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a Monolithic Thermocouple Amplifiers

with Cold Junction Compensation
AD594/AD595
FEATURES FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
Pretrimmed for Type J (AD594) or
Type K (AD595) Thermocouples –IN –ALM +ALM V+ COMP VO FB
Can Be Used with Type T Thermocouple Inputs 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
Low Impedance Voltage Output: 10 mV/ⴗC OVERLOAD
Built-In Ice Point Compensation DETECT

Wide Power Supply Range: +5 V to ⴞ15 V AD594/AD595
+A
Low Power: <1 mW typical
Thermocouple Failure Alarm
Laser Wafer Trimmed to 1ⴗC Calibration Accuracy G G ICE
POINT
Setpoint Mode Operation COMP. –TC
Self-Contained Celsius Thermometer Operation +TC

High Impedance Differential Input
Side-Brazed DIP or Low Cost Cerdip 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+IN +C +T COM –T –C V–

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION are available at the package pins so that the circuit can be
The AD594/AD595 is a complete instrumentation amplifier and recalibrated for the thermocouple types by the addition of two
thermocouple cold junction compensator on a monolithic chip. or three resistors. These terminals also allow more precise cali-
It combines an ice point reference with a precalibrated amplifier bration for both thermocouple and thermometer applications.
to produce a high level (10 mV/°C) output directly from a ther- The AD594/AD595 is available in two performance grades. The
mocouple signal. Pin-strapping options allow it to be used as a C and the A versions have calibration accuracies of ± 1°C and
linear amplifier-compensator or as a switched output setpoint ± 3°C, respectively. Both are designed to be used from 0°C to
controller using either fixed or remote setpoint control. It can +50°C, and are available in 14-pin, hermetically sealed, side-
be used to amplify its compensation voltage directly, thereby brazed ceramic DIPs as well as low cost cerdip packages.
converting it to a stand-alone Celsius transducer with a low
impedance voltage output. PRODUCT HIGHLIGHTS
The AD594/AD595 includes a thermocouple failure alarm that 1. The AD594/AD595 provides cold junction compensation,
indicates if one or both thermocouple leads become open. The amplification, and an output buffer in a single IC package.
alarm output has a flexible format which includes TTL drive 2. Compensation, zero, and scale factor are all precalibrated by
capability. laser wafer trimming (LWT) of each IC chip.
The AD594/AD595 can be powered from a single ended supply 3. Flexible pinout provides for operation as a setpoint control-
(including +5 V) and by including a negative supply, tempera- ler or a stand-alone temperature transducer calibrated in
tures below 0°C can be measured. To minimize self-heating, an degrees Celsius.
unloaded AD594/AD595 will typically operate with a total sup-
ply current 160 µA, but is also capable of delivering in excess of 4. Operation at remote application sites is facilitated by low
± 5 mA to a load. quiescent current and a wide supply voltage range +5 V to
dual supplies spanning 30 V.
The AD594 is precalibrated by laser wafer trimming to match
the characteristic of type J (iron-constantan) thermocouples and 5. Differential input rejects common-mode noise voltage on the
the AD595 is laser trimmed for type K (chromel-alumel) inputs. thermocouple leads.
The temperature transducer voltages and gain control resistors

REV. C
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15 –VS – 4 –VS – 0.4 193.5 V. using the output equations and ANSI thermocouple voltage Because a thermocouple output voltage is nonlinear with respect tables referred to zero degrees Celsius.15 +VS –VS – 0. (@ +25ⴗC and VS = 5 V.5 ⴞ0. Due to a slight variation to temperature.3) – 11 µV gain for the AD594 is 193. All min and max specifications are guaranteed. with the package and reference junction at the output amplifier characteristic of 16 µV for the AD594 and 25°C.1 0.3 0.1 0. –VS = 0 Volts Operating5 +VS to –VS ≤ 30 +VS to –VS ≤ 30 +VS to –VS ≤ 30 +VS to –VS ≤ 30 Volts Quiescent Current (No Load) +VS 160 300 160 300 160 300 160 300 µA –VS 100 100 100 100 µA PACKAGE OPTION TO-116 (D-14) AD594AD AD594CD AD595AD AD595CD Cerdip (Q-14) AD594AQ AD594CQ AD595AQ AD595CQ NOTES 1 Calibrated for minimum error at +25°C using a thermocouple sensitivity of 51. 2 Defined as the slope of the line connecting the AD594/AD595 errors measured at 0°C and 50°C ambient temperature. Type K (AD595) Thermocouple.3 Input Offset Voltage (Temperature in °C) × (Temperature in °C) × (Temperature in °C) × (Temperature in °C) × 51.3 or conversely: to match the transfer characteristic of J and K type thermocouples Type J voltage = (AD594 output/193.44 µV/°C).15 +VS –VS – 0.70 µV/°C 40. This offset arises because the AD594/ bration.7 µV/°C.15 +VS Volts Differential Input Voltage –VS +VS –VS +VS –VS +VS –VS +VS Volts Alarm Voltages +ALM –VS –VS + 36 –VS –VS + 36 –VS –VS + 36 –VS –VS + 36 Volts –ALM –VS +VS –VS +VS –VS +VS –VS +VS Volts Operating Temperature Range –55 +125 –55 +125 –55 +125 –55 +125 °C Output Short Circuit to Common Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT (Specified Temperature Range 0°C to +50°C) Calibration Error at +25°C1 ⴞ3 ⴞ1 ⴞ3 ⴞ1 °C Stability vs.05 ⴞ0.3 247.70 µV/°C 51. For a type J output in this temperature range the TC is 51.4 247. Type J (AD594). 5 –VS must not exceed –16.3 0.3 (10 mV/°C divided by 40.4 operating range of the circuit.7 mV at 0°C.05 ⴞ0.5 V.5 +VS – 2 –VS + 2. The AD595 will similarly read 2. The resulting Type K voltage = (AD595 output/247.7 µV/°C) Table I lists the ideal AD594/AD595 output voltages as a func- and for the AD595 is 247. although only those shown in boldface are tested on all production units.75 % Nominal Transfer Function 10 10 10 10 mV/°C AMPLIFIER CHARACTERISTICS Closed Loop Gain 3 193. Results from those tests are used to calculate outgoing quality levels.15 –VS – 4 –VS – 0.3 0.44 µV/°C.44 µV/°C 40.1 mV when the measuring junction is at 0°C.4) – 16 µV at 25°C.75 ⴞ1.1 µA Differential Input Range –10 +50 –10 +50 –10 +50 mV Common-Mode Range –VS – 0. Temperature 2 ⴞ0. the AD594/AD595 is gain trimmed AD595 output = (Type K Voltage + 11 µV) × 247. and the AD594/AD595 linearly amplifies the in alloy content between ANSI type J and DIN FE-CUNI –2– REV. the AD594 will normally read 3.15 +VS –VS – 0. these outputs are subject to cali- 11 µV for the AD595. the following transfer functions should be To achieve a temperature proportional output of 10 mV/°C and used to determine the actual output voltages: accurately compensate for the reference junction over the rated AD594 output = (Type J Voltage + 16 µV) × 193. –VS = 0 +VS = 5.5 ⴞ0.5 +VS – 2 –VS + 2.15 –VS – 4 –VS – 0. 3 Pin 8 shorted to Pin 9. or calculated thermocouple input.025 °C/°C Gain Error ⴞ1. tion of Celsius temperature for type J and K ANSI standard In addition. gain and temperature sensitivity errors. –VS = 0 +VS = 5. Output values AD595 is trimmed for a 250 mV output while applying a 25°C for intermediate temperatures can be interpolated. Since a J type thermocouple deviates from this straight line approximation.44 µV/°C µV Input Bias Current 0.70 µV/°C. an absolute accuracy trim induces an input offset to thermocouples. Specifications subject to change without notice.3 Volts Leakage Current ⴞ1 ⴞ1 ⴞ1 ⴞ1 µA max Operating Voltage at – ALM +VS – 4 +VS – 4 +VS – 4 +VS – 4 Volts Short Circuit Current 20 20 20 20 mA POWER REQUIREMENTS Specified Performance +VS = 5. –VS = 0 +VS = 5.5 +VS – 2 Volts Single Supply 0 +VS – 2 0 –VS – 2 0 +VS + 2 0 +VS – 2 Volts Usable Output Current4 ±5 ±5 ±5 ±5 mA 3 dB Bandwidth 15 15 15 15 kHz ALARM CHARACTERISTICS VCE(SAT) at 2 mA 0. As is normally the case.4 (10 mV/°C divided by 51.5 +VS – 2 –VS + 2.15 –VS – 4 Volts Common-Mode Sensitivity – RTO 10 10 10 10 mV/V Power Supply Sensitivity – RTO 10 10 10 10 mV/V Output Voltage Range Dual Supply –VS + 2. 4 Current Sink Capability in single supply configuration is limited to current drawn to ground through a 50 kΩ resistor at output voltages below 2. AD594/AD595–SPECIFICATIONS unless otherwise noted) Model AD594A AD594C AD595A AD595C Min Typ Max Min Typ Max Min Typ Max Min Typ Max Units ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATING +VS to –V S 36 36 36 36 Volts Common-Mode Input Voltage –VS – 0. while for a type K it is 40.025 ⴞ0.1 0. Specifications shown in boldface are tested on all production units at final electrical test. C . INTERPRETING AD594/AD595 OUTPUT VOLTAGES compensated signal.

777 –189 680 37. conditioner.960 –376 –1.938 4686 1240 – – 50.647 8058 30.902 6161 –80 –3.7 720 40.217 2946 11.553 –876 600 33.159 –1188 –4. When the alarm output at Pin 13 is not used it COMMON should be connected to common or –V.241 4266 1200 – – 48.524 9035 120 6.733 1420 920 – – 38.632 –893 –3.108 11158 340 18.745 2413 1020 – – 42.439 10970 320 17. +15 V) Thermocouple Type J AD594 Type K AD595 Thermocouple Type J AD594 Type K AD595 Temperature Voltage Output Voltage Output Temperature Voltage Output Voltage Output °C mV mV mV mV °C mV mV mV mV –200 –7.920 –719 620 34.203 300 780 – – 32.130 7571 29.671 7095 27.198 5740 –120 –5.629 7825 30 1. both negative and extended positive temperatures.915 9626 180 9.464 6862 26.402 –1428 –5.507 101 . REV.828 12078 440 24.799 7619 20 1.115 606 2. (ALUMEL) 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Any convenient supply voltage from +5 V to +30 V may be OVERLOAD used.288 6998 –10 –.141 –1269 540 29. The precalibrated feed- back network at Pin 8 is tied to the output at Pin 9 to provide a Figure 1.667 1873 7.863 11345 360 19. C –3– .022 503 820 – – 34.846 4228 16. In the single supply configuration the +5 V supply con- AD594/ AD595 +A nects to Pin 11 with the V– connection at Pin 7 strapped to G G ICE power and signal common at Pin 4.493 5318 –160 –6.511 5517 21.426 –1046 –4.207 3022 1080 – – 44.356 11714 400 21.382 7813 29.095 1015 880 – – 36. The upper tem.272 5084 19. VS = –5 V.909 8636 80 4.276 12436 480 26.798 200 750 42.277 250 1.995 –189 –.537 3588 13.891 –1454 500 27.266 810 860 – – 35.088 4476 1220 – – 49.536 300 1.019 200 .949 4441 17.821 –1316 –5. as shown in Figure 2. with self-heating errors being minimized at lower supply DETECT levels. Single Supply Operation 10 mV/°C nominal temperature transfer characteristic.432 3374 13.669 –1152 560 30.050 5950 –100 –4.712 3641 1140 – – 46.785 –729 –2.555 12258 460 25.045 10400 260 14. The thermocouple wire in- POINT +TC COMP.137 2015 980 – – 40.186 813 3.539 1620 940 – – 38.488 10015 220 11.640 3801 14.039 3227 1100 – – 45.893 7332 28.501 –94 –. of identical alloys and exhibit similar behavior.445 6790 –20 –.933 6179 24. Using a single +5 V supply the interconnections ANSI type K and DIN NICR-NI thermocouples are composed shown in Figure 1 will provide a direct output from a type J thermocouple (AD594) or type K thermocouple (AD595) mea- CONSTANTAN +5V 10mV/8C suring from 0°C to +300°C.892 –556 –2.552 3849 1160 – – 47.751 6371 –60 –2.642 5736 22.325 3160 12.122 9430 160 8.000 250 760 – – 31.550 –1370 520 28.096 6404 24.277 8232 50 2.919 1219 900 – – 37.611 401 800 – – 33.283 8181 31.527 –375 660 36. Basic Connection.585 503 2.381 2817 1060 – – 43. the perature limits in Table I are those recommended for type J and AD594/AD595 can be interfaced to thermocouples measuring type K thermocouples by the majority of vendors.388 5300 20.633 12524 thermocouples Table I should not be used in conjunction with SINGLE AND DUAL SUPPLY CONNECTIONS European standard thermocouples.560 1659 6.585 10781 300 16.612 11530 380 20.938 2213 1000 – – 41.560 2614 1040 – – 42.392 –94 700 39.138 –1021 580 31.703 9821 200 10.325 9233 140 7.455 8029 40 2. By using a wider ranging dual supply.095 11897 420 22.095 8434 60 3.998 2517 9.338 1817 960 – – 39.269 10209 240 12.161 4869 18. Instead the transfer function The AD594/AD595 is a completely self-contained thermocouple given previously and a DIN thermocouple table should be used.640 5107 –180 –7.718 8836 100 5.359 1233 4. Thermocouple Temperature (Ambient +25°C.346 5529 –140 –6.128 7206 0 0 3.890 –1523 –5.214 7722 25 1.243 –552 640 35.743 4015 15.874 3434 1120 – – 45.457 1445 5.887 2302 8. –TC puts connect to Pins 1 and 14 either directly from the measuring IRON point or through intervening connections of similar thermo- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (CHROMEL) couple wire type.108 2732 10.273 6632 25.397 101 740 41.395 4057 1180 – – 48.1 0 2.965 7413 10 .788 4896 1250 – – 50.054 4655 18.817 10591 280 15.782 5956 23. AD594/AD595 Table I.599 6581 –40 –1.777 2087 8. Output Voltage vs.058 401 1.436 605 840 – – 34.268 1022 4.

–4– REV. verting connection. PCB Connections result. The output of the A method that provides for thermal equilibrium is the printed main amplifier is fed back to a second differential stage in an in- circuit board connection layout illustrated in Figure 3. –TC return path provided for the bias currents. are at the same temperature as the AD594/AD595. COMMON –T The compensation is applied through the gain scaling resistors –C V– VOUT V+ so that its effect on the main output is also 10 mV/°C.AD594/AD595 CONSTANTAN +5V TO +30V The printed circuit board layout shown also provides for place- (ALUMEL) ment of optional alarm load resistors. re- sults in a voltage of 10 mV/°C of thermocouple excitation. Common-mode voltages on the thermocouple inputs must remain ICE G G within the common-mode range of the AD594/AD595. AD594/AD595 Block Diagram THERMOCOUPLE CONNECTIONS In normal operation the main amplifier output. If the thermo- are thermally contacted in the copper printed circuit board couple reference junction is maintained at the AD594/AD595 tracks under Pins 1 and 14. constantan. –IN –ALM +ALM V+ COMP VO FB 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 peratures and drive grounded loads or loads returned to positive voltages. If the thermocouple +TC is not remotely grounded. amplified by gain A in the main amplifier. at Pins 1 and 14. temperature. Thermocouple signals couple wires forms an effective reference junction. with a POINT COMP. as shown in Figure 4. chromel and alumel ICE 5V TO 30V G G POINT –TC and the following solders: 95% tin-5% antimony. C . at Pin 8. OVERLOAD DETECT To ensure secure bonding the thermocouple wire should be AD594/ cleaned to remove oxidation prior to soldering. This junction applied to the floating input stage. Increasing the positive supply from 5 V to 15 V ex. both of which of a signal from a thermocouple referenced to an ice bath. The compensation is a differential voltage proportional to the Celsius COMP temperature of the AD594/AD595. then the dotted line connections in Figures 1 and 2 are recommended. nected to the feedback network. at Pins 8 and 9. recalibration resistors and 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 a compensation capacitor to limit bandwidth. a cold junction compensation voltage is applied to the right-hand differential amplifier. OVERLOAD DETECT tends the output voltage range well beyond the 750°C temperature limit recommended for type J thermocouples AD594/AD595 +A (AD594) and the 1250°C for type K thermocouples (AD595). The feedback signal is amplified by this stage and is also applied to the main amplifier input through a summing circuit. G. This signal disturbs the dif- 7 8 ferential input so that the amplifier output must adjust to restore the input to equal the applied thermocouple voltage. the output of the AD594/AD595 will correspond posed of a copper-constantan (or copper-alumel) connection to the reading that would have been obtained from amplification and copper-iron (or copper-chromel) connection. Noncorrosive +A AD595 SPAN OF rosin flux is effective with iron. The reference junction is now com. A resistor may be needed in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 this connection to assure that common-mode voltages induced +IN +C +T COM –T –C V– in the thermocouple loop are not converted to normal mode. is con- The isothermal terminating connections of a pair of thermo. silver or 90% tin-10% lead. at Pin 9. the amplifier causes IRON CONSTANTAN (ALUMEL) the feedback to be driven to reduce this difference signal to a (CHROMEL) small value. The out- 0V TO –25V puts are summed and used to control a high gain amplifier. As a Figure 3. are ampli- must be kept at the same temperature as the AD594/AD595 for fied by gain G of the differential amplifier and are then further the internal cold junction compensation to be effective. As a result. Figure 2. IRON 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (CHROMEL) FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION COMMON The AD594 behaves like two differential amplifiers. Dual Supply Operation With a negative supply the output can indicate negative tem. The two differential amplifiers are made to match +T +C and have identical gains. 95% tin-5% +TC COMP. Figure 4. Because of the inversion. the feedback signal that must be applied to the right-hand differential amplifier will pre- +IN –IN cisely match the thermocouple input signal when the difference 1 14 signal has been reduced to zero. The feedback network is trim- –ALM +ALM med so that the effective gain to the output. In addition to the feedback signal. the compensation voltage adds to the effect of the ther- mocouple voltage a signal directly proportional to the difference Here the AD594/AD595 package temperature and circuit board between 0°C and the AD594/AD595 temperature.

Major reconfigurations for other thermocouple types can be achieved CAUTIONS: without seriously compromising initial calibration accuracy. 1 +IN +T 3 AD594/ The zero differential point must now be shifted back to 0°C. As shown in Figure 5 an additional 0. recalibration.01mF common-mode potential) and connecting FB to VO. therefore the AD594 is preferred for capacitor between Pins 10 and 11 is recommended.5% of the The feedback resistor is separately pinned out so that its value correct value. External availability of the feedback with an external resistor. AD594/AD595 The AD594/AD595 also includes an input open circuit detector this terminal can be produced with a resistor between –C and that switches on an alarm transistor. The resistance value should be approximately 1. The target output value in this case should be about 283 mV. For this example assume the ambient is 24°C and the initial output VO Figure 5. a switch transistor for either pull-up or pull-down operation of If the compensation is adjusted substantially to accommodate a external alarms. The ice point compensation network of the AD594/AD595 Next. 14 –IN AD595 This is accomplished by multiplying the original output voltage COM 4 8 FB VO by r and adjusting the measured output voltage to this value 9 VO –T 5 by experimentally adding a resistor.01 µF type J. resistor allows gain to be adjusted. These voltages nominal output to 10 mV/°C the gain may be adjusted to match may be used with external resistors to modify the ice point com. This transistor is actually a –T to balance an increase in +T. or increase it with a pull-up resistor the ratio of thermocouple sensitivities. the new compensation and thermocouple input characteristics. than from type K. however. VO should tive input of the feedback amplifier. Pins 5 and 6. The indicates the device’s temperature once again. R2.9 µV/°C)/(51. The factory calibration as a reference. Low Gain Frequency Compensation is 240 mV. DVM (capacitance should be isolated by a few thousand ohms sponds to the output of an ice referenced thermocouple at the of resistance at the measured terminals). so The temperature compensation terminals (+C and –C) at Pins 2 long as the procedure is done at a fixed temperature using the and 6 are provided to supply small calibration currents only. The ratio for converting a from +T to the larger positive TC voltage at +C. Check the output at VO to verify that it corresponds RECALIBRATION PRINCIPLES AND LIMITATIONS to the temperature of the device. negative supply. To restore the positive and negative temperature coefficients. a third resistor. The AD594/AD595 is internally frequency compensated for feed- EXAMPLE: TYPE E RECALIBRATION—AD594/AD595 back ratios (corresponding to normal signal gain) of 75 or more. Note that type J device to a type E characteristic is: adjustments to +T should be made by measuring the voltage which tracks it at –T.3 mV.7 µV/°C)= 1. multiply the initial voltage measured at –T by r and ex- ohms in series with the lead connected to –T. Both the AD594 and AD595 can be configured to condition the If a lower gain is desired.8 kΩ. between –C and –T. Decreased Sensitivity Adjustment mately 240 kΩ. For the example the new –T voltage should be about 9. but can be used up to the limit as to offset a decrease in +T. It is possible to decrease this signal by loading it with a between +T and +C. At 24°C the –T voltage temperature of the chip. While maintaining the device at a constant temperature follow AD594/ VO 9 the recalibration steps given here. Pins 8 and 5. Pins 2 and 3. different thermocouple type. and also permits the AD594/ Fine calibration adjustments will require temperature response AD595 to operate in a switching mode for setpoint operation. pensation and recalibrate the AD594/AD595 as described in the When reducing the compensation the resistance between –T next column. the gain must be recalibrated such that the output VO compensation scheme shifts the zero point away from 0°C. The AD594 +V 11 is now in the stand alone Celsius thermometer mode.8 mV. measure the device AD595 300pF COMP 10 temperature by tying both inputs to common (or a selected 0. Changing the positive TC half of the differential output of the Finally. between FB and –T. Do this by adding zero can be restored by adjusting the current flow into the nega. or replaced with an external 47 kΩ internal feedback resistor can be paralleled or replaced resistor between Pins 5 and 9. the –T pin. First.18 measuring instrument should be isolated by a few thousand Thus. measurements of individual devices to assure accuracy. It should be noted that inter- AD594/AD595 may be permanently damaged if they are mediate recalibration conditions may require the use of a grounded or connected to a low impedance. The positive TC output of the circuit is will be about 8. C –5– . perimentally determine the R1 value required to raise –T to that level. R1. additional frequency compensation output of a type E (chromel-constantan) thermocouple. A current into now be back to the initial 240 mV reading. to raise the voltage at –T by resistor from +T to COM. The resistance value of R2 should be approxi- Figure 6. or a resistor from –T to COM current-limited output buffer. To avoid destabilizing the feedback amplifier the r (AD594) =(60. Tem- should be added in the form of a 300 pF capacitor from Pin 10 perature characteristics of type E thermocouples differ less from to the output at Pin 9. The resistance value REV. should be connected +T. To adjust the compensation of an AD594 proportional to Kelvin temperature and appears as a voltage at to a type E thermocouple a resistor. If a smaller gain is required. measure the voltage –T at Pin 5 with a high impedance produces a differential signal which is zero at 0°C and corre. and COM automatically increases the gain to within 0. R3. the nominal can be padded with a series resistor. its effect on the final output volt- The ice point compensation network has voltages available with age will increase or decrease in proportion.

Submerged in fluorinert liquid (unstirred) 14 –IN the thermal resistance is about 40°C/watt. DRIFT ERROR 0 258C 508C –0. cold sponding to the temperature being measured the output swings junction compensation over the rated 0°C to +50°C ambient low to approximately zero volts. The combined effects of AD595 toggled output. 93 kΩ and 1. the AD595 and compared to an external setpoint voltage applied by the can be directly used with both types of inputs. accounting for the an additional 0. 84 kΩ. R3 and r will be approximately DETECT (OPTIONAL) 650 Ω. To widen the hysteresis band decrease the +0. a 20 MΩ resistor from VO to of °C/°C. amplified to 10 mV/°C range between type K and type T thermocouples. Figure 9. errors almost negligible.032°C. At the nominal dissipation of 800 µW the self-heating in free air 1 +IN COM 4 is less than 0. ture rises above the setpoint voltage the output switches to the positive limit of about 4 volts with a +5 V supply. amplifier offset drift and gain ing a current into the positive input of the feedback amplifier error determine the stability of the AD594/AD595 output over when the output is toggled high.2. However. Figure STABILITY OVER TEMPERATURE 9 shows the setpoint comparator configuration complete with a Each AD594/AD595 is tested for error over temperature with heater element driver circuit being controlled by the AD594/ the measuring thermocouple at 0°C. Drift Error vs. AD594/ AD595 +C 2 SETPOINT CONTROLLER –C 6 The AD594/AD595 can readily be connected as a setpoint 9 VO R2 controller as shown in Figure 9. Temperature –6– REV. Conversely. Because of the relatively large nonlinearities associated with type T thermocouples the output In operation if the setpoint voltage is above the voltage corre- will deviate widely from the nominal 10 mV/°C. The error arises because the ice point compensa- temperature range is within the operating range (–55°C to tor is trimmed to type K characteristics at 25°C. An approximate verification of The inherent low power dissipation of the AD594/AD595 and the effectiveness of recalibration is to measure the differential the low thermal resistance of the package make self-heating gain to the output. 8 FB –T 5 HEATER LOW = > T < SETPOINT DRIVER TEMPERATURE HIGH = > T > SETPOINT R3 COMPARATOR OUT CONSTANTAN SETPOINT Figure 7. in still air the chip to am- bient thermal resistance is about 80°C/watt (for the D package). the chip can be used as the the AD595 output values over the recommended –200°C to transducer for the circuit by shorting the inputs together and +350°C range for type T thermocouples. AD594/ +A FOR AD595 HYSTERESIS tion will increase by about 50% when using the AD595 with type E inputs. Within this ambi- user to the feedback at Pin 8. When using a AD595 drift error envelope.AD594/AD595 of R3 should be approximately 280 kΩ.2°C output calibration error when used with nonlinearity of the measurement thermocouple.68C resistance connected from VO to +T. Table I lists the correspondence ent temperature range the AD595 should exhibit no more than between setpoint voltage and temperature. Figure 8 shows an AD594/ into the +T terminal provides 1°C of hysteresis. If the setpoint type T inputs. Radiational CONTROLLED REGION heating from a change in lighting or approach of a soldering iron must also be guarded against. Power consump. resulting in a self- +T 3 R1 heating error of about 0. With an AD594 about 200 nA the rated ambient temperature range. respectively. Setpoint Controller The thermocouple is used to sense the unknown temperature USING TYPE T THERMOCOUPLES WITH THE AD595 and provide a thermal EMF to the input of the AD594/AD595.51. Note that during this procedure it is crucial to maintain the IRON AD594/AD595 at a stable temperature because it is used as the (CHROMEL) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 temperature reference.065°C. To calculate +125°C) of the AD594/AD595. The slope of this figure has units single 5 V supply with an AD594. For example. given on page 2 for the AD595. +T will supply the 200 nA of current when the output is forced high (about 4 V). Contact with fingers or any tools not at TEMPERATURE COMMON ambient temperature will quickly produce errors. R2. The final connection THERMAL ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS diagram is shown in Figure 7. This is the centi- thermocouple voltages referred to 0°C and the output equation grade thermometer configuration as shown in Figure 13. Hysteresis can be introduced by inject- cold junction compensation error. G G ICE POINT –TC +TC COMP. when the tempera- will remain accurate. Because of the similarity of thermal EMFs in the 0°C to +50°C The signal is cold junction compensated. C .68C TEMPERATURE OF AD594C/AD595C Figure 8. Type E Recalibration HEATER (ALUMEL) +5V VOLTAGE INPUT 13 12 11 10 9 8 When implementing a similar recalibration procedure for the 14 OVERLOAD 20MV AD595 the values for R1. simply use the ANSI utilizing the nominal calibration of 10 mV/°C. For type E it should be 164.

the nature temperature with a scale factor of 10 mV/°C. which can be used as a buffer and/or inverter. however. it may be permitted to be IRON more positive than V+. A +IN to common connection creates a downscale output if the thermocouple opens. conditions can be automatically avoided. The emitter voltage (–ALM) should be 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (CHROMEL) constrained so that it does not become more positive than 4 GND volts below the V+ applied to the circuit. The collector and emit- Pin 13. Using the Alarm to Drive a TTL Gate Additionally. Alarm Directly Drives LED 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A 270 Ω series resistor will limit current in the LED to 10 mA. IRON 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (CHROMEL) +5V GND 20kV ALARM ALARM OUT TTL GATE CONSTANTAN (ALUMEL) ALARM RELAY –12V 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 10mV/8C OVERLOAD DETECT AD594/ +A Figure 12. It In all applications of the AD594/AD595 the –ALM connection. AD594/ +A IRON AD595 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (CHROMEL) ICE G G POINT –TC COMMON COMP. By tying either Since the alarm is a high level output it may be used to directly of the thermocouple inputs to common most runaway control drive an LED or other indicator as shown in Figure 11. voltage output. positive than (V–) +36 V. applications that use the alarm signal. (ALUMEL) 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 10mV/8C In this configuration the alarm transistor will be off in normal OVERLOAD operation and the 20 k pull up will cause the +ALM output on DETECT Pin 12 to go high. AD594/AD595 ALARM CIRCUIT The alarm can be used with both single and dual supplies. AD594/AD595 as a Stand-Alone Celsius a high dissipation mode and the temperature of the circuit will Thermometer rise well above ambient. For most driven from –ALM as shown in Figure 12. configuration. As shown in Fig- G G ICE ure 10 this signal is compatible with the input of a TTL gate POINT –TC +TC COMP. nal. temperature sensing mode. can be operated above or below ground. Pin 13 will be grounded and the signal will be taken from +ALM on Pin 12. the AD594/AD595 can be configured to produce (“Grounded’’ Emitter Configuration) an extreme upscale or downscale output in applications where an extra signal line for an alarm is inappropriate. the +ALM pin will be driven low. As an example a negative referenced load can be ing Pin 13 to either common at Pin 4 or V– at Pin 7. LED CELSIUS THERMOMETER CONSTANTAN 270V The AD594/AD595 may be configured as a stand-alone Celsius (ALUMEL) 10mV/8C 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 thermometer as shown in Figure 13. A typical CONSTANTAN +10V application is shown in Figure 10. The output now will reflect the compensa- time required for the chip to return to ambient temperature will tion voltage and hence will indicate the AD594/AD595 depend on the power dissipation of the alarm circuit. The and 14) to common. should be constrained so that it is not more positive ter of the output transistor can be used in any normal switch than (V+) – 4 V. REV. the AD594/ AD595 will operate over the full military –55°C to +125°C tem- perature range. In this three termi- of the thermal path to the environment and the alarm duration. Note that the cold junction compensa- Simply omit the thermocouple and connect the inputs (Pins 1 tion will be affected whenever the alarm circuit is activated. +TC Figure 11. This can be most easily achieved by connect. will operate in Figure 13. however. Figure 10. OVERLOAD DETECT +5V TO +15V AD594/ +A OUTPUT AD595 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 10mV/8C ICE OVERLOAD G G DETECT POINT –TC +TC COMP. V+ while connecting –IN to common provides an upscale output. The transistor. –ALM Driving A Negative Referenced Load AD595 G G ICE The collector (+ALM) should not be allowed to become more POINT –TC +TC COMP. GND 0 TO –15V but may be omitted since the alarm output transistor is current limited at about 20 mA. If one or both of the thermocouple leads are AD594/ +A AD595 interrupted. C –7– .

040 (1.010 0. illustrated in Figure 15.700 ±0.010 ±0.457) 0. CONSTANTAN CuNi– ture.010 0.180 ±0.51) 1 7 0.254) 0.18) 0.020 1 7 (7.25) (3.889 ±0.62) REF (0.180 ±0. dard voltage tabulated for an ice-point referenced thermocouple. they have reason. couple voltage combined with a knowledge of the reference it is often convenient to form the reference “junction” by connect- temperature can be used to calculate the measurement junction ing directly to the circuit wiring.018 SEATING (0.430 (10.300 (7.18) (4.19 ±0.030 0.39) 14 8 0.37 ±0.77 ±0. however.89 ±0.54) 0.08 BSC BSC ( –0. T1 V1 IRON CONSTANTAN Cu Cu CONSTANTAN Figure 15.260 ±0. 0.002 MIN 0.030 3. OUTLINE DIMENSIONS Dimensions shown in inches and (mm). Usual practice. They function over temperature ranges from cryogenics to jet-engine exhaust and have reasonable linearity and accuracy. So long as these connections temperature. in a repeatable way. C . This sensitivity is ICE POINT UNKNOWN TEMPERATURE REFERENCE exploited in the AD594/AD595 to produce a temperature re- lated voltage to compensate the reference of “cold” junction of a Figure 14.87 ±0.57 ±0.175) (4. is to use a convenient and the compensation are at the same temperature no error will thermoelectric method to measure the reference temperature result.76) 0.025) 0.25 ±0.002 (2.16) 0.01 ±0. The reference junction temperature is allowed to change with the environment Figure 16.05) 0.047 ±0.001 MIN (0.76) 0.AD594/AD595 THERMOCOUPLE BASICS and to arrange its output voltage so that it corresponds to a ther- Thermocouples are economical and rugged.254 ±0. TO-116 (D) Package Cerdip (Q) Package PRINTED IN U.010 (17.25) (0.265 0. but it is carefully measured by some type of absolute thermometer.015 (19.57 ±0. Thermocouple Voltage with 0°C Reference thermocouple as shown in Figure 16.125 (3. Most notably the water-ice point of 0°C T1 Cu is used for tables of standard thermocouple performance.6 ±0. An alternative measurement technique.25) 0.035 ±0.085 (2.015 (0.S.032 PLANE 15° (0. Substitution of Measured Reference T1 T2 Temperature for Ice Point Reference The temperature sensitivity of silicon integrated circuit transis- IRON tors is quite predictable and repeatable. The resulting voltage depends on T3 V3' the temperatures. a know reference temperature is required for one of the junctions if the temperature of the other is to be inferred from the output voltage.600 (15. portant. This voltage is simply added to the ably good long-term stability.A. two pieces of dissimilar metal in isothermal and contact will exhibit Cu Cu V2 a potential difference that is a repeatable function of tempera.73) (7.035 ±0.02) R 0. Since the thermocouple is basically a differential rather than absolute measuring device. as shown in Figure 14.43 +0.41) 0.24) (2.007 +0.310 0.87) (6.812) 0.92) 0.125 0.76 ±0.55 ±0.38) 0.148 ±0.05 ( BSC –8– REV. mocouple referred to 0°C. is used in most practical applications where accuracy requirements IRON Cu do not warrant maintenance of primary standards. T3 ized in terms of voltage versus temperature compared to primary CONSTANTAN temperature standards.095 (2.30 (7. Because of their small size.100 0. they thermocouple voltage and the sum then corresponds to the stan- respond quickly and are good choices where fast response is im.78 ±0.290 ±0.01 PIN 1 REF (7.54) 0.010 14 8 (6.003 0. T1 and T2. V1' = V1 V1' FOR PROPERLY V1 Because the number of free electrons in a piece of metal de- C731g–0–11/99 SCALED V3' = f(T3) pends on both temperature and composition of the metal. Thermocouples made of specially selected materials have been exhaustively character. Since the compensation is at the reference junction temperature.25) 0. Connecting Isothermal Junctions of the measurement system.62) PIN 1 0.017 –0.31 ±0.100 0° (1. A measurement of the thermo.

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