your
favor in the reviewing process. Therefore, concentrate on spelling, grammar, usage, and a lively
writing style that avoids successions of simple, boring, declarative sentences. Have an authoritative
dictionary with a thesaurus and a style manual, e.g., [1], handy and use them relentlessly. Also pay
attention to small details in presentation, such as paragraph indentation, page margins, and fonts. If
you are not a native speaker of the language the paper is written in, make sure to have a native speaker
go over the final draft to ensure correctness and accuracy of the language used.

Rule 8: Be Your Own Judge


A complete manuscript typically requires many rounds of revision. Taking a correct attitude during
revision is critical to the resolution of most problems in the writing. Be objective and honest about
your work and do not exaggerate or belittle the significance of the results and the elegance of the
methods developed. After working long and hard, you are an expert on the problem you studied,
and you are the best referee of your own work, after all. Therefore, inspect the research and the paper
in the context of the state of the art.

Rule 9: Test the Water in Your Own Backyard


It is wise to anticipate the possible questions and critiques the referees may raise and
preemptively address their concerns before submission. To do so, collect feedback and
critiques from others, e.g., colleagues and collaborators. Discuss your work with them and
get their opinions, suggestions, and comments. A talk at a lab meeting or a departmental
seminar will also help rectify potential issues that need to be addressed. If you are a
graduate student, running the paper and results through the thesis committee may be
effective to iron out possible problems.
Rule 10: Build a Virtual Team of Collaborators
When a submission is rejected or poorly reviewed, don't be offended and don't take it
personally. Be aware that the referees spent their time on the paper, which they might have
otherwise devoted to their own research, so they are doing you a favor and helping you
shape the paper to be more accessible to the targeted audience. Therefore, consider the
referees as your collaborators and treat the reviews with respect. This attitude can improve
the quality of your paper and research.

7.Highlight the important advantages and disadvantages of


questionnaire method in performing business research?
The advantages of questionnaires

1. Practical
2. Large amounts of information can be collected from a large number of people in a
short period of time and in a relatively cost effective way
3. Can be carried out by the researcher or by any number of people with limited affect
to its validity and reliability
4. The results of the questionnaires can usually be quickly and easily quantified by
either a researcher or through the use of a software package
5. Can be analysed more 'scientifically' and objectively than other forms of research
6. When data has been quantified, it can be used to compare and contrast other
research and may be used to measure change
7. Positivists believe that quantitative data can be used to create new theories and / or
test existing hypotheses

The disadvantages of questionnaires

1. Is argued to be inadequate to understand some forms of information - i.e. changes of


emotions, behaviour, feelings etc.
2. Phenomenologists state that quantitative research is simply an artificial creation by
the researcher, as it is asking only a limited amount of information without
explanation
3. Lacks validity
4. There is no way to tell how truthful a respondent is being
5. There is no way of telling how much thought a respondent has put in
6. The respondent may be forgetful or not thinking within the full context of the situation
7. People may read differently into each question and therefore reply based on their
own interpretation of the question - i.e. what is 'good' to someone may be 'poor' to
someone else, therefore there is a level of subjectivity that is not acknowledged
8. There is a level of researcher imposition, meaning that when developing the
questionnaire, the researcher is making their own decisions and assumptions as to
what is and is not important...therefore they may be missing something that is of
importance
8.What is hypothesis? What are methods that are deployed
for testing of hypothesis?
A hypothesis (plural: hypotheses), in a scientific context, is a testable statement
about the relationship between two or more variables or a proposed explanation for
some observed phenomenon. In a scientific experiment or study, the hypothesis is a
brief summation of the researcher's prediction of the study's findings, which may be
supported or not by the outcome. Hypothesis testing is the core of the scientific
method.