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No: 01

To know the introduction of 3D modeling software.


The advent of powerful and cheap graphical workstations enables the use of 3D modeling
in many software applications. This trend is amplified with the introduction of standards such as
OpenGL, IGES and STEP. There are also several systems for visualizing software execution, for
debugging and other purposes. Yet, perhaps surprisingly, 3D modeling has not yet made its way
into the domain of specification and design of software and information systems. Diagrams of
various sorts are used extensively in this domain. These include data flow diagrams, state charts,
flow charts, entity-relationship diagrams, and the diagrams in OPEN and UML, which are all
essentially 2D techniques.
The geometric models can be broadly categorized into two types:
1. Two-dimensional, and
2. Three-dimensional.
The three principal classifications can be
1. The line model,
2. The surface model, and
3. The solid or volume mode
A wire-frame model is a visual presentation of a three-dimensional (3D) or physical
object used in 3D computer graphics. It is created by specifying each edge of the physical object
where two mathematically continuous smooth surfaces meet, or by connecting an object's
constituent vertices using straight lines or curves. The object is projected onto a display screen
by drawing lines at the location of each edge. The term wire frame comes from designers using
metal wire to represent the three-dimensional shape of solid objects. 3D wire frame allows
constructing and manipulating solids and solid surfaces. The 3D solid modeling technique
efficiently draws higher quality representations of solids than the conventional line drawing.
It is developed in 1960s and referred as a line diagram or an edge representation
The word wireframe is related to the fact that one may imagine a wire that is bent to
follow the object edges to generate a model.
Model consists entirely of points, lines, arcs and circles, conics, and curves.
In 3D wireframe model, an object is not recorded as a solid. Instead the vertices that
define the boundary of the object or the intersections of the edges of the object boundary
are recorded as a collection of points and their connectivity
Freeform surface modeling is a technique for engineering Freeform Surfaces with a CAD or
CAID system. The technology has encompassed two main fields. Either creating aesthetic (class
A surfaces) that also perform a function; for example, car bodies and consumer product outer
forms, or technical surfaces for components such as gas turbine blades and other fluid dynamic
engineering components. CAD software packages use two basic methods for the creation of
surfaces. The first begins with construction curves (splines) from which the 3D surface is then
swept (section along guide rail) or meshed (lofted) through. The second method is direct creation
of the surface with manipulation of the surface poles/control points
A surface model is a set of faces.
A surface model consists of wireframe entities that form the basis to create surface
In general, a wireframe model can be extracted from a surface model by deleting or
blanking all surface entities
Shape design and representation of complex objects such as car, ship, and airplane bodies
as well as castings
Examples of Surface modeling


Solid modeling (or modeling) is a consistent set of principles for mathematical and
computer modeling of three-dimensional solids. Solid modeling is distinguished from related
areas of geometric modeling and computer graphics by its emphasis on physical fidelity.
Together, the principles of geometric and solid modeling form the foundation of computer-aided
design and in general support the creation, exchange, visualization, animation, interrogation, and
annotation of digital models of physical objects. informationally complete, valid, and
unambiguous representation (Spatial addressability)

The points in space to be classified relative to the object, if it is inside, outside, or on the
It store both geometric and topological information; can verify whether two objects
occupy the same space.
It improves the quality of design, improves visualization, and has potential for functional
automation and integration.
It support to calculate the weight or volume calculation, centroids, moments of inertia
calculation, stress analysis (finite elements analysis), heat conduction
Calculations, dynamic analysis, generation of CNC codes, and robotic and assembly
Thus the various features of 3D SOLID MODELING were studied and understood.