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Question-I: A furrow irrigated set consists of 27 furrows spaced 76 cm apart with a

furrow length of 400 m. At the time the irrigation event was begun. The soil moisture
deficit was 220 mm. Each furrow had an inflow of 100 lit/min for 24 hours. The
distribution of infiltrated water depth along the furrow length is as follows.
Furrow length, X/L 0.0 0.15 0.30 0.45 0.60 0.75 0.85 1.0
Infiltrated depth 320 306 290 272 250 220 190 134
(mm)

Determine the values of the followings for this irrigation event

a) Distribution efficiency, Ed
b) Application Efficiency, Ea
c) Water storage efficiency, Es
d) Deep percolation efficiency, DPR
e) Tail water Ratio , TWR

Solutions for Question I:

1. Given:
No. of furrows, Nf = 27
Furrow spacing, w = 76cm
Furrow length, L = 400m
Moisture deficit prior to irrigation, d = 220mm
Discharge of furrow, Qo = 100 lit/min
Time of irrigation application, t = 24 hrs = 1440 min.
Infiltrated water depth at different length of lateral is given
Required:
Distribution Efficiency, Ed
Application Efficiency, Ea
Water Storage Efficiency, Es
Deep Percolation Ratio, DPR
Tail Water Ratio, TWR
Solution:
y
Distribution Efficiency, E d 1 100
d
Average depth of infiltration,
320 306 290 272 250 220 190 134
d 247.75mm
8
Average absolute deviation from d ,

320 247.75 306 247.75 290 247.75 272 247.75 250 247.75 220 247.75 190 247.75 134 247.75
y
8
72.25 58.25 42.25 24.25 2.25 27.75 57.75 113.75
y 49.81mm
8
49.81
Therefore, E d 1 100 79.90%
247.75
W
Application Efficiency, E a s 100
Wf
Total water supplied to the furrows, Wf = N x Qo x t = 27x100x1440
= 3,888,000 lit
= 3,888m3

Water stored in the root zone, Ws = No. of furrows x Furrow Spacing x Average depth of
infiltration x Length of furrow

First find the average depth of water stored in the root zone. The deficit application is
only after 300m (= 0.75x400). Therefore, the average depth of water in the root zone is:

d 205.5mm
8

Thus, Ws 27 .76 205.5 400 1686.74 m3

1686.74
Therefore, E a 100 43.38%
3,888

Ws
Water Storage Efficiency, E s 100
Wn
Water depth required prior to irrigation is 110mm or 0.11m

Hence, Wn = 27 x 0.76 x 0.220 x 400 = 1805.76 m3

1686.74
Therefore, E s 100 93.41%
1805.76

Volume of Water Deep percolated

DPR 100
Total volume of water applied , W f

Volume of water deep percolated, DPV = No. of furrows x Furrow Spacing x Average
depth of deep percolation x Length of furrow
Water is deep percolated between L = 0 and L = 300m. The average depth of deep
percolation is thus,

(320 220) 306 220 290 220 272 220 250 220 220 220
DP 56.33mm
6
100 86 70 52 30 0
DP 56.33mm or 0.0563m
6
Hence, VDP = 27x0.76x0.0563x300 = 346.789 m3

346.789
Therefore, DPR 100 8.92%
3,888
TWR 100 Ea DPR 100 43.38 8.92 47.7%
Note: Ws and VDP can also be estimated with a better accuracy using Trapezoidal rule

QuestionII: A distribution system is to be designed for a sprinkler system on which 4

laterals will be operated simultaneously. Each lateral is to have 30 nozzles with 0.72L/s
discharge per nozzle. The required pressure on the mainline at the inlet to each lateral is
393 KPa. The elevation of each point on the line and distance between points are given in
the following table.

Point Elevation (m) Distance b/n points (m)

Pump 48.41
A 47.55 36.58
B 48.46 18.29
C 48.77 18.29
D 47.85 18.29

The mainline is made of 20.32 cm inside diameter aluminum pipe with a Hazen-Williams
C factor of 135. The friction loss and elevation head from the water surface to the
centerline of the pump is +0.333m. Laterals are to operate on points A through D
simultaneously. Determine the:

a) Critical point in the mainline

b) Critical pressure
c) Total dynamic head required by the pump.
d) Pump capacity in Horse power (HP) taking the following equation and given
values

HP =
75
Where,
Qs = system discharge (l/s)
TDH= Total Dynamic head (m)
Ep = Pump horse power = 90 %
Em = Motor Horse Power = 85 %

Solutions for Question II:

Given:
No. of Laterals = 4 operated simultaneously
N0. Of Nozzles on each lateral = 30
Q nozzles = 0.72 l/s per nozzle
Pressure at the inlet to the end lateral = 393 KPa = 40.06 m
Diameter of the main pipe line = 20.32 cm

Pump Main pipe line 18.29 m 18.29 m 18.29 m

36.58 m

A B C D
A, B, C, and D are lateral numbers

Required:
a) Critical point
b) Critical pressure
c) Total dynamic head (TDH)
d) Pump capacity in HP
e) Your general conclusion and recommendation

Solution:

q For one lateral = 30 X 0.72 l/s = 21.6 l/s

Q for the hole system at the pump = 4 X 21.6 l/s = 86.4 l/s
QA = the same as 86.4 l/s
QB = 86.4 - 21.6 l/s = 64.8 l/s
QC = 64.8 l/s - 21.6 l/s = 43.2 l/s
QD = 43.2 l/s 21.6 l/s = 21.6 l/s

Area of main line pipe A = 3.14 X ((0.2032 m )2 ) / 4 = 0.0324 m2

VPA = QPA/ Area = 86.4 l/s X 10-3 = 86.4 X 10-3 = 2.667 m/s
0.0324 32.4 X 10-3

VAB= QAB / Area = 64.8 X 10 -3/ 32.4 X 10-3 = 2m/s

V2 AB/2g = (2)2/ 19.62 = 0.2039 m
VBC = QBC/ Area = 43.2 X 10-3/ 32.4 X 10-3 = 1.33m/s
V2 BC/2g = (1.33)2/ 19.62 = 0.09 m
VCD = QCD/ Area = 21.6 X 10-3/ 32.4 X 10-3 = 0.667m/s
V2 CD/2g = (0.667)2/ 19.62 = 0.0227m

He-CD = 48.77- 47.85 = - 0.92 (down slope)

Solving for head frictional loss
HfCD = KL (Q/C) 1.852 / D4.87
= 1.22 X1010 X 18.29 (21.6 /135)1.852
(203.2)4.87
= 0.74921038 X 1010
1.736155X 1011
= 0.04315 m
Substituting all parameters for pressure at C

HC = HD + He-CD + Hf-CD + V2 CD/2g

= 40.06 - 0.92 + 0.04315 + 0.0227
HC = 39.21 m

HB = Hc + He-BC + HfBC + V2 BC/2g

= 39.21 + 0.31 + 0.1558 + 0.09
= 39.766 m

HA = HB + He-AB + Hf-AB + V2 AB/2g

= 39.766 + 0.91+ 0.33+ 0.2039
= 41.2099m

HPump = HA + He-PA+ Hf-PA + V2 PA/2g

= 41.2099 -0.86 + 1.1248 + 0.3625
= 41.837m

Point Elev. El. Distant Q(l/s) Pressure Hf-cri Vel.head Total pressure
D 47.85 0 18.29 0 40.06 0 0 40.06
C 48.77 -0.92 18.29 21.6 0.04315 0.0227 39.21
B 48.46 0.31 18.29 43.6 0.1558 0.09 37.776
A 47.55 0.91 36.58 64.8 0.33 0.2039 41.2093
Pump 48.41 -0.86 86.4 1.1248 0.3625 41.837*
a) Critical point is at pump
b) Critical pressure = 41837m
c) TDH = HC+ Hf-critical+ (He-wsc+ Hf-ps)+ V2 Critical/2g
= 41.837 + 1.1248+ 0.333+ 0.3625
= 43.6573 m
TDH = 43.6573 X 9.81 = 428.278 KPa
d) Pump capacity
HP = Qs X TDH
75 X Ep X Em

HP = 86.4 X 43.657 = 3,771.96 = 65.74 HP pump is required

75 X 0.9X0.85 57.375