# …, end points of existing entity, center point, intersection of two entities.

or perpendicular to a line, tangent to entity
point, a radius and tangent to a line passing through a point.
ter and axes lengths, four points, two conjugate diameters), parabola (vertex and
foc lopes), Bezier curves (a set of data points), B-spline curves (interpolate a set of
data points with local control possible). Curve Representation: Two types of
representation are parametric and non-parametric representation. In parametric
representation all variables (i.e., coordinates) are expressed in terms of common
parameters. For example, a point can be expressed with respect to a parameter as
Non-parametric representation is the conventional representation as
Ex. Non-parametric form of a circle: x^2+y^2=r^2, parametric form: 1. This form
can be used to find slopes at a certain angle for example.
PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF ANALYTIC CURVES
The following list shows most of the analytic curve that are used in CAD/CAM
system for part design and modeling.
es
LINE AND CIRCLE
A line between two points P1 and P2 can be expressed with respect to a parameter.
Ac
ircle for a center and the radius can be written as 22 EL
An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed
as.
PARABOLA
A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate
system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given
by An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be
expressed as.
PARABOLA
A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate
system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given
by An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be
expressed as.
PARABOLA
A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate sy
System with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given
by When the parabola is inclined at an angle θ relative to global x-axis, the
equation for the parabola is given by
Problem 1: Determine the equation above for given three points, p1(5,10), p2(3,4),
and p3(12,1). The parabola is inclines at an angle of 30orelative to global x-axis.
Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from *5 to 5.

Pπ(5.503. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -5 to 5. lines. θ = 0. The solutions and the graph are √. Pπ is the vertex of the parabola.√. and P2(12. is the vertex of the hyperbola. Pπ(5. p2(3.4).881.372.543. the equation for the parabola is given by Problem 1: Determine the equation above for given three points. The solutions and the graph are √. and p3(12.10).10). the equations to solve become 24 Solving these equations for A. P1(3.√ Problem 2: Determine the parabola for given three points .This is a set of nonlinear equations.1). Pπ is the vertex of the parabola.372.√ Problem 2: Determine the parabola for given three points . and hyperbolas. θ.835 A hyperbola with the center (xy.√. u1 = -4. and u2 = -2. and P2(12.1). the equations to solve become A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x1 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y1 – yy A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x2 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y2 – yy The solution is B = 0. and u2 = 3. circles. The general implicit nonparametric quadratic equation that describes the planar conic curve has five coefficients and naturally needs five conditions to complete it. the equations to solve become 24 23 When the parabola is inclined at an angle θ relative to global x-axis.464. u1. θ = -4. parabolas. Solution: Applying the six conditions (two for each point). P1(3. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -5 to 5. - z = zy 25 A hyperbola and its asymptotes Problem 3: Determine the hyperbola for given three points (2.4). p1(5. The graph of the curve is shown as 26 The most general form of planar quadratic curves is conic curves or conic sections that include the previously covered curves. xy) and the distance A and B in a plane z = zy in the figure below can be expressed as x = xy + A coshu y = yy + B sinhu. Solution: Applying the seven conditions (two for each point).10).4). u1 = 2881. ellipses. and A=1. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from *5 to 5. Solution: Applying the six conditions (two for each point).1). Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -2 to 2. and u2 yields the solutions as A = 0.1). The parabola is inclines at an angle of 30orelative to global x-axis. . This is a set of nonlinear equations.