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Light is the energy that can be seen
Light Sources and Types of Light

Natural Light/ Daylight (direct from the sun)

Artificial Light (artificial sources by electric lamps)

There are basically three types of Artificial light sources:

1. Thermal radiators: Incandescent and Halogen lamps
2. Discharge lamps: Fluorescent, high- and low-pressure
3. Solid-state light emitters: LEDs and OLEDs (organic
light-emitting diodes)
1. Thermal radiators

An incandescent bulb consists of a filament that glows
when electricity is passed through it.

Halogen lamp:
Is a type of incandescent lamp where high-pressure halogen
gas is inside the bulb allowing the filament to burn hotter and
2. Discharge Lamps

This technology passes electricity through a gas, which excites the gas and causes it to glow. Fluorescent,
high-intensity discharge lights (HID) and low-pressure sodium lights use this technology.
HID lamps use different gases to produce light:
Mercury Vapor (HID)
Metal Halide (HID)
High Pressure Sodium (HID)

These types of lights require a ballast, which is a device that starts the lamp and regulates its
3 Solid-state light emitters

LEDs are the newest type of

artificial light and were born out
of the electronics and computer
industry. An LED is a tiny
electronic device that emits light.
The diagram below shows the main lamp types for general lighting:

The development of luminous efficacies of light sources.(Krames 2007, DOE 2010)

Energy Savings / Efficiency and Economics are Dependent on:
Improvement of lighting technologies
Making better use of available cost-effective and energy efficient lighting
Lighting design (identify needs, avoid misuses, proper interaction of
technologies, automatic controls, daylight integration)
Building design (daylight integration and architecture)
Knowledge dissemination to final users
Reduction of resources by recycling and proper disposal, size reduction,
using less aluminium, mercury, etc.
Life Cycle Cost Assessment LCCA
Following characteristics are to be considered when choosing a lamp for an application.

Luminous efficacy
Luminous efficacy: is a measure of how well a light source produces visible light.
Lamp life
Quality of light
Lamp size, weight and shape
Purchase and operation costs
Radiating or reflecting light.

Luminous Efficacy:
Luminous efficacy is a measure of how well a light source produces visible light. It is the ratio of luminous
flux to power, measured in lumens per watt . Abbreviation: Phi Unit: lm Lumen

Luminous Flux:
Luminous Flux is energy per unit time that is radiated from a source over visible wavelengths. Unit: Lumen

Illuminance describes the quantity of luminous flux falling on a surface. It decreases by the square of the distance
(inverse square law). Relevant standards specify the required illuminance (e.g. EN 12464 Lighting of indoor
workplaces). Abbreviation: E Unit: lx Lux

Luminance is the only basic lighting parameter that is perceived by the eye. It specifies the brightness of a surface
and is essentially dependent on its reflectance (finish and colour). Abbreviation: L Unit: cd/m2
Key Terms:

Watt (abbreviated W) is the unit corresponding to the rate of energy consumption (or power) in an electric
circuit needed in this case to light a light bulb.

Lumens are the unit describing the amount of light (energy) as seen by the human eye that is given off by the
light bulb.

Lux is defined as being equivalent to one lumen spread over an area of one square meter. To put it another
way, a measurement of lux (light intensity) tells you how many lumens are needed for the area being illuminated.

Efficiency is the amount of light that comes out of a light bulb compared to the electrical energy that goes
into it. Energy efficient bulbs waste less energy in producing light than less efficient bulbs. Efficiency is an output
over an input.

Efficacy is related to the efficiency of the light bulb. It is also an output over an input. The output is the lumens
of light and the input in power in watts. So, the expression we use to describe the efficacy of our light is Lumens
Per Watt or lumens divided by watts. Keep in mind, the bigger the efficacy, the more efficient the bulb.

Some bulbs make things they are illuminating look a different color than they really are. This property is called
Color Rendition. Generally, bulbs with good color rendition are used. Color rendition can be measured by the
Color Rendering Index1 (CRI), which is a scale ranging from 0 (very poor color rendition) to 100 (nearly perfect
color rendition). In cases of extremely poor color rendition, that bulbs CRI value can be negative. Incandescent
bulbs are defined to have perfect color rendition.
Light bulbs seem to come in a choice of colors now;
which color is best?

Check the "Lighting Facts" label on the bulb carton.

Color information is shown as "Light Appearance." A bulb
that provides "warm" light with a rating of 2700 to 3000K
(K stands for Kelvins) will closely match the color of a
standard incandescent bulb.
Bulbs with higher Kelvin ratings, such as 4000 or 5000K,
will appear blue-white or "cool.
Compares the main lamp types and gives the first indication of possible application fields.

Incandescent lamps
Halogen lamps

HID lamps

Fluorescent lamp

Fluorescent lamp
Fluorescent lamp

HID lamps

HID lamps

HID lamps

LED lamps
Incandescent lamp
In incandescent lamp, which is also called General Lighting Service Lamp (GLS), light is produced by leading current
through a tungsten wire. The working temperature of tungsten filaments in incandescent lamps is about 2700 K.
Therefore the main emission occurs in the infrared region. The typical luminous efficacy of different types of incandescent
lamps is in the range between 5 and 15 lm/W.

Advantages of incandescent lamps:

easy to use, small and does not need auxiliary equipment
easy to dim by changing the voltage
excellent color rendering properties
directly work at power supplies with fixed voltage
free of toxic components
instant switching

Disadvantages of incandescent lamps:

short lamp life (1000 h)
low luminous efficacy
heat generation is high
lamp life and other characteristics are strongly dependent on the supply voltage
the total costs are high due to high operation costs.
Halogen lamp
Tungsten halogen lamps are derived from incandescent lamps. Compared to incandescent lamp the
operating temperature is higher, and consequently the color temperature is also higher, which means that the
light is whiter. Color rendering index is close to 100 as with incandescent lamps. Also, lumen depreciation is
negligible. Their lifetime spans from 2000 to 4000 hours, and luminous efficacy is 12-35 lm/W.

Halogen lamps are available in a wide range of models, shapes (from small capsules to linear double
ended lamps), with or without reflectors. There are reflectors designed to redirect forward only the visible
light, allowing infrared radiation to escape from the back of the lamp. There are halogen lamps available
for mains voltages or low voltages (6-24V), the latter needing a step-down transformer. Low voltage lamps
have better luminous efficacy and longer lamp life than the high voltage lamps, but the transformer
implicates energy losses in itself.

The latest progress in halogen lamps has been reached by introducing selective-IR-mirror-coatings in the
bulb. The infrared coating redirects infrared radiations back to the filament. This increases the luminous
efficacy by 4060% compared to other designs and lamp life is up to 4000 hours.
Advantages of tungsten halogen lamps:
Small size
Directional light with some models (narrow beams)
Low-voltage alternatives
Easy to dim
Instant switching and full light output
Excellent colour rendering properties

Disadvantages of tungsten halogen lamps:

low luminous efficacy
surface temperature is high
lamp life and other characteristics are strongly dependent on the supply voltage
Fluorescent lamps
Advantages of fluorescent lamps

Good luminous efficacy
Long lamp life, 10 000 16 000 h
Large variety

Disadvantages of fluorescent lamps

Ambient temperature affects the switch-on and light output

Need of auxiliary ballast and starter or electronic ballast
Light output depreciates with age
Contain mercury
Short burning cycles shorten lamp life
Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL)
Different types of Compact fluorescent lamps.
Advantages of compact fluorescent lamps
Good luminous efficacy
Long lamp life (6000-12 000 h)
The reduced cooling loads when replacing incandescent lamps
Disadvantages of compact fluorescent lamps
Light output depreciates with age
Short burning cycles shorten lamp life
The current waveform of CFLs with internal electronic ballast is
Contain mercury
High Intensity Discharge lamps (High Pressure)
Mercury Lamps (banned)
Metal halide lamps
Advantages of metal halide lamps
Good luminous efficacy
Alternatives with good color rendering available
Different color temperatures available.

Disadvantages of metal halide lamps

Starting and re-starting time 2-5 min
Differences in CCT between individual lamps and
changes of CCT
during burning hours. These differences are much reduced with
metal halide lamps.
Metal halide lamps, nominal power from left 150 W, 400 W, 75
W and 70 W.
High pressure sodium lamps
Advantages of high pressure sodium lamp
very good luminous efficacy
long lamp life (12 000 h or 16 000 h)
high luminous flux from one unit for street and area lighting

Disadvantages of high pressure sodium lamp

low CCT (Correlated color temperature), about 2200 K
low CRI (Color Rendering Index), about 20 (color improved 65,
white 80)
High pressure sodium lamps, elliptical bulb 100 W and 250 W,
starting and re-starting time 2-5 min tubular bulb 250 W and white high pressure
sodium 100 W.
Solid-state lighting
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs)
Advantages of LEDs:
Small size (heat sink can be large)
Physically robust
Long lifetime expectancy (with proper thermal management)
Switching has no effect on life, very short rise time
Contains no mercury
Excellent low ambient temperature operation
High luminous efficacy (LEDs are developing fast and their range of luminous efficacies is wide)
New luminaire design possibilities
Possibility to change colors
No optical heat on radiation

Disadvantages of LEDs:
High price
Low luminous flux / package
CRI can be low
Risk of glare due to high output with small lamp size
Need for thermal management
Lack of standardisation

Examples of LEDs
Energy conservation is becoming more and more of a concern. One solution is to use
more energy efficient bulbs at home, schools, businesses and public places. This
document will introduce key terms to use when talking about lighting as well as types
of light bulbs in use.
Indoor Lighting

Some of the most common indoor light bulbs are incandescent bulbs, which look
like a traditional light bulb. Generally, the input for these bulbs is either 40W or
60W. But there are other kinds of indoor light bulbs as well, such as CFLs and

Keep in mind that the wattages listed for the CFLs and LEDs correspond to the
40W and 60W incandescent bulbs. This means that for a lamp that takes a 40W
incandescent, you could also use a 9W CFL or a 6W LED. This will allow you
to easily compare the bulbs to one another.
Indoor Lighting
Incandescent Bulbs:

The incandescent light bulb has had the same design for over 100
years since Thomas Edison invented it! It produces light when a
thin wire called a tungsten filament is heated by electricity
running through it making it so hot that it starts to glow brightly.
This releases a lot of heat and the bulbs get hot to the touch,
meaning this bulb is very inefficient. Many countries, including
the United States, are currently passing legislation banning the
sale of these light bulbs because they are so inefficient.

CRI (Color Rendering Index): 100

Wattage 40 60
Lumens 290 840
Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFL):

These spiralled light bulbs are far more efficient than the standard
incandescent bulb. Compact Fluorescent Light bulbs (CFLs) work by
running electricity through gas inside the coils, exciting that gas, and
producing light. There is a coating on the spirals, which makes this
light white. These bulbs do not get nearly as hot as the incandescent

CRI: 50-80

Wattage 9 13
Lumens 550 810
Light Emitting Diode (LED):

Unlike incandescent and CFL bulbs, LED bulbs have moved into the
technological age. LEDs that produce white light work in a rather
complicated way, and their invention won a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2014!
While these are the most efficient bulbs to date, they are not without
problems. Although the light they produce looks white, remember that white
light contains all the colors of the rainbow. LEDs contain a lot of blue light,
too much of which can have negative effects on human health and wildlife.

CRI: 80-98

Wattage 6 9.5
Lumens 450 800
Outdoor Lighting
Outdoor lights are usually different from those bulbs used indoors because they need to be much brighter and
last longer. There are many different kinds of light bulbs used outdoors, and they each have pros and cons.
Halogen Bulbs:

Halogen bulbs are often found in homes as spotlights or floodlights, in cars as

headlights, or at sports fields as stadium lights. These bulbs work in a similar
way to an incandescent bulb by running electricity through a tungsten
filament. Unlike the incandescent, there is halogen gas inside the bulb. When
the tungsten burns off the filament, the gas re-deposits it back onto the
filament to be reused. Halogen bulbs last much longer than incandescent, but
these bulbs are much brighter and burn much hotter than traditional
incandescent bulbs.
CRI: 100

Wattage 53 72 75
Lumens 940 1350 1500
Metal Halide:

Metal halide lamps are commonly used in streetlights,

parking lot lights, and stadium lights. They are very

bright and contribute to a lot of light pollution. They

are fairly efficient. They produce very white light and

have good color rendition, meaning that objects under

these lights look their true color.

CRI: 85-94

Wattage 250 400 1000

Lumens 22,000 36,000 110,000
High Pressure Sodium (HPS):

The high pressure sodium lamp (HPS) is the most

commonly used street light throughout the world. It
produces light by running electricity through a mixture of
gases, which produces light. The lamp itself is preferred
because it requires little maintenance. These lamps are
fairly efficient. They take a while to turn on completely
and produce a yellow-orange glow.

CRI: 20-24

Wattage 150 250 400

Lumens 16,000 24,000 50,000
Low Pressure Sodium (LPS):

The low pressure sodium (LPS) lamp works similarly to the HPS light.
Instead of producing white light (all the colors of the rainbow), LPS lamps
produce almost exclusively yellow light. While this light is fairly efficient, it
takes several minutes for the bulb to turn on. The light is very yellow-orange.
This yellow light makes objects it is illuminating look a different color or

CRI: - 44
Wattage 18 35 55
Lumens 18,000 4550 7800
LED Street Lamps:

LED technologies have developed rapidly in recent years

and these bulbs are now being integrated into outdoor
lighting solutions. While the energy savings are significant,
LEDs produce a lot of blue light, too much of which can
have negative effects on human health and wildlife.

CRI: 80-98

Wattage 25 42 146 202

Lumens 2772 3648 12,642 13,620
Phosphor-Converted Amber (PCA) LED Street

PCALEDs have only been on the market for the past

few years. They use very little energy and have good
color rendition, but are still rather expensive. Some
cities have already installed these lights on their streets.

CRI: >80

Wattage 150 250 400

Lumens 16,000 24,000 50,000
Narrow-Band Amber (NBA) LED Street Lamps:

Narrow-band amber (NBA) LED street lights are a brand new

technology. Rather than emitting all the colors of the rainbow
and a lot of blue light, they emit mostly in the yellow. They
still have good color rendition, meaning that they do not make
things look grey like LPS lamps do. Because this technology is
so new, these bulbs are not widely available and as such, are
still expensive. They are very efficient.

CRI: 67

Wattage 16.4 20.6 42.3

Lumens 1147 1460 3311
Performance characteristics of light sources
Choosing the right lamp an important first decision

Choosing the right lamp depends on what is required of the lighting.

Incandescent lamps were highly popular for private domestic use for many years.
Because of their poor efficiency and short service life, they are now being replaced
by more environmentally compatible alternatives of higher quality such as LED lamps.
Discharge lamps are the perfect choice for professional applications thanks to their
efficient operating mode.
LED light sources are taking over in all application areas because of their high luminous
efficiency and long service life. They can legitimately be regarded as the light source of
the future. Thus it is part of the expertise of the lighting designer to find the most
suitable lamp for a lighting task.
The performance characteristics of lamps are essentially defined by the following concepts:
Florescent .. Tubevapour gas


Regulate sufficient
voltage for the start
Still use gas
thats why
its not
LED is green
But it produce UV light in long term will damage the
eyes, thats why in university they still use CFL.

Bellow 10 W is always LED ENERGY

Between 11-28 w is always CFL EFFICIENT