You are on page 1of 16

Liston College

English Achievement Standard 90856 (1.11)

3 credits

Show understanding of visual and/or oral text(s) through


close viewing and/or listening, using supporting evidence

Planning booklet 2017


Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence

Show understanding of visual Show convincing understanding of Show perceptive understanding of


and/or oral text(s), through close visual and/or oral text(s), through visual and/or oral text(s), through
viewing and/or listening, using close viewing and/or listening, using close viewing and/or listening, using
supporting evidence. supporting evidence. supporting evidence.

Instructions:

1. Select a short section of the film studied in class that is significant in terms of theme or idea.

2. Complete an annotated storyboard of your chosen scene. Be as detailed as possible. The quality of
your drawing is not assessed.

3. Complete the table analysing specific film techniques from your scene and how they are used to
develop a theme or idea.

4. Select at least four of the techniques you used in task three that clearly illustrate your chosen
theme/idea.

5. Using the information gathered in tasks two and three, write a structured essay explaining how at
least four techniques work to develop your understanding of a theme/idea in the text. You must
have specific examples to support your points and clearly show understanding of the purpose of
these techniques. You will be assessed on the perceptiveness of your understanding and your selection of
supporting evidence.

Due Date: Friday September 15 2017


______
__________________________________
__________________________________________
___________________
_____________________
___________________ _____________________

TITLE:_________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________
__________________________________________
___________________
_____________________
___________________ _____________________
Technique Eg. dialogue, Example / supporting evidence Theme / idea Directors purpose
costume, setting, camera for your explanation. reflected in the use of Why has the director
angle/shot, body language. this technique. impact
The predominant colour of the light This helps the audience u
in the scene in Dennys room is time of the film, but rath
Lighting yellow and because the characters Coming-of-age of Gordies relationship w
are partially back-lit from the longer alive and how his
window behind them, it creates a loss. Hes been made to g
hazy effect.
Denny is physically affectionate This further demonstrate
with his younger brother, hugging close bond they share. It
him and giving him his full, positive Dennys passing, particul
Body Language attention while talking to him. Brotherhood body language of his fath
Gordies body language is also We see how much Gordi
focused on enjoying the attention
from his brother and his positive
words.
Both the brothers are seen in the The focus is on their rela
frame as they talk on the bed, with to see each brother from
Mid two-shot the camera cutting between the Brotherhood closeness. We see that th
POV of one character to the other, mutual bond of brotherly
whilst maintaining both of them in
the frame.

The use of a flashback scene shows This scene highlights tha


the viewer one of the reasons why of a loved one at a young
Gordie is at times a melancholy mature to come-of-age
Flashback character. We see how the loss of Coming-of-age
his brother is very recent and raw
for Gordie; its still very fresh in his
mind and he treasures the loving
memories he has of his brother.
Technique e.g. dialogue, Example / supporting evidence Theme / idea Directors purpose
costume, setting, camera for your explanation. reflected in the use of Why has the director
angle/shot, body language, this technique. impact
diegetic and non-diegetic
sound, special effects etc..
Plan your essay here.

STAGA Introduction:

Title and Director:

Description of scene:

Theme(s):

Techniques:

PEEL Paragraph #1:

POINT (technique):

eXplanation (how it shows theme):

EXample:

Interpretation (directors purpose):

LINK to Point of paragraph or Essay Topic (this shows us that/this links to etc)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

PEEL Paragraph #2:

POINT (technique):

eXplanation (how it shows theme):

EXample:

Interpretation (directors purpose):


LINK to Point of paragraph or Essay Topic (this shows us that/this links to etc)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

PEEL paragraph #3

POINT (technique):

eXplanation (how it shows theme):

EXample:

Interpretation (directors purpose):

LINK to Point of paragraph or Essay Topic (this shows us that/this links to etc)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Concluding Paragraph: MAT main points/author (director)/title

Summary of your points from the essay (theme(s) and techniques):

Purpose of this scene:


Evidence/Judgements for Achievement Evidence/Judgements for achievement with Evidence/Judgements for achievement with
Merit Excellence
The student shows understanding of visual text by: The student shows convincing understanding of The student shows perceptive understanding of visual
identifying and explaining four (or more) text visual text by: text by:
aspects in terms of the meanings and effects identifying and explaining how four (or more) text identifying and explaining how four (or more) text
created aspects work together to create meaning aspects work together to communicate ideas about
supporting their explanation of each aspect with supporting their explanation of each aspect with the text in relation to the writers purpose as well as
specific and relevant details from the text. specific and relevant details from the text. wider contexts, such as human experience, society
and the wider world
Text aspects include: Text aspects include the following:
supporting their explanation of each aspect with
purposes and audiences purposes and audiences specific and relevant details from the text.
ideas (e.g. notable or major themes, attitudes, ideas (e.g. notable or major themes, attitudes, Text aspects include the following:
beliefs, experiences, feelings, insights, meanings, beliefs, experiences, feelings, insights, meanings,
opinions, thoughts, and understandings within the opinions, thoughts, and understandings within the purposes and audiences
text) text) ideas (e.g. notable or major themes, attitudes,
language features and structures (e.g. part text, language features and structures (e.g. part text, beliefs, experiences, feelings, insights, meanings,
whole text, narrative) whole text, narrative) opinions, thoughts, and understandings within the
text)
text conventions (appropriate oral and/or visual text conventions (appropriate oral and/or visual
conventions, e.g. camera shots/angles, rhetorical conventions, e.g. camera shots/angles, rhetorical language features and structures (e.g. part text,
devices/tripartite structures). devices/tripartite structures). whole text, narrative)

Responses may be presented in an appropriate oral, Responses may be presented in an appropriate oral, text conventions (appropriate oral and/or visual
visual, and/or written form. visual, and/or written form. conventions, e.g. camera shots/angles, rhetorical
devices/tripartite structures).
This example shows a good understanding of 4 This example shows convincing understanding of 4
significant aspects of a scene from Twilight: sound significant aspects of a scene from Twilight: set Responses may be presented in an appropriate oral,
effects, gesture and movement, camera shots and composition, make up, gesture and dialogue. Although visual, and/or written form.
makeup. In this extract, the introduction and the use of the connection between gesture, tension and the
sound effects and camera shots are explained. foreshadowing of Edward and Bellas relationship is This example shows perceptive understanding of how 4
perceptive, the understanding of the effects of the use significant aspects of a text (gesture, facial expression,
In the film Twilight the characters of Edward and Bella of dialogue and set composition and make-up do not sound effects and camera shots) communicate ideas
are introduced early in the film, the purpose of this sustain the perception. about the text in relation to the directors purpose. In this
scene is to hint at Edwards mysterious origins and extract, we see the students perceptive understanding of
the tension that foreshadows the relationship they will In this extract, the introduction and the use of set the use of camera shots and gesture. The explanations
develop. This shows us that the relationship that will composition and make-up working together are of facial expressions are precisely described for us
develop between these two characters will be very explained convincingly. (brooding): the answer moves from an understanding of
important throughout the movie. Sound effects, the directors intent, showing the tension Edward has
gesture and movement, camera shots and make up regarding Bella, to a convincing understanding
In the film Twilight directed by Kathryn Hardwicke,
are used by the director to show this. reinforce the disgust, to a perceptive understanding
Edward and Bella meet in a biology lab. In this scene
as well as introducing the mystery of the Cullens
Edward and Bella are forced to sit together. Kathryn
Sound effects are used to show the tension that Hardwicke uses set composition, gesture, dialogue, In the film Twilight directed by Kathryn Hardwicke, the
develops straightaway between Edward and Bella. All and make up to portray the mystery of Edwards character of Edward Cullen the vampire, is introduced to
you can hear in the scene is background noise of the origin, create the tension and awkwardness between us in a scene in a Biology lab. This scene is also where
teacher talking to the class. This shows the silence
between Edward and Bella as there was no dialogue the two protagonists meet for the first time. Hardwicke
in this scene. This shows that they felt very Edward and Bella and to introduce the idea of uses this scene to create tension between the
uncomfortable around each other. Edwards difference. protagonists to foreshadow the relationship they will
have. She uses four techniques to show this - gesture,
Camera shots are used to enhance the distance that Hardwicke uses set composition to introduce the facial expression, sound effects through lack of dialogue
Edward tries to put between him and Bella on the idea of Edward being otherworldly. In one shot, with and a prolonged series of camera shots.
small desk. The camera frame never has both Edward Edward beside the window, a stuffed owl is placed
and Bella in it. It always has only one of them and behind him so that it appears as though white wings Hardwicke uses gesture to show tension. The tension is
usually they had spaces next to Bella and Edward. are sticking out of his Edwards back. The wings are shown in Edwards hands as he moves a petri dish
white which makes him appear angelic. In this scene towards Bella, slowly and reluctantly, as he leans away
he is portrayed as a good rather than a bad guy. from her, hand over his nose. This very common reaction
However the make-up that Edward wears has a to something we feel is unpleasant has the effect of
different effect. It makes him look extremely pale with
showing the tension Edward has regarding Bella, and
dark under eyes The effect of this is that Edwards
mysterious origins are hinted at. His strange, also the disgust he feels towards her. Later In the movie
unfamiliar appearance sets him apart from everyone we realise that this scene shows his self-control at not
else, and causes confusion in our understanding of attacking Bella. Hardwicke also uses facial expression
him. when Bella moves upwind of Edward and in the close up
shots of his intense, brooding staring. These facial
expressions reinforce the disgust felt by Edward for
himself, for his desire for her blood. This disgust also
causes the viewer to wonder about his strange reaction
towards Bella, as well as introducing the mystery of the
Cullens. Later in the movie we remember this scene as it
foreshadows Edwards self-control and self-denial.

Final grades will be decided using professional judgment based on a holistic examination of the evidence provided against the criteria in the Achievement
Standard
The Language of Film
STRUCTURE OF A FILM

Shot
A single 'run' of the camera. This is the basic unit from which a film is constructed. The length (or duration)
of a shot depends upon:

a. its purpose i.e. establishing a place; to show action; to show reaction

b. the pace (or tempo) of the sequence in which it occurs.

Sequence
A group of shots depicting one action, or, which seems to belong with or depend upon each other. (Say 3
to 18 shots).

Scene
A group of sequences, or, for short scenes, a group of shots, which:

c. depict an event in the story and

d. occur in one place.

A scene is generally a larger unit than a sequence. Sometimes a group of shots can be classified as either.

TYPES OF SHOT

Long Shot [L.S.]


A distance shot in which a setting, and not a character, is the emphasis. this is generally used to establish
the place in which action will occur, hence the term establishing shot. Given its function, a long shot is
often used at the beginning of a scene or sequence, and may be combined with a panning movement of
the camera to show us a wider area.

Mid Shot [M.S.]


A middle distance shot that focuses our attention on a particular subject. With a mid shot the camera is
close enough to pick up detail, though still far enough away to be able to follow the subject as he/she/it
moves. The mid shot, therefore, is commonly used to show action e.g. as in a fight scene.

Close Up [C.U.]
A close shot of an object or person, the aim being to focus our attention on a particular detail. Close ups of
objects may serve as the inpoint to a new scene, depicting a new fact or location in the story. Close ups of
a person have a number of different functions:

a. in an establishing sequence a close up of someone suggests that he/she is a main character

b. the first close up of a character (in a sequence of shots), establishes point of view e.g. who is watching
an event

c. a close up is most commonly used to show the reaction of a character, i.e. a reaction shot.
CAMERA MOVEMENTS

Pan: Movement from side to side from a stationary position.

Tilt: Movement up or down from a stationary position.

Tracking: The camera is not stationary but moves to follow a moving object or person. The camera is
mounted on a moving device such as a rail platform, a dolly or a vehicle.

Zoom Out: Movement outwards away from a subject.

Note: The speed of a camera movement (from very fast to very slow) can dramatically alter its effect.

MOVING FROM ONE SHOT TO ANOTHER

Cut
The ending of a shot. If the cut is a jerky movement, which seems a little inconsistent with the next shot it
is called a jump cut.

Fade In or Out
The image appears or disappears gradually. It brightens to full strength over a full second, or darkens to
fade out. The fade is often used as a division between scenes.

Dissolve
One image fades in while another fades out so that for a few seconds the two are superimposed.

Inpoint
An image which starts the scene. Sometimes this inpoint is used to smooth the transition between scenes.
As the word suggests the inpoint takes us in to the next shot or scene by making a visual link (a related
object or shape) with the outpoint of the previous shot.

CAMERA ANGLES

In filming a shot a decision is made about the angle at which the camera is to be directed at a subject. High
and low angles may be used to influence our impression of a particular character.

A character filmed from a low angle will seem strong, powerful, tall, proud, etc... whereas if a high angle is
used the subject will appear weak, insignificant, vulnerable, small etc... Our impression of a structure or
object can be manipulated in a similar way.

A distorted angle may be used to make a scene more frightening, or to make the viewer feel anxious, or
queasy (especially if fast or jerky camera movement is also used).
EDITING

This is the process of assembling and splicing together the various shots which comprise a film. Underlying
the process is a technique which can be called pairing, i.e. a story is built up by alternating one set of shots
with another.

There are common instances of pairing:

a. A conversation or confrontation between two characters. The shots alternate from one to the other,
angles may be used to suggest inferiority or superiority.

b. Shots of a character are alternated with shots of what he/she sees. The first shot of the character is
the P.O.V. (It establishes point of view i.e. who is looking).

c. Cross-cutting. A sequence of shots in which the alternation is between two different locations (e.g. A
burglar creeping into a house in which an unsuspecting victim lies sleeping). The sequence builds to a
climax and ends with the two things coming together.

The Editing Speed (or tempo) of a particular sequence is also an important consideration. Fast editing
involves fast cutting, i.e. the shots are 1 to 2 seconds long. Fast editing generates excitement and
anticipation as for example in a chase sequence. Slow editing (i.e. Shots are 3 to 10 seconds long), has the
opposite effect, calming and relaxing the viewer. Accordingly slow editing is a characteristic of love scenes.

Montage
The editing together of a large number of shots with no intention to create a continuous reality. A montage
is often used to compress time (a number of facts are established in one sequence). Films may begin with a
montage which establishes a particular time and place. With the absence of a visual relationship between
them, the montage shots are linked through a unified sound - either a voiceover or a piece of music.

OTHER TERMS

Soft Focus
A slightly blurred shot to make the subject seem more attractive, romantic, nostalgic or dreamlike.

Hand Held Camera


The tripod and dolly are deliberately abandoned in favour of this method when a director wants to create a
sense of anxiety or confusion, exploiting the unsteady movement of the camera. A hand held shot in which
a character is approached from behind usually suggests that someone is being followed and is about to be
'pounced upon'.
Glossary of Film Terms

ambient sound background sound (not music): footsteps, bushes rustling FOLEY effects

aural bridge hearing the sound of the next shot before cutting to it - signals a transition

backlighting Light from behind a person or object, sometimes creating a halo effect.

body language The way our feelings are expressed through our body.

camera angle The angle at which the camera is pointed at a person or object (high, low, neutral
= eye-level). A camera tilted to one side so the horizon is on a slant is canted or
tilted (not to be confused with a tilt shot.]

close-up [C.U.] A camera shot that seems to bring us close to the person or object being filmed;
a shot of a persons face only is a close-up. + Extreme close-up [E.C.U.] or big
close-up [B.C.U.].

crane shot A shot taken from a crane (a kind of high angle shot).

cross-cutting The alternating of shots from two different sequences, often in different locales,
suggesting they are taking place at the same time.

cut The place where one shot as been spliced to another.

dissolve One image fades in while another fades out, so that they are superimposed for a
few moments.

dolly Any platform with wheels that allows the camera to be moved: dolly shot,
tracking or trucking shot.

editing The process of selecting, arranging and trimming the various shots to make up a
film.

establishing shot Usually a long-shot, it gives an overview of a scene so the audience is not
confused about what is happening and where.

flashback A return to a scene in the past. (A flash forward = a premonition of the future.)

genre A type of film (e.g. the western, sci-fi.).

long shot / L.S. A shot from a distance - it shows a person from head to foot, and perhaps more
than this.

medium (mid) [M.S.] A shot between a close-up and a long shot in the sense of closeness it
shot / M.S creates.

mise en scne Getting a scene together, the choices made about the details of the image; what
items will be in it, and how those items are to be presented.

over-shoulder A camera position often used in dialogue scenes.


shot

pan The movement of the camera when it swivels from left to right or right to left
point-of-view [POV shot] A shot in which the camera is associated with the eyes of a character
shot (this is what s/he sees).

reaction shot A shot that shows a persons reaction to what happened in the previous shot. (It
is known as a noddy if the person is merely nodding, like a television
interviewer!)

reverse angle A shot from the opposite side. When two people are talking, there is often a
shot and reverse shot alternation.

shot A film is made up of many different shots. During the shooting of a film, a shot
ends when the camera is turned off. Each shot involves a different camera set-
up.

sound effects Sounds other than words.

special effects Creating illusions by the use of trick photography, miniature models and various
.
[SFX] types of equipment. A bomb can explode; a flying saucer can appear etc, thanks
to SFX.

subjective shot A point of view shot, sometimes distorted to emphasise the characters state of
mind.

tilt shot The stationery camera starts at the top of an object/figure and scans down to
the bottom [TILT DOWN] or at the bottom and scans to the top [TILT UP]. Only
the lens moves; when the whole camera is lifted = crane shot.

tracking shot the camera moves on a dolly, enabling it to follow people who are moving
along.

two-shot A shot in which two people are shown (cameramen also speak of one-shot and
three-shot).

voice over [V.O.] Commentary by an unseen narrator.

wipe An optical effect in which one image appears to push the previous image off the
screen.

zoom A lens that can be adjusted from wide-angle to telephoto. Such a lens can
zoom in or zoom out (seem to move closer or further away from an object)

REMEMBER, IN YOUR ESSAY, THAT DIRECTORS USE THE TECHNIQUES


ABOVE TO MAKE A POINT. YOUR JOB IS TO IDENTIFY WHAT THEY ARE
TRYING TO TELL US (THE VIEWER) AND WHAT TECHNIQUES THEY HAVE
USED TO DO THIS. IDENTIFYING THE DIRECTORS PURPOSE IS CRUCIAL