PRINCIPLES

OF MICROWAVE

CIRCUITS

MASSACHUSETTS

INSTITUTE

OF TECHNOLOGY

RADIATION

LABORATORY SERIES
Board of Editors

LOUISN. GEORGEB.

RIDENOUR, Editor-in-Chief COLLINS, Deputy Editor-in-Chief

BRITTON CHANCE, S. A. GOUDSMIT, R. G. HERB, HUEIERT M. JAMES, JULIAN K. KNIPP, JAMES L. LAWSON, LEON B. LINFORD, CAROL G. lVIONTGOMERY,C. NEWTON, ALBERT M. STONE, LOUIS A. TURNER, GEORGE E. VALLEY, JR., HERBERT H. WHEATON

--1.

RADAR SYSTEM ENGINEERING—RidenouT

2. RADAR AIDS TO NAVIGATION—HU1l 3. RADAR BEAcoNs—RotJer’ts 4. LoRAN—Pierce, _,, ,,..McKenzie, and WoodwaTd and Lebacqz

5. PULSE Generators—Glasoe

6. MICROWAVE lfAGNETRONS—COIZinS 7. KLYSTRONS AND h~lcRowAvE TRIoDEs—Hamillon, Knipp, and Kuper

8. PRINCIPLES OF hllCRO~AVE CIRcurrs—,$fontgomery, ~ , ,. ~ . . 9. \lICROWAVE TRANSMISSION CIRculTs—Ragan 10. WAVEG1-lDE HAN DBOOK—~farWOk 11. TECHNIQUE OF LIICROIVAVE \lEAsuREMENTs—J[

Dicke, and Purcell

ontgOmer.!f

12. %~ICROWAVEANTENNA THEORY AND ~EsIGN—Siker 13. PROPAGATION DF SHORT RAUIO WAvEs—Kerr 14. hlICROWAVE ~uPLExERs—S?nullin 15. CRYSTAL Rectifiers—Torre~/ 16. MICROWAVE k~lxmt-Pound 17. COMPONENTS HA NDBOOK—B/ackbu7n 18. VACUUM TUBE ..kMrLIFIERs-~’a~ le?yand wa~bmzn 19. WAvEFoRMs—Chance, Huqhes, Mac.Vichol, Sayre, and Walliams .lfac.Vichol, and Montgomery

and whi~mer’

20. ELECTRONIC TIME hfEASUREMENTS—ChanCe, Hulsizer, and Willzams 21. ELECTRONIC lNSTRUMENTS~iYX?nIUOOd, Holdam, 22, CATHODE RAY TrBE ..

and MacRae

DIspL.kYs—So//er, Slarr, and Valley Voo7his and Uhlenbeck

23. MICRO\VAVE REcEIvERs—Van ’24. THRESHOLD ~lGNALs—Lawson

..-

Nichols, and Phillips ,,,- 25. THEORY OF SERvoMEcHAxlsMs—James, 26. RADAR SCANNERS AND RADOMES—Ca@, Karelitz, and Turner 27. COMPUTING ~fECHANISMS AND LlXK,4GEs-&oboda 28, lNDEx—Henney

\\

PRINCIPLES OF MICROWAVE CIRCUITS
Edited by

C. G, MONTGOMERY
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR YALE UNIVERSITY OF PHYSICS

R. H. DICKE
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS PRINCETON UNIVERSITY

E, M. PURCELL
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF PHYSICs HAIWARD UNIVERSITY

OFFICE

OF

SCIENTIFIC DEFENSE

RESEARCH RESE.4RCH

.kND

DEVELOPMENT

N iTION_iL

CO\ Ih[ITTEE

NEW

YORK

. TORONTO

. LONDON

McGRAW-HILL

BOOK 19 8 /

COMPANY,

IIVC.

PR INCI

PI,ES

OF

MICROW,LVH
1948, BOOK BY THN

C1l{CI ITS

COPYRIGHT, ll{(;R. iw-IIILL J, INTED R IN THE

COMPANI-, STATES This

Ix{.

UYITED reserved. without

OF AM ERlr,\ book, or of

.411 rights

parts thereqf. in any jorm

may not be reproduced permission

lhe publishev-s.

Iv

PREsS

COMP.\NY,

YORK,

P.\.

#

~s,

INST. TF c+

MAY la 1956 ‘
c’)

PRIN~IPLES

OF

MICROWAVE

CIRCUITS

EDITORIAL c. D. (1. D,

STAFF

MONTGOMERY MONTGOMERY

COiVTRIB Il.

UTfNti

AUTHORS

R.
R. N.

BERINGER DICKE

H.

MARCUVITZ MONTGOMERY M. PURCELL

c.

G, E.

o a

L.

Foreword

T
most

HE tremendous development not only

research of radar

and and

development

effort

that

went World (and

into Wrar some and

the 1I for new this

related of radar

techniques sets for

during military

resulted possible techniques

in hundreds use but electronics be of great also

peacetime) in the may

in a great

body

of information fields,

and value

high-frequency to science as security which

Because

basic material important

and engineering, permitted. operated under

it seemed

to publish Laboratory

it as soon of MIT,

The vision

Radiation

the

super-

of the National these result

Defense volumes. work both

Research The done at

Committee, work many country described

undertook herein,

the great however, Navy, Canada, is

task of preparing the collective

of

laboratories, and

Army,

university, and other The finances

and industrial, Dominions. Radiation provided N.

in this

in England,

Laboratory, by the Office

once

its

proposals Research to lead of

were and and

approved

and

of Scientific

Development, the entire for

chose Louis project. this type An

Ridenour

as 13ditor-in-Chief staff was then

direct best

editorial

selected

those

qualified

of task. were the

Finally chosen various

the authors from among and entire

for the various those who staff experts were able

volumes who and were

or chapters intimately to write at

or sections familiar

with

fields, This

willing

the summaries MIT

of them.

agreed of the

to remain Radiation to this

at work Laboratory group.

for six months These

or more volumes

after

the work

was complete. These thousands

stand

as a monument to and the

volumes of other

serve

as a memorial engineers,

unnamed who the

hundreds actually results

and

scientists,

others work

carried of which and they labora-

on the research, me herein worked

development, There together

and engineering were so many

described.

involved

in this work separated who

so closely

e~’en though to name

often

in widely those

tories that

it is impossible idea

or even Only

to know certain

contributed wrote reports

to a particular or articles in any way country have

or development. been mentioned.

ones who who

even

But

to all those

contributed both in this

to this

great

cooperative

development

enterprise,

and in

England, these volumes are dedicated. L. A.
DUBRIDGE

Prejace
N mm engineering application of low-frequency currents, an important step forward was the development of the impedance concept It was almost and its utilization through the theory of linear networks. inevitable that this concept would be generalized and become useful in This volume is devoted to an exposition the application of microwaves. of the impedance concept and to the equivalent circuits of microwave devices. It is the intention to emphasize the underlying principles of these equivalent circuits and the results that may be obtained by their use. Specific devices are not discussed except as illustrations of the These devices and the details oi general methods under consideration. the design procedure are treated in other volumes of this series. The solutions of the boundary-value problems which give the susceptances of microwave-circuit elements are likewise omitted. The results of such calculations that have been performed up to the present time are comHandbook, and these results are used piled in Vol. 10, the Waveguide freely. Although the work of the Radiation Laboratory at MIT was the development of military radar equipment, the principles discussed in this volume can be applied to microwave equipment of all kinds.

I

THE NEW HAVEN, CCJNN., February, 1947.

AUTHORS

lx

Contents
l~ORE\YORD PRF;FAC!E. CH.4P. 1, IN-TItODUCTIOX 1.1. 1.2. 1,3. 14. 1.5. 16. 17. ( ‘H.AP. 2. }ficrowalres Microwave iUicrOwave Circuits Lfeasurements ( ‘ircuit Analy.is BY ~. 11. ]’L’R(>H1,l. BY L. k. DUBRIL)C+E Vii

ix 1 1 3 5 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 14 16 17 17 19 ~ 22 23 25 26 28 30 30 33 38 41 42 45 48 50 54

The Aims of hficrorvave Linearity Dissipation Symmetry

~;I.ECTltOJI.&CrXETIC~ RELATIONS . . . . JIaxwell’s Poynting’s Solutions

lV.LVES

BY (‘.

C,. 310 NTGOM~RY

TH~FI~L~ 21. 22. 23.

Equation Vector and Energy of Maxwell’s

Theorems

Equations

PURELY TRANSVERSE ELECTRO~AGNETIC WTAVES 24. 2.5. 26. 27. 2.8. 29. 210, Uniform Plane Waves Nonuniform Transverse-electromagnetic 7’EJI-waves between Parallel Plates 7’E.V-waves between Coaxial Spherical TEJf-waves L-niform Cylindrical Waves. Babinet’s Principle Cylinders

Plane fVaves

t

IILECTROMAGNETIC WAvEs 2.11. 212. 2,13. 214. 215. 216. 2.17. 2.18. 2.19,

WITH J.0NGITIIIIIN.41J COMPONENTS

General Procedure The Normal Lfodes

of Itectangular

Pipes

The Normal Lfodcs in Round Pipes Higher hfodes in Coaxial Cylinders. N’ormal Lfodes for Other Cross Sections Transmission Losses Cylindrical Cavities Energy Density and Power Flow in Wavcguides. . . . xi .,,,,,,,,,,,. Summary of Results

xii
CHAP. 3.

CON I’E,V 1’S WAVEGUIDES AS TRAXSMISS1OX GOMERY . . . . . . . ,., ,.. 3,1. 3.2. 33. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 37. 3.8. 39. Some General Low-frequency LIXES BY C. G. 310 NT60 60 61 67 (jg 70 71 75 77 7!)

Properties of Guided JVavm Transmission Lines.

The Transformation of Impedances Power Flow . . . . . . . . . . The Combination of Admittances Transmission-line Charts Impedance Concept in Waveguide Problc]lls. Equivalent T-network of a J.ength of ;Vavegu]dc Transmission-line Equatirms for the H, n-mode

83 4.1. 4.2. 4,3. 4-1. 4.5. 46. 4.7. 4.8. 4.9. 4.10. 4.11. 4,12. 4.13. CH.4P. 5. Elementary Considerations 83 87 Pair 90 95 99 104 110 112 115 ]1~ 121 124 127 BY R. H. . . ...130 130 132 132 134 and Dissipated 135 136 138 139 to V-terminal-pair Junc139 140 141 142 143 Waveguides , 144

The Use of Matrices in Network Theory Fundamental Network Theorems The Synthesis Problem and Networks with One Ternnmd The Circuit Parameters of Two-terminal-pair Networks Equivalent Circuits of Two-terminal-pair Networks Symmetrical Two-terminsl-pair Networks. Chains of Four-terminal Networks Filters.....,.. . . . . . . . . . Series and Parallel ConnectIon of Networks. Three-terminal-pair Networks. Circuits with N Terminal Pairs Resonant Circuits MICROWAVE CIRCUIT . . . . . . . . . . Properties THEOREMS . . . . . . . Junction

GENERAL DICE.. .,, 51.

Some General

of a Waveguide

THE T~RMINATION OF A SINGLE TRANSMISSION LINE 5.2. 5.3. 54. 5.5. Poynting’s Energy Theorem for a Periodic Feld Uniqueness of Terminal Voltages and Currents Connections between Impedance and Stored Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . Field Quantities in a Lossless Termination,

56. WaveFormalism . . . . . . . .,. , . . . . . . . . ...137 57. Connection between the Reflection Coefficient and Stored Energy. THE JUNCTION OF SEVERAL TRANSMISSION LINES 5.8. 5,9. 5,10. 5.11. 5,12. 5.13. Extension of the Uniqueness Theorem

tions . . . . . . . . . . . . Impedance and Admittance Matrix. Symmetry of Impedance and Admittance Matrices. Physical Realizability. The Polyterminal-pair Lossless Junction Definition of Terminal Voltages and Currents for with More than One Propagating Mode.

(:() ,\J !V‘1’,~ ‘1‘1< 5.14. 5,15. 5,16. 5.17. 518. 5,19. Scattering Matrix Symmetry . . . . Energy Condition Transformation of of the Terminal

Xtll

. . . . . ..146 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...148 . . . . . . . . . . 148 the Scattering Matrix under a Shift in Position Reference Planes 149 Connected in Cascade with a I,oad Connected 150 to 151 151 151 152 153 154 156

The T-matrix of a Series of Junctions The Scattering Matrix of a Junction One of the Transmission Lines.

FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF A LOSSLESS JUNCTION 520. 5.21. 5,22. 5,23. 5,24. 5.25. Variational Energy Integral.

Application to Impedance and Admittance Matrix. Application to Scattering Matrix. Transmission-line Termination. Foster’s Reactance Theorem. Frequency Variation of a Lossless Junction with Two Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...158

CHAP. 6.

WAVEGUIDE 6.1. Obstacles

CIRCUIT

ELEMENTS

BY (;. (1, MONT~OMMtY

162 162 163 163 .164 166 167 168 169

in a Waveguide.

THIN

DIAPHRAGMS As SHUNT ReaCtanCe 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. 66. 6.7. 68. 69. 6.10, 6,11. Shunt Reactances . . . . The Inductive Slit, The Capacitive Diaphragm The Thin Inductive Wire. Capacitive Tuning Screw Resonant Irises Diaphragms in Waveguides

of Other (;ross Sectio]\s

The Interaction between Two Diaphragms Babinet’s Principle. The Susceptance of Small Apertures

171 173 174 176 179 179 181 I82 I87 187

IMPEDANCE IWATCHING WITH SHUNT SUSCEPT.ANCES 612, 6.13. 614. Calculation of the Necessary Susceptance. Screw, Tuners Cavity Formed hy Shunt Iteactanm=s.

CIU.N~ES IN THE CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE C)F A TRANSMISSION J,INI: 615, 6,16. 6.17. 6,18. 6.19. Diameter Changes in Coaxial Lines Waveguidc.

Change in the Dimensions of a Rectangular Quarter-wavelength Transformers Tapered Sections of Line The Cutoff Wavelength of Capacitively

Loaded

Guides.

188 189 191 192 193 193 195 197

BRANCHED TRANSMISSION LINES 6.20. 6.21, 6.22. Shunt Branches Series Branches Series Branches in Coaxial Lines. in Coaxial Lines and Choke Joints in Wavegllide

DISCONTINUITIES WITH SHUNT AND SERIES ELEMENTS 623. 6.24. 625. 6.26. CHAP. 7. Obstacles Radiation of Finite Thickness from Thick Holes. Waveguide.

198 198 201 201 203 CIRCUIT EI,l+;207

Bends and Corners in Rectangular Broadbandmg . . . . . . .

RESONAATT CAVITIES AS MENTS BY ROBERT BERINGER.

MICROWAVE

EQUIVALENT CIRCWIT OF A SINGLE-LINE LOSSLESS CAVITY-COUPLING SYSTEM 208 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. Impedance Impedance Functions of Lossless Lumped Circuits Functions o’f Lossless Distributed Circuits Synthesis ...,... of a Short-circuited ...,.,,, Lossless 213 2(3{) 211

Impedance-function Transmission Line

EQUNALENT CIRCUIT OF A SINGLE-LINE CAVITY-COUPLING Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 74. 7.5. 7.6. 77. 78. 7.9. 710.

SYSTEM WITH . . 214 215

Foster’s Theorem for Slightly Lossy Networks. The Impedance Functions of Simple Series- and Parallel-resonant Circuits . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . ...217 The Equivalent Circuit of a Loop-coupled Impedance Functions Xcar Resonance Coupling Coefficients and External Loading. General Formulas for Q,-Factors Iris-coupled, Short-circuited Waveguide. EMERGENT TRANSMISSION I,m~s Networks Cavity

218 225 228 230 231 234 234 237 237 237 240 240 241 248 252 256 265 267 271 273 274 275 277 BY C, G. 283 . ..283 283

CAVITY-COUPLING SYSTEMS WITH Two 7.11. 712. 713. 714. CHAP. 8. General Representation Introduction of Loss

of Lossless Two-terminal-pair

Representation of a Cavity with Two Loop-coupled Lines Transmission through a Two-1ine Cavity-coupling System. TRANSMISSION LINES BY N. MARCUVITZ,

RADIAL 81. 8.2. 8,3. 84. 85. 8.6. 87,

The Equivalent-circuit Point of View. Differences between Uniform and Nonuniform Regions, Impedance Description of Uniform Lines Field Representation by Characteristic Modes. Impedance Description of a Radial Line ReHrwtiou Cocfficicmts in Radi:d I,ines Equivalent Circuits in Itadiol Lines .

8,8. Applic:~tions . . . . . . . . 89, A CoaxialCavity, . . . 810. 811. 812. CHAP, 9. Capacitively Capacitively Oscillator Loaded Loaded

Cavity, Cavity with Change to Rectangular IVITH

in Height l\”aveguide. .4RMS

Cavity

Coupled

WAVEGUIDE

JUNCTIONS

SEV13R.LL

MONTGONrERY AND R. H. DICKF, T-JuNcTIoNs 9.1. . . . . . . . . . about T-junctions.

General Theorems

CONTENTS 9.2. 9.3. 9.4. 95. 96. 97. The Choice encel’lznes of an Equivalent . . . Circuit. Transformation of Refer-

xv

286 288 291 294 295 296 298 298 299 301 303 306 308 311 313 of Four-terminal Networks to 315 317 317 319 322 324 325 326 327 329 H. 334 335 340 343 347 349 Matrix 351 354 355 358 359 360 361 BY f’. G. MONTGOMERY. 365 365 369 374 376

The E-plme T-junction at Long Wavelengths E-plane T-junction at High Frequencies H-plane T-junctions A Coaxial-line The T-junction T-junction. with a Small Hole

WAVEGUIDE JUNCTIONS WKTH FOUR ARMS. 9,8. The Equivalent Circuit of a Four-junction

9,9. Directional Couplers 9,10. The Scattering Matrix of a Directional Coupler 911. The Arbitrary Jullctlon of Four Transmission Lines 912. TheMagicT . . . . . . . . 9.13. Ring Circuits . . . . . . . 914. Four-junctions with Small Holas. 9,15. Degenerate Four-junctions 9.16. A Generalization of the Theory Four-terminal-pair Networks

.

RADIATION AND SCATTERING BY ANTENNAS . $17. 9.18. 919. 9.20. 921. 922. 923. 924, CHAP. 10. Representation Representation in Terms of Plane Waves in Terms of Spherical Waves

Solutions of the Vector Wave Equations Scattering Matrix of Free Space Scattering Matrix of a Simple Electric Dipole The General Antenna. The General Scattering Problem. Minimum-scattering Antenna BY E. M. PURCELL ANLI R.

MODE TRANSFORMATIONS DICE. . . . . . . . . . Mode Transducers.

10,1. 10.2. 103. 10.4. 10,5. 10,6. 107. 10.8. 109, 1010. 1011. 10.12. CHAP. 11.

General Properties of Mode Transducers The Problem of Measurement Mode Filters and Mode Absorbers The TE-mode in Round Guide. Permissible Transformations of a Scattering Quarter-wave Pipe. Rotary Phase Shifter. A Rectangular-to-round Discontinuity in Round Transducer Guide.

Principal Axes in Round Guide Resonance in a Closed Circular Guide IN WAVEGUIDES

DIELECTRICS

111, 11.2. 113. 11.4.

Waveguides Filled with Dielectric Materials Reflection from a Change in Dielectric ~onstmt. Dielectric Plates in Waveguides Thr Xature of Dielectric Phenomenz

xvi 11.5. 11.6. 11.7. 118. 11.9. 11.10.

CONTENTS Ferromagnetism at Microwave Frequencies Guides P-artially Filled with Dielectric Dielectric Post in Waveguide Cavities Containing Dielectrics Propagation in Ionized Gases Absorbing Materials for Microwave Radiation. 382 385 389 39(3 393 396

CHAP. 12.

THE SYMMETRY OF WAVEGUIDE DICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classes of Symmetry. Symmetry of the Thin Iris

JUNCTIONS

BY R.

H. 401 401 403 405

12.1. 12.2.

MATRIX ALGEBRA. 12.3. 124. 12.5. 12.6. 12.7. The Eigenvalue Problem Definitions.

405 407 409 410 410 411 412 414 416 417 . . ...417 420 of S, and S,. . . . . of a Tuner. 427 430 432 435 437 437 445 447 448 451 452 Plane in Coaxial 454 . 455 459 . . 466 . 476 . . . 476 479

Symmetrical Matrices Rational Matrix Functions, Commuting Matrices. Cayley-Hamilton’s Theorem.

SYMMICTRI~S OF MAXWELL’S 12.8, 129. I2.1O.

ECJUATIONS

The symmetry of a Reflection in a Plane Symmetry Operators. Field Distributions Invariant under Axial and l’oint OR THREE ARMS. . . . ., . . .

Iteffwtions

WAVEGUI~E JUNCTIONS WITH Two 12,11. 12,12. 12.13. 12.14. 1215. 12.16. 1217. 1218. 1219. 12.20. 1221. 1222. 1223. 1224. 1225. 1226. 1227. The Thick Iris, The Symmetrical Experimental Symmetrical

. . . . . . Y-junction

Determination T-junctions

The Shunt T-junction The Use of the T-junction as an Element Directional Couplers . . The Single-hole Directional Coupler The Biplanar Directional The Magic T......., Coupler

The Synthesis Problem. Coupling-hole .Magic T’s Magic T with a Single Symmetry

Plane,

Synthesis of hfagic T with a Single Symmetry Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Star, . . . . . The Turnstile Junction, Purcell’s Junction . .

FREQUENCYDEPEN~KNCE OF SYMMETRICAL JUNCTIONS 1228, 12.29. The Eigenvalue Formulation Wideband Symmetrical Junctions

INDEX

481

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