ex part geometries, sizeable CAD models, and running process details through geometric conditions.

CAD/CAM Many CAD vendors market fully integrated CAM systems, aptly called CAD/CAM
systems. These CAD/CAM packages deliver many advantages. For starters, they feature a common
user interface that allows CAD operators to quickly learn the software. Moreover, users can easily
transfer CAD data to the CAM system without worrying about translation errors or other difficulties.
And finally, some integrated systems provide full
associativity, which means 2 that any modification to the CAD model will prompt the associated
toolpath to be automatically updated.
Computer Aided Design (CAD) has completely changed the drafting business and made the storage
and retrieval of projects much easier. However, manual drawing is still very important and provides
the basics of learning to draw.
Some of the advantages of CAD over manual drawing are:
No need for scaling. All drawing is done full size.
Both two and three dimensional drawings can be produced.
The screen drawing area can be set to any size with the click of a button
work is copied and stored off the computer for security – you may never lose your work again!
All of the tools needed are supplied by the program.
Drawings are stored on disk rather than in a bulky folder.
Absolute accuracy can be maintained.
Dimensioning is almost automatic.
Production details can be extracted directly from the drawing.
Parts of drawings can be saved and used in other drawings.
Eliminates the need for full size set outs.
Everything you learn about manual drawing technique applies to CAD/CAM drawing
development.
The images are displayed on the PC screen and, with the click of a button, can be put on paper
using printers or plotters.

top advantages to adding CAD-CAM software
1. Increase Programming Potential.

By adding CAD-CAM software to your CNC toolkit, you can open up possibilities for your business
that may not have been there before. An example of this is gaining the ability to take on harder, more
complex 3 Axis machining jobs. CAD-CAM can help a shop manage and create toolpath and NC
programs for complex machining projects such as mold work. These types of jobs are next to
impossible to calculate by hand or even through using machine canned cycles. A CAD-CAM system
completely auto
mates the process. 3 2. Makes You More Accessible by Clients. By having a CAD-CAM software
product in your shop, you can receive CAD models from clients faster and easier than ever before.
You will be able to open CAD files easily, setup the toolpath for machining and perform simulations
that provide valuable information for you in the quoting process such as the calculation of cycle
times. Manufacturing can deliver products to market faster and more affordable than ever before.
This has a lot to do with technological advancements in CNC machining and in CAD-CAM software.
The software allows users to design faster, manage projects, test and simulate as well as machine
faster than ever.
3. Improved Control Over Job Programming.

Modern CAD-CAM functionality includes a CAM Tree Manager that allows you to track the job
from beginning to end. You have full control over post processing, stock, work coordinates, material

Without CAD-CAM. selecting tools. Higher levels of simulation will allow you to use your machines kinematics to simulate machining with the actual machine tool visually. toolpath associativity so that if a CAD edit is made to the part. Simultaneous 4 and 5 Axis CNC machining can be the most difficult to create NC programs for. Full 5 axis toolpaths include . the latest releases of BobCAD-CAM provide Dynamic Machining Strategies™ allowing the programmer to apply multiple roughing and finishing operations to a single CAD feature. 6. CAD-CAM provides the automation required to maximize programming efficiency. part deviation analysis. all of the toolpaths are updated and much more. Machining Wizards Remove The Guesswork. Simulation allows you to visually inspect the machining process. choosing toolpath styles. High-speed toolpaths allow you to improve the quality of cutting by eliminating the stop and go actions that traditional offset toolpath creates. Multiaxis CAM Technology Makes Complex Machining Simple and Cost Effective. This starts with 4th Axis indexing and rotary machining jobs that require toolpath and special post processing that only a CAM system can offer. semi-finishing and then multiple finishing toolpath strategies. copying and pasting machining operations. Work holding can also be modeled and added to simulation to complete the visual inspection of the part being mach ined as well as everything else involved. Eliminate Costly Mistakes & Waste. managing cutter lead-ins and lead- outs. 4 deeper cuts an d the ability to use more of the cutting tool itself. CAD-CAM software provides the ability create complex 3 Axis machine toolpath quickly and efficiently. 8. cycle times. choosing compensation settings as well as many other important parameters that have to do with creating m achine toolpath. Simulation also provides detailed information about the toolpath. 4. CAD-CAM software provides powerful simulation features. Wizards allow new programmers to be successful faster while still providing advanced programmers with the utilities and confidence to program error free parts regardless of their complexity. 5. the ability to create simulation presentations and much more. Machining wizards remove the guesswork from programming as they step the operator through the process of setting cutting depths. This alone makes adding a CAD- CAM product to the shop a good decision. 7. less tool wear and a reduction in machine wear and tear over the long term. reordering how the job is sequenced. Higher control capabilities lead to perfectly finished parts being completed faster. programming complex parts is practically impossible as often time there are multiple toolpaths required from advanced roughing. Posting can even be customized by the operator with a little training for a wide variety of 4 and 5 Axis machines. The CAM Tree has many built in benefits such as saving and loading machining templates. Powerful 3 Axis CNC Programming Operations. Getting The Most Out of Your CNC Machine Tool. CAD-CAM software provides high-speed machine toolpaths that deliver a host of benefits that all equal up to reduced cycle times. The rounded more circular cutting motions at higher speeds allo w a constant tool engagement with the material. CAD-CAM software provides the solutions to make these types of CNC jobs much easier than ever before. catch costly tool gouges and collisions before they reach the CNC machine. High speed machining can improve CNC machine productivity by as much as 50%. In addition.and tooling as well as access to machining operations that determine how the part will be machined as well as the output of the NC Program.

The combination of CAD and CAM enables automated transitionfrom designing to manufacturing. bill of . improve this with the help of software like CAD. CAM systems can also provide full 4 & 5 Axis simulation. Some even require 5 Axis CNC programming capabilities. Just like computer aided designing (CAD) we have concept ofcomputer aided manufacturing (CAM). a CAD Designer can acquire more value and seek more clients for being a full service design and programming facility. 3 and 4 Axis. they only need to learn the machining side. Turn Art Into CNC Programs & Finished Parts Easily. Two of these specialized industries would be the custom woodworking and jewelry making industry. It includes all the data about the product generated during design like shape and dimensions. All the data from the CAD systems can be directly used for the CAM systems. CAD software enables direct link between CAD and CAM. size and assembly list. as the CAD users do not have to completely re-learn a new CAD-CAM system. Typically CAM products that plug-in to CAD systems can be easier to learn and use after some training. Without a CAD-CAM system this level of CNC programming is nearly impossible. By going this way. This is highly beneficial. Synthesis: Each subsystem of the designed is thoroughly conceptualized and analyzed. These industries have to then be able to create these programs to me machined on a CNC Mill or Router in 2. This includes the cost. all the process planning and management of the manufacturing operations for the manufacture of the product can be done by the computer systems.surface-based machining operations that accommodate port milling. Define the problem: Specify the item to be designed. This process will go on till the designed is optimized. operating performance and characteristics functions. simulate everything and create the NC programs for them. Some CAD-CAM providers have teamed up with highly popular CAD vendors such as SolidWorks® to create powerful CAM machining modules that integrate into the CAD software as a plug-in. These types applications require the ability to turn a picture into a 3D relief model that can be machined in a variety of ways. Evaluation of design: Measure and test the design as specified in the problem definition phase. BASIC D ESIGN PROCESS need: When someone realizes that problem exists. SWARF and undercutting type toolpath strategies as well as 3+2 programming. Artistic CAD-CAM technology has evolved to support a wide range of custom applications. On its part CAD enables automation of designing. CAD/CAM Database With the advent of the CAD and CAM software there has been integration of designing and manufacturing processes. pocket milling and profile milling. Seamless Integration with Popular CAD Design Products. The database created by the integration of CAD/CAM is also called as manufacturing database. 5 9. This also includes the ability to turn a picture into 2D profiles that can be used for engraving. while CAM enables automation of manufacturing processes. For the product that has been designed using the CAD software on computer. Tests are to be conducted on prototype model. This allows existing CAD users to create the necessary machining for the part. It means a database of the design is created for manufacturing. 10. Analysis and optimization: The product is redesigned and analyzed again and again. which is critical when programming these types of parts to visually inspect the machining process before an r reaches t he machine. Presentation: Make the final drawing of the design by mentioning its material. for which a product can be designed. and if some shortcomings are ther e.

standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols.materials and part lists. • Sort the data in some meaningful order. His functions include: • Creating the primary database structure • Backing up and restoring data in case of crash • Modifying the structure • Transfer data to external files • Allocate and control user access rights • Monitoring performance COMPARISON OF DATABASE AND TRADITIONAL FILE SYSTEMS . • Add new data to the database. Thus in the integrated CAD/CAM system the two processes of designing and manufacturing are combine d together. 8 A major problem to be solved to impleme nt CIM has always been that of distributing information among different computer based systems. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere. There is no time gap between the two processes and there is no duplication of efforts required on the parts of designer and the production personnel. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways. including schemes for organizing data. • Print the data into formatted reports. • Delete the data. must be appropriate. This ch apter hence is devoted to the organization of data. standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. FEATURES OF A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A database management system consists of a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access that data. and available when and where it is needed. standards for product data exchange and standards for communication protocols. if it is to be useful. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways. This ch nagement The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. Joining those islands into an effective CIM enterprise requires proper methods of processing information. • Search the database for types of information. The issues are complex but they are beginning to be addressed in a number of ways. This ch nagement The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. It also includes additional data required for the manufacturing purposes. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere. material specifications etc. Information. 7 Data ba The manufacturing database and its management are major issues in CIM. The standards for product data exchange are discussed and communication protocols have been discussed elsewhere. • Edit the data. machine-interpretable. DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR The person responsible for managing the database is often referred to as database administrator. Database management involves: • Organize a database. As indicated in earlier chapters CIM is typically integration of islands of computer aided functions running on different computers using different databases. including schemes for organizing data. including schemes for organizing data.

PRINCIPLES OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS Traditionally drawings are prepared on plane drawing sheets. shearing and zooming. coded. They lack almost all the flexibilities offered by DBMS. and catalogued ahead of time for the preconceived requests and applications. Most of the indispensable facilities of DBMS of are. This has several limitations. has to interpret the operations on the logical view and translate them in to the primitive file operations. axon ometric or perspective projections into simple viewing transformations. This then forces the data to be duplicated among various applications. reflection. Some of them are listed below: Use of computer graphics has opened up tremendous possibilities for the designer. Rigidity iii. Some of them are listed below: • The object is represented by its geometric model in three dimensions (X. Inconsistency vii. the projections have to be necessarily reduced to two dimensions. The tight coupling and interdependence of between a user’s application and the physical data would not allow sharing of the same data by other applications that may need to view and manipulate them differently. Data dependence ii. isometric. therefore forced to be ab sorbed by user’s program. 9 In other words besid es the logic of the application the user has to provide logic for constructing the logical view of data. Y and Z). i. and has to be responsible for maintaining the files that store the physical data. Static nature iv. Difficulty in sharing information viii. Though the depth can be represented by pictorial projections like isometric and perspective projections. 10 • Thou rotation. Lack of integration v. Inability to handle ado requests. File systems lack dynamism in the sense that the application programs are designed. Data duplication vi. GEOMETRIC MODELING Types of Curves and Their Mathematical Representation Types of Surfaces and Their Mathematical Representation Types of Solids and Their Mathematical Representation CAD/CAM Data Exchange TYPES . The following list summarizes the problems of file systems that can be overcome by DBMS. • The mathematical representation reduces creation of views like orthographic. Inefficiency ix. The sketches have to be made only in two dimensions. debugged. Use of computer graphics has opened up tremendous possibilities for the designer.File system represents a tight coupling between physical data and user’s program.

B-spline curves (interpolate a set of data points with local control possible). ter and axes lengths. center point. Ac ircle for a center and the radius can be written as 22 EL An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed as. PARABOLA A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given by An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed as. parametric form: 1. Curve Representation: Two types of representation are parametric and non-parametric representation. For example. 3D in 1970s) Wireframe Entities s and Bezier curves) …. PARAMETRIC REPRESENTATION OF ANALYTIC CURVES The following list shows most of the analytic curve that are used in CAD/CAM system for part design and modeling. coordinates) are expressed in terms of common parameters. a radius and tangent to a line passing through a point.e.OF CURVES AND THEIR MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATIONS Wireframe Model ( 2D in 1960s for drafting. end points of existing entity. a point can be expressed with respect to a parameter as Non-parametric representation is the conventional representation as Ex. es LINE AND CIRCLE A line between two points P1 and P2 can be expressed with respect to a parameter. PARABOLA A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate sy . Non-parametric form of a circle: x^2+y^2=r^2. tangent to entity point. two conjugate diameters). four points. parabola (vertex and foc lopes). Bezier curves (a set of data points). In parametric representation all variables (i. or perpendicular to a line. PARABOLA A parabola in the local coordinate system that is parallel to the global coordinate system with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given by An ellipse with a center and major and minor axes of 2A and 2B can be expressed as. intersection of two entities.. This form can be used to find slopes at a certain angle for example.

and p3(12. the equations to solve become A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x1 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y1 – yy A cosh( ) cos θ – B sinh( sin θ – x2 – xy A cosh( ) sin θ + B sinh( cos θ – y2 – yy The solution is B = 0.1). and P2(12. the equation for the parabola is given by Problem 1: Determine the equation above for given three points. u1 = -4.372.√ Problem 2: Determine the parabola for given three points . and P2(12. and u2 = -2.881.1). The graph of the .System with the vertex and the focal distance A from the vertex in a plane is given by When the parabola is inclined at an angle θ relative to global x-axis. This is a set of nonlinear equations. p1(5.835 A hyperbola with the center (xy. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -5 to 5. p1(5. and u2 = 3. - z = zy 25 A hyperbola and its asymptotes Problem 3: Determine the hyperbola for given three points (2.4). Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -5 to 5. Pπ(5.√. θ. Pπ is the vertex of the parabola. The solutions and the graph are √. Pπ(5. θ = 0. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from *5 to 5.4). and u2 yields the solutions as A = 0. p2(3. xy) and the distance A and B in a plane z = zy in the figure below can be expressed as x = xy + A coshu y = yy + B sinhu. P1(3.1). the equations to solve become 24 23 When the parabola is inclined at an angle θ relative to global x-axis. θ = -4. The parabola is inclines at an angle of 30orelative to global x-axis. u1 = 2881. p2(3.372.503. Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from *5 to 5. and p3(12. The solutions and the graph are √. the equation for the parabola is given by Problem 1: Determine the equation above for given three points.1). Solution: Applying the six conditions (two for each point).1).10). Solution: Applying the six conditions (two for each point).√ Problem 2: Determine the parabola for given three points .464. P1(3.4).√.10). Plot the curve by varying the parameter u from -2 to 2. Solution: Applying the seven conditions (two for each point). Pπ is the vertex of the parabola. the equations to solve become 24 Solving these equations for A. and A=1.10). u1.4). is the vertex of the hyperbola. The parabola is inclines at an angle of 30orelative to global x-axis.543. This is a set of nonlinear equations.10).

and to create a database for manufacturing. and hyperbolas. Product cycle Computer Aided Design. which includes the effective use of tooling and machining operations. geometry-oriented CAM systems lean toward the geometric aspects of manufacturing engineering. circles. which includes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software.principles of computer graphics. parabolas. The conic parametric equation can be described if five conditions are specified appropriately. Basic concepts of CAD .adaptive control. Its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation. or optimization of a design. One case is specifying five points on the curve. or other manufacturing operations. improve the quality of design. create and confirm toolpaths. and share programming data with other shop-floor machines. on-line search strategies.curve is shown as 26 The most general form of planar quadratic curves is conic curves or conic sections that include the previously covered curves. The two basic types of CAM system s are process-oriented and geometry-oriented. In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation (MDA) or computer-aided design (CAD). ellipses. including compl . or EDA. Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation.CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer. CAD/CAM data base development and data base management systems. L2 = 0. L1 = 0. In contrast. The general implicit nonparametric quadratic equation that describes the planar conic curve has five coefficients and naturally needs five conditions to complete it. advantageous tool changes and the management of complex processes.CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print. lines. modification. Programming and interface hardware – computer aided process monitoring . L4 = 0 L1L2 = 0. analysis. CAM software facilitates the programming of machine tools. machining. It lets users define part geometry and set machining strategies. Benefits of CAD. improve communications through documentation. L3 = 0. Process-oriented CAM systems are geared toward the process part of manufacturing engineering. L3L4 = 0 L1L2 + a L3L4 = 0 1 UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO CAD/CAM The design process Morphology of design. A COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING system uses CAD-generated data to create the code needed to operate a CNC machine. Computer-aided design is used in many fields.