CLASS-10

Lesson No. 1
Resources and Development
Summary :
1. Resource Planning in India : It involves :
1. Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.
2. Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and
institutional set up far implementing resource development plans.
3. Matching the resources development plans with over all national development
plans.
2. Land use Pattern in India :
- Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq. km.
- Land use data however is available only for 93% of the total area because the
land use reporting far most of the North-East States except Assam has not
been done fully.
- Some area of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have also
not been surveyed.
- The land under permanent pasture has also decreased.
- Fallow land - left without cultivation far one or less than one agricultural year.
- Net sown area total -total area sown in an agricultural year.
- More net sown area in Punjab and Haryana.
- Less net sown area in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman
Nicobar Islands.
- National Forest Policy in India in 1952.
- Waste land includes rocky, Arid and desert area and land put to other non
agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc.
- Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate
measures to conserve and manage it.
Answer the following questions :
1. What are the three stages of resource planning? Describe it.
2. Why land use data is not available for whole country?
3. Why land is decreasing under permanent pastures?
4. What is net sown area? Which areas of India has more net sown area?
5. Describe waste land.
6. Describe two major causes of land degradation in India?

Lesson No. 2
Water Resources
Summary :
Hydraulic Structure in Ancient India :
- In the first century B.C. Sringaverapura near Allahabad had sophisticated water
harvesting system channeling the flood water of the river Ganga.
- During the time of Chandragupta Mauriya, dams lakes and irrigation systems
were extensively built.
- Evidences of sophisticated irrigation works have also been found in Kalinga,
Nagarjuna Konda, Bennur, Kohlapur etc.
- In 11th century, Bhopal lake, one of the larest artificial lakes of its time was
built.
- In 14th century, the tank of Hauz Khas, Delhi, was constructed by Iltutmish for
supplying water of Siri Fort area.
Dam :
A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow,
often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment.
- Classification of dams according to structure, intended purpose or height.
- Based on structure or material used, dams are classified as timber dams,
embankment
dams or masonry dams, with several sub-types.
- According to the height dams can be categories as large dams and major dams
or alternatively as low dams, medium height dams and high dams.
3. Rain Water Harvesting :
- In hill and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels like the ‘guls’
or ‘kuls’ of the western Himalayas for agriculture.
- Rooftop rain water harvesting was commonly practiced to store drinking water,
in Rajasthan.
- In the flood plains of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate
their fields.
- In arid and semi arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain fed
storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like the
‘khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ in other parts of Rajasthan.
- Tankas - underground tanks ro tankas for storing drinking water.
- In Bikaner, phalodi and Barmer.
- The tanks could be as large as a big room.
- Roof top rainwater harvesting as drinking water.
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- The first spell of rain was usually not collected as this would clean the roofs
and the pipes.
- Rain water called as Palar Pani.
- Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the ‘tankas’ to beat
the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.
- Some houses still maintain the tanks since they do not like the taste of tap
water.
- In Gendathur, a remote backward village in Mysore, Karnataka, villagers have
installed, in their house hold’s roof top, rainwater harvesting system to meet
their water needs.
Answer the following questions :
1. Describe the Hydraulic structures made in ancient India?
2. What is dam? On which bases down are categorized?
3. What are the methods of rain water harvesting?
4. In which parts of India ‘Guls’ or ‘Kuls’ are found?
5. What are the methods of rain water harvesting in Rajasthan?
6. What is Tank? Where and why these are constructed?
7. Why first spell of rain was not collected?
8. Why underground rooms were constructed along with Tankas?

43
Lesson No. 3
Agriculture
Summary :
Technological and Institutional reforms :
- Consolidation of holdings, co-operation and abolition of zamidari, etc. were given
priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after independence.
- Land reform was the main focus of our first five year plan.
- The green revolution based on the use of package technology and the white revolution
(operation flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improves the lot of Indian
agriculture.
- Development in few selected areas. In the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land
development progreamme was initiated, which includes both institutional and
technological
reforms.
- Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease.
- Establishment of Grameen Banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan
facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.
- Kissan credit cards and personal accident insurance schemes introduced.
- Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on
radio and T.V.
- The government also announces minimum support price.
- Remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of
farmers by speculators and middleman.
3. Contribution of Agricultures to the National Economy, Employment and Output :
-
- Agriculture backbone of Indian Economy.
- Share in the gross domestic product.
- Providing employment.
- Livelihood to the population.
- The government of India made concerted efforts to modernize agriculture.
- Establishment of Indian council of Agricultural Research, agricultural universities.
- Veterinary services and animal breading centres.
- Horticulture development.
- Research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast.
Answer the following Questions :
1. Describe the technological and institutional reforms done in agriculture.
2. What is package technology?
3. Why government provides crop insurance to the farmers?
4. What is the role of agriculture in Indian economy?
5. How Indian agriculture may be modernised?
6. What is the objective behind weather forecasting far farmers on TV. and Radio?
7. What is land consolidation? Why it was implemented?
8. Why government announces minimum support price for farmers?

Lesson No. 4
Minerals & Energy Resources
Summary :
I. Mode of occurrence of Mineral :
Where are these minerals found.
Minerals are usually found in “Ores”. The term ore is described as
accumulation
of any mineral mixed with other elements, it should have sufficient
concentration to make its extraction viable. The type of formation or structure
in
which they are found determines their relative ease of mining and cost of
extraction.
Minerals Generally Occur in These forms :
(i) In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in the cracks,
crevices,
faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called vein and the larger
are called lodes. They are formed when minerals in liquid / molten & gaseous
forms are forced upwards through cavities towards earth’s surface. They
cool and solidify as they rise. They include tin, copper, Zinc, lead etc.
(ii) Sedimentary Rocks : No. of minerals occur in beds and layers. They
have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration.
of horizontal strata eg Gypsum, potash salt & sodium salt. They are formed
as
a result of evaporation in arid region.
(iii) Decomposition of Surface Rocks : Involves the removal of soluble
constituents,
leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores eg.
Bauxite.
(iv) Alluvial Deposits : Occur in sands of valley floors and the base of hills.
These are called ‘Placer deposits ‘ and are not corroded by water eg gold,
silver, tin platinum.
(v) Ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals but most of these are too
widely diffused to be of economic significance, however common salt,
magnesium
& bromine are largely derived.
II. Major Iron Ore Belts in India :
1. Orissa Jharkand Belt : In Orissa high grade hematite ore is found in
Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar. In Jharkand haematite
iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi.
2. Durg - Bastar - Chandrapur belt : Lies in chattisgarh and Maharashtra
high
grade hematitis are found in Bailadila range of hills in Chatisgarh.
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3. Bellavy Chitradurga - Chikmaglur - Tumkur Belt : In Karnataka has
large
reserves of iron ore. Kudermuch mines located in western Ghats of Karnataka
and known to be one of the largest.
4. Maharashtra- Goa Belt : Includes state of Goa and Ratnagir district of
Maharashtra. Although ores are not of very high quality yet they are
efficiently
exploited.
III. Conservation of Energy Resources :
Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. Every sector of
national economy agriculture, industry, transport, commercial and domestic
needs inputs of energy. There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path
of energy development. India is presently one of the least energy efficient
countries in the world. We have to adopt a caution approach for judicious
use.
- Using public transport instead of individual.
- Switching of electricity when not in use.
- Using power saving devices.
- Using non conventional sources of power.
Answer the following questions :
1. Which minerals are formed by decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual
mass of weathered material.
2. Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the stratas of which rocks?
3. Which mineral is contained in Monasite sand?
4. How are minerals formed in igneous & metamorphic rocks.?
5. Why do we need to conserve energy resources?
6. Explain the distribution of coal in India?
7. Explain the distribution of iron in India?

Lesson No. 5
Manufacturing Industries
I. Importance of Manufacturing :
Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general
and economic development.
(i) Manufacturing industries helps in modernising agriculture.
(ii) It reduce the heavy dependence of people on agriculture income by
providing
them jobs.
(iii) Helps in eradication of unemployment & poverty.
(iv) Helps in bringing down regional disparities.
(v) Exports of manufactured goods expand trade & commerce.
II. Iron and Steel Industry :
- Iron and steel industry is the basic industry steel is needed to manufacture
a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical,
telephonic, scientific equipment and variety of consumer goods.
- Iron and steel industry is a heavy industry because all raw material as
well as finished goods are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation
costs. Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in 4 : 2 : 1
- India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet we
lag behind because.
(a)High costs and limited availability of coking coal.
(b) Lower productivity of labour.
(c)Irregular supply of energy.
(d) Poor infrastructure.
III. Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation :
Industries contribute significantly to India’s economic growth and
development
but increase in pollution results in degradation of environment.
4 Types of Pollution :
(a) Air : caused by undesirable gases such as sulpher dioxide and carbon
monoxide, air borne particles such as dust, sprays, mist & smoke.
(b) Water Pollution : Caused by organic & inorganic industrial wastes
such as release of lead, mercury pesticides, fertilizers, synthetic chemical,
plastics, rubber, fly ash, phosphogypsum etc.
(c) Thermal Pollution : Caused by nuclear power plants nuclear & weapon
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47
production cause cancers birth defects & miscarriages.
(d) Noise Pollution : Cause heaving impairment, increased heart rate &
blood pressure by making unwanted noise.
(IV) Control of Environment Degradation :
- Minimising the use of water by reusing recycling.
- Harvesting rainwater to meet water requirement.
- Treatment of hot water and effluents before releasing in ponds & rivers,
involves 3 steps.
1. Primary treatment by mechanical means.
2. Secondary treatment by biological process.
3. Tertiary treatment by biological chemical & physical processes.
Answer the following Questions :
1. Describe the importance of Industries in the Economic development of a
country?
2. Why iron and steel industry is called the basic industry?
3. Name the important raw material used in the manufacturing of iron and
steel.
4. Critically examine how industries causes the environmental degradation?
5. Suggest some measures to control environmental degradation?

Lesson No. 6
Lifelines of National Economy
I. Roadways :
India has one of the largest road networks in the world. Its importance can be
viewed.
(i) Construction cost of roads is much lower.
(ii) Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating
topography.
(iii) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slope & as such can traverse
mountains.
(iv) It is economical.
(v) It provides door to door services.
(vi) It is used as feeder to other modes of transport.
II. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways :
- The Govt. has launched a major road development project linking Delhi-
Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai & Delhi by six-lane super highways.
- The North-South corridors linking Srinagar [Jammu & Kashmir] &
Kanyakumari [T.N.] & East-West Corridor Connecting silcher (Assam) &
Porbander (Gujarat). The major objective of these super highways is to
reduce time & distance.
III. Railways :
- The distribution pattern of the railway network in the country has been
largely influence by physiographic, economic and administrative factors.
- The Himalyan mountains regions are unfavourable for the construction of
railway lines due to high relief sparse population & each of economic
opportunities.
- The northern plains provide most favourable condition having high
population
density.
- Rivers also create problem for lay down of railway tracts.
IV.Pipelines :
Pipelines transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of
India. Its initial cost is high but subsequent running costs are minimal. It is
used
for transporting crude oil, petroleum product & natural gas.
3 Important Networks :
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1. Oil field in Assam to Kanpur (U.P.), via Guwahati, Barauni & Allahabad.
2. From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar. In Punjab via Viramgam, Mathura,
Delhi & Panipat.
3. Gas pipelines from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in UP via
Vijaypur in Madhya Pradesh.
V. International Trade :
- The exchange of goods among people; states & countries is referred to as
trade. Trade between two countries is called International Trade.
- Exports and imports are the components of trade. The balance of a trade of
a country is the difference b/w its export and import.
- When the value of exports exceeds the value of imports, it is called
favourable balance of trades.
VI. Tourism as a Trade :
- Tourism has proved itself as one of the most important. aspect of trade.
Tourism in India has grown substantially. It helps as
- Promotion of National Integration.
- Provide support to local handicrafts
- Provides support to cultural pursuits.
- Development of international understanding about our culture and heritage.
Answer the following questions :
1. Critically examine how roadways are more imp. than railways.
2. What is the importance of super-highways in our national economy.
3. Describe the factors affecting the distribution of Railway network.
4. What are merits and demerits of pipelines?
5. Explain the three important network of pipelines in India.
6. What do you mean by balance trade? taking into account India’s trade?
7. Suggest some measures to promote tourism in India?

5
UNIT I
This unit deals with
1• Geography as an integrating discipline; as a science of spatial attributes
2• Branches of geography: importance of physical geography
3. What is geography?
4. Relation between man and nature?
5. Development of geography
6. Relation between geography and other subjects
7. Geography answers the questions where? What? & Why?
8. Relation between Physical Geography and Natural Science‟
9. Geography and social science relation.
10. Branches of Geography Based on Systematic Approach and Regional Approach
11. Physical geography and its importance.
WHY SHOULD WE STUDY GEOGRAPHY?
1. We live on the earth‟s surface
2. Our lives are affected many ways by our surroundings
3. We depend on the resources available from the earth surface
4. Primitive societies substituted on the plants and animals
5. Food , shelter, and dress are depending on the climate
6. Cropping pattern is based on climate of the place
7. To know the changes taken place throughout the geological time
8. To know the lands and people
9. Develop skills to convert globe to map
10. To have visual sense of the earth surface
2. What are the recent techniques that helped the geographer to understand the earth‟s surface
better?
1. GIS& GPS
2. COMPUTER CARTOGRAPHY
3. WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?
The earth consists of physical and cultural features. They are different from one place to
another. This difference helped to understand the relation
between physical and cultural features. Physical features
provided the stage and human societies enacted the drama to
develop their skills. With the use of skills and tools ,he
modified the nature
“GEOGRAPHY IS THE DESCRIPTION OF THE EARTH”.
Who coined the term „Geography‟ first?
ERATOSTHENES, A GREEK SCHOLAR (276-194 BC)
What is the origin of the word „Geography‟?
The word derived from Greek language geo= earth ,
graphos=description.
Some scholars defined geography as the description of the
earth as the abode of human beings.
How can we say that the earth is „multidimensional‟?
Many Sciences developed to describe the physical features of
the earth such as Geology, Pedology, Oceanography Botany
Zoology and Meteorology & Cultural features of the earth such as Economics, History, Sociology
Political Science, Anthropology,
How does Geography differ from other subjects?
Geography differs from other subjects in terms of matter and methodology. Geography derives
its data from Social Sciences and Natural Sciences.
CHAPTER.1 GEOGRAPHY AS ADISCIPLINE
1 ERATOSTHENES
6
What do you mean by „areal differentiation‟?
When there is similarity and dissimilarity among the physical and cultural features on the earth
surface, it is called aerial differentiation.
What do Geographers study?
They study the variations and association of the features on the earth surface
e.g. Cropping pattern differs from place to place and it is due to difference in the climate, soil,
demand, transport facility, capacity of the farmer.
A geographer also studies the cause and effect relationships.
The interaction between man and nature is highly dynamic and not static; so it is also called as
the study of the relation between unstable earth and untrusting man.
What is the relation between man and nature?
Human is an integral part of nature and nature has imprints of man.
What is the effect of nature on man?
Food clothing, shelter and occupation of man are decided by the nature
How does technology help man?
--to loosen the shackles of the physical conditions.
--to develop resources and utilize them.
--to reach the higher needs of the life. It increased the production of the crops&
mobility of labor.
Describe the dialogue between nature and man.
You created the soil, I created the cup,
You created night, I created the lamp.
You created wilderness, hilly terrains and deserts;
I created flower beds and gardens.
Explain the changes occurred in the civilization of man in course of time?
1. Man moved from stage of necessity to stage of freedom.
2. Created new possibilities from the nature
3. We find now humanized nature and naturalized man
4. Space got organized with the help of transport and communication.
What does Geography study?
Geography studies spatial organization and spatial integration.
Which are the three questions concerned with Geography?
What are the natural and cultural features found on the earth surface?
Where are these features found?
Why are these features found there?
How can we say that Geography is an integrated discipline?
It is a discipline of synthesis; it includes spatial and temporal synthesis.
Its approach is holistic in nature. it recognizes the fact that the world is a system of
interdependence. The present world is a global village. The efficient transport and
communication helped the world to become unified village. The audiovisual media helped the
data to be enriched. Technology provided better chances of monitoring natural phenomena as
well as the economic and social parameters.
What is the basic objective of Sciences & Social Sciences?
The basic aim of Science and Social Science is to understand the reality of the nature.
Explain the relationship of Geography with other subjects?
2 RELATION WITH OTHER SUBJECTS
GEOGRAPHY
BOTANY &
ZOOLOGY
(BIOGEGRAPHY)
PEDOLOGY
(SOIL
GEOGRAHY)
METEOROLOGY
(CLIMATOLOGY)
GEOLOGY
(GEOMORPHOL
OGY)
ECONOMICS
(ECONOMIC
GEOGRAPHY)
POLITICAL SCIENCE
(POLITICAL
GEOGRAPHY)
HISTORY
(HISTORICAL
GEOGRAPHY)
SOCIOLOGY
(SOCIAL
GEOGRAPHY)
ENVIRONMENTAL
SCIENCE
(ENVIRONMENTAL
GEOGRAPHY)

How do other subjects help Geography as an integrated subject?
7
History helps in knowing the man-made activities; Physics helps to calculate the effect of climate on
man. Economics helps to understand the effect of human activities on the development of the
country. The geographical factors modified the course of history. The change in the climate has
influence on the occupation.
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL SCIENCE
Define the relation of geography with Natural Science
All branches of physical Geography have close relation with Natural Sciences. Biogeography has close
link with Zoology and Botany.
Mathematics and Arts also have contributed to the development of
Geography to measure the area and dimensions of the earth. Cartography
and projections are based on mathematics.
Explain the contribution of social science to the Human geography.
History of geographical thought is the mother of all branches of geography.
Sociology, political science, economics provide the aspects of social reality.
Population geography has close link with demography.
BRANCHES OF GEOGRAPHY
BASED ON SYSTEMATIC APPROACH INTRODUCED BY Alexander Von
Humboldt, a German geographer (1769-1859
ALEXANDER VAN HUMBOLDT
3ALEXANDER VAN HUMBOLDT
4 KARL RITTER
8
KARL RITTER (1779-1859)
What is the importance of PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY?
Physical geography includes study of Lithosphere, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere & Biosphere- each element is very
important for human beings.
Landforms provide base for agriculture, industries, transport and communication, and settlements. Mountains provide
water to rivers, forests-center for tourist spots.
Climate influences on the cropping pattern, livestock, food and clothes of the people.
limate and precipitation influence the type of forests. Oceans provide food, water transport, and influence the climate;
they are the source of hydrological cycle
5 RICHARD HARTSHORNE 6 HETTNER

9
This chapter deals with
1. Origin of the earth 2. Early theories 3. Modern Theories 4 .Big Bang theory 5. The star
formation 6. formation of planets 7. Our solar system 8. The moon 9 Evolution of the earth
10. Development of lithosphere 11. Evolution of Atmosphere and
hydrosphere 12. Origin of life
Nebular hypothesis: There is evidence that the nebular hypothesis
was first proposed in 1734 by Immanuel Kant, who was familiar with
Swedenborg's work, developed the theory further in 1755.[4] He
argued that gaseous clouds—nebulae, which slowly rotate, gradually
collapse and flatten due to gravity and eventually form stars and
planets. A similar model was proposed in 1796 by Pierre-Simon
Laplace. It featured a contracting and cooling proto solar cloud—the
proto solar nebula. As the nebula contracted, it flattened and shed
rings of material, which later collapsed into the planets. While the
Laplacian nebular model dominated in the 19th century, it encountered
a number of difficulties. The main problem was angular momentum
distribution between the Sun and planets. The planets have 99% of the
angular momentum, and this fact could not be explained by the nebular
model. As a result this theory of planet formation was largely abandoned
at the beginning of the 20th century.
The fall of the Laplacian model stimulated scientists to find a
replacement for it. During the 20th century many theories were
proposed including the planetesimal theory of Thomas Chamberlin and Forest Moulton (1901), tidal
model of Jeans (1917), accretion model of Otto Schmidt (1944), proto
planet theory of William McCrea (1960) and finally capture theory of
Michael Woolfson. In 1978 Andrew Prentice resurrected the initial Laplacian ideas about planet
formation and developed the modern Laplacian theory.[4] None of these attempts was completely
successful and many of the proposed theories were descriptive. Sir Horald Jeffery Nebular
Hypothesis in its original form was proposed by Kant and Laplace in the 18th century.
The initial steps are indicated in the following figures .Collapsing Clouds of Gas and Dust-A great
cloud of gas and dust (called a nebula) begins to collapse because the gravitational forces that
would like to collapse it overcome the forces associated with gas pressure that would like to
expand it (the initial collapse might be triggered by a variety of perturbations---a supernova
blast wave, density waves in spiral galaxies, etc.).
It is unlikely that such a nebula would be created with no angular momentum, so it is probably
initially spinning slowly. Because of conservation of angular momentum, the cloud spins faster
as it contracts.
The Spinning Nebula Flattens Because of the competing forces associated with gravity, gas
pressure, and rotation, the contracting nebula begins to flatten into a spinning pancake shape
In the Nebular Hypothesis, a cloud of gas and dust collapsed by gravity begins to spin faster
because
of angular momentum conservation
CHAPTER-2 THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH
Figure 6angular momentum
7.NEBULA
8ANGULAR MOMENTUM
10
with a bulge at the center, as illustrated in the following figure.
The collapsing, spinning nebula begins to flatten into a rotating pancake
Condensation of Proto sun and Proto planets As the nebula collapse further, instabilities in the
collapsing, rotating cloud cause local regions to begin to contract gravitationally. These local
regions of condensation will become the Sun and the planets, as well as their moons and other
debris in the Solar System.
MODERN THEORIES
Origin of the universe
The Big Bang Theory, also called as expand universe hypothesis.
Edwin Hubble in 1920 provided the evidence that the universe is expanding. The galaxies move
farther as the time passes.
Laboratory The Expanding Balloon
In The Expanding Universe, Charles Jenkins tells us that galaxies are moving away from each other.
The universe appears to be growing larger.
We can use a balloon to help us understand what is going on in the cosmos. In this activity, the
balloon represents the universe. Bits of tape on the surface of the balloon represent some of the
galaxies located throughout the universe.
Tools & Materials
round balloon
masking tape
tape measure
pen or pencil
clothespin (optional)
The Experiment
Here's what to do:
1. Blow up the balloon part way. The partially-inflated balloon represents
the universe. Imagine that there are many galaxies both inside the
balloon universe and on its surface. Have someone hold the mouth of the
balloon closed so that it doesn't deflate, or use a clothespin to clamp the
rolled-up mouth closed.
Create your own expanding
universe with these simple
materials
11
2. Tear off three small bits of masking tape, each about the size of your
little fingernail. Draw a round dot in the middle of each bit of tape to
represent a galaxy. Label each galaxy as A, B, or C.
3. Place the three bits of tape on the balloon so that the distances
between them are all different. These represent three of the many
galaxies in the universe.
4. Use your tape measure to find the distance from each masking tape
galaxy to each of the others. Also measure the circumference of the
balloon at its widest part. This gives you an indication of the size of your
balloon universe at this time. Record these measurements for Round 1.
(See chart below.)
5. Blow the balloon up a bit more, to represent the expanding of the
universe. Measure and record the balloon circumference and the
distances between the masking tape galaxies for your next round.
Repeat Step 5 a few more times until the balloon is about as big as it can
get without popping. (Try to avoid a Big Bang!
Use a chart like the one below to record your results.
Changes in Distances between Galaxies as the Universe Expands
Balloon Circumference From A to B From B to C From C to A
Round 1
Round 2
Round 3
Round 4
Observe how the distances between the galaxies changed as the balloon universe expanded. Do you
see any pattern or trend?
Stages of Big Bang theory
(i) In the beginning, all matter was in the form of tiny ball( singular atom) with
unimaginable small volume , infinite temperature and infinite density
(ii) About 13.7 billion years ago the tiny ball exploded violently. The expansion continues
even today.
(iii) As a result some energy was converted into matter
(iv) Within fraction of second there was rapid expansion
(v) The expansion slowdown after three minutes and first atom formed
(vi) After 300000 years the temperature dropped down to 4,500 K and gave rise to atomic
matter.
(vii) The universe became transparent.
12
Steady State Theory
The Big Bang Theory is the standard model of cosmology; however, there have been several
other models for the universe. One such model, which gained a large following in the 1950 and
60 (before becoming obsolete in the early 70), is the Steady State Model. This model asserts
that the general character of the universe is not changing over time (hence, a steady state).
Steady State theory propones the idea that the universe looks the same no matter the viewpoint
and that the universe has always looked like this; essentially,the theory states that the universe
is uniform throughout both time and space. The advantage of Steady State theory over some
other theories is its simple and aesthetic explanations of certain troublesome topics. For
example, since the universe is unchanging throughout time, the universe needs no convoluted
explanation of its beginning. In addition, to account for the decrease in density that would
result from expansion, steady state theory claims new matter constantly must be created in
order to maintain a constant density (and
therefore a static appearance).
The Demise of Steady State
The Steady State
theory offered simple
solutions to the way
the universe worked,
but as observatories
looked farther back
into the early eras of
the universe, astronomers started to see
contradictions to the theory. Astronomers found
that the universe actually evolves over time. For
example, cosmologists discovered different types
of stars are more common during different ages
of the universe. The final demise of the Steady
State theory came in the late 1960's with the
discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background.
Steady State Theory could offer no convincing explanation for the CMB and as such, most
contemporary cosmologists feel this theory is wrong
The star formation
1. The distribution of matter and energy was uneven in the universe.
2. The density difference gave rise to differences in gravitational forces
3. It caused the matter to get drawn together.
4. This is the base for the formation of galaxies
5. Galaxy contains large number of stars
6. The distance between the start is measured with light years.
7. One light year is equal to the distance covered by the light in one year when it travels at
the speed of 3 lakh km/hour
8. The average diameter of the stars is 80,000 km to 1,50,000 light years
9. It starts forming by accumulation of hydrogen gas in the form of cloud
10. The denser gases were condensed into stars.
11. The formation of star was about 5-6 b y a.
12. One light year is 9.461 x km
13. The mean distance from the Sun to the earth is 8.311 minutes
Formation of planets -Stages in the development of planets
(i) The stars are localized lump of gases found in nebula
(ii) The gravitational force led to the formation of the core
(iii) The huge rotating gas disc and dust develops around the gas core
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(iv) in the next stage the gas cloud starts getting condensed and the matter around the core
develops into small rounded objects.
(v)The small rounded objects developed into
planetesimals due to the process of cohesion.
(vi)Larger bodies started forming due to collision
and attraction.
(vii)At the final stage, the small planetesimals
accrete to form large bodies in the form of
planets.
Our Solar system
1. Our solar system consists of eight planets
2. The nebula of our solar system started collapsing around 5-5.6 b. y. a
3. The planets were formed about 4.6 b. y .a
4. Our solar system consists of 8 planets, 63 moons, millions of asteroids comets ,huge quantity of
gas and dust.
5. There are two types of planets inner planets and outer
planets.
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THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INNER PLANETS AND OUTER PLANETS
INNER PLANETS OUTERPLANETS
1. Mercury ,Venus, Earth & Mars Are Called
Inner Planets
1. Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune& Pluto Are
Called Outer Planets
2. They Are Found Between Belt Of Asteroids
And The Sun
2. They Are Found After The Belt Of
Asteroids
3. They Are Also Called Terrestrial Planets 3. They Are Called Jovian Planets
4. Smaller In Size 4. Larger In Size
5. High Density 5 Low Density
6. Solid Rocky State 6. Gaseous State
7. They Are Warm 7. They Are Cold
THE MOON : THE EARLIER EXPLANATION
In 1838, Sir George Darwin suggested that initially the earth and the moon formed a single rapidly
rotating body. The whole mass became a dumb-bell shaped body and eventually it broke. The
material separated from the earth was formed as Moon and the place became the pacific ocean. It is
not accepted now. the present theory is the giant impact theory./big splat theory. A large size body
of Mars collided with the earth and that portion was separated from the earth. The same portion
became as a moon which revolves around the earth. The Moon was formed about 4.4 b y a.
EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH
1. The earth was initially barren rocky and hot
Object
2. Hydrogen and helium were present
3. It was formed about 4.6 b y a the earth was
Layered structure
4. Lighter layer is formed at the outer surface
5. Density increase to wards inside the core
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EVOLUTION OF LITHOSPHERE
1. There was volatile state during its primordial stage 2. Due to high
density temperature increased 3. The material started separating
depending on their density Light material came out side and heavy
material went inside the earth 4. It cooled and condensed into solid
which is called lithosphere 5. At the time of formation of the moon
the earth again became hot 6. Due to differentiation different
layers formed
11. EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH
EVOLUTION OF ATMOSPHERE AND HYDROSPHERE
THERE ARE THREE STAGES OF THE FORMATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE
I .IN THE FIRST STAGE : the early atmosphere consist of hydrogen and helium .loss of
primordial atmosphere due to solar winds
II. IN THE SECOND STAGE: Gases were released from the earth‘s interior such as Water vapor
and other gases. There were water vapor, nitrogen, carbon dioxide methane, ammonia and
little free oxygen. The process of outpouring the gases from the interior of the earth is
called degassing. Volcanic eruptions contributed the water vapor and . The .
Disolved in the rain water and converted into acid rain. Rain water collected into the
depressions called oceans. The oceans were formed about 4000 m y a. The life began to
evolve about 3.8 b y a. The photosynthesis evolved about 2500 to 3000 m y a oceans began
to contribute oxygen to the atmosphere. oceans were saturated with oxygen and flooded
into the atmosphere.
III IN THIRD STAGE: Living organisms changed the composition of the atmosphere due to
photosynthesis
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The last phase of the earth relates to the origin and evolution of life. It is clear that initially
the earth or even the atmosphere of the earth was not conducive for the development of
life. Modern scientist believes that origin of life is one kind of chemical reaction, took place
in the oceans. Due to lightning, the complex organic molecules were combined into a
certain form which can duplicate themselves. They are called first single cell animals. They
are able to convert inanimate things into animate things. The earliest form of life existed
about 3000 m y a . The life began on the earth about 3800 m y a.