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SIR SYED UNIVERSITY OF

ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

Physiology

Assignment no 1

Name: Ali Inam
Roll No 2010-BM-056
Section “A”
Teacher: Madam Naureen
INTRODUCTION

CELL:
All plants and animals are made of cells. Most cells are much too small to see. It takes millions
of cells, for example, to make just one of your fingers. Some tiny creatures, such as bacteria, are
made of only one cell.

The cell is the functional basic unit of life. It was discovered by Robert Hooke and is the
functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a
living thing, and is often called the building block of life.

The cell is one of the most basic units of life. There are millions of different types of cells.
There are cells that are organisms onto themselves, such as microscopic amoeba and bacteria
cells. And there are cells that only function when part of a larger organism, such as the cells that
make up your body. The cell is the smallest unit of life in our bodies. In the body, there are
brain cells, skin cells, liver cells, stomach cells, and the list goes on. All of these cells have
unique functions and features. And all have some recognizable similarities. All cells have a
'skin', called the plasma membrane, protecting it from the outside environment. The cell
membrane regulates the movement of water, nutrients and wastes into and out of the cell. Inside
of the cell membrane are the working parts of the cell. At the center of the cell is the
cell nucleus. The cell nucleus contains the cell's DNA, the genetic code that coordinates protein
synthesis. In addition to the nucleus, there are many organelles inside of the cell - small
structures that help carry out the day-to-day operations of the cell. One important cellular
organelle is the ribosome. Ribosomes participate in protein synthesis. The transcription phase
of protein synthesis takes places in the cell nucleus. After this step is complete, the mRNA
leaves the nucleus and travels to the cell's ribosomes, where translation occurs. Another
important cellular organelle is the mitochondrion. Mitochondria (many mitochondrion) are
often referred to as the power plants of the cell because many of the reactions that produce
energy take place in mitochondria. Also important in the life of a cell are the lysosomes.
Lysosomes are organelles that contain enzymes that aid in the digestion of nutrient molecules
and other materials. Below is a labeled diagram of a cell to help you identify some of these
structures.
CYTOPLASM

In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm is that part of the cell between the cell membrane and
the nuclear envelope. It is the jelly-like substance in a cell that contains the cytosol, organelles,
and inclusions, but not including the nucleus. In fact, the cytoplasm and the nucleus make up
the protoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. In prokaryotic cells that do not have a well-defined nucleus,
the cytoplasm is simply everything enclosed by the cell membrane. It therefore contains
the cytosol, and all the other cellular components, including the chromosome in
the nucleoid region.
Cytoplasm is defined as the material that lies within the cytoplasmic membrane, or the
membrane that surrounds a cell. It contains none of a cell's genetic material, because this is
contained in the nucleus. It does, however, contain a lot of water, and the other organelles of the
cells. It provides a platform upon which they can operate within the cell. It is made up of
proteins, vitamins, ions, nucleic acids, amino acids, sugars, carbohydrates and fatty acids. All of
the functions for cell expansion, growth and replication are carried out in the cytoplasm of a cell.

The organelles inside cytoplasm are very important for the maintenance of the cell. Some of the
most important organelles that cytoplasm contains are the mitochondria, proteins, ribosomes, the
endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and the cytoskeleton.

Mitochondria:
These are organelles in animal and plant cells in which oxidative phosphorylation takes place.
There are many mitochondria in animal tissues; for example, in heart and skeletal muscle, which
require large amounts of energy for mechanical work, in the pancreas, where there is
biosynthesis, and in the kidney, where the process of excretion begins. Mitochondria have an
outer membrane, which allows the passage of most small molecules and ions, and a highly
folded inner membrane (cristae), which does not even allow the passage of small ions and so
maintains a closed space within the cell. The electron-transferring molecules of the respiratory
chain and the enzymes responsible for ATP synthesis are located in and on this inner membrane.
Endoplasmic Reticulum:
The endoplasmic reticulum is a complex system of membrane channels and sacs. It is made up of
two regions. In the rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes are associated with the outer surface
of the ER membrane. The proteins made by these ribosomes are deposited into the central cavity
(lumen) of the ER for further biochemical processing. The proteins transported into the lumen
will eventually make their way into the lysosomes and peroxisomes, become incorporated into
the plasma membrane, or will be secreted out of the cell.

Membrane system within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell important in the synthesis of
proteins and lipids. The ER usually makes up more than half the membrane of the cell and is
continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. There are two distinct regions of
ER: the rough ER, or RER (so called because of the protein-synthesizing ribosomes attached to
it), and the smooth ER (SER), which is not associated with ribosomes and is involved in the
synthesis of lipids and the detoxification of some toxic chemicals.

Golgi Bodies:

Golgi bodies, named after the Italian biologist Camillo Golgi, are composed of a stack of about
half a dozen sacuoles, whose purpose in the cell are to prepare and store chemical products
produced in the cell, and then to secrete these outside the cell. Golgi bodies are formed when
small sac like pieces of membrane are pinched away from the cell. In the endoplasmic reticulum,
proteins synthesized by ribosomes are sent through the canals of the ER, where they meet up
with the Golgi bodies. The proteins are then packaged in vesicles. The membranes of these
vesicles are then able to bond with the cell membrane, where their contents are secreted outside
the cell. Proteins are not the only material packaged in the Golgi bodies. A portion of materials
in the wall of a plant cell are assembled in the Golgi bodies.
The number and size of Golgi bodies found in a cell depends on the quantity of chemicals
produced in the cell. The more chemicals, the more and larger bodies. For example, a large
number of Golgi bodies are found in cells that produce saliva and other materials for digestion.

Lysosomes:
Lysosomes are spherical organelles that contain enzymes (acid hydrolases) that break up endocytized
materials and cellular debris. They are found in animal cells, while in yeast and plants the same roles are
performed by lytic vacuoles. Lysosomes digest excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and
engulfed viruses or bacteria. The membrane around a lysosome allows the digestive enzymes to work at
the 4.5 pH they require. Lysosomes fuse with vacuoles and dispense their enzymes into the vacuoles,
digesting their contents. They are created by the addition of hydrolytic enzymes to early endosomes from
the Golgi apparatus. The name lysosome derives from the Greek words lysis, which means to separate;
and soma, which means body. They are frequently nicknamed "suicide-bags" or "suicide-sacs" by cell
biologists due to their role in autolysis. Lysosomes were discovered by the Belgian cytologist Christian de

Duve in 1949.

Peroxisomes:
Peroxisomes are organelles present in almost all eukaryotic cells. They participate in the
metabolism of fatty acids and many other metabolites. Peroxisomes harbour enzymes that rid
the cell of toxic peroxides. Peroxisomes are bound by a single membrane that separates their
contents from the cytosol (the internal fluid of the cell) and contain membrane proteinscritical for
various functions, such as importing proteins into the organelles and aiding in proliferation.
Peroxisomes are formed from the endoplasmic reticulum.
Secretary Vesicles:
Vesicles perform many functions through complex mechanisms that can involve many
aspects of cell regulation. Secretory vesicles in particular are specialized vesicles formed in
the trans-Golgi apparatus for releasing a product (such as molecule or protein) outside the
cell.Secretory vesicles are used for exocytosis. Mast cells use secretary vesicles to release
histamine which is a molecule involved immune response. Neurotransmitters can also be
transmitted in secretary vesicles from nerve cells.

NUCLEOPLASM

The cell nucleus is a remarkable organelle because it forms the package for our genes and their
controlling factors. It functions to:

Store genes on chromosomes
Organize genes into chromosomes to allow cell division.
Transport regulatory factors & gene products via nuclear pores
Produce messages ( messenger Ribonucleic acid or mRNA) that code for proteins
Produce ribosomes in the nucleolus
Organize the uncoiling of DNA to replicate key genes

Nucleoplasm, also called nuclear sap or karyoplasm, is the fluid usually found in the nucleus of
eukaryotic cells. This fluid contains primarily water, dissolved ions, and a complex mixture of
molecules. Its primary function is to act as a suspension medium for the organelles of the
nucleus. Other functions include the maintenance of nuclear shape and structure, and the
transportation of ions, molecules, and other substances important to cell metabolism and
function.

The highly viscous nucleoplasmic fluid suspends and protects the nucleolus. This organelle is
composed of proteins and nucleic acids. It is responsible for the transcription and assembly of
ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA), a type of RNA that works together with messenger
ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) to transform amino acids into
proteins. It contains chromatin fibres, which are made up of DNA. After cell division takes
place, these chromatin fibres undergo certain structural changes, and are called chromosomes.
These chromosomes carry the hereditary info of the genes. The nucleoplasm is a dense fluid
containing chromatin fibres, which are made up of DNA.

Nuclear Membrane:

The nuclear envelope (NE) (also known as the perinuclear envelope, nuclear membrane,
nucleolemma or karyotheca) is a double lipid bilayer that encloses the genetic material in
eukaryotic cells. The nuclear envelope also serves as the physical barrier, separating the contents
of the nucleus (DNA in particular) from the cytosol (cytoplasm). Many nuclear pores are inserted
in the nuclear envelope, which facilitate and regulate the exchange of materials (proteins such as
transcription factors, and RNA) between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Each of the two membranes is composed of a lipid bilayer. The outer membrane is continuous
with the rough endoplasmic reticulum while the inner nuclear membrane is the primary residence
of several inner nuclear membrane proteins. The outer and inner nuclear membrane are fused at
the site of nuclear pore complexes. The structure of the membrane also consists of ribosomes.