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DISASTERS: HOW WELL ARE WE

MANAGING ?

DR. THRIVIKRAMJI.K.P.
thrivikramji@gmail.com
MS UNIVERSITY
TIRUNELVELI
SOME 75 PERCENT OF THE WORLD’S
POPULATION LIVE IN AREAS
AFFECTED AT LEAST ONCE BY
EARTHQUAKE, TROPICAL CYCLONE,
FLOOD OR DROUGHT BETWEEN
1980 AND 2000.
In 2005, 91,900 people perished in
360 natural disasters that affected
over 157 million people.
In 2004, more than 240,000 people
perished in natural disasters,
Over 225,000 of these deaths were
a result of the Indian Ocean
tsunami hit 12 countries on 26
December 2004 (UN )
“TODAY, 85 PERCENT OF THE PEOPLE
EXPOSED TO EARTHQUAKES,
TROPICAL CYCLONES, FLOODS AND
DROUGHTS LIVE IN COUNTRIES
HAVING EITHER MEDIUM OR LOW
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT”. “TODAY’S
POVERTY IS YESTERDAY’S
UNADDRESSED VULNERABILITY”.
(IFRCRC)
DISASTER:
:A DIRECT OUTCOME OF NATURAL
HAZARD;
:HITS VULNERABLE PEOPLE;
:LEVELS OF DAMAGE VARY ONLY
IN DEGREE OF EXPOSURE TO RISK
& ON THE CLASS, GENDER,
ETHNIC OR OTHER IDENTITY, AGE
& OTHER FACTORS.
DISASTER DERAILS DEVELOPMENT
DESPITE THE UNPRECEDENTED
INTERNATIONAL EMERGENCY AID FLOW,
AFTER INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI, IT WILL
TAKE DECADES FOR PEOPLE TO RECOVER
THEIR LIVELIHOODS.
.. IN CENTRAL AMERICA, MANY LIVES ARE
STILL DISRUPTED DUE TO THE IMPACT OF
HURRICANE ‘MITCH’ IN 1998. “WE LOST IN
72 HOURS WHAT WE HAVE TAKEN MORE
THAN 50 YEARS TO BUILD, BIT BY BIT.”
(NEWS HEADLINE)
“NATURAL DISASTERS POSE A
SIGNIFICANT THREAT TO
PROSPECTS FOR ACHIEVING THE
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT
GOALS (MDGS) –IN ARTICULAR,
THE OVERARCHING TARGET OF
HALVING EXTREME POVERTY BY
2015.”
EVERY DISASTER → A HAZARD:
KNOWN OR UNKNOWN.
NATURAL OR MANMADE.
TECHNICAL, NUCLEAR, ECOLOGICAL.
..HUGE POTENTIAL TO CAUSE SEVERE
ADVERSE EFFECTS HIDE AT THE BASE
OF EVERY EMERGENCY, DISASTER &
CATASTROPHE
DISASTERS:
FLOOD, LANDSLIDE, DROUGHT,
CYCLONE, EARTHQUAKE, TSUNAMI,
VOLCANOES, BIOLOGICAL &
TECHNICAL.
VULNERABILITY COMPONENTS:
STRENGTHEN LIVELIHOODS, IMPROVE
NUTRITION & HEALTH SAFE HOUSE &
SITE, PROPER PROTECTION, GOOD
GOVERNANCE
EVERY ONE FACES DISASTER RISK
EVERY COMMUNITY & EVERY NATION.
INDEED, DISASTER IMPACTS ARE
SLOWING DOWN DEVELOPMENT.
THE IMPACTS & ACTIONS IN ONE
REGION, INFLUENCES RISKS IN
ANOTHER & VICE VERSA.
URGENCY TO REDUCE RISK &
VULNERABILITY FOR REDUCTION OF
POVERTY & SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
WHY CONCERN?
LOSS OF LIVE & PROPERTY,
TRAUMA & STRESS;
LOSS OF KITH AND/OR KIN,
OR HEALTH AND WELLNESS.
LOST OPPURTUNITIES,
PROPERTY & INFRASTRUCTURE;
DISRUPTION OF SERVICES etc. &
INDIRECTLY DIP IN LOCAL OR
REGIONAL GDP.
DISASTER:
A SERIOUS DISRUPTION OF
FUNCTIONING OF SOCIETY, CAUSING
WIDESPREAD HUMAN, MATERIAL OR
ENVIRONMENTAL LOSS, OFTEN
EXCEEDING ABILITY OF AFFECTED
SOCIETY TO COPE WITH ITS OWN
RESOURCES.
DISASTER:
HITS GREATLY & HUGELY DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES. >95% OF ALL DEATHS
DUE TO DISASTERS ARE IN
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
LOSSES FROM NATURAL DISASTERS
20X > (AS A PERCENT OF GDP) IN
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES VS.
INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES (WB, 2005).
DISASTER:
POOR PEOPLE SUFFER MOST.
NOT THAT ALL POOR SUFFER, NOR
ONLY THE POOR WHO SUFFER.
BUT IMPACTS CERTAINLY FACTORS
IN CREATING NEWLY
IMPOVERISHED PEOPLE (CANNON,
1994).
INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR
DISASTER REDUCTION (ISDR)
“FOR A DISASTER TO ENTER THE DATABASE OF
UN, AT LEAST ONE OF THE FOLLOWING
CRITERIA MUST BE MET:
– REPORT OF 10 OR MORE PEOPLE KILLED
– REPORT OF 100 PEOPLE AFFECTED
– DECLARATION OF A STATE OF EMERGENCY BY
THE RELEVANT GOVERNMENT
– REQUEST BY THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
FOR INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE.”
TWIN ELEMENTS OF DISASTER
I.EVENT II. VULNERABLE PEOPLE.
A DISASTER (AGENT/EVENT) EXPOSES
VULNERABILITY OF INDIVIDUALS
&/OR COMMUNITIES.
LIVES ARE DIRECTLY THREATENED OR
SUFFICIENTLY HARMED.
SO COMMUNITY’S ECONOMIC &
SOCIAL STRUCTURES UNDERMINE
THE ABILITY TO SURVIVE.
DISASTER
..A SOCIO­ECONOMIC PHENOMENON
..AN EXTREME, BUT NOT NECESSARILY
ABNORMAL STATE OF EVERYDAY LIFE
..CONTINUITY OF COMMUNITY
STRUCTURES & PROCESSES
TEMPORARILY FAILS.
..SOCIAL DISRUPTION MAY TYPIFY A
DISASTER BUT NOT SOCIAL
DISINTEGRATION.”
HAZARD
..AN EXTREME GEOPHYSICAL
EVENT CAPABLE OF CAUSING A
DISASTER.
EXTREME HERE SIGNIFIES A
SUBSTANTIAL DEPARTURE IN
EITHER THE POSITIVE OR THE
NEGATIVE DIRECTION FROM A
MEAN OR A TREND.
Natural hazards
.. extreme events
originating in the
lithosphere, hydrosphere
biosphere, or atmosphere.
(Alexander, 2000)
DETERMINANTS OF HAZARDS
FUNDAMENTALLY LOCATION,
TIMING, MAGNITUDE &
FREQUENCY.
MANY HAZARDOUS
PHENOMENA ARE RECURRENT
IN TIME & PREDICTABLE IN
TERMS OF LOCATION.
HAZARD
… REFLECTS A POTENTIAL THREAT
TO HUMANS AS WELL AS THE
IMPACT OF AN EVENT ON SOCIETY
& THE ENVIRONMENT.
… IN PART SOCIAL CONSTRUCT OF
PEOPLE’S PERCEPTIONS & THEIR
EXPERIENCES.
HAZARDS
…PEOPLE CONTRIBUTE TO,
EXACERBATE & MODIFY.
… HENCE CAN VARY BY CULTURE,
GENDER, RACE, SOCIOECONOMIC
STATUS, & POLITICAL STRUCTURE
AS WELL.
HAZARD
E.G., A HIGH VOLTAGE POWER
SUPPLY, A RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL,
OR A TOXIC CHEMICAL
.. POTENTIALLY HARMFUL.
..CONCENTRATED ACIDS CLEARLY
PRESENT A HAZARD TO THE USER.
..CAUSES SERIOUS BURNS IF
HANDLED INCORRECTLY.
CATASTROPHE
AN EVENT IN WHICH A SOCIETY
INCURS OR IS THREATENED TO INCUR,
SUCH LOSSES TO PERSONS AND/OR
PROPERTY THAT THE ENTIRE SOCIETY
IS AFFECTED.
DAMAGES OVERCOME BY
EXTRAORDINARY RESOURCES &
SKILLS SOME COMING FROM OTHER
NATIONS.
CATASTROPHE
Eg., 1985 EARTHQUAKES IN
MEXICO CITY & OTHER MEXICAN
CITIES. 1000s OF PEOPLE DIED,
BUT ESTIMATES VARY MARKEDLY.
TENS OF THOUSANDS INJURED.
AT LEAST 100,000 BUILDING UNITS
DAMAGED.
MEXICAN QUAKE
RECONSTRUCTION EXCEEDED US $5.0
BILLION (SOME ESTIMATES RUN AS
HIGH AS US $10 BILLION). OVER 60
NATIONS DONATED.
RECOVERY PROGRAMS
COORDINATED BY THE LEAGUE OF
RED CROSS & RED CRESCENT
SOCIETIES
RISK
…AN ACT OR PHENOMENON WITH
A POTENTIAL TO PRODUCE HARM
OR OTHER UNDESIRABLE
CONSEQUENCES TO PERSON OR
THING.
… OFTEN RISK IS CONFUSED WITH
HAZARD.
RISK
…PROBABILITY OR CHANCE THAT
HAZARD POSED BY A CHEMICAL WILL
LEAD TO INJURY. THUS, CONC.
SULFURIC ACID IS A HAZARDOUS
CHEMICAL (AS IT IS VERY CORROSIVE
& REACTIVE). IF HANDLED PROPERLY
THE RISKS IT POSES MAY BE SMALL.
RESILIENCE
… CAPACITY OF A GROUP OR
ORGANIZATION TO WITHSTAND LOSS
OR DAMAGE OR TO RECOVER FROM
THE IMPACT OF AN EMERGENCY OR
DISASTER.
HIGHER THE RESILIENCE, THE LESS
LIKELY DAMAGE MAY BE,
& THE FASTER AND MORE EFFECTIVE
RECOVERY IS LIKELY TO BE.”
DISASTERS ARE OF 2 TYPES:
… NATURAL DISASTERS
… MAN­MADE DISATERS
NATURAL DISASTERS
RIVER FLOODS, STORM SURGES,
COASTAL EROSION, CYCLONES,
TSUNAMIS, EQs, LANDSLIDES,
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS, SNOW
AVALANCHES, HEAT AND COLD
WAVES, DROUGHT, FOREST FIRES
& HITS BY LARGE BOLOIDS
MAN MADE DISASTERS
… NUCLEAR, & CHEMICAL,
… FIRES – COAL, OIL & FOREST,
… POLLUTION OF AIR, WATER,
… INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION, HEAVY
METAL POLLUTION, PETROLEUM
PRODUCTS, PESTICIDES,
… LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY &
ECOSYSTEMS
…DEFORESTATION
MAN MADE DISASTERS:
ACCIDENTS – RAIL, ROAD,
AIRPLANE, SHIP, DAM BURSTS.
FINALLY GLOBAL WARMING AND
SEA LEVEL RISE
DISASTER RESPONSE PLAN.
LOGISTICS & MANAGEMENT.
CENTRAL, STATE, DISTIRCT, &
LOCAL AGENCIES.
NGOs, ARMED FORCES, POLICE
AND SKILLED VOLUNTEERS
DISASTER RESPONSE PLAN
TRAUMA CARE, & STRESS
MANAGEMENT. MANAGING RELIEF &
STANDARDS OF RELIEF. FIRST AID &
EMERGENCY PROCEEDURES,
WARNING SYSTEMS.
DISASTER RESPONSE PLAN
…APPLY IT, RS, GPS & GIS IN
NDMP & DISASTER
PREPAREDNESS PLAN.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
.. PREVENTION, PREPAREDNESS &
MITIGATION.
..DISASTER PREPAREDNESS PLAN ­
ROLE OF INFORMATION, EDUCATION,
COMMUNICATION, TRAINING &
PLANNING. COMMUNITY CENTERED
DISASTER PREPAREDNESS PLAN.
HAZARD, VULNERABILITY & RISK.
MINIMIZING RISK, RISK ANALYSIS,
PARTICIPATORY RISK ANALYSIS.
“RISK” IS THE EXPECTATION VALUE
OF LOSSES (DEATHS, INJURIES,
PROPERTY, ETC.) THAT WOULD BE
CAUSED BY A HAZARD.
DISASTER RISK = FUNCTION
(HAZARD, EXPOSURE,
VULNERABILITY)
“RISK IS THE PROBABILITY OF AN EVENT X
CONSEQUENCES, IF THE EVENT OCCURS.”
OR A “RISK IS THE PROBABILITY OF
HARMFUL CONSEQUENCES, OR EXPECTED
LOSS (OF LIVES, PEOPLE, INJURED,
PROPERTY, LIVELIHOODS, ECONOMIC
ACTIVITY DISRUPTED OR ENVIRONMENT
DAMAGED), RESULTING FROM
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN NATURAL OR
HUMAN INDUCED HAZARDS.”
IF RISK IS ONE SIDE OF THE COIN,
OTHER IS VULNERABILITY. I.E.,
POTENTIAL FOR LOSSES OR OTHER
ADVERSE IMPACTS.

...THE INSECURITY OF THE WELL­
BEING OF INDIVIDUALS,
HOUSEHOLDS OR COMMUNITIES IN
THE FACE OF A CHANGING
ENVIRONMENT.
RISK = F (HAZARD,
VULNERABILITY, EXPOSURE,
RESILIENCE), WHILE THE
MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN THE VARIABLES IS
UNKNOWN
THE 8 MDGS?
..ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY & HUNGER.
..ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION.
..PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY & EMPOWER
WOMEN.
..REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY.
..IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH.
..COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA & OTHER DISEASES.
..ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY.
..DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR
DEVELOPMENT.
HYOGO FRAMEWORK ACTION PRIORITIES (2005)
– A WATERSHED (AFTER KOBE EQ):
.. ENSURING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IS A
NATIONAL & LOCAL PRIORITY WITH A STRONG
INSTITUTIONAL BASIS FOR IMPLEMENTATION.
.. IDENTIFY, ASSESS & MONITOR DISASTER RISKS &
ENHANCE EARLY WARNING. USE KNOWLEDGE,
INNOVATION & EDUCATION TO BUILD A CULTURE
OF SAFETY & RESILIENCE AT ALL LEVELS.
.. REDUCE THE UNDERLYING RISK FACTORS.
.. STRENGTHEN DISASTER PREPAREDNESS FOR
EFFECTIVE RESPONSE AT ALL LEVELS.
VULNERABILITY CAPACITY ASSESSMENT, VCA
(FIRCRC)
.. REDUCE IMPACT OF HAZARD ITSELF WHERE
POSSIBLE (THROUGH MITIGATION, PREDICTION,
WARNING & PREPAREDNESS);
.. BUILD CAPACITIES TO HELP REDUCE PEOPLE’S
VULNERABILITY;
..REDUCE THE WAYS IN WHICH PEOPLE ARE
AFFECTED BY POOR GOVERNANCE,
DISCRIMINATION, INEQUALITY & INADEQUATE
ACCESS TO RESOURCES & LIVELIHOODS; ..TACKLING
THE ROOT CAUSES THAT LEAD TO SYSTEMS OF
VULNERABILITY
PROCESS OF VCA
..VCA USES VARIOUS PARTICIPATORY TOOLS IN ORDER
TO UNDERSTAND THE LEVEL OF PEOPLE’S EXPOSURE TO
(AND CAPACITY TO RESIST) NATURAL HAZARDS AT THE
GRASS­ROOTS LEVEL.
..VCA IS AN INTEGRAL PART (BUT NOT THE ONLY PART)
OF DISASTER PREPAREDNESS & CAN CONTRIBUTE TO
THE CREATION OF COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER
PREPAREDNESS PROGRAMS AT THE RURAL & URBAN
GRASS­ROOTS LEVEL.
..IT ALLOWS THE PEOPLE TO IDENTIFY & UNDERSTAND
THE RISK THEY CONSIDER SHOULD HAVE PRIORITY, EVEN
IF THESE ARE NOT THE NATURAL HAZARDS
VCA –
..ENABLES IDENTIFICATION OF LOCAL
PRIOROTIES & LEADS TO DESIGN OF
ACTIONS CONTRIBUTING TO DISASTER
REDUCTION.
..DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT OF
PROGRAMS IN EACH OF THE PRIORITY
AREAS THAT ARE MUTAUALLY
SUPPORTIVE & RESPONSIVE TO NEEDS
OF PEOPLE AT GRASS ROOT LEVEL.
THE DRI (DEVELOPED BY UNDP) SHOWS
“BILLIONS OF PEOPLE IN OVER 100
COUNTRIES ARE PERIODICALLY EXPOSED TO
AT LEAST ONE OF THE HAZARDS (VIZ., EQ,
CYCLONE & FLOOD) STUDIED, WITH AN
AVERAGE OF 67,000 DEATHS ANNUALLY (184
DEATHS EACH DAY). RECORDED DEATHS
PROVIDE A TIP­OF­THE­ICEBERG
MEASUREMENT OF THE EXTENT TO WHICH
PAST DEVELOPMENT DECISIONS HAVE
PREFIGURED RISK.
NATURAL DISASTER:
A SERIOUS DISRUPTION TRIGGERED
BY A NATURAL HAZARD CAUSING
HUMAN, MATERIAL, ECONOMIC OR
ENVIRONMENTAL LOSSES, WHICH
EXCEED THE ABILITY OF THOSE
AFFECTED TO COPE.
RISK:
THE PROBABILITY OF HARMFUL
CONSEQUENCES, OR EXPECTED LOSS OF LIVES,
PEOPLE INJURED, PROPERTY, LIVELIHOODS,
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY DISRUPTED (OR
ENVIRONMENT DAMAGED) RESULTING FROM
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN NATURAL OR
HUMAN INDUCED HAZARDS AND VULNERABLE
CONDITIONS. RISK IS CONVENTIONALLY
EXPRESSED BY THE EQUATION:
RISK = HAZARD X VULNERABILITY
RESILIENCE:
THE CAPACITY OF A SYSTEM, COMMUNITY OR
SOCIETY TO RESIST OR TO CHANGE IN ORDER
THAT IT MAY OBTAIN AN ACCEPTABLE LEVEL
IN FUNCTIONING AND STRUCTURE. THIS IS
DETERMINED BY THE DEGREE TO WHICH THE
SOCIAL SYSTEM IS CAPABLE OF ORGANISING
ITSELF, AND THE ABILITY TO INCREASE ITS
CAPACITY FOR LEARNING AND ADAPTATION,
INCLUDING THE CAPACITY TO RECOVER FROM
A DISASTER.
HUMAN VULNERABILITY:
A HUMAN CONDITION OR
PROCESSRESULTING FROM
PHYSICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND
ENVIRONMENTAL
FACTORS, WHICH DETERMINE THE
LIKELIHOOD AND SCALE OF
DAMAGE FROM THE IMPACT OF A
GIVEN HAZARD.
IFRCRC ROADMAP ON DISASTERS
1: REDUCE NUMBER OF DEATHS, INJURIES &
IMPACT FROM DISASTERS.
2: REDUCE NUMBER OF DEATHS, ILLNESSES &
IMPACT FROM DISEASES & PUBLIC HEALTH
EMERGENCIES.
3: INCREASE LOCAL COMMUNITY, CIVIL SOCIETY
& RED CROSS RED CRESCENT CAPACITY TO
ADDRESS MOST URGENT SITUATIONS OF
VULNERABILITY.
4: PROMOTE RESPECT FOR DIVERSITY & HUMAN
DIGNITY,REDUCE INTOLERANCE, SOCIAL
EXCLUSION & DISCRIMINATION.
“EFFECTIVE PREVENTION STRATEGIES
WOULD SAVE NOT ONLY TENS OF BILLIONS
OF DOLLARS, BUT SAVE TENS OF
THOUSANDS OF LIVES; YET BUILDING A
CULTURE OF PREVENTION IS NOT EASY.
WHILE COSTS OF PREVENTION HAVE TO BE
PAID IN THE PRESENT, ITS BENEFITS LIE IN A
DISTANT FUTURE. MOREOVER, BENEFITS
ARE INTANGIBLE; THEY ARE THE DISASTERS
THAT DID NOT HAPPEN”
SAID KOFI ANNAN, UN SEC GEN.
NATURAL HAZARDS: NATURAL
PROCESSES OR PHENOMENA
OCCURRING IN THE BIOSPHERE
THAT MAY CONSTITUTE A
DAMAGING EVENT.
REDUCING DISASTER RISK: A
CHALLENGE FOR DEVELOPMENT.
DISASTER RISK INDEX (DRI)
MEASURES THE RELATIVE
VULNERABILITY OF COUNTRIES TO
THREE KEY NATURAL HAZARDS —
EARTHQUAKE, TROPICAL CYCLONE
AND FLOOD (UNDP)
DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT: THE
SYSTEMATIC MANAGEMENT OF
ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS,
ORGANISATION, OPERATIONAL SKILLS
AND ABILITIES TO IMPLEMENT POLICIES,
STRATEGIES AND COPING CAPACITIES OF
THE SOCIETY OR INDIVIDUALS TO LESSEN
THE IMPACTS OF NATURAL AND RELATED
ENVIRONMENTAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL
HAZARDS.
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION: THE
SYSTEMATIC DEVELOPMENT AND
APPLICATION OF POLICIES, STRATEGIES
AND PRACTICES TO MINIMISE
VULNERABILITIES, HAZARDS AND THE
UNFOLDING OF DISASTER IMPACTS
THROUGHOUT A SOCIETY, IN THE
BROAD CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
WIND SPEED & CATEGORIES
≥ 17 M/S TROPICAL STORMS
≥ 33 M/S HURRICANES, TYPHOONS,
TROPICAL CYCLONES, SEVERE
CYCLONIC STORMS (DEPENDING ON
LOCATION)
≥ 65 M/S SUPER­TYPHOONS
SEVERITY OF DROUGHT BASED ON PPTN DEFICIT
3 MONTHS 90% OF MEDIAN PPTN 1979­2001 (­10%)
3 MONTHS 75% OF MEDIAN PPTN 1979­2001 (­25%)
3 MONTHS 50% OF MEDIAN PPTN 1979­2001 (­50%)
6 MONTHS 90% OF MEDIAN PPTN 1979­2001 (­10%)
6 MONTHS 75% OF MEDIAN PPTN 1979­2001 (­25%)
6 MONTHS 50% OF MEDIAN PPTN 1979­2001 (­50%)
MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF
DISASTERS
1. LARGE, RAPID­ONSET­INCIDENTS
RELATIVE TO THE SIZE & RESOURCES
OF AN AFFECTED JURISDICTION.
2. UNCERTAIN WITH RESPECT TO
BOTH THEIR OCCURRENCES & THEIR
OUTCOMES.
MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF
DISASTERS
3. RISKS & BENEFITS ARE
DIFFICULT TO ASSESS &
COMPARE.
4. DYNAMIC EVENTS.
5. RELATIVELY RARE.
(REF. DONAHUE AND JOYCE, 2001)
RESPONSE, RECOVERY &
MITIGATION PLANS
MORE EFFECTIVE IF DEVELOPED
COLLECTIVELY BY ALL AGENCIES
INVOLVED, ENABLLING ADVANCE
COORDINATION OF
RESOURCES & RESPONSIBILITIES .
PREPAREDNESS PHASE
TRAINING & EXERCISES MAY BE FIELD
TESTED TO HELP PREPARE
RESPONDERS FOR REAL EVENTS.
E.G., FROM TABLETOP EXERCISES
(TTXS), I.E., WHERE NEITHER PEOPLE
NOR EQUIPMENT IS MOVED, TO FIELD
EXERCISES (FXS).
EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT
FRAMEWORK
..COMMAND,
..OPERATIONS,
..PLANNING,
..LOGISTICS,
..FINANCE AND
..ADMINISTRATION.
IT & GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGISTS
..EXPERTS RESIDE IN NUMEROUS GOI
AGENCIES, NATIONAL LABORATORIES & IN
STATE & LOCAL GOVERNMENTS.
..ALSO IN UNIVERSITIES & PRIVATE
SECTOR COMPANIES. RESEARCHERS &
GRADUATE STUDENTS OFTEN SUPPORT
CITY, REGIONAL & STATE PLANNING
DEPARTMENTS & FULLY INTEGRATABLE
INTO ACTIVITIES WARRANTED DURING A
DISASTER
INDIA:NATIONAL
DISASTER
MANAGEMENT
PLAN
Prevention
Response
Mitigation
Preparedness
Institutional and
Policy Framework
INDIA DISASTER PROFILE
UNIQUE GEO­CLIMATE MAKES HIGHLY
VULNERABLE TO NATURAL DISASTERS.
FLOODS, DROUGHTS, CYCLONES,
EARTHQUAKES AND LANDSLIDES
~60% OF LANDMASS EARTHQUAKE
PRONE, OVER 40 MILLION Ha TO
FLOODS, ~8% OF AREA CYCLONE
PRONE ~68% DROUGHT PRONE.
DECADE 1990­2000
AVERAGE ANNUAL LOSS OF LIFE = ~
4344
ANNUALLY, ~30 MILLION ARE AFFECTED
BY DISASTERS . ASTRONOMICAL LOSSES
IN TERMS OF PRIVATE, COMMUNITY
AND PUBLIC ASSETS.
SUPER CYCLONE, ORISSA, OCT., 1999 &
BHUJ EARTHQUAKE, GUJARAT IN
JANUARY, 2001
INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE INITIATIVES
ENUNCIATION OF POLICY
LEGAL AND TECHNO­LEGAL FRAMEWORK
DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN INDIA ­ A STATUS
REPORT 5.
MAINSTREAMING MITIGATION INTO
DEVELOPMENT PROCESS.
FUNDING MECHANISM.
SPECIFIC SCHEMES ADDRESSING MITIGATION,
PREPAREDNESS MEASURES &
CAPACITY BUILDING.
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT.
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
..HAZARD MITIGATION
..PREPAREDNESS AND CAPACITY BUILDING
..RELIEF AND RESPONSE
..ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE

MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS­ NDM DIVISION
“OUR VISION 2020 IS TO BUILD A SAFER & SECURE
INDIA, THROUGH SUSTAINED­COLLECTIVE­EFFORT,
SYNERGY OF NATIONAL CAPACITIES & PEOPLE’S
PARTICIPATION”
EARTH QUAKES, INDIA
DISASTER RELATED LOSSES, INDIA
LOSS DUE TO LANDSLIDES & FLOODS, INDIA
ORISSA CYCLONE LOSS, INDIA
DROUGHT LOSS, INDIA
ANNEXURE-I (INDIA NDMP)
SOCIAL, ECONOMIC & HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF NATURAL CALAMITIES
NATURAL CALAMITIES
S.
Consequences Earth-Quake Cyclone Flood Fire Drought/ Famine
No.

1. Loss of life X X X X
2. Injury X X X X X
3. Epidemiological threat X X

4. Loss of crops X X X
5. Loss of housing X X X X
6. Damage to infrastructure X X X X

7. Disruption of communications X X X X

8. Disruption of transport X X X X

9. Panic X X X X
10. Looting X X X X
11. Breakdown of social order X X X

12. Short-term migrations X X

13. Permanent migration #

14. Loss of Industrial production X X X X #

15. Loss of Business X X X X #
16 Distruption of marketing systems X X X X #
INDIA NDMP
DAILY REPORT ON RAINFALL & FLOOD SOUTH­WEST
MONSOON (w.e.f .June 1, 20_ _ to Sept. 31,20 _ _)
(To be sent to MHA, Control Room at 1400 hrs daily at Fax
No.011­ 23093750 or email iocdm.mha@nic.in)
NAME OF STATE/UT:
DATE OF REPORT: Rainfall position (indicate place &
rainfall in cm); Cause of floods; Extent of damage; Crops
affected; House damaged; Damage to infrastructure;
Rescue and Relief Operations undertaken
Signature of officer with Name
Telephone No/Fax No
Mobile No.
INDIA NDMP –GENERAL ACTION POINTS
I. Planning & Preparation:
1.Identification of earthquake prone areas:
2. Identification of problems:
a.Loss of human life, b. Casualties buried under fallen debris.
c.Destruction and Damage to Buildings, d. Disruption of
communication by land, sea and air.
e.Disruption of civic amenities e.g. electricity, water, transport,
medical, telephones, civil supplies etc.
f.Large scale fires. G. Floods in certain areas. H Landslide in hilly
areas.
i.Disposal of human bodies and animals. J Exposure to disease and
danger of epidemics. K Breakdown of law and order.
l.Breakdown of normal Government machinery in affected areas due
to Government servants themselves being affected by earthquake.
m.Loss of morale. N. Movement of population.
3. Identification & Mobilisation of Resources:
4. Command & Control
INDIA NDMP­ CYCLONE: Action Points
1. ACTION AFTER THE FIRST WARNING
THE COLLECTOR ENSURES­
i.AVAILABILITY OF ALL COMMODITIES FOR
DISTRIBUTION TO VICTIMS.
ii. MEDICAL & VETERINARY DEPARTMENTS REMAIN
FULLY EQUIPPED WITH REQUIRED DRUGS & VACCINES
FOR INITIATING PREVENTIVE STEPS TO ARREST SPREAD
OF EPIDEMICS.
III. THE GOVERNMENT VEHICLES ARE ROAD­WORTHY
AND READY FOR DEPLOYMENT IN EMERGENCY.
IV. INVENTORY OF GEN­SETS WITH CINEMA THEATRES
& OTHERS AVAILABLE WITH THE STATE
ELECTRICITY BOARD & NOTIFIED ABOUT POSSESSION
DURING EMERGENCY.
INDIA NDMP­Cyclones Action points
COLLECTOR ENSURES OPENING OF CYCLONE STORES
FOR SUPPLY OF FOLLOWING LIKE
1.HOOKS OF THE TYPE AVAILABLE WITH THE FIRE
SERVICE DEPARTMENT FOR CLEANING DEBRIS. RUBBER
TYRES & TUBES FOR USE AS FLOATS IN WATER. TENTS,
KEROSENE LANTERNS & LARGE COOKING VESSELS FOR
USE IN RELIEF CAMPS. ISSUANCE ID CARDS TO THE
VICTIMS IN RELIEF CAMPS. COPIES OF MAPS, ETC.
ROPES, WIRES, CHAINS, LIGHTS WITH FITTINGS, LEAD
WIRES, TORCHES, ETC. SPARE RODS, MARKER STONES,
STEEL POLES,
BAMBOOS, G.C. SHEETS, AND SLOTTED STRIPS OF
METAL (TO BE LAID ON CHURNED UP ROAD SURFACE
FOR BETTER TRANSPORTATION).
INDIA NDMP­Cyclones Action Points
DOUBLE HANDLE HOES (FOR CUTTING FALLEN TREES),
SHOVELS, CANDLES, LAND HAILERS, HOSE PIPES, FIRST
AID KITS, CYCLONE DUTY SIGN BOARDS, RODS,
ASBESTOS, SHEETS, TORCH LIGHTS, PETTY CANS,
EMPTY OIL DRUMS, GUNNY BAGS & SAND BAGS,
POLYTHENE BAGS, (FOR DROPPING SUPPLIES),
BUCKETS,
V.H.F. SETS WITH SPARE BATTERIES .
FODDERS, PUMPS FOR BAILING OUT WATER
ALONGWITH HOSE , SPADES, CROW BARS, HARD
GLOVES, EUCALYPTUS OIL, NAPATHALENE BALLS,
BAMBOO MATS, PHENYLE SLATE LINE ETC., USEFUL FOR
BURYING DEAD BODIES.
INDIA NDMP ACTION PLANS­Cyclones
ACTIONS BASED ON SECOND WARNING
(i.e., FALL OF ACTUAL THREAT)
i.EVALUATION
ii.RELIEF TO STRANDED CITIZENS.
iii.STOPPAGE OF TRAFFIC ON HIGHWAYS
iv.STOCKING FOOD­GRAINS
v.ORDERING CLOSURE OF SCHOOLS, COLLEGES ETC.
INDIA NDMP: POST CYCLONE ­Action Points
CONVENE THE COMMITTEES FOR RESCUE OPERATIONS.
BURIAL OF DEAD BODIES & CARCASSES.
HEALTH MEASURES. RESTORATION OF TRAFFIC.
ADEQUATE NUMBER OF MOBILE POLICE SQUADS TO
HELP CLEARING FALLEN TREES, DEBRIS ETC.
POWER BOARD TO CLEAR THE BLOCKS BY FALLEN
ELECTRIC POLES, & RESTORE POWER SUPPLY QUICKLY.
PUBLIC RELATIONS DEPARTMENT TO BUILD UP PHOTO
DATA BASE OF DAMAGE USING SERVICES OF LOCAL
OFFICERS OR BY EMPLOYING LOCAL MEN.
THE DIVISIONAL REVENUE OFFICERS
FORM TEAMS TO ASSESS DAMAGE TO HOUSES, CROPS,
LOSS OF HUMAN LIVES, LIVESTOCK ETC.
INDIA NDMP: FLOOD­Action Points
1.PRE­FLOOD ARRANGEMENTS :
CONVENE DISTRICT LEVEL COMMITTEE ON NATURAL
CALAMITIES;
ORDER THE CONTROL ROOMS READY;
CLOSE PAST BREACHES IN RIVER & CANAL EMBANKMENTS
& GUARD WEEK POINTS;
RAIN­RECORDING & SUBMISSION OF RAINFALL REPORTS.
COMMUNICATE GAUGE­READINGS & PREPARED
MAPS & CHARTS;
ASSIGN CHARGE OF FLOOD CIRCLES;
INDIA NDMP: FLOOD­Action Points
DISSEMINATE WEATHER BRIEFINGS & FLOOD
BULLETINS OF THE METEOROLOGICAL CENTRES,
CENTRAL WATER COMMISSION ,
FLOOD FORECASTING ORGANISATION;
DEPLOY POWER BOATS & BOATS AT STRATEGIC
POINTS; INSTALL TEMPORARY POLICE WIRELESS
STATIONS & PHONE BOOTHS IN FLOOD­PRONE AREAS;
ARRANGE FOR TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH LINES IN
ORDER; STORE FOOD GRAINS IN INTERIOR,
VULNERABLE, STRATEGIC & KEY AREAS;
ARRANGE DRY FOOD STUFF & OTHER NECESSITIES OF
LIFE; ARRANGE FOR KEEPING THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM
DESILTED & PROPERLY MAINTAINED.
FLOOD­Action Plan
HEALTH MEASURES;
VETERINARY MEASURES;
SELECTION OF FLOOD SHELTERS;
ADVANCE ARRANGEMENTS FOR ARMY ASSISTANCE;
TRAINING IN FLOOD RELIEF WORK;
ORGANISING RELIEF PARTIES;
OTHER PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES &
DRINKING WATER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS.
INDIA NDMP: Syn­ &Post Flood
PLAN & RUN RESCUE MISSIONS , SHELTER PEOPLE IN
DISTRESS, IF CIVIL AUTHORITY EFFORTS INADEQUATE,
REQUEST ION ARMY. ENLIST RELIEF MEASURES BY NGOs
& VOs AS FAR AS POSSIBLE. RUN RELIEF CAMPS.
PROVIDE DRINKING WATER, SANITATION & PUBLIC
HEALTH CARE, SUPPLY READY TO EAT FOOD, AIR­DROP
FOOD PACKETS IF NEED BE. ORGANIZE & RUN RESCUE &
RELIEF MISSIONS TO MAROONED PEOPLE WITHIN A
REASONABLE TIME LIMIT. ANNOUNCE TIMELINES OF
VARIOUS RESCUE­RELIEF TASKS
INDIA NDMP: Syn­ & Post Flood Action map
BUILD & RUN MULTIPLE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS TO
REACH EFFECTIVELY TO MAROONED AREAS. RUN
KITCHENS TO SUPPLY FOOD AT LEAST FOR 3 DAYS. IF
NEEDED ORGANIZE CATTLE SHELTERS WITH CARE,
FODDER & FEED. GRANT EMERGENCY RELIEF TO ALL
AFFECTED PEOPLE. PUBLISH DAILY REPORTS & RELEASE
CORRECT INFORMATION IN MEDIA TO AVOID RUMORS.
REHABILITATE HOMELESS. COMMENCE AGRICULTURAL
ACTIVITIES­ E.G., DESILTATION, RESOWING. REPAIR &
REBUILD INFRASTRUCTURE, VIZ., ROADS,
EMBANKMENTS, POWER & COMMUNICATION LINES;
RESETTLE FLOOD PRONE AREAS. HEALTH MEASURES.
IMPLEMENT WAGED ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION.
INDIA NDMP: DROUGHT­Action Points
EARLY WARNING SYSTEM.
CONTINGENCY PLANNING FOR
AGRICULTURE.
CROP SAVING MEASURES.
ALTERNATIVE CROPPING STRATEGIES.
COMPENSATORY CROPPING PROGRAMME.
SUPPLY OF INPUTS.
PROVIDE IRRIGATION.
SUPPLY OF POWER.
INDIA NDMP: DRINKING WATER
DESIGN DETAILED CONTINGENCY PLANS FOR
WATER SUPPLY IN RURAL AREAS ­ DRAW
TECHNICAL HELP OF CGWB. UTILIZE IF NEED BE,
RIGS & OTHER CAPITAL EQUIPMENTS OF CGWB.
PLAN IN ADVANCE FOR SUPPLY OF DRINKING
WATER IN URBAN AREAS – SOURCE FROM
BOREWELLS OR LINE UP SPECIAL­TANKER­
TRAINS & OTHER SUITABLE MEASURES.
24X7 MONITORING OF RURAL & URBAN
DRINKING WATER STATUS .
INDIA NDMP: WATER RESOURCES
DESIGN A WATER BUDGET FOR SOURCES OF
IRRIGATION COVERING DRINKING WATER,
KHARIF & RABI REQUIREMENTS & EVAPORATION
LOSSES. IN THE PLAN CUT A TRADE­OFF
BETWEEN KHARIF & RABI BENEFITS FROM
AVAILABLE WATER. BORE WELLS IN OPERATIONAL
READINESS & GO FOR NEW BORE WELLS, BUT
NOT OVER­EXPLOITING AQUIFERS.
REGULATE WATER SUPPLY TO INDUSTRIES IF
NECESSARY. MINIMISE EVAPORATION LOSSES IN
OPEN STORAGES BY USING CHEMICAL
RESTORATANTS.
INDIA NDMP: EMPLOYMENT
GENERATION
INITIATE ADEQUATE EMPLOYMENT
GENERATING RELIEF WORKS. FUNDS
UNDER EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE
SCHEME BE DOVETAILED, INTEGRATED
AND UTILIZED.
KEEP READY, A SHELF OF PROJECTS FOR
EMPLOYMENT GENERATION DURING
DROUGHT.
INDIA NDMP: PUBLIC HEALTH
DISINFECT WATER SOURCES TO PREVENT
WATER­BORNE DISEASES.
ADVANCE PLAN TO COPE WITH LIKELY
EPIDEMICS.
STEADY SURVEILLANCE OF PUBLIC HEALTH
MEASURES INCLUDING IMMUNISATION.
CARE FOR NUTRITIONAL NEEDS OF ALL
CHILDREN, EXPECTANT MOTHERS &
NURSING MOTHERS.
INDIA NDMP: DROUGHT­FODDER
ASSESS FODDER NEEDS IN DROUGHT DISTRICTS.
EMPANEL FODDER SURPLUS REGIONS TO IMPORT
FROM. MONITOR FODDER­MARKET MOVEMENTS.
OBLIGATE FOREST DEPT. TO ARRANGE FOR
CUTTING & BAILING OF FOREST GRASSES TO FILL
DEMAND IN FODDER DEFICIT REGIONS. PROMOTE
FODDER CULTIVATION IN FEASIBLE AREAS.
ENSURE SUPPLY OF MOLASSE TO CATTLE FEED
MAKERS. OUTSOURCE FEED & UREA­MOLASSES­
BRICKS TO THE EXTENT NECESSARY FROM NDDB
& OTHERS.
LANDSLIDE FROM GEOLOGICAL
PERSPECTIVE

Geologists view landslide as one
among the numerous geological
processes of degradation of land
Recognizing Problem Areas
• Curved trees
• Stuck windows
• Stuck doors
• Leaning walls
• Plaster cracks
• Foundation cracks
• Damaged chimneys
• Leaning poles
• Scarps
• Toes
• Seeps
• Pavement damage
As landslides are usually not
separated from other natural
hazard triggers, such as extreme
precipitation, earthquakes or
floods, the socio­economic
impact of landslides is often
underestimated
LANDSLIDE
HAZARD
ZONES
OF
GSI
ON AN AVERAGE
LANDSLIDES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR
ABOUT 17% OF ALL FATALITIES
FROM NATURAL HAZARDS
WORLDWIDE .
FOR EXAMPLE, IN 1968 ALONE,
MORE THAN 33,000 PEOPLE WERE
KILLED BY LANDSLIDES.
HAZARD ZONES
THE BUILDING MATERIALS AND
TECHNOLOGY PROMOTION COUNCIL
­ NEW DELHI & CENTRE FOR
DISASTER MITIGATION AND
MANAGEMENT – CHENNI PUBLISHED
A LANDSLIDE HAZARD ZONATION
MAP OF INDIA . IT RECOGNIZED
FOUR KINDS OF LANDSLIDE HAZARD
ZONES.
THE TERM LANDSLIDE IS OFTEN
USED SOMEWHAT LOOSELY TO MEAN
ANY FAIRLY RAPID MOVEMENT OF
ROCKS AND SEDIMENT DOWN SLOPE.
WHEN THE TERM IS USED IN THAT
SENSE, IT IS CONSIDERED AS ONE
AMONG THE WIDE VARIETY OF MASS
MOVEMENT PROCESSES THAT WEAR
AWAY AT THE EARTH'S SURFACE.
The four point hazard scale of the Landslide
Zones are;

Zone 1: Sever to Very High,

Zone 2 : High

Zone 3 : Moderate to low

Zone 4 : Unlikely, was considered
adequate.
IN MAY OF 1970, PERU SUCCUMBED TO
A LANDSLIDE THAT TOOK THE LIVE OF
18,000 PEOPLE. NO OTHER LANDSLIDE
COMES CLOSE IN TERMS OF CASUALTIES.

HOWEVER, WHEN IT COMES TO
MATERIAL DAMAGE, CALIFORNIA
SUFFERED OVER US $140 MILLION
IN LOSSES IN JANUARY OF 1969.
Factors Affecting Driving Force

1. Earthquakes
2. Removal of lateral support
3. Addition of Mass or Pressure
4. Tectonics
Sleeping off a night during
a flood, china, 2006
THE CAUSE:
MOVING GEOLOGICAL PLATES
THE INDO­AUSTRALIAN PLATE MOVES
BELOW THE EURASIAN PLATE AT AROUND
70 MM PER YEAR ON AN AVERAGE. PLATES
GET LOCKED AND MOVE VERY LITTLE FOR
MANY YEARS, EVEN CENTURIES, PRESSURE
BUILDS UP ­ AND IS THEN SUDDENLY AND
CATASTROPHICALLY RELEASED IN THE FORM
OF A MAJOR EARTHQUAKE.
ON 26TH DEC. 2004, ON THE FAULT LINE
BETWEEN INDO­AUSTRALIAN &
EURASIAN PLATES IN SUMATRA­
MAJOR PLATES OFTEN HAVE MINOR &
MICRO PLATES AT THEIR EDGES.
THESE TEND TO MOVE, MORE OR LESS,
IN THE SAME DIRECTION AS MAJOR
PLATES. THEY BELONG TO SPECIALLY
ACTIVE GEOLOGICAL FAULT LINES BUT
ARE OFTEN THE LOCATION OF EQs.
Coastal parts most
affected have been
marked in red.Red dots:
bridges destroyedBlack
numbers: houses
destroyed in that coastal
areaRed numbers: dead
and missing in that coastal
areaX Site of train derailed
by tsunami with 1,000
dead
IN SUMMARY THE HUMANITY
ESPECIALLY IN THE DEVELOPING
WORLD IS OPEN TO THREATS OF
FLOODS, LANDSLIDES, FIRES,
TOXIC EFFLUENTS AND SO ON.
A CONSTANT VIGIL AND A WELL
OILED MECHANISM OF
MITIGATION ARE ESSENTIAL TO
MINIMISE THE SUFFERING.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH
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