…, end points of existing entity, center point, intersection of two entities.

or perpendicular to a line, tangent to entity
point, a radius and tangent to a line passing through a point.
ter and axes lengths, four points, two conjugate diameters), parabola (vertex and
foc lopes), Bezier curves (a set of data points), B-spline curves (interpolate a set of
data points with local control possible). Curve Representation: Two types of
representation are parametric and non-parametric representation. In parametric
representation all variables (i.e., coordinates) are expressed in terms of common
parameters. For example, a point can be expressed with respect to a parameter as
Non-parametric representation is the conventional representation as
Ex. Non-parametric form of a circle: x^2+y^2=r^2, parametric form: 1. This form
can be used to find slopes at a certain angle for example.
PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF ANALYTIC CURVES
The following list shows most of the analytic curve that are used in CAD/CAM
system for part design and modeling.
es
LINE AND CIRCLE
A line between two points P1 and P2 can be expressed with respect to a parameter.
Ac
ircle for a center and the radius can be written as 22 EL
An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed
as.
PARABOLA
A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate
system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given
by An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be
expressed as.
PARABOLA
A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate
system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given
by An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be
expressed as.
PARABOLA
A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate sy
System with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given
by When the parabola is inclined at an angle θ relative to global x-axis, the
equation for the parabola is given by
Problem 1: Determine the equation above for given three points, p1(5,10), p2(3,4),
and p3(12,1). The parabola is inclines at an angle of 30orelative to global x-axis.
Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from *5 to 5.

Pπ(5.503. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -5 to 5. lines. θ = 0. The solutions and the graph are √. Pπ is the vertex of the parabola.√. and P2(12. is the vertex of the hyperbola. Pπ(5. p2(3.4).881.372.543. the equation for the parabola is given by Problem 1: Determine the equation above for given three points. The solutions and the graph are √. and p3(12.10).10). the equations to solve become 24 Solving these equations for A. P1(3.√ Problem 2: Determine the parabola for given three points .This is a set of nonlinear equations.1). Pπ is the vertex of the parabola.372.√ Problem 2: Determine the parabola for given three points . and hyperbolas. θ.835 A hyperbola with the center (xy.√. u1 = -4. and u2 = -2. and P2(12.1). the equations to solve become A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x1 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y1 – yy A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x2 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y2 – yy The solution is B = 0. and u2 = 3. circles. The general implicit nonparametric quadratic equation that describes the planar conic curve has five coefficients and naturally needs five conditions to complete it. the equations to solve become 24 23 When the parabola is inclined at an angle θ relative to global x-axis.464. u1. θ = -4. parabolas. Solution: Applying the six conditions (two for each point). P1(3. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -5 to 5. - z = zy 25 A hyperbola and its asymptotes Problem 3: Determine the hyperbola for given three points (2.4). p1(5. The graph of the curve is shown as 26 The most general form of planar quadratic curves is conic curves or conic sections that include the previously covered curves. xy) and the distance A and B in a plane z = zy in the figure below can be expressed as x = xy + A coshu y = yy + B sinhu. Solution: Applying the seven conditions (two for each point).10).4). u1 = 2881. ellipses. and A=1. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from *5 to 5. Solution: Applying the six conditions (two for each point).1). Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -2 to 2. and u2 yields the solutions as A = 0.1). The parabola is inclines at an angle of 30orelative to global x-axis. . This is a set of nonlinear equations.

A COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING system uses CAD-generated data to create the code needed to operate a CNC machine. or optimization of a design. which includes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software. It lets users define part geometry and set machining strategies. Benefits of CAD. analysis. L3 = 0. geometry-oriented CAM systems lean toward the geometric aspects of manufacturing engineering. modification. In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation (MDA) or computer-aided design (CAD).principles of computer graphics. aptly called CAD/CAM systems. improve communications through documentation. users can easily transfer CAD data to the CAM system without worrying about translation errors or other difficulties. Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation.The conic parametric equation can be described if five conditions are specified appropriately. And finally. The two basic types of CAM system s are process-oriented and geometry-oriented. L2 = 0. and to create a database for manufacturing. some integrated systems provide full associativity. These CAD/CAM packages deliver many advantages. For starters. CAD/CAM Many CAD vendors market fully integrated CAM systems. Programming and interface hardware – computer aided process monitoring . Product cycle Computer Aided Design. Process-oriented CAM systems are geared toward the process part of manufacturing engineering. or other manufacturing operations. One case is specifying five points on the curve. which includes the effective use of tooling and machining operations. including complex part geometries. and running process details through geometric conditions. advantageous tool changes and the management of complex processes. Computer-aided design is used in many fields. improve the quality of design.adaptive control. they feature a common user interface that allows CAD operators to quickly learn the software. CAD/CAM data base development and data base management systems. machining. In contrast. Basic concepts of CAD . . Its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation. CAM software facilitates the programming of machine tools. L1 = 0. on-line search strategies. L4 = 0 L1L2 = 0.CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer. create and confirm toolpaths. L3L4 = 0 L1L2 + a L3L4 = 0 1 UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO CAD/CAM The design process Morphology of design. Moreover. or EDA. and share programming data with other shop-floor machines.CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print. which means 2 that any modification to the CAD model will prompt the associated toolpath to be automatically updated. sizeable CAD models.

can be put on paper using printers or plotters. However. Parts of drawings can be saved and used in other drawings. Increase Programming Potential. you can open up possibilities for your business that may not have been there before.Computer Aided Design (CAD) has completely changed the drafting business and made the storage and retrieval of projects much easier. By adding CAD-CAM software to your CNC toolkit. Absolute accuracy can be maintained. with the click of a button. 3 . A CAD-CAM system completely automates the process. The images are displayed on the PC screen and. top advantages to adding CAD-CAM software 1. Eliminates the need for full size set outs. Dimensioning is almost automatic. Both two and three dimensional drawings can be produced. Everything you learn about manual drawing technique applies to CAD/CAM drawing development. An example of this is gaining the ability to take on harder. more complex 3 Axis machining jobs. CAD-CAM can help a shop manage and create toolpath and NC programs for complex machining projects such as mold work. All drawing is done full size. Drawings are stored on disk rather than in a bulky folder. These types of jobs are next to impossible to calculate by hand or even through using machine canned cycles. manual drawing is still very important and provides the basics of learning to draw. Some of the advantages of CAD over manual drawing are: No need for scaling. The screen drawing area can be set to any size with the click of a button work is copied and stored off the computer for security – you may never lose your work again! All of the tools needed are supplied by the program. Production details can be extracted directly from the drawing.

High-speed toolpaths allow you to improve the quality of cutting by eliminating the stop and go actions that traditional offset toolpath creates. work coordinates. choosing toolpath styles. Getting The Most Out of Your CNC Machine Tool. 4. copying and pasting machining operations. 3. setup the toolpath for machining and perform simulations that provide valuable information for you in the quoting process such as the calculation of cycle times. choosing compensation settings as well as many other important parameters that have to do with creating machine toolpath. By having a CAD-CAM software product in your shop. The rounded more circular cutting motions at higher speeds allo w a constant tool engagement with the material. You will be able to open CAD files easily. Makes You More Accessible by Clients. Wizards allow new programmers to be successful faster while still providing advanced programmers with the utilities and confidence to program error free parts regardless of their complexity. CAD-CAM software provides high-speed machine toolpaths that deliver a host of benefits that all equal up to reduced cycle times. material and tooling as well as access to machining operations that determine how the part will be machined as well as the output of the NC Program. all of the toolpaths are updated and much more. less tool wear and a reduction in machine wear and tear over the long term. 4 . Machining Wizards Remove The Guesswork. reordering how the job is sequenced. Machining wizards remove the guesswork from programming as they step the operator through the process of setting cutting depths. This has a lot to do with technological advancements in CNC machining and in CAD-CAM software. stock. Improved Control Over Job Programming. you can receive CAD models from clients faster and easier than ever before. 5. managing cutter lead-ins and lead- outs. Higher control capabilities lead to perfectly finished parts being completed faster. toolpath associativity so that if a CAD edit is made to the part.2. Manufacturing can deliver products to market faster and more affordable than ever before. The CAM Tree has many built in benefits such as saving and loading machining templates. CAD-CAM provides the automation required to maximize programming efficiency. You have full control over post processing. Modern CAD-CAM functionality includes a CAM Tree Manager that allows you to track the job from beginning to end. test and simulate as well as machine faster than ever. selecting tools. manage projects. The software allows users to design faster.

which is critical when programming these types of parts to visually inspect the machining process before an r reaches t he machine. These types applications require the ability to turn a picture into a 3D relief model that can be machined in a variety of ways. In addition. Simultaneous 4 and 5 Axis CNC machining can be the most difficult to create NC programs for. This allows existing CAD users to create the necessary machining for the part. These industries have to then be able to create these programs to me machined on a CNC Mill or Router in 2. simulate everything and create the NC programs for them. Some CAD-CAM providers have teamed up with highly popular CAD vendors such as SolidWorks® to create powerful CAM machining modules that integrate into the CAD software as a plug-in. the latest releases of BobCAD-CAM provide Dynamic Machining Strategies™ allowing the programmer to apply multiple roughing and finishing operations to a single CAD feature. Simulation also provides detailed information about the toolpath. CAD-CAM software provides the solutions to make these types of CNC jobs much easier than ever before.deeper cuts and the ability to use more of the cutting tool itself. CAD-CAM software provides the ability create complex 3 Axis machine toolpath quickly and efficiently. Higher levels of simulation will allow you to use your machines kinematics to simulate machining with the actual machine tool visually. Eliminate Costly Mistakes & Waste. Seamless Integration with Popular CAD Design Products. 5 9. This alone makes adding a CAD-CAM product to the shop a good decision. catch costly tool gouges and collisions before they reach the CNC machine. 8. This also includes the ability to turn a picture into 2D profiles that can be used for engraving. CAM systems can also provide full 4 & 5 Axis simulation. cycle times. part deviation analysis. as the CAD users do not have to . the ability to create simulation presentations and much more. pocket milling and profile milling. 6. Multiaxis CAM Technology Makes Complex Machining Simple and Cost Effective. Without a CAD-CAM system this level of CNC programming is nearly impossible. Simulation allows you to visually inspect the machining process. Some even require 5 Axis CNC programming capabilities. Artistic CAD-CAM technology has evolved to support a wide range of custom applications. SWARF and undercutting type toolpath strategies as well as 3+2 programming. semi-finishing and then multiple finishing toolpath strategies. CAD-CAM software provides powerful simulation features. Turn Art Into CNC Programs & Finished Parts Easily. This starts with 4th Axis indexing and rotary machining jobs that require toolpath and special post processing that only a CAM system can offer. This is highly beneficial. Posting can even be customized by the operator with a little training for a wide variety of 4 and 5 Axis machines. 7. Full 5 axis toolpaths include surface-based machining operations that accommodate port milling. programming complex parts is practically impossible as often time there are multiple toolpaths required from advanced roughing. High speed machining can improve CNC machine productivity by as much as 50%. Powerful 3 Axis CNC Programming Operations. Without CAD-CAM. 10. Work holding can also be modeled and added to simulation to complete the visual inspection of the part being mach ined as well as everything else involved. Two of these specialized industries would be the custom woodworking and jewelry making industry. 3 and 4 Axis.

Presentation: Make the final drawing of the design by mentioning its material. including schemes for organizing data. For the product that has been designed using the CAD software on computer. BASIC D ESIGN PROCESS need: When someone realizes that problem exists. Evaluation of design: Measure and test the design as specified in the problem definition phase. This ch apter hence is devoted to the organization of data. and if some shortcomings are there. for which a product can be designed. 7 Data ba The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. Thus in the integrated CAD/CAM system the two processes of designing and manufacturing are combine d together. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways. Just like computer aided designing (CAD) we have concept ofcomputer aided manufacturing (CAM). It also includes additional data required for the manufacturing purposes. This process will go on till the designed is optimized. There is no time gap between the two processes and there is no duplication of efforts required on the parts of designer and the production personnel. This includes the cost. Tests are to be conducted on prototype model. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways. CAD/CAM Database With the advent of the CAD and CAM software there has been integration of designing and manufacturing processes. This ch nagement The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere. Synthesis: Each subsystem of the designed is thoroughly conceptualized and analyzed.completely re-learn a new CAD-CAM system. It includes all the data about the product generated during design like shape and dimensions. All the data from the CAD systems can be directly used for the CAM systems. a CAD Designer can acquire more value and seek more clients for being a full service design and programming facility. operating performance and characteristics functions. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere. size and assembly list. material specifications etc. Define the problem: Specify the item to be designed. 8 A major problem to be solved to implement CIM has always been that of distributing information among different . This ch nagement The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways. standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. improve this with the help of software like CAD. The database created by the integration of CAD/CAM is also called as manufacturing database. standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. bill of materials and part lists. By going this way. Typically CAM products that plug-in to CAD systems can be easier to learn and use after some training. they only need to learn the machining side. Analysis and optimization: The product is redesigned and analyzed again and again. On its part CAD enables automation of designing. standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. while CAM enables automation of manufacturing processes. including schemes for organizing data. CAD software enables direct link between CAD and CAM. The combination of CAD and CAM enables automated transitionfrom designing to manufacturing. all the process planning and management of the manufacturing operations for the manufacture of the product can be done by the computer systems. It means a database of the design is created for manufacturing. including schemes for organizing data.

His functions include: • Creating the primary database structure • Backing up and restoring data in case of crash • Modifying the structure • Transfer data to external files • Allocate and control user access rights • Monitoring performance COMPARISON OF DATABASE AND TRADITIONAL FILE SYSTEMS File system represents a tight coupling between physical data and user’s program. • Search the database for types of information. must be appropriate. Database management involves: • Organize a database. 9 . Joining those islands into an effective CIM enterprise requires proper methods of processing information. FEATURES OF A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A database management system consists of a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access that data. Information. • Edit the data. • Print the data into formatted reports. if it is to be useful. • Add new data to the database. Most of the indispensable facilities of DBMS of are. DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR The person responsible for managing the database is often referred to as database administrator. machine-interpretable. and available when and where it is needed.computer based systems. • Delete the data. As indicated in earlier chapters CIM is typically integration of islands of computer aided functions running on different computers using different databases. therefore forced to be ab sorbed by user’s program. • Sort the data in some meaningful order. They lack almost all the flexibilities offered by DBMS.

In other words besides the logic of the application the user has to provide logic for constructing .

Use of computer graphics has opened up tremendous possibilities for the designer. The tight coupling and interdependence of between a user’s application and the physical data would not allow sharing of the same data by other applications that may need to view and manipulate them differently. axon ometric or perspective projections into simple viewing transformations. Rigidity iii. Lack of integration v. reflection. Data dependence ii. PRINCIPLES OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS Traditionally drawings are prepared on plane drawing sheets. Inability to handle ado requests. Data duplication vi. Though the depth can be represented by pictorial projections like isometric and perspective projections. The sketches have to be made only in two dimensions. The following list summarizes the problems of file systems that can be overcome by DBMS. has to interpret the operations on the logical view and translate them in to the primitive file operations. • The mathematical representation reduces creation of views like orthographic. Y and Z). the projections have to be necessarily reduced to two dimensions. Inconsistency vii. File systems lack dynamism in the sense that the application programs are designed. i. Difficulty in sharing information viii. This then forces the data to be duplicated among various applications. coded. and has to be responsible for maintaining the files that store the physical data. Some of them are listed below: • The object is represented by its geometric model in three dimensions (X. Some of them are listed below: Use of computer graphics has opened up tremendous possibilities for the designer. 10 • Thou rotation. GEOMETRIC MODELING Types of Curves and Their Mathematical Representation Types of Surfaces and Their Mathematical Representation Types of Solids and Their Mathematical Representation CAD/CAM Data Exchange TYPES OF CURVES AND THEIR MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATIONS Wireframe Model ( 2D in 1960s for drafting.the logical view of data. 3D in 1970s) Wireframe Entities s and Bezier curves) . Inefficiency ix. isometric. This has several limitations. debugged. Static nature iv. and catalogued ahead of time for the preconceived requests and applications. shearing and zooming.