Digital Unit Plan Template

Unit Title: Pythagorean Theorem Fun Name: Abigail Summerville
Content Area: Mathematics Grade Level: 8th Grade Math

CA Content Standard(s)/Common Core Standard(s):
Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse.
Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions.
Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system.

Big Ideas/Unit Goals:
Big Ideas and Questions we’ll Explore:

Big Ideas
• Right triangles are distinct from other triangles, and the Pythagorean Theorem is a helpful tool for us to use to analyze information about them.
• The Pythagorean Theorem applies to 2D and 3D applications. It also applies to the coordinate system.
• We will sharpen our critical thinking skills through exploring proofs. Knowing why something works helps us understand it better, and proofs will help us realize
the converse of the Theorem is true.
• We will use projects involving research, problem-solving, critical thinking skills, collaboration, evaluation and synthesis of information, to help us deepen our
knowledge about the Pythagorean Theorem and related mathematical processes.
• We will develop our sense of problem-solving and critical thinking skills through various collaborative and independent tasks which focus on the Pythagorean
Theorem and its application.
• We will work to develop vital 21st century skills, through integrating various tasks and activities that strengthen these skills, such as using specific technology for
creation of projects, teamwork and collaboration.

Essential Questions
• What is the Pythagorean Theorem and why is it important to me? Where did it come from?
• How can we know for sure the Pythagorean Theorem is true?
• What information can I find out about a triangle using the Pythagorean Theorem?
• How can I apply the Pythagorean Theorem to 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional real world problems?
• How does the Pythagorean Theorem apply to the coordinate system? What information can we learn about coordinates using this Theorem?


1. Students will distinguish between right triangles (apart from an acute or obtuse triangle) and know the Pythagorean Theorem only applies to right triangles.
2. Students will be able to express the Pythagorean Theorem using words and equation.
3. Students will be able to use visuals and their understanding of area, to explain an informal proof of the Pythagorean Theorem.
4. Students will be able to prove a triangle is indeed a right triangle by using the Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem.
5. Students will be able to apply the Pythagorean Theorem to real world problems in both 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional applications.
6. Students will be able to solve for the distance between two points in a coordinate system using the Pythagorean Theorem (or distance formula).
7. Students will be able to sharpen their 21st century skills through collaborative, research, and presentation focused activities.

Unit Summary:
Subject Area: Mathematics Grade Level: 8th Grade

In this Unit: Pythagorean Theorem Fun, we will explore how the Pythagorean Theorem came to be and why and how we use this Theorem. The Pythagorean Theorem is a
widely known geometric theorem, which can be used to help us determine a variety of information about right triangles, such as the missing length of a right triangle or if a
triangle is a right triangle or not. As you think about the world in which you live, imagine where you might see some right triangles (The pyramids, baseball and soccer fields,
building applications, such as ladders or homes, etc.). The Pythagorean Theorem can help us analyze these real life right triangles and determine helpful details about right
triangles, such as the missing height or length of these objects. In addition, the Pythagorean Theorem can be applied to the coordinate plane. This unit is organized into 3
lessons. In Lesson 1, we’ll focus on learning about the Pythagorean Theorem, its history, the Converse (a reverse application of the Theorem), and 2D and 3D application of
the Theorem. We’ll also get to informally prove the Theorem using our knowledge of area. In Lesson 2, we’ll complete a webercise activity, which will lead us to more
advanced practice of using the Pythagorean Theorem in 2D and 3D applications, as well as interact with the coordinate system to calculate the distance between coordinates.
Finally in Lesson 3, we’ll research and organize important connections between the Theorem and related information in a concept map using a web-based program.
Following all assignments, we’ll work to design our own Pythagorean Theorem Test and present it to the class. Throughout this lesson, we will deepen our understanding of
the theorem and its diverse applications.

Throughout this unit, we will challenge ourselves with theoretical and real world application of the Pythagorean Theorem, while incorporating fun individual and
collaborative class activities, and opportunities to build on our 21st Century Skills. Some of the 21st Century skills we will integrate into our lesson include teamwork, critical
thinking and problem solving and using technology and research to further our knowledge.

Assessment Plan:
Entry-Level: Formative: Summative:

Entry Quiz paired with Think-Pair-Share activity: Think-Pair Shares: Students will think-pair share Summative Assessment 1: Students will demonstrate
Students will take an entry level quiz before the throughout the lecture on the Pythagorean History, that they know how to develop and apply the
lecture to determine how much they know about Theorem, proof concepts, and other key comprehension Pythagorean Theorem and it’s converse in 2D and 3D
right triangles, and will provide a way to assess the checks. These questions are detailed in the lesson 1’s applications and how to apply the theorem to the
level of background knowledge students are activities. coordinate system by developing their own test with
bringing into the lesson. solutions. Students will create a “test” with graphics,
White Boards: Throughout the lecture, there are directions and a solutions manual showing each

numerous practice problems that will be reviewed with problem worked out. Students will present on their
students. After guided practice, there will be times when “tests” in groups of 3. Details in Lesson 3.
the teacher asks the students to either independently or
collaboratively work on completing a sample problem. Summative Assessment 2: Following the presentation,
They will hold up the answer for various problems. students will take a comprehensive test of the unit’s
main topics. The breakdown of the test is shown in
Exit Ticket Quiz (F): Students will answer 3 quick questions Lesson 3.
that summarize key concepts in the lecture, and write down
their own questions for the next lesson.

Quizlet Flash Cards: Following lecture, students will
review key concepts and vocabulary from lecture and
then take an independent quiz. See directions in Lesson 2.

Webercise: Students will build utilize their research
skills and answer multi-step problems that build on the
concepts from lecture. Students will answer 2d, 3d,
converse and coordinate plane application problems. This
is a collaborative endeavor. Instructions are detailed in
Lesson 2.

Graphic Organizer – Concept Mapping: Students will
work individually, and utilize teacher provided resources
to map the four main concepts we discussed in lecture
and the webercise, but this time they will synthesize the
information and create meaning through answering
What? Why? questions and providing relevant examples.
Detailed assessment information in Lesson 3.

Lesson 1 (Teacher Lecture)
Student Learning Acceptable Evidence Lesson Activities:
Objective: (Assessments):
STUDENTS WILL… Students will demonstrate This lecture will introduce students to the Pythagorean Theorem, its history, and an informal proof using area. We
their knowledge of the will also practice classifying triangles as right or not, and explore and practice some sample problems. A detailed
Pythagorean history, agenda is outlined below.
1. Recall facts about
the Pythagorean though Think-Pair Share
discussions. Students will 1. Warm Up Activity: Entry Quiz and Think-Pair Share (EL) –Review slides 2-4 with students.
Theorem’s history. Identifying Right Triangles through Entry Level Quiz and Discussion: Students will be asked label the parts
2. Express the collaborate with a partner
of a triangle and identify which triangle is a right triangle. Provide some think-time for students to taks
Pythagorean to demonstrate their
quiz. Then, have students think-pair- share their answers with a partner and explain how they got their
Theorem and its knowledge of the proof answer. Ask some students to share their answers with the class.
converse through using area squares
written and verbal (teacher will check). Review quiz with class and survey how well students understood (By asking if they got it correct) and
communication and Students will demonstrate review more right triangle geometry at this point, if needed, to build background. Explain that the class
recognize that the their knowledge of the will be learning about a Theorem that is unique to right triangles. Pass out guided notes for lecture and tell
Pythagorean converse and 2D, and 3D students they will be using these to record notes throughout the lecture’s activities.
Theorem only application problems
applies to right through personal 2. Pythagorean History Video and Think-Pair-Share (F): Review slide 4. Students will watch a brief
triangles. whiteboard practice history video. See: Mr. Derstein's Video on the Pythagorean History.
problems, which will be After watching the film, students will then think-pair-share:
3. Informally prove
checked throughout the - 2 applications that the Pythagorean Theorem is used for
the Pythagorean
guided practice session. - 2 part of the world was the Theorem “seen” before it was officially proved by Pythagoras
Theorem using - Equation to the Theorem
area. - 2 interesting facts about Pythagoras that you learned from the film.
4. Recognize 2 3. Review Vocabulary and Introduce Theorem (slides 6-7).
dimensional and 3
dimensional 4. Think-Pair Share (F): First show students The Pythagorean Theorem in 2 Minutes from Educational
Pythagorean Solutions on slide 8, then ask the following questions:
Theorem related - What evidence can we use to prove the Pythagorean Theorem is true? Could you explain
problems and to your partner why you think this is true?
visualize and - How do you think we can show this theorem is true using area?
practice solving Allow students a few minutes of think-time, and then allow them to share. Use responses to affirm or clarify any
each type of misunderstandings at this point. Then review the concept that: If we can show the square of the hypotenuse is
problem. equal to the sum of the legs squared, then we can informally prove the theorem (See slide 9). Then introduce the
5. Use the converse of Area Activity.
the Pythagorean
Theorem to classify 5. Area Exercise (Slide 10-11) – This exercise helps students see the relationship between the sides and the
hypotenuse of a right triangle, through informally proving the theorem using the area of each side. Each
if a given triangle is
group will work together to show if the sum of the area of the sides is equal to the area of the hypotenuse,
a right triangle or
then have students share their answers with the class. This exercise is in their guided notes, and they can
not. use squares to count area. If time permits, encourage students to think of another example that would be
true and sketch it out using the squares.

6. Introduce the Converse (Slides 12-14): Ask students to check if the triangle on the slide is a right
triangle or not (See slide 12). Give appropriate think-time and then share their conclusion. Explain why it
is not a right triangle, and explain the converse of the theorem and how it can be applied to classify
triangles as right or non-right triangles.

7. Review Check Understanding (Slide 18): Ask students the following questions and after responses,
explain reasoning in class discussion.
- Why does it not matter which side is designated as a or b? Why do you think this is true?
- Why is the answer always positive? Aren’t we taking a square root?

8. Guided practice + Whiteboard Checks (F): Example Problems 1-6 (Slides 19-29). Have students take
out their personal whiteboards for this time to work on practice problems.
- Model example 1, have students follow along via personal whiteboards
- Have students complete example 2 on their own, do a whiteboard check (F) to check
understanding. Give them 1-2 minutes for each problem, and then ask to see their
- Set up problem 3, let students complete on their own, do a whiteboard check to check
- Students complete problem 4 on their own. White board check following this.
- Have students follow along for problems 5-6 on their whiteboards. These are new concepts,
which they will be learning more in detail in Lesson 2.

Based on students’ progress of white board checks, determine which type of problems may need to be reviewed
more at the beginning of the next lesson in the lecture review.

9. Exit Ticket Quiz (F) (if time permits – Slide 30)
- Write the Pythagorean Theorem 3 different ways (How would you solve for a,b, c?)
- What information can we know about a triangle, using the Pythagorean Theorem?
- Give one real world application of the Pythagorean Theorem. Where did you get that idea?

Lesson 2 (Webercise)
Student Learning Acceptable Evidence: Lesson Activities:
Objectives: Students will utilize
STUDENTS WILL… provided resources and We will have a brief review of the lecture from the previous lesson and address any questions students may have at
instructions and this point.
1. Apply their successfully complete the
Pythagorean Theorem Lecture Review with Quizlet Flashcards and Quiz (F):
knowledge of the Then we will review as a class, the Quizlet Flashcards using the overhead or Smartboard. Students will then have the
Pythagorean webercise. A successful
opportunity to work with a partner and practice the flashcards one more time. Students then take a quiz using the
Theorem to analyze completion is defined by:
Quizlet test function: and print results. Then we will transition to reviewing
and solve advanced all questions will have been
the directions for the webercise.
2D and 3D attempted, and written
problems involving responses will reflect
the Pythagorean knowledge of applicable Pythgaorean Theorem Webercise (F):
Theorem (such as mathematical reasoning The students will walk through and complete a webercise that will reinforce all that they have learned about the
real world word skills. Pythagorean Theorem from the lecture and have them critically apply their knowledge to specific application
problems in 2D, problems. Explain to students the webercise will require high order thinking, application, analysis and creation.
classifying Some of the topics include: Real World Applications of 2 D figures (such as unknown distances of baseball fields,
triangles, or finding ladders), real world applications of 3D figures, such as researching how to calculate the diagonal of a rectangular
the diagonal of a prism by exploring 3D models, and recognizing that the Distance Formula is the Pythagorean Theorem in the
Coordinate Plane, by testing out several Gizmos. Students will also be able to watch YouTube demonstrations
rectangular prism
throughout this webercise.
in 3D).
2. Relate the Directions: Explain to students that for this webercise, they will have to document their progress via a webercise
Pythagorean form. This form can be found on the Lesson 2 Site Page. Read through all questions with students, and see if they
Theorem to the need any clarification on additional directions. They are allowed to work in pairs for this activity. They are allowed
coordinate system, to ask questions during the class time. For a complete list of resources, please see the Unit Resource Section.
and formulate a
way to calculate The quiz results and progress on the webercise will be used as formal assessments to see how much students have
and solve for the mastered from lecture, and the webercise will give some insight into how well students have understood new
distance between concepts of coordinate plane and 3D applications from the webercise. Students’ progress will be monitored during
two the webercise, and the teacher will be ask for progress reports from students (e.g., Ask them how they are doing,
coordinates. Constr which problem they are solving, if they need any help). Following the assignment, if there is more time needed for
uct a problem in the review, then there will be an additional review session at the beginning of lesson 3.
x-y plane and solve
for it.
3. Assess various
internet sources
and evaluate and
utilize information
and instructions to
aid in problem-

Lesson 3 (Graphic Organizer and Final Project)
Student Learning Acceptable Evidence: Lesson Activities:
Objective: 1 & 2. Students
STUDENTS WILL… demonstrate their Note: This is the longest lesson of the unit and will take 3 periods to complete. In the first period, students will work
knowledge of the on their concept mapping project. In Period 2, students will start designing and finalize their tests. They will also
Pythagorean Theorem, its work on their brief presentations to showcase their tests. The 3rd period will allow students to present their
1. Conduct presentations, and take a brief unit test. If needed, the activities can be adjusted to accommodate allowable time.
independent converse, and 2D, 3D, and
research, collect, coordinate plane
Start lesson with a brief review and question time. Focus more on the concepts related to the distance formula and
and synthesize applications through
rectangular prism applications, since these are newer concepts. Review all formulas with students.
information, and researching academic
use this resources and completing Concept Mapping (F):
information the concept map Ask students for ideas on how to organize their thoughts. After students share with class, explain to students that
to create a concept assignment. Students will they can organize their thoughts and research through the use of a concept map. Show examples of completed
map, which will also demonstrate their concept maps, including the example concept map for the project. Next, introduce the mapping activity to students,
convey detailed research skills through explaining the structure, content and design of the map, and review the grading rubric with students. Explain that
information about successful completion of they will be able to reference their concept map during the design phase for their test project, so they will want to
the Pythagorean this project. To successfully make sure they have plenty of resourceful information in it!
Theorem’s 4 main complete this project
applications: The means that all categories of Directions:
the map have been This is an independent assignment. You will be creating a concept map, where the main theme is the Pythagorean
converse, 2D, 3D,
constructed and filled with Theorem, and from that main topic, you will have 4 sub-topics for which you will have to research and collect
and coordinate
appropriate and relevant information on. You must use the resources that I provide below. These sub-topics are:
plane application.
2. Use research examples. Also each
example answers the 1. The Converse
sources and their 2. 2D Applications
own research, to question, or provides a
3. 3D Applications
answer What? And concrete example.
4. The Coordinate System
How? questions
and provide Students indicate their From each sub-topic, you must include 3 additional branches labeled: What is it? How to? and Example
relevant and knowledge of mathematical Applications. You will have to organize your information accordingly to each of these branches within the subtopic.
concrete examples. reasoning and analysis
3. Utilize through successfully The What is it? Branch is for information that defines the concept. For instance, if you are within the sub-topic The
mathematical creating a complete 3 Converse, then you will want to include information that explains what it is.
reasoning skills and problem test, and
analyze complex presenting and answering The how to? branch is for information that tells you how to apply the concept. This is a great place to insert videos, or
word problems related questions from your thoughts on the process of using the converse.
involving 2D, 3D class. A complete test is one
that follows the layout The Example Applications branch is for information that demonstrates the concept in action. For instance, if I am
and coordinate
instructions and presents working within the Converse sub-topic, then I could show an example of triangle classification problem using the
logical and solvable converse. You may also work out example problems that you do yourself and import them in as a picture.
involving the
Pythagorean problems.
Programs to Utilize:
Theorem. - Programs: Select one of the Following Programs to create your concept map. I prefer Popplet, but you
may choose or Gliffy or Mindjet as well.

Additional Requirements
• Also, for each sub-topic, you must include at least:
o 3 relevant thoughts from the research websites that tie into the sub-topic
o 1 video that ties into the sub-topic
o 2 images that tie into the sub-topic
Information for students to use for their Concept Map:
1. Pythagorean Theorem 2D Applications:
Pythagorean Theorem and 2D Applications from Charleston Community Unit School District

2. Pythagorean 3D Applications:
Diagonal Length of Rectangular Prism lesson and short video from MooMoo Math

3. The Converse:
Unit 4.5 The Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem from Murrieta School District

4. The Coordinate Plane:
Purple Math’s Lesson on the Distance Formula (which is the Pythagorean Theorem on the Coordinate
Example and Rubric
1. Ms. Summerville’s Example:
2. Grading Rubric for project:

The concept map will be an allowable reference material for students’ Summative Assessment 1 project, so map
should be complete and provide relevant resources and examples. Students Concept Maps will be checked before
they proceed to the final project. If needed, review with students point of misconceptions or uncertainty when they
submit their maps. Patterns of main questions should be addressed as a class before moving on to Summative
Assessment 1.

Summative Assignment #1 – Create and Present Test (S):
Directions: Students are allowed to choose 2 other partners that they would like to work with for this assignment.
They must submit their group members in the first 5 minutes of class time. Read through the following directions
with students. Answer any clarifications for project.

Directions for Test:
1. With your partners, you will have one class period to formulate your own test that will reflect all the
material we have learned in this unit. You will create 3 problems total and each problem will conform to
the specifications below:
i. Problem 1 should be a 2D Application Problem
ii. Problem 2 should be a 3D Application Problem
iii. Problem 3 should be a Coordinate Plane Application Problem
2. Format each problem the following way:

i. First state the givens: These are the knowns in the problem. Your problem must give enough
information, so that it can be solved.
ii. Then show a sketch of a diagram to represent the problem (This can be hand sketched or you
can design your own image using word or excel or another teacher approved sketching
iii. Then state what need to be solved for. Use words such as “Find” or “Solve for”.

3. Include a solution set, which shows the problem solved from start to finish. Also make sure the answer is

4. Once you are done with you test, you will present on it!

Directions for Group Presentation:
1. With your same group, work together to prepare a short PowerPoint presentation that will display to the
class your 3 test problems.
2. Make 1 slide for each question, and 1 slide for each answer. You will have a total of 6 slides on the content.
3. Create an intro slide, which introduces your team members.
4. Make sure that your slide contains a picture for each test problem. The picture should accurately
represent the problem.
5. Finalize presentation and practice giving the presentation with your group. Each person will have to talk
about 1 problem, and explain how the problem works, and how they developed the problem, and why they
think this is a good test problem for other students. You will have up to 3-5 minutes to present your

Summative Assignment #2 – Comprehensive Unit Test (S):
Students will conclude the unit with a summative unit test on the Pythagorean Theorem. The test will include the
1. One area proof: Explain in drawing and words why the Pythagorean Theorem is true.
2. One triangle classification problem: Determine if the triangle is right, obtuse or acute.
3. One 2D/3D application: May be a compound problem that involves a word problem and 2d/3d
4. One coordinate plane application: Determine the distance between 2 coordinates.

Unit Resources
1. Digital Unit Plan:
2. Lecture Link:
3. Flashcards:
4. Webercise sites:
o PBS’ Website (Questions 1-4):
o PBS’ Website:
o Travis Thompson’s YouTube Video:
o Geogebra’s website on 3D Model:
o Online Math Learning Website:
o Geogebra’s website on types of triangles:
o YouTube video from Mr. De La Garza on coordinate system:
o Gizmos’ – Finding Points in the Coordinate Plane:
o Gizmo’s Distance Formula:
5. Ms. Summerville’s Concept Map Example:
6. Ms Summerville’s Concept Map Rubric:
7. Concept Map Sites for Student Research:
- Pythagorean Theorem 2D Applications:
Pythagorean Theorem and 2D Applications from Charleston Community Unit School District
- Pythagorean 3D Applications: Diagonal Length of Rectangular Prism lesson and short video from MooMoo Math
- The Converse:
Unit 4.5 The Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem from Murrieta School District
- The Coordinate Plane:
Purple Math’s Lesson on the Distance Formula (which is the Pythagorean Theorem on the Coordinate Plane)
- Sweet Search – A search engine for students:
8. Concept Map Program Sites:
- Popplet,
- Gliffy
- Mindjet
9. Rubric for Summative Assessment #1:
10. Additional Links Referenced in Planning the Lecture:
- Math is Fun Website (Pythagorean Theorem):
- Math is Fun Website (Right angled Triangles):
- Math is Fun – Pythagorean Triples:
- YouTube: Pythagorean Theorem History from Mr. Derstein:
- YouTube: Pythagorean THeorme in 2 Minutes from Educational Solutions:
- Pythagorean Theorem from Purple Math:
- Sample 3D problems from Bitesize:
- Sample coordinate Plane problems from School Improvement in Maryland:

Useful Websites:
These websites/ videos are featured on my Unit Resources page:

Note: There are descriptions of each resource on the Unit Resource Webpage.