d the ability to use more of the cutting tool itself.

High speed machining can improve CNC machine
productivity by as much as 50%. 6. Eliminate Costly Mistakes & Waste. CAD-CAM software
provides powerful simulation features. Simulation allows you to visually inspect the machining
process, catch costly tool gouges and collisions before they reach the CNC machine. This alone
makes adding a CAD-CAM product to the shop a good decision. Simulation also provides detailed
information about the toolpath, cycle times, part deviation analysis, the ability to create simulation
presentations and much more. Higher levels of simulation will allow you to use your machines
kinematics to simulate machining with the actual machine tool visually.
Work holding can also be modeled and added to simulation to complete the visual inspection of the
part being mach
ined as well as everything else involved.
7. Powerful 3 Axis CNC Programming Operations.

CAD-CAM software provides the ability create complex 3 Axis machine toolpath quickly and
efficiently. Without CAD-CAM, programming complex parts is practically impossible as often time
there are multiple toolpaths required from advanced roughing, semi-finishing and then multiple
finishing toolpath strategies. In addition, the latest releases of BobCAD-CAM provide Dynamic
Machining Strategies™ allowing the programmer to apply multiple roughing and finishing
operations to a single CAD feature.
8. Multiaxis CAM Technology Makes Complex Machining Simple and Cost Effective.

Simultaneous 4 and 5 Axis CNC machining can be the most difficult to create NC programs for.
CAD-CAM software provides the solutions to make these types of CNC jobs much easier than ever
before. This starts with 4th Axis indexing and rotary machining jobs that require toolpath and special
post processing that only a CAM system can offer. Posting can even be customized by the operator
with a little training for a wide variety of 4 and 5 Axis machines. Full 5 axis toolpaths include
surface-based machining operations that accommodate port milling, SWARF and undercutting type
toolpath strategies as well as 3+2 programming. Without a CAD-CAM system this level of CNC
programming is nearly impossible. CAM systems can also provide full 4 & 5 Axis simulation, which
is critical when programming these types of parts to visually inspect the machining process before an
r reaches t
he machine. 5
9. Turn Art Into CNC Programs & Finished Parts Easily. Artistic CAD-CAM technology has
evolved to support a wide range of custom applications. Two of these specialized industries would be
the custom woodworking and jewelry making industry. These types applications require the ability to
turn a picture into a 3D relief model that can be machined in a variety of ways. This also includes the
ability to turn a picture into 2D profiles that can be used for engraving, pocket milling and profile
milling. These industries have to then be able to create these programs to me machined on a CNC
Mill or Router in 2, 3 and 4 Axis. Some even require 5 Axis CNC programming capabilities.
10. Seamless Integration with Popular CAD Design Products.

Some CAD-CAM providers have teamed up with highly popular CAD vendors such as SolidWorks®
to create powerful CAM machining modules that integrate into the CAD software as a plug-in. This
allows existing CAD users to create the necessary machining for the part, simulate everything and
create the NC programs for them. This is highly beneficial, as the CAD users do not have to
completely re-learn a new CAD-CAM system; they only need to learn the machining side. By going
this way, a CAD Designer can acquire more value and seek more clients for being a full service
design and programming facility. Typically CAM products that plug-in to CAD systems can be
easier to learn and use after some training.

Synthesis: Each subsystem of the designed is thoroughly conceptualized and analyzed. For the product that has been designed using the CAD software on computer. including schemes for organizing data. This ch apter hence is devoted to the organization of data. There is no time gap between the two processes and there is no duplication of efforts required on the parts of designer and the production personnel. Tests are to be conducted on prototype model. . and if some shortcomings are ther e. On its part CAD enables automation of designing. standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. Analysis and optimization: The product is redesigned and analyzed again and again. This process will go on till the designed is optimized. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere. standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways. including schemes for organizing data. including schemes for organizing data. improve this with the help of software like CAD. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways. All the data from the CAD systems can be directly used for the CAM systems. This ch nagement The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. CAD/CAM Database With the advent of the CAD and CAM software there has been integration of designing and manufacturing processes. all the process planning and management of the manufacturing operations for the manufacture of the product can be done by the computer systems. material specifications etc. This ch nagement The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. bill of materials and part lists. CAD software enables direct link between CAD and CAM. operating performance and characteristics functions. Presentation: Make the final drawing of the design by mentioning its material. for which a product can be designed. It means a database of the design is created for manufacturing. Define the problem: Specify the item to be designed. It includes all the data about the product generated during design like shape and dimensions. standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. 7 Data ba The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere.BASIC D ESIGN PROCESS need: When someone realizes that problem exists. The combination of CAD and CAM enables automated transitionfrom designing to manufacturing. Thus in the integrated CAD/CAM system the two processes of designing and manufacturing are combine d together. while CAM enables automation of manufacturing processes. The database created by the integration of CAD/CAM is also called as manufacturing database. It also includes additional data required for the manufacturing purposes. size and assembly list. As indicated in earlier chapters CIM is typically integration of islands of computer aided functions running on different computers using different databases. 8 A major problem to be solved to impleme nt CIM has always been that of distributing information among different computer based systems. Just like computer aided designing (CAD) we have concept ofcomputer aided manufacturing (CAM). Evaluation of design: Measure and test the design as specified in the problem definition phase. This includes the cost.

Information. therefore forced to be ab sorbed by user’s program. The following list summarizes the problems of file systems that can be overcome by DBMS. DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR The person responsible for managing the database is often referred to as database administrator. • Search the database for types of information. must be appropriate. and catalogued ahead of time for the preconceived requests and applications. • Sort the data in some meaningful order. Difficulty in sharing information . Database management involves: • Organize a database. Inconsistency vii. His functions include: • Creating the primary database structure • Backing up and restoring data in case of crash • Modifying the structure • Transfer data to external files • Allocate and control user access rights • Monitoring performance COMPARISON OF DATABASE AND TRADITIONAL FILE SYSTEMS File system represents a tight coupling between physical data and user’s program. This then forces the data to be duplicated among various applications. i. and has to be responsible for maintaining the files that store the physical data. They lack almost all the flexibilities offered by DBMS. and available when and where it is needed. FEATURES OF A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A database management system consists of a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access that data. Rigidity iii. debugged. • Delete the data. Lack of integration v. • Print the data into formatted reports. File systems lack dynamism in the sense that the application programs are designed. machine-interpretable. if it is to be useful. 9 In other words besid es the logic of the application the user has to provide logic for constructing the logical view of data. Data duplication vi. coded. Static nature iv.Joining those islands into an effective CIM enterprise requires proper methods of processing information. Most of the indispensable facilities of DBMS of are. • Edit the data. The tight coupling and interdependence of between a user’s application and the physical data would not allow sharing of the same data by other applications that may need to view and manipulate them differently. • Add new data to the database. has to interpret the operations on the logical view and translate them in to the primitive file operations. Data dependence ii.

Though the depth can be represented by pictorial projections like isometric and perspective projections. PRINCIPLES OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS Traditionally drawings are prepared on plane drawing sheets. Some of them are listed below: • The object is represented by its geometric model in three dimensions (X. two conjugate diameters). or perpendicular to a line. The sketches have to be made only in two dimensions. parametric form: 1. This form can be used to find slopes at a certain angle for example. a radius and tangent to a line passing through a point. end points of existing entity. Inability to handle ado requests. ter and axes lengths. Curve Representation: Two types of representation are parametric and non-parametric representation.. shearing and zooming. For example. center point. intersection of two entities. 10 • Thou rotation. parabola (vertex and foc lopes). Non-parametric form of a circle: x^2+y^2=r^2. Use of computer graphics has opened up tremendous possibilities for the designer.e. GEOMETRIC MODELING Types of Curves and Their Mathematical Representation Types of Surfaces and Their Mathematical Representation Types of Solids and Their Mathematical Representation CAD/CAM Data Exchange TYPES OF CURVES AND THEIR MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATIONS Wireframe Model ( 2D in 1960s for drafting. Some of them are listed below: Use of computer graphics has opened up tremendous possibilities for the designer. es LINE AND CIRCLE . four points. isometric. a point can be expressed with respect to a parameter as Non-parametric representation is the conventional representation as Ex. the projections have to be necessarily reduced to two dimensions. coordinates) are expressed in terms of common parameters. axon ometric or perspective projections into simple viewing transformations. PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF ANALYTIC CURVES The following list shows most of the analytic curve that are used in CAD/CAM system for part design and modeling. B-spline curves (interpolate a set of data points with local control possible). reflection. Y and Z). In parametric representation all variables (i. tangent to entity point. Bezier curves (a set of data points). • The mathematical representation reduces creation of views like orthographic. This has several limitations. 3D in 1970s) Wireframe Entities s and Bezier curves) …. Inefficiency ix.viii.

and p3(12. Pπ is the vertex of the parabola. Solution: Applying the six conditions (two for each point). P1(3. the equation for the parabola is given by Problem 1: Determine the equation above for given three points. Pπ is the vertex of the parabola.10). and P2(12.1).√. and P2(12. p2(3.√ Problem 2: Determine the parabola for given three points .10).4). Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -5 to 5.10). Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from *5 to 5. Pπ(5.4). Ac ircle for a center and the radius can be written as 22 EL An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed as.√ Problem 2: Determine the parabola for given three points .A line between two points P1 and P2 can be expressed with respect to a parameter. P1(3.4).4). Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -5 to 5. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from *5 to 5. PARABOLA A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given by An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed as. the equations to solve become 24 23 When the parabola is inclined at an angle θ relative to global x-axis. the equation for the parabola is given by Problem 1: Determine the equation above for given three points. p1(5. The parabola is inclines at an angle of 30orelative to global x-axis. The solutions and the graph are √. PARABOLA A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given by An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed as. The solutions and the graph are √.1). . and p3(12. p2(3.10).1). Pπ(5.√. This is a set of nonlinear equations. PARABOLA A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate sy System with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given by When the parabola is inclined at an angle θ relative to global x-axis. p1(5. The parabola is inclines at an angle of 30orelative to global x-axis. This is a set of nonlinear equations.1).

circles.543.835 A hyperbola with the center (xy.503. Solution: Applying the seven conditions (two for each point). θ. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -2 to 2. L1 = 0.adaptive control. parabolas. One case is specifying five points on the curve. the equations to solve become A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x1 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y1 – yy A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x2 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y2 – yy The solution is B = 0. xy) and the distance A and B in a plane z = zy in the figure below can be expressed as x = xy + A coshu y = yy + B sinhu. θ = -4.372. ellipses. The graph of the curve is shown as 26 The most general form of planar quadratic curves is conic curves or conic sections that include the previously covered curves. The general implicit nonparametric quadratic equation that describes the planar conic curve has five coefficients and naturally needs five conditions to complete it.464. and A=1. u1. L2 = 0. and u2 yields the solutions as A = 0. on-line search strategies.881. and u2 = -2. Programming and interface hardware – computer aided process monitoring .Solution: Applying the six conditions (two for each point). L3 = 0. - z = zy 25 A hyperbola and its asymptotes Problem 3: Determine the hyperbola for given three points (2. L3L4 = 0 L1L2 + a L3L4 = 0 1 UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO CAD/CAM The design process Morphology of design. u1 = 2881. . Basic concepts of CAD . u1 = -4. The conic parametric equation can be described if five conditions are specified appropriately.372. CAD/CAM data base development and data base management systems. the equations to solve become 24 Solving these equations for A. Product cycle Computer Aided Design.1). Benefits of CAD. is the vertex of the hyperbola. θ = 0. and u2 = 3. L4 = 0 L1L2 = 0. lines.principles of computer graphics. and hyperbolas.

Process-oriented CAM systems are geared toward the process part of manufacturing engineering. Dimensioning is almost automatic. they feature a common user interface that allows CAD operators to quickly learn the software. And finally. analysis. or other manufacturing operations. and running process details through geometric conditions. Both two and three dimensional drawings can be produced. Computer-aided design is used in many fields.CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print. Parts of drawings can be saved and used in other drawings. For starters. and share programming data with other shop-floor machines. sizeable CAD models. and to create a database for manufacturing. The screen drawing area can be set to any size with the click of a button work is copied and stored off the computer for security – you may never lose your work again! All of the tools needed are supplied by the program. or optimization of a design. improve the quality of design. These CAD/CAM packages deliver many advantages. Drawings are stored on disk rather than in a bulky folder. or EDA. which includes the effective use of tooling and machining operations. The two basic types of CAM system s are process-oriented and geometry-oriented. Absolute accuracy can be maintained. All drawing is done full size. users can easily transfer CAD data to the CAM system without worrying about translation errors or other difficulties. which means 2 that any modification to the CAD model will prompt the associated toolpath to be automatically updated. CAM software facilitates the programming of machine tools. machining. advantageous tool changes and the management of complex processes. In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation (MDA) or computer-aided design (CAD). improve communications through documentation. . A COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING system uses CAD-generated data to create the code needed to operate a CNC machine. manual drawing is still very important and provides the basics of learning to draw. some integrated systems provide full associativity. Eliminates the need for full size set outs. Some of the advantages of CAD over manual drawing are: No need for scaling. However. which includes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software. Everything you learn about manual drawing technique applies to CAD/CAM drawing development. It lets users define part geometry and set machining strategies. modification. Its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation. including complex part geometries. geometry-oriented CAM systems lean toward the geometric aspects of manufacturing engineering. The images are displayed on the PC screen and. In contrast.CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer. create and confirm toolpaths. Production details can be extracted directly from the drawing. Computer Aided Design (CAD) has completely changed the drafting business and made the storage and retrieval of projects much easier. can be put on paper using printers or plotters. CAD/CAM Many CAD vendors market fully integrated CAM systems. with the click of a button. Moreover. aptly called CAD/CAM systems.Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation.

A CAD-CAM system completely automates the process. more complex 3 Axis machining jobs. you can open up possibilities for your business that may not have been there before. Increase Programming Potential. By adding CAD-CAM software to your CNC toolkit. These types of jobs are next to impossible to calculate by hand or even through using machine canned cycles. An example of this is gaining the ability to take on harder. 3 .top advantages to adding CAD-CAM software 1. CAD-CAM can help a shop manage and create toolpath and NC programs for complex machining projects such as mold work.

Manufacturing can deliver products to market faster and more affordable than ever before.2. all of the toolpaths are updated and much more. Getting The Most Out of Your CNC Machine Tool. work coordinates. By having a CAD-CAM software product in your shop. copying and pasting machining operations. managing cutter lead-ins and lead- outs. material and tooling as well as access to machining operations that determine how the part will be machined as well as the output of the NC Program. CAD-CAM software provides high-speed machine toolpaths that deliver a host of benefits that all equal up to reduced cycle times. 5. less tool wear and a reduction in machine wear and tear over the long term. choosing toolpath styles. test and simulate as well as machine faster than ever. Makes You More Accessible by Clients. toolpath associativity so that if a CAD edit is made to the part. You have full control over post processing. CAD-CAM provides the automation required to maximize programming efficiency. This has a lot to do with technological advancements in CNC machining and in CAD-CAM software. The software allows users to design faster. The rounded more circular cutting motions at higher speeds allo w a constant tool engagement with the material. selecting tools. stock. Machining Wizards Remove The Guesswork. 4. The CAM Tree has many built in benefits such as saving and loading machining templates. High-speed toolpaths allow you to improve the quality of cutting by eliminating the stop and go actions that traditional offset toolpath creates. you can receive CAD models from clients faster and easier than ever before. Improved Control Over Job Programming. Higher control capabilities lead to perfectly finished parts being completed faster. Machining wizards remove the guesswork from programming as they step the operator through the process of setting cutting depths. manage projects. reordering how the job is sequenced. Modern CAD-CAM functionality includes a CAM Tree Manager that allows you to track the job from beginning to end. setup the toolpath for machining and perform simulations that provide valuable information for you in the quoting process such as the calculation of cycle times. choosing compensation settings as well as many other important parameters that have to do with creating machine toolpath. 3. You will be able to open CAD files easily. Wizards allow new programmers to be successful faster while still providing advanced programmers with the utilities and confidence to program error free parts regardless of their complexity. 4 .

deeper cuts an .