THE

THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
LANKAVATAKA SUTRA
BODHIDHARMA
BODHIDHAEMA
By SessM
By Sesshfl, (U20-1506)
(1420-1506)
THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
A MAHAYANA TEXT

TRANSLATED FOR THE FIRST TIME FROM
THE ORIGINAL SANSKRIT

BY

DAISETZ TEITARO SUZUKI

EASTERN
f
� BUDDHIST


LIBRARY

LONDON

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS, LTD.
BROADWAY HOUSE: 68-74 CARTER LANE, E. C.

1932
PREFACE
PREFACE
It
It is more than
is more than seven years now
seven years now since
since I I began
began the the · study
study
of
of the La1ikavaUira Sutra
the LanMvatara S�1tra quite seriously,
quite seriously, but
but owing
owing to to
various interruptions
various interruptions I
I have
have not
not been
been able
able to
to carry
carry out
out my
my
plan
plan as as speedily
speedily as as I wished. My
I wished. My friends
friends in in different
different fields
fields
of
of life
life have
have been
been kind
kind and and generous
generous in in various
various ways,
ways, and and II
now
now sendsend outout toto the perusal of
the perusal of the English-reading public
the English-reading public
this
this humble
humble work work of mine. There
of mine. There are
are yet
yet many
many difficult
difficult andand
obscure
obscure passages
passages in in the Sutra, which
the Sutra, which I I have
have been unable tto
been unable o
unravel
unravel to to my
my own
own satisfaction.·
satisfaction. All
All such
such imperfections
imperfections are
are
to
to be corrected by
be corrected by competent scholars. II shall
competent scholars. shall be be fully
fully-
content
content if if II have made the
have made understanding of
the understanding of this
this significant
significant
Mahayana
Mahayana text easier than
text easier than before,
before, even
even though
though this this may
may be be
only
only to to aa very
very slight degree. In
slight degree. In China
China Buddhist
Buddhist scholars
scholars
profoundly
profoundly learned learned and and endowed
endowed with with spiritual
spiritual insights
insights
made
made threethree or or four
four attempts
attempts extending
extending over over a period of
a period of
about
about two two hundred
hundred and and fifty years
fifty years to
to give
give an
an intelligible
intelligible
l'endering of
rendering of the Lankavatara. It
the Lankavatara. goes without
It goes without saying
saying thatthat
these
these have helped immensely
have helped immensely the present translator.
the present translator. May May
his
his also
also prove
prove a a stepping
stepping board board however
however feeblefeeble towards
towards a a
fuller
fuller interpretation
interpretation of of the
the Sutra
Sutra!!
The
The present
present English
English translation
translation is based on
is based on the
the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
edition
edition of of Bunyu
Bunyu Nanjo's
Nan jo's published
published by by the
the Otani
Otani University
University
Press in
Press in 1923.
1923.
II am most
most grateful
grateful to to Mr Dwight
Dwight Goddard
Goddard of of Thetford,
Thetf ord,
Vermont, U.
Vermont, U. S. A., who
S. A., who again helped me
again helped me by by typing
typing the
the entire
entire
manuscript
manuscript of of the
the present
present book.
book. To To assist
assist meme in in this
this wayway
was
was indeed
indeed partpart of of the
the object
object ofof his
his third
third visit
visit to
to this
this side
side
of
of the Pacific. Says
the Pacific. Says Confucius,
Confucius, " Is
' '
Is it
it not
not delightful
delightful to to have
have
aa friend
friend comecome from
from afarafar?" �" The
The saying
saying applies
applies mostmost appro­
appro-
priately
priately to
to this
this case.
case.
It
It was
was fortunate
fortunate for for the
the writer
writer that
that hehe could
could secure
secure the the
support
support and and help
help of
of the
the Keimeikwai, a
a corporation
Keimeikwai, corporation organised organised
to
to help
help research
research work work of of scholars
scholars in in various
various fields
fields of
of culture;
culture ;

for
for without
without it his work
it his work might
might have
have dragged
dragged on on yet
yet for some
for some
vi
vi PREFACE

time
time to to come.
come. ThereThere is is so
so much
much to to be
be accomplished
accomplished befOl'e before
he
he has
has to appear at
to appear at the
the court
court of of Emma Daiwo, Daiwo, to to whom
whom he he
could
could say,say, "Here
"Here is is my
my workwork;; humble
humble though
though it it is,
is, I
I have
have
tried
tried to to do
do mymy part
part to to the
the full
full extent
extent of of my power." The
my power." The
writer renders his
writer renders his grateful acknowledgment
grateful acknowledgment here
here to
to all
all the
the
advisers of
advisers of the
the Society
Society who
who kindly
kindly voted
voted for
for the
the speedy
speedy
culmination
culmination of of this
this literary
literary task-a
task a task task which
which he he tenderly
tenderly
wishes
wishes would
would do do something
something towardstowards a a better
better appreciation
appreciation by by
the
the West
West of of the sources of
the sources of Eastern
Eastern life life and
and culture.
culture.
Whatever
Whatever literaryliterary workwork the present author
the present author is is able
able toto
put
put before
before the reader, he
the reader, he cannot
cannot passpass on on without
without mentioning
mentioning
in
in it
it the
the naname�e ofof his good, unselfish,
his good, unselfish, public-minded
public-minded BuddhistBuddhist
friend,
friend, Yakichi
Yakichi Ataka,
Ataka, who
who is
is always willing
always willing to
to help
help himhim inin
every possible
every possible way. way. 1£
If not
not for
for him,
him, the
the author
author could
could never
never
have
have carried
carried out out his
his plans
plans to to the
the extent
extent he he hashas so far ac­
so far ac-
complished.
complished. Materially,
Materially, no no visible
visible results
results cancan bebe expected
expected of of
this kind
this kind of of undertaking,
undertaking, and and yetyet a scholar has
a scholar has his worldly
his worldly
needs
needs to meet. Unless
to meet. Unless we we create
create oneone of these fine
of these days an
fine days an
ideal community
ideal community in
in which
which every
every member
member of
of it
it can
can put
put forth
forth
all
all his
his or her natural
or her natural endowments
endowments and and moral
moral energies
energies in in the
the
direction
direction best best fitted
fitted toto develop
develop them
them and
and in
in the
the way
way most
most
useful
useful to to all
all other
other members
members generally
generally and and individually,
individually, many many
obstacles
obstacles are are sure
sure to to bar
bar thethe passage
passage of of those
those who who would
would
attempt
attempt things
things of of no
no commercial
commercial value. value. UntilUntil then,
then, Bodhi­
Bodhi-
sattvas
sattvas of of all
all kinds
kinds are are sorely
sorely needed
needed everywhere.
everywhere. And And is is

this not
this not the
the teaching
teaching of
of the
the L(J)nkavatii'l'a
Lankavatara Sutra,
Sutra,,, which
which in
in its
its

English
English garb garb nownow lies
lies before
before his his friend
friend as as well
well as as all
all other
other
readers�
readers ?
Thanks
Thanks are are also
also due
due to to the
the writer
writer's 's wife
wife whowho went
went over
over
the
the whole
whole manuscript
manuscript to to give
give it it whatever
whatever literary
literary improve­
improve-
ment
ment it it possesses,
possesses, to to Mr HokeiHokei Idzumi
Idzumi who who gave
gave helpful
helpful sug­
sug-
gestions in
gestions in the
the reading
reading of of the
the original
original text,
text, and
and to to Professor
Professor
Yenga
Yenga Teramoto
Teramoto for for hishis ungrUdging
ungrudging cooperation
cooperation along along th thee
line
line of
of Tibetan
Tibetan knowledge.
knowledge.

DAISETZ
DAISETZ TEITARO
TEITAEO SUZUKI
SUZUKI
Kyoto, 1931 (the
November, 1931
Kyoto, November, (the sixth
sixth year
year of
of Showa)
Showa)
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
BODHIDHARMA,
BODHIDHAEMA, by
by Sesshii
Sesshu (1420-1506)
(1420-1506) . . . . . . . • . . . • . . Frontispiece
Frontispiece
Page
Page
PREFACE
PEERAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . v
v
INTRODUCTION
INTEODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . . . . . :xi
si

CHAPTER ONE.
CHAPTEE ONE. RAVANA,
EAVANA, LORD
LOED OF LANKA,
LANKA, ASKS FOR
FOE
INSTRUCTION
INSTEUCTION . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3
CHAPTER
CHAPTEE TWO.
TWO. COLLECTION
COLLECTION OF ALL THE DHARMAS
DHAEMAS .
. .
. 22
22
9 I.
I. Mabamati Praises the
Mahamati Praises Buddha with
the Buddha Verses
with Verses . . . . . . 22
22
9 II.
II. Mabamati's
Mahamati's "One
"One Hundred
Hundred and
and Eight
Eight Questions"
Questions" 23
23
§ III.
III. "The One
"The Hundred and
One Hundred and Eight Negations"
Eight Negations" . . . . • • 31
31
IV.
§, IV. Concerning
Concerning the
the V'ijiiiinas ......................
Vijnanas 33
33
V.
9 V. Seven Kinds
Seven of Self-nature
Kinds of Self -nature (svabhiiva)
(svabTiava) . . • • . • • • . 35
35
§ VI.
VI. Seven
Seven Kinds
Kinds of
of First
First Principle (paramartfia) , and
Principle (paramartha), and
the
the Philosophers'
Philosophers' Wrong Views regarding
Wrong Views regarding thethe
Mind Rejected
Mind Eejeeted . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
35
VII.
§ VII. Erroneous Views
Erroneous held by
Views held Some Bl'ahmans
by Some Brahmans and and
S ramanas Concerning
Sramanas Concerning Causation,
Causation, Continuation,
Continuation,
etc. ; The
etc.; Buddhist Views
The Buddhist Views Concerning
Concerning Such
Such
Subjects as
Subjects Alayavijiiana, Nirvana,
as Alayavijnana, Nirvana, Mind-only,
Mind-only,
etc.
etc. ;; Attainments
Attainments of
of the Bodhisattva
the Bodhisattva . . . . . . . . 36
36
9 VIII.
VIII. The
The Bodhisattva's
Bodhisattva's Discipling
Biscipling himself himself in Self-
in Self-
realisation . . . ... . . . . . .•. . . . .... . . . . . . .. . . . .
realisation 39
39
9 IX.
IX. The
The Evolution
Evolution and
and Function
Function of
of the Vijfianas; The
the Vijnanas; The
SpiI'itual
Spiritual Discipline
Discipline of
of the
the Bodhisattva; Verses
Bodhisattva; Verses
on
on the
the Alaya-ocean
Alaya-ocean and
and Vijfiana-waves
Vijnana-waves . . . . . . . . 39
39
,9
.
X.
X. The
The Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva is
is to Understand the
to Understand the Signification
Signification
of Mind-only
of Mind-only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
44
§ XI
XI (a)
(a).. The
The Three
Three Asp(3cts
Aspects of Noble Wisdom
of Noble Wisdom (aryajfi,{ina)
(dryajnana) 44
44
§ XI (b ).
(b). The Attainment
The Attainment of
of the
the Tatbagatakaya
Tathagatakaya . . . . . . . . . . 45
45
§ XII.
XII. Logic
Logic on
on the
the Hare's
Hare's Horns
Horns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
46
§$ XIII.
XIII. Verses on
Verses on the Alayavijfiana and
the Alayavijnana Mind-only •.
and Mind-only : . ... 49
49
§ XIV.
XIV. Purification
Purification of
of the
the Outfl ows, Instantaneous
Outflows, Instantaneous and
and
Gradual
Gradual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
49
§ XV.
XV. Nishyanda-Buddha,
Nishyanda-Buddha, Dharmata-Buddha,
Dharmata-Buddha, and
and Nir-
Nir-
maJ}.a-Bucldha
mana-Buddha .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
51
� XVI.
XVI. The S
The ravaka's Eealisation
Sravaka's Realisation and
and Attachment
Attachment toto the
the
Notion
Notion of
of Self-natme
Self -nature ....................... 52
52
§ XVII.
XVII. The
The Eternal-Unthinkable
Eternal-Unthinkable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . 53
53
§ XVIII.
XVIII. Nirvana
Nirvana and Alayavijfiana . .
and Alayavijnana .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
55
§ XIX.
XIX. A11
All Things
Things are
are Unborn..
Unborn . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. ... . .. 55
55
§ XX.
XX. The Five
The Five Classes
Classes of
of Spiritual Insight
Spiritual Insight . . . . . . . . . . . 56
56
§ XXI.
XXI. Verses on
Verses on the Tl'iple Vehicle
the Triple Vehicle . . . . . . . . . • • . . . • • . • . 58
58
viii
vm CONTENTS
XXII.
XXII. Two
Two Classes
Classes ofof the
the Icchantika
Icchantika .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
58
§ XXIII.
XXIII. The
The Three
Three Forms
Forms of of Svabhava
Svabhava . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
59
§$ XXIV. The Twofold
The Twofold Egolessness
Egolessness (nairat1nyadvaya-
(nairatmyadvaya-
laksha1J.a)
lalcshana) . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
60
§$ XXV.
XXV. Assertion
Assertion and
and Refutation
Eefutation (swmaropapavada)
(samaropapavada) .... . . . . 62
62
§ XXVI.
XXVI. The
The Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva Assumes
Assumes Various Various Personalities
Personalities . ..
... 64
64
§ XXVII.
XXVII. On
On Emptiness (Siinyata), No-birth,
Emptiness (sunyata), No-birth, and and Non- Non-
duality
duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
65
§ XXVIII. The
XXVIII. The TatMgata-Garbha
Tathagata-Garbha and and the the Ego-soul
Ego-soul . . ..... . 68
68
� XXIX.
XXIX. A Verse
Verse onon the
the Philosophers'
Philosophers' Discriminations
Discriminations .... . . . . 70
70
� XXX.
XXX. The
The Four
Four Things
Things NeededNeeded for for thethe Constitution
Constitution of of
Bodhisattvahood
Bodhisattvahood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
. . . . . . . . 70
70
XXXI.
XXXI. On
On Causation
Causation (Six (Six Kinds),
Kinds), and and the the Rise Rise of of
Existence
Existence . .. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .... ..
. . . . . . . . . . . 72
72
XXXII. Four
Four Forms
Forms of of Word-discrimination 75
.

XXXII. Word-discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
XXXIII.
XXXIII. On
On Word
Word andand Discrimination
Discrimination and and the the Highest
Highest
Reality
Eeality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
76
XXXIV. Verses
XXXIV. Verses onon Reality
Reality and and its its Representations.
Representations .. . . . 77
77
XXXV.
XXXV. Mind-only, Multitudinousness,
Mind-only, Multitudinousuess, and and Analogies,
Analogies, with with
an
an Interpolation
Interpolation on on the the Dualistic
Dualistie Notion Notion of of
Existence
Existence ;...................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
78
§$ XXXVI. The
XXXVI. The Teaching (dhal'madesana) of
Teaching (dharmadeSana) of the
the Tathagatas
Tathagatas 84
84:

§ XXXVII.
XXXVII. Four
Four Kinds
Kinds of of Dhyana
Dhyana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
85
�$ XXXVIII.
XXXVIII. On
On Nirvana
Nirvana .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
86
§ XXXIX. Two
XXXIX. Two Characteristics
Characteristics of of Self-nature
Self -nature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
87
9 XL.
XL. Two
Two Kinds
Kinds of of thethe Buddha's
Buddha's Sustaining
Sustaining Power Power
(adhishthilna)
(adMshthana) _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
87
� XLI.
XLI. On
On the
the Chain
Chain of of Causation
Causation (pratityasarnutpada)..
(pratityasamtutpada) . . 90
90
� XL II
XLII. .Words (abhilapa)
Words (abhilapa) and Realities (bM.va)
and Realities (bhava) . . . . . . . 91
91
§ XLIII.
XLIII. On
On Eternality
Eternality of of Sound
Sound (nit yasabija) the
(nityaabda), the Nature
Nature ,

of
of Error (bh?'finta), and
Errol' (bhranta), and Perversion (viparylisa)
Perversion (viparyasa) 6g
QZ
§$ XLIV.
XLIV. On
On the Nature of
the Nature of Maya
Maya . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . . . 95
95
§$ XLV.
XLV. That
That All
All Things
Things are are Unborn
Unborn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
96

tf XLVI.
XL VI. On
On Name,
Name, Sentence,
Sentence, Syllable,
Syllable, and and Their
Their Meaning
Meaning 97
97
§ XLVII.
XLVII. On
On Inexplicable
Inexplicable Statements (vyalcritani)
Statements (vyalmtdni*) . . • . . . • . 98
98
9 XLVIII. All
XLVIII. Things are
All Things are andand are
are notnot (Verses
(Verses on Foul' Forms
on Four Forms
of Explanation)
of Explanation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
99
XLIX.
XLIX. On
On thethe S l'avakas, Srotaapanna,
Sravakas, Srotaapanna, Sakridagamin,Sakridagamin,
Anagamin,
Anagamin, and and Arhat
Arhat;; on on the the Three
Three Knots Knots
(sO!inyojani)
(samyojani) . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ... ....
. 100
100
L.
L. The
The Intellect (J)uddhi), Examining
Intellect (buddhi), Examining and
and Discrim-
Diserim-
na ting
nating �
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . 105
105
LI.
LI. The
The Elements,
Elements, Primary
Primary and Secondary
and Secondary . . . . . . . . • 106
106
§ LII.
LII. The Five
The Skandhas
Five Skandhas . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
107
§$ LIIl.
LIII. Foul'
Four Kinds of Nirvana
Kinds of Nirvana andand the
the Eight
Eight Vijiianas
Vijnanas . .
. . 108
108
§ LIV.
LIV. The
The False
False Imagination
Imagination Regarding
Regarding Twelve
Twelve Subjects
Subjects 110
110
CONTENTS ix
IX

9- LV.
LV. Verses on
Verses on the Citta, Parikalpita,
the Citta, Parikalpita, Paratantl'a,
Paratantra, and and
Parinishpanna
Parinishpanna ..............................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
112
LVI.
LVI. The
The One
One Vehicle
Vehicle and
and thethe Triple
Triple Vehicle
Vehicle .......... . . . . . . 114
CHAPTER
CHAPTEE THREE.
THEEE. ON IMPERMANENCY
IMPEEMANENCY ................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
118
§ LVII.
LVII. Three
Three Forms
Forms of of the Will-body (manomaya7caya)
the Will-body (manomayaMya} .
. .
. 118
118
§ LVIII.
LVIII. The
The Five
Five Immediacies (pancanantaryani) Desire
Immediacies (pancananta1'ya'fJi); Desire ;

as
as Mother
Mother and and Ignorance
Ignorance as Father ..........
as Father . . , . .. . . . . 120
120
LIX.
LIX. The
The Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature (b7lddhata)
(buddliata) ................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
122
LX. The
The Identity (samata) of
Identity (samata) of Buddhahood
Buddhahood and and its its
Foul'
Four Aspects
Aspects .............................. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
122
§ LXI.
LXI. Not
Not aa Word
Word Uttered
Uttered by by the
the Buddha;
Buddha; Self-realisa-
Self -realisa-
tion
tion and
and an an Etel'1lally-abiding
Eternally-abiding Reality Reality ......... . .. . . . . 123
123
§ LXII.
LXIL On
On Being
Being and and Non-Being;
Non-Being; Realism
Bealism and and Nihilism
Nihilism. . .. 125
125
§ LX III
LXIII. Realisation
Eealisatiou and
. and Word-teaching
Word-teaching ,....... . . . .. . ..........
. . . .. . . . 127
127
§ LXIV.
LXIV. Discrimination,
Discrimination, an an External
External World,
World, Dualism,Dualism, and and
Attachnlent , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. . . .
Attachment ................................
. . . . . . . . . . 129
129
§ LXV.
LXV. The
The Relation
Eelation between
between Words (ruta) and
Words (1'uta) and Meaning
Meaning
(artha)
(avtlia) ...................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
133
LXVI.
LXVI. On ��
On ��wledge, Absolute
Knowledge, (jnana) and
Absolute (jnana) and Relative
Eelative
((vijnana) .
vt:Jnana) .................................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
135
§ LXVII.
LXVII. Nine
Nine Transformations
Transformations (pari1.1ama)
(parinama) ............. . . . • . . . . . . . . . 137
137
§ LXVIII.
LXVIIL TheThe Deep-seated
Deep-seated Attachment
Attachment to to Existence
Existence ...... . . . . . . 138
138
§ LXIX.
LXIX. Self-natlll
Self-nature, 'e, Reality,
Beality, Imagination,
Imagination, Truth Truth of of Soli-
Soli-
tude,
tude, etc. . ...... . . . . . .. . . ..... . .... . . . ,...
etc .................................. 141
141
§ LXX.
LXX. The
The Thesis
Thesis of of No-birth .
No-birth ........................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
144
§ LXXI.
LXXI. Tl'lle Knowledge and
True Knowledge and Ignorance
Ignorance ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
146
§ LXXII.
LXXII. Self-realisation
Self-realisation and and the
the Discoursing
Discoursing on on itit ....... . . . . . . . 148
148
§ LXXIII.
LXXIII. OnOn the
the Lokayatika
Lokayatika ............................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
149
§ LXXIV. Various Views
LXXIV. Various Views of Nirvana .....................
of Nirvana ... . ,.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
157
§ LXXV.
LXXV. Is
Is Tathagatahood
Tathagatahood SomethingSomething Made? Made � Its Relation
Its Eelation
to
to the Skandhas, to
the Skandhas, Emancipation, to
to Emancipation, to Knowledge
Knowledge 161
161
LXXVI.
LXXVI. The Tathagata Variously
The Tathagata Designated; Relation
Variously Designated; Eelation
Between
Between Words Words and and Meaning
Meaning;; Not Not a Word
a Word
Uttered
Uttered by by the
the Buddha
Buddha ......................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
164
§$ LXXVII.
LXXVII. Causation,
Causation, No-birth,
No-birth, Self-mind,
Self -mind, Nirvana
Nirvana ........ . . . . . . . . 170
170
§ LXXVIII.
LXXVIII. Verses
Verses on on No-birth
No-birth and and Causation
Causation .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
172
§ LXXIX.
LXXIX. Various
Various Views
Views of of Impermanency
Impermanency ............... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
176
CHAPTER
CHAPTEE FOUR.
FOUE. ON INTUITIVE
INTUITIVE UNDERSTANDING
UNDEESTANDING .... 182 182 . . . .

§ LXXX.
LXXX. Perfect
Perfect Tranquillisation
Traiiquillisation Attained
Attained by
by Sravakas,
Sravakas,
Pratyekabllddhas, and
Pratyekabuddhas, and Bodhisattvas;
Bodhisattvas Stages
Stages of
of ;

Bodhisattvahood
Bodhisattvahood ............................
. . 182
182
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER
CHAPTEE FIVE.
FIVE. ON THE DEDUCTION OF OF THE PERMA- PEEMA-
NENCY
NENCT OF TATHAGATAHOOD ....................
. . ,. . . . . . . .. . . . 187
187
. . . . .

§ LXXXI.
LXXXI. Permanency
Permanency of
of Tathagatahood , . . . . , .. . . . . . 187
Tathagatahood ................. 187 . . . .

CHAPTER
CHAPTEB SIX.
SIX. ON MOMENTARINESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MOMBNTAEINESS .................. 190
190
§ LXXXII.
LXXXII. The TathUgata-garbha and
The Tathagata-garbha and the
the Alayavijiiana
Alayavijnana .____ . . . 190
190
x
s CONTENTS.
CONTENTS.
� LXXXIII.
LXXXIII. The
The Five
Five Dharmas,
Dharmas, and
and Their Relation to
Their Eelation to the
the
Three Svabhavas
Three Svabhavas ........................... 193
193
9 LXXXIV.
LXXXIV. The
The Five
Five Dharmas
Dharmas 197
197 • . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . • . . .

9 LXXXV.
LXXXV. Tathagata
Tathagata and
and Sands
Sands of
of the Ganga
the Gaiiga . . . . . . . . . . . • . 198
198
LXXXVI. Momental'iness
§ LXXXVI. Momentariness;; the Eight Vijnanas
the Bight Viji'ianas ............ 202
202
§ LXXXVII. Three Kinds
LXXXVII. Three Kinds of
of the
the Pal'amitas
Paramitas . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . 204:
204:

§ LXXXVIII.
LXXXVIII. Views on Momentariness
Views on Momental'iness; Discrimination
Discrimination ;
. . . . . 206
206
SEVEN. ON TRANSFORMATION
CHAPTER SEVEN. TRANSFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
207
§ LXXXIX.
LXXXIX. On
On Transformation
Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
207
CHAPTER
CHAPTER EIGHT.
EIGHT. ON MEAT-EATING
MEAT-EATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . 211
211
CHAPTER NINE.
NINE. THE DHARANIS
DHARANlS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • . . . • • 223
223
SAGATHAKAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . 226
226

APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . . . . . . . • • . a • • • • • , • • • • • • • 297
297
INTRODUCTION
For those who
For those who have already read
have already my Studies
read my Studies in the Lan­
in the Lan-
kavatara Sutra,1
kdvatdra Sutra, 1
no
no special
special words
words are
are needed
needed here.
here. But
But toto
those
those who
who are
are not
not yet quite
yet quite familiar
familiar with
with the
the teachings
teachings of
of
Mahayana
Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism aan n expository
expository introduction
introduction tto o the
the
principal
principal theses
theses of
of the
the Lanka
Lanka may
may be
be welcome.
welcome. Without
Without
something
something of preliminary knowledge
of preliminary knowledge as as to
to what
what thethe Sutra
Sutra
proposes to
proposes to teach,
teach, it
it will
will be
be difficult
difficult to
to comprehend
comprehend the the text
text
intelligently.
intelligently. For thoughts
For thoughts of of deep
deep signification
signification are are pre­
pre-
sented
sented in
in a a most
most unsystematic
unsystematic manner.
manner. As As II said
said inin my
my
Studies,
Studies, the
the Lanka
Lanka, is
is a
a memorandum
memorandum kept
kept byby a
a Mahayana
Mahayana
master,
master, in
in which
which hehe put
put down
down perhaps
perhaps allall the
the teachings
teachings of of
importance
importance accepted
accepted by by tthe
he Mahayana
Mahayana followers
followers of of his day.
his day.
He
He apparently
apparently did did not
not try
try to
to give
give them
them any
any order,
order, and
and itit is
is

possible
possible that
that the
the later
later redactors
redactors were
were not·
not very
very careful
careful in in
keeping
keeping faithfully
faithfully whatever
whatever order
order there
there was
was inin the
the beginning,
beginning,
thus
thus giving
giving the
the text
text aa still
still more
more disorderly
disorderly appearance.
appearance. The The
introduction
introduction that
that follows
follows maymay also
also serve
serve as
as one
one to
to Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism generally
generally.. .

I
The
The Classification
Classification of
of Beings
Beings
From
From the
the Mahayana
Mahayana point
point ofof view,
view, beings
beings areare divisible
divisible
nt o two
iinto heads those
two heads: :those that
that are
are e nli ght ene d and
enlightened that are
those that
and those are
ignorant.
ignorant. The The former
former areare called
called Buddhas
Buddhas including
including also
also
Bodhisattvas,
Bodhisattvas, Arhats,
Arhats, and
and Pratyekabuddhas
Pratyekabuddhas while while the latter
the latter
comprise
comprise all
all the
the rest
rest of
of beings
beings under
under thethe general designation
general, designation
of b§Ja or
of bala or balaprithagjana-bala
balaprithagjana bala meaningmeaning "undeveloped
"undeveloped", ",
"puerile
"puerile",", or
or "ignorant",
"ignorant", and
and prithag ja. n a "people
prithagjana "people differ­
differ-
ent
ent" " from
from the
the enlightened, that is,
enlightened, that is, the
the multitudes,
multitudes, or or people
people
of
of ordinary type,
ordinary type, whose
whose minds
minds are
are found
found engrossed
engrossed inin the
the
1 Published
Published by
by George
George Routledge
Boutledge and
and Sons,
Sons, Lonclon. 1930. Pp.
1
London. 1930. Pp.
xxxii+464.
sxxii + 464.
xii
xii THE LANKAVATARA
LANKAVATAEA SUTRA
pursuit
pursuit of of egotistic
egotistic pleasures
pleasures and
and unawakened
unawakened toto the
the meaning
meaning
of
of life. This
This class is also
class is also known
known as
as Sarvasattva,
Sarvasattva, " all beings"
' ' ' '
life. all beings
or sentient beings.
or sentient beings. The
The Buddha
Buddha wants
wants to
to help
help the
the ignorant,
ignorant,
hence
hence thethe Buddhist
Buddhist teaching
teaching and
and discipline.
discipline.

The
The Buddha
Buddha
All
All thethe Buddhist
Buddhist teachings
teachings unfold
unfold themselves
themselves around around
the
the conception
conception of of Buddhahood.
Buddhahood. When When thisthis isis adequately
adequately
grasped,
grasped, Buddhist
Buddhist philosophy
philosophy with with all
all its
its complications
complications and and
superadditions
superadditions will will become luminous. "What
become luminous. What is is the
the Buddha?
Buddha 1
According
According to to Mahamati
Mahamati the the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva,
Bodhisattva-Mahasattva,
who is
who the interlocutor
is the interlocutor of of the Buddha in
the Buddha in the
the La1ika,
Lanka, the the
Buddha is
Buddha endowed with
is endowed with transcendental knowledge (prajiia)
transcendental knowledge (prajna)
and
and a a great
great compassionate
compassionate heart heart (ka?'u'J.�a).
(karuna) . With
With the the former
former
he
he realises
realises that
that this
this world
world of of particulars
particulars hashas nono reality,
reality, isis
devoid
devoid of of anan ego-substance
ego-substance (a, natman) and
(anatman) and that
that in in this
this sense
sense
it
it resembles
resembles Maya Maya or or a
a visionary
visionary flower
flower in
in the
the air.
air. As
As thus
thus
it
it is
is above
above the the category
category of of being
being and
and non-being,
non-being, it it is
is declared
declared
to be
to be pure (visuddlia] and
pure (Vis1uldha) and absolute (vivikta) and
absolute (vivikta) and free
free from
from
conditions (ani1nitta)
conditions (animitta}. . But
But the
the Buddha's
Buddha's transcendental
transcendental
wisdom is
wisdom is not
not always
always abiding
abiding in in this
this high
high altitude,
altitude, because
because
being
being instigated
instigated by by an
an irresistible
irresistible power which innerly
power which innerly pushes
pushes
him back
him back into
into a a region
region of of birth
birth and
and death,
death, he he comes
comes downdown
among
among us us and
and lives
lives with
with us,
us, who
who are
are ignorant
ignorant and and lost
lost in
in the
the
darkness
darkness of of the
the passions
passions (klda).
(klesa) . Nirvana
Nirvana is is not
not the
the ultimate
ultimate
abode of
abode of Buddhahood,
Buddhahood, nor nor is
is enlightenment.
enlightenment. Love Love and and com­
com-
passion
passion is
is what
what essentially
essentially constitutes
constitutes the
the self-nature
self -nature of
of the
the
All-knowing
All-knowing One
One (sarvajna).
(sarvajna).

T i�e Bu,ddlw.
The Buddha as as Love
Love
The
The Buddha's
Buddha's love
love isis not something ego-centered.
not something ego-centered. It
It is
is

aa will-force
will-force which
which desires
desires andand acts
acts in
in the
the realm
realm of of twofold
twofold
egolessness,
egolessness, itit is
is above
above the
the dualism
dualism ofof being
being and,
and non-being,
non-being,
it
it rises
rises from
from a a heart
heart of of non-discrimination,
non-discrimination, it it manifests
manifests
itself
itself inin the
the conduct
conduct of of purposelessness (anabhogacarya).
purposelessness (anabhogacarya) .

It
It is
is the
the Tathagata's
Tathagata's great
great love (mahakaruna) of
love (mahfika'i"u/IJa) all beings,
of all beings,
which
which never
never ceases
ceases until
until everyone
everyone ofof them
them isis happily
happily ledled to
to
the
the final
final asylum
asylum of of Nirvana
Nirvana;; forfor he
he refuses
refuses as
as long
long as as there
there
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION xiii
xiii

is
is aa single
single unsaved
unsaved soul
soul to
to enjoy
enjoy the
the bliss
bliss ofof Samadhi
Samadhi to to
which
which he he is
is entitled
entitled byby his
his long spiritual discipline.
long spiritual discipline. The
The
Tathagata
Tathagata is is indeed
indeed the
the one
one who,
who, endowed
endowed with
with a a heart
heart ofof
all-embracing
all-embracing love
love and
and compassion,
compassion, regards
regards all
all beings
beings as
as if
if

they were his
they were his only child. If
only child. If he
he himself enters into
himself enters into Nirvana,
Nirvana,
no
no work
work will
will bebe done
done inin the world where
the world where discrimination
discrimination
(vikalpa) goes on
(vikalpa) goes on and multitudinousness (vicitrata)
and multitudinousness (vicitrata) prevails.
prevails.
For
For this
this reason,
reason, hehe refuses
refuses to
to leave
leave this
this world
world of of relativity,
relativity,
all
all his
his thoughts
thoughts areare directed towards the
directed towards ignorant and
the ignorant suffer­
and suffer-
ing
ing masses
masses of
of beings,
beings, for
for whom he
he is
is willing
willing to
to sacrifice
sacrifice his
his
enjoyment
enjoyment of
of absolute
absolute reality
reality and
and self-absorption
self ( sarni'klhi­
-absorption (samadhi-
s�tkhabhutakotya
siikhabhutakotya vinivarya.
vinivarya)) . .

Skilful
Skilful :Means
Means
The essential nature
The essential nature ofof love
love is
is to devise, to
to devise, to create, to
create, to
accommodate itself
accommodate itself to
to varying changing circumstances,
varying changing circumstances, andand
to
to this
this the
the Buddha
Buddha's 's love
love is
is no
no exception.
exception. HeHe is
is ever
ever devising
devising
for
for the
the enlightenment
enlightenment and and emancipation
emancipation of of all
all sentient
sentient
beings.
beings. This
This isis technically
technically knownknown as as the
the working
working of of Skilful
Skilful
Means ((upayakausalya)
Means �tpayakausalya) . Upaya .
Upaya is
is the
the outcome
outcome of
of Prajfia
PrajM
and
and KarUJ;la.
Karuna. When Love Love worries
worries itself
itself over
over the
the destiny
destiny of of
the
the ignorant,
ignorant, Wisdom,
Wisdom, so so to
to speak,
speak, weaves
weaves a a net
net ofof Skilful
Skilful
Means whereby
Means whereby to catch them
to catch them up up from
from the depths of
the depths the
of the
ocean called
ocean Birth-and-Death (sa.rnsara)
called Birth-and-Death (samsara).. By Upaya thus
By Upaya thus
the
the oneness
oneness of reality wherein
of reality wherein the the Buddha's
Buddha's enlightened
enlightened mind mind
abides
abides transforms
transforms itself
itself into
into the
the manifoldness
manifoldness of of particular
particular
existences.
existences.
There
There isis a
a gem
gem known
known as as Mal)i
Mani which
which is is perfectly
perfectly trans­
trans-
parent
parent andand colourless
colourless in in itself,
itself, and
and just
just because
because of of this
this
characteristic it
characteristic reflects in
it reflects in it varieties of
it varieties colours (vicitra­
of colours (vicitra-
IPupa) . In
rupa} . In the
the same
same way way the Buddha is
the Buddha conceived by
is conceived by beings
beings ; ;

in the
in the same
same way
way hishis teaching
teaching is is interpreted
interpreted by by them
them ; that
that is,is,
;

each
each one
one recognises
recognises the the Buddha
Buddha and and his
his teaching'
teaching according
according
to
to his disposition ((dsaya),
his disposition iisaya.), understanding
understanding (citta), prejudice
(citta), prejudice
(anusaya), propensity ( adhirn�rJdi),
(anusaya), propensity (adhimuldi} ,
and
and circumstance
circumstance ((gati]
gati) ..

Again,
Again, thethe Buddha treats treats his
his fellow-beings
fellow-beings as
as an
an expert
expert
physician treats his
physician treats his patients
patients suffering from various
suffering from various forms
forms of of
illness.
illness. The ultimate aim
The ultimate aim is to cure
is to them, but
cure them, but asas ailments
ailments
xiv
xiv THE
THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
LANKAVATARA SUTRA
differ
differ medicines
medicines and
and treatments
treatments cannot
cannot be
be the
the same.
same. For
For
this
this reason
reason it
it is
is said
said that
that the
the Buddha
Buddha speal\:s
speaks one
one language
language
of enlightenment,
of enlightenment, which
which reverberates
reverberates in
in the
the ears
ears of
of his
his
hearers
hearers in
in all
all possible
possible sounds.
sounds. Upaya
Upaya may
may thus
thus be
be con-
con- .
sidered in
sidered in a
a way
way due
due to
to the
the infinite
infinite differentiation
differentiation of
of indivi­
indivi-
dual
dual characters
characters rather
rather than
than to
to the
the deliberate
deliberate contrivance
contrivance of
of
transcendental
transcendental wisdom
wisdom on
on the part of
the part of the
the Buddha.
Buddha.

One
One B�tddha with Many
Buddha with Many Narnes
Names
All
All the
the Buddhas
Buddhas ar
aree of
of one
one essence, they
essence, they are
are the
the same
same
as far
as far as
as their
their inner
inner enlightenment,
enlightenment, their
their Dharmakaya,
Dharmakaya, and
and
their
their being
being furnished·
furnished with
with the
the thirty-two
thirty-two major
major and the
and the
eighty
eighty minor marks of
minor marks excellence are
of excellence concerned. But
are concerned. when
But when
they
they wish
wish to
to train
train beings according
beings according to
to their
their characters,
characters, they
they
assume
assume varieties
varieties of
of forms
forms appearing
appearing <4.ff erently to
to different
different
·'
differently
beings,
beings, and
and thus
thus there
there are
are many
many titles
titles and
and appellations
appellations of
of
the
the Buddha
Buddha asas to
to be
be beyond calculation (asarhkhyeya).
beyond calculation (asamkhyeya) .

One
One noteworthy
noteworthy fact
fact about
about this-the
this the Buddha's
Buddha's assuming
assuming
so
so many
many names,
names, is
is that
that he
he is
is not
not only known in
only known in various
various
personal
personal names
names but
but also given a
also given a number
number ofof abstract
abstract titles
titles
such
such as
as No-birth, Emptiness, Suchness, Reality, Nirvana,
No-birth, Emptiness, Suehness, Reality, Nirvana,
Eternity,
Eternity, Sameness,
Sameness, Trueness,
Trueness, Cessation,
Cessation, etc.
etc. The
The Buddha
Buddha
is
is thus
thus personal
personal as
as well
well as
as metaphysical.
metaphysical.
The Lanka
The Lanka here
here does
does not
not forget
forget to
to add
add that though the
that though the
Buddha
Buddha is
is known
known by
by so
so many
many different
different names,
names, he
he is
is thereby
thereby
neither
neither fattened
fattened nor
nor emaciated,
emaciated, as
as he
he is like the
is like the moon
moon in
in
water
water neither
neither immersed
immersed nor
nor emerging.
emerging. This
This simile
simile is
is

generally
generally regarded
regarded asas best
best describing
describing the
the relation
relation of
of unity
unity
and
and mUltiplicity,
multiplicity, of
of one
one absolute
absolute reality
reality and
and this world of
this world of
names
names and
and forms.
forms.

Tmnsforrnation-bodies of
Transformation-bodies of the
the B1td-dha
Buddha
While
While the
the Trikaya
Trikaya dogma
dogma isis not
not yet
yet fully
fully developed
developed in
in
the Lanka,
the Lanka, each
each member
member of
of the
the trinity
trinity is
is treaceable
treaeeable in
in such
such
ideas
ideas as
as Dharmata-buddha,
Dharmata-buddha, Vip aka-buddha, and
Vipaka-buddha, and Nirma1)a­
Nirmana-
buddha. The
buddha. The notion
notion of
of the transformation-body inevitably
the transformation-body inevitably
follows
follows from
from the
the Buddha
Buddha's'8 desire
desire to
to save
save the
the ignorant
ignorant whose
whose
minds
minds are
are not
not enlightened
enlightened enough
enough to
to see
see straightway
straightway into
into the
the
INTRODUCTION xv
xv

essence
essence of of Buddhahood.
Buddhahood. As they are
As they are not
not clear-sighted,
clear-sighted,
something
something is is to
to be
be devised
devised to to lead them to
lead them to the
the right
right path,
path, and
and
this
this something
something must must be be in accord with
in accord their mentalities.
with their mentalities. If If
not,
not, they
they are
are sure
sure toto go
go astray
astray farther
farther and and farther.
farther. 1£ they
If they
are
are not
not capable
capable of of grasping
grasping Buddhata
Buddhata as it is,
as it is, let them have
let them have
something
something of
of it
it and
and gradually
gradually be
be developed.
developed. The
The theory
theory of
of
Upaya (skilful
Upaya (skilful means)means) is
is also
also the
the theory
theory of
of Manomayakaya,
Manomayakaya,
will-body.
will-body. As As thethe incarnation
incarnation of of a a great
great compassionate
compassionate
heart,
heart, the
the Buddha
Buddha ought ought to to be
be able
able toto take
take anyany form
form hehe
wishes
wishes when
when he he sees
sees the
the sufferings
sufferings of of sentient
sentient beings.
beings. The
The
will-body
will-body is is aa part
part of of the
the Buddha
Buddha's 's plan
plan ofof world-salvation.
world-salvation.
This
This isis one
one ofof the
the reasons
reasons why why Buddhism
Buddhism is
is often regarded
often regarded
as
as polytheistic
polytheistic and
and at
at the
the same
same time
time pantheistic.
pantheistic.

The Bodhisattva
The Bodhisattva and and His
His Ten Ten VowsVows
In
In Mahayana
Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism the the Buddha
Buddha is is not
not the
the only
only agent
agent
who
who is is engaged
engaged in in the
the work
work of of enlightening
enlightening or or saving
saving thethe
world.
world. While"While he he is
is able
able to to transform
transform himself
himself intointo asas many
many
forms
forms as as are
are required
required by by sentient beings, he
sentient beings, he is
is also
also assisted
assisted
by
by his
his followers
followers or
or "sons
"sons" " (putra, s'IJ,ta,
(putra,, suta,, or
or aurasa} as
aurasa) they
as they
are called in
are called in the
the IVlahayana
Mahayana sutras.
sutras. Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas are
are thus
thus
the
the sons
sons of
of the
the Buddha
Buddha and and apply
apply themselves
themselves most
most arduously
arduously
and
and most
most assiduously
assiduously to to the
the cause
cause of Buddhism. In
of Buddhism. In fact,
fact,
the
the actual
actual work
work of of world-salvation,
world-salvation, we we cancan say,
say, is
is carried
carried on on
by
by these
these spiritual
spiritual soldiers
soldiers under under the the leadership
leadership of of the
the
Buddha.
Buddha. The The latter
latter isis sometimes
sometimes felt felt to to bebe too
too remote,
remote, too too
serene,
serene, too
too superhuman,
superhuman, and
and his
his sight
sight is
is often
often lost
lost in
in the
the
midst
midst of of our
our worldly
worldly struggles.
struggles. But But the the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva is is

always
always with
with us,us, and
and ever
ever ready
ready to to be
be our our confidant,
confidant, for
for he
he
is
is felt
felt by
by usus to
to share
share the
the same
same passions,
passions, impulses,
impulses, and and aspira­
aspira-
tions
tions which
which areare such
such great
great disturbing,
disturbing, thoughthough ennobling
ennobling too, too,
forces
forces ofof our
our human
human life.
life.

To
To state
state the
the truth,
truth, sentient
sentient beings
beings are are all
all Bodhisattvas,
Bodhisattvas,
however
however ignorant
ignorant and and rready
-eady to to err they may
err they be. They
may be. They areare
all Jinaputras, the
all Jinaputras, the sons
sons of the Victorious,
of the Victorious, and
and harbour
harbour in
in
themselves
themselves every possibility
every possibility of
of attaining
attaining enlightenment.
enlightenment. The
The
Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas who who have
have gonegone up up successively
successively all all the
the rungs
rungs
of
of the
the Bhumi ladder, and who
ladder, and who are thus capable
are thus capable of extending'
of extending
xvi
xvi THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA

their
their help
help over
over us, us, are
are really
really ourour ownown brethren.
brethren. Therefore,
Therefore,
Mahamati
Mahamati of the Lanlrii
of the Lanka opensopens his his questions
questions generally
generally with
with
this
this:: ""II and
and other
other Bodhisattvas,
Bodhisattvas, etc." etc." Mahamati
Mahamati is is our
our
mouthpiece
mouthpiece voicingvoicing our our wants
wants and and aspirations.
aspirations.
Thus
Thus is is not
not the
the place
place to to consider
consider historically
historically howhow thethe
conception evolved
conception evolved in in Buddhism
Buddhism whose whose primitive
primitive object
object
seems to
seems to have
have consisted
consisted in in the realisation of
the realisation of Arhatship.
Arhatship. But But
we
we can
can state
state this
this that
that the
the essence
essence of of Bodhisattvahood
Bodhisattvahood is is anan
unequivocal
unequivocal affirmation
affirmation of
of the
the social,
social, altruistic
altruistic nature
nature of
of
humankind.
humankind. Whatever Whatever enlightenment
enlightenment one one gains,
gains, it
it must
must be be
shared
shared by by one's
one's fellow-beings.
fellow-beings. This This idea
idea is classically ex­
is classically ex-
pressed
pressed in in the
the Mahayana
Mahayana by by thethe so-called
so-called " Ten Vows
"Ten Vows of of
Samantabhaclra".
Samantabhadra". The The Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva is is aa man
man of "inexhaus­
of "inexhaus-
tible
tible vows"
vows (dasanishthiipiida).
' '

( dasmishthdpada) . Without
Without these
these hehe is not him­
is not him-
self.
self. To
To save
save thethe world,
world, to
to bring
bring all
all his_
his fellow-beings
fellow-beings up up
to the
to same level
the same level of thought and
of thought and feeling' where he
feeling where himself is,
he himself is,

and
and not not toto rest,
rest, not
not to to enter
enter intointo Nirvana
Nirvana until
until this
this is is

accomplished,
accomplished, how how infinitely
infinitely long long and and howhow inexpressively
inexpressively
arduous
arduous the the task
task may
may be.be. ThisThis is is the Bodhisattva. Vowing
the Bodhisattva. Vowing
to
to save
save all beings, which
all beings, which is technically known
is technically known as as Piirva­
Purva-
praJ.)idhana
pranidhana in in Mahayana
Mahayana terminology,
terminology, cannot cannot even
even forfor a a
moment be
moment be separated
separated from
from the
the life
life of
of the
the Bodhisattva.
Bodhisattva.
The
The Buddha
Buddha being being surrounded
surrounded by by these
these noble-minded
noble-minded sons sons
cannot
cannot failfail finally
finally to release all
to release all beings
beings fromfrom thethe bondage
bondage
of
of karma
karma and and ignorance
ignorance and and thirst
thirst for for life.
life. With
With this
this inin
view, he
view, he is
is always
always inspiring
inspiring the the Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas with with hishis
sovereign
sovereign power (prabhava) and
power (prabhiiva) sustaining ((adhishthdna)
and sustaining adhishthiina)
them
them in in their
their efforts
efforts to to bring enlightenment
bring enlightenment in
in the
the whole
whole
triple
triple world.
world.

The
The Igno1'[lnt
Ignorant
Life
Life as
as it
it is
is lived
lived by
by most
most of
of us
us isis a
a painful
painful business,
business,
for
for we
we have
have to
to endure
endure much
much in in various ways. Our
various ways. Our desires
desires
are
are thwarted,
thwarted, ourour wishes
wishes are
are crushed,
crushed, and
and the
the worst
worst is
is that
that
we
we do not lmow
do not know howhow to
to get
get out
out of
of this whirlpool of
this whirlpool of greed,
greed,
anger,
anger, and
and in�atuation.
infatuation. We are are at
at the
the extreme
extreme end
end of
of ex­
ex-
istence opposed to
istence opposed to that
that of
of the Buddha. How can
the Buddha. can we
we leap
leap
over
over the
the abyss
abyss and
and reach
reach the
the other
other shore
shore?1
INTRODUCTION xvii
xvii

The
The Mahayana
Mahayana diagnosis
diagnosis of of the
the conditions
conditions in in which
which all
all
sentient
sentient beings
beings are
are placed
placed is
is that
that they
they are
are all
all nursed
nursed by
by
desire ((trishna)
desire trisk'f}a) as
as mother
mother whowho is is accompanied
accompanied by by pleasure
pleasure
(nandi)
(nandi) and anger ((rdga),
and anger raga) , while ignorance (avidya)
while ignorance (avidya) isis

father.
father. To
To be
be cured
cured of of the
the disease,
disease, therefore,
therefore, they
they must
must put
put
an
an end
end to the continuous
to the continuous activities
activities of of this
this dualistic
dualistie poisoning.
poisoning.
When
When this
this is
is done,
done, there
there is
is a
a state
state called
called emancipation
emancipation
((vimoksha)
Vi11wksha) which
which is is full
full ofof bliss.
bliss. The
The Buddhist
Buddhist question
question is
is

thus
thus:: "How is is emancipation possible
emancipation possible?" �" And
And here
here rises
rises
the
the Mahayana
Mahayana system
system of of philosophy.
philosophy.

The
The Turning
Turning back (paravritti)
~back (paravritti)

To
To this
this philosophy,
philosophy, a special paragraph
a special paragraph is is devoted below.
devoted below.
II wish
wish herehere toto say
say a a few
few words concerning the
words concerning the important
important
psychological
psychological event event known
known as as Parav!'itti
Paravritti in the Lanka
in the Lanka, and and
other
other Mahayana
Mahayana literature.
literature. Pariivritti
Paravritti literally
literally means
means " turn­
"turn-
ing
ing up"
up" or "turning back"
or "turning back" or or "change";
"change"; technically,
technically, it it is
is aa
spiritual
spiritual change
change or
or transformation
transformation which
which takes
takes place
place in
in the
the
mind,
mind, especially suddenly, and
especially suddenly, and I have called
I have called itit "revulsion
"revulsion" "
in
in my Studies in the
my Studies m the Lankavatara,
Lankavatara, which, which, it it will
will bebe seen,
seen,
somewhat
somewhat corresponds
corresponds to to what
what is is known
known as as "conversion
"conversion" "
among the psychological students
among the psychological students of religion. of religion.
It
It is
is significant
significant that
that the
the Mahayana
Mahayana has has been
been insistent
insistent to to
urge
urge its
its followers
followers to
to experience
experience this
this psychological
psychological trans­
trans-
formation
formation in in their
their practical life. A mere
practical life. intellectual under­
mere intellectual under-
standing
standing of of the
the truth
truth isis not
not enough
enough in in the
the life
life of
of a
a Buddhist
Buddhist ; ;

the
the truth
truth mustmust bebe directly
directly grasped,
grasped, personally
personally experienced,
experienced,
intuitively
intuitively penetrated
penetrated into into;; for
for then
then itit will
will bebe distilled
distilled into
into
life
life and
and determine
determine its its course.
course.
This P
This arav!,itti, according
Paravritti, according to the Layhkii,
to the Lanka, takes
takes place
place in in
the A
the laya-vijiiana
Alaya-vijnana or
or All-conserving
All-conserving Mind, Mind, which
which is
is assumed
assumed
to
to exist
exist behind
behind ourour individual
individual empirical
empirical consciousnesses.
consciousnesses. The The
A laya is
Alaya is a metaphysical entity,
a metaphysical entity, and
and no psychological analysis
no psychological analysis
can
can reach
reach it.it. What
What we we ordinarily
ordinarily knowknow as the A
as the laya is
Alaya is its
its

working
working through
through a a relative
relative mind.
mind. The The Mahayana
Mahayana calls calls this
this
phase
phase of the A
of the laya tainted
Alaya tainted or denied (klishta)
or defiled (klishta} andand tells.
tells us
us toto
be cleansed of
be cleansed of it
it in
in order
order to to experience
experience a a Parav!'itti
Paravritti for for thethe
attainment of
attainment of ultimate
ultimate reality.
reality.
xviii
xviii THE LANKAVATARA
LANKAVATARA SUTRA
SUTRA
Paravritti
Paravritti in in another
another sense, therefore, is
sense, therefore, is purification
purification
vis'ltddki) In
((visuddhi) .. In Buddhism
Buddhism terms
terms of of colouring
colouring are
are much
much used,
used,
and becoming pure,
and becoming pure, free
free from
from all
all pigment,
pigment, means
means that the
that the
.Alaya
Alaya is is thoroughly
thoroughly washed
washed off
off its dualistic accretion
its dualistic accretion oror out­
out-
flow
flow ((asrava), that is,
asra,va) , that that the
is, that the Tathagata
Tathagata has has effected his
effected his
work
work of of purification
purification in in the
the mind
mind of of aa sentient being, which
sentient being, which
has
has so'so far
far failed
failed toto perceive
perceive its own oneness
its own oneness and
and allness.
allness.
Being pure
Being pure isis to
to remain
remain inin its
its own
own selfhood
selfhood or
or self-nature
self -nature

(svabliava)) . While
(svabkava. While Paravritti
. Paravritti is is psychological,
psychological, it it still
still

retains its
retains its intellectual
intellectual flavour
flavour as
as most
most Buddhist
Buddhist terms
terms do.
do.

Self-discipline
8 elf-discipline and
and the
the B'ltddha's
Buddha's Power
Power
As
As long
long asas Paravritti
Paravritti is is an
an experience
experience and and notnot mere
mere
understanding, it
understanding, it is
is evident that self-discipline
evident that self-discipline plays plays an an
important
important rOlerole in
in the
the Buddhist
Buddhist life.
life. This
This is is insisted
insisted uponupon
in the
in Lanka as
the Lanka as isis illustrated
illustrated inin the
the use
use of of such
such phrases
phrases as as
" Do not
"Do not rely
rely onon others
others" " (apa1·apra'1}eya.
(apa/rapraneya)) ; "Strive
;
"Strive your­ your-
selves" (siksMtavyam} etc.
selves" (sikskitavyam), etc.
,
But
But at the same
at the same timetime wewe must
must
not forget the
not forget the fact
fact that
that the La:ftkii also
the Lanka also emphasises
emphasises the
the neces­
neces-
sity
sity of the Buddha's
of the Buddha's power being added
power being added to to the
the Bodhisattvas,
Bodhisattvas,
in
in their
their upward
upward course
course of of spiritual
spiritual development
development and and in the
in the
accomplishment of
accomplishment their great
of their task of
great task of world-salvation.
world-salvation. If If
they
they were
were not.thus
not thus so so constantly
constantly sustained
sustained by by the
the miraculous
miraculous
power of
power of the
the Buddha,
Buddha, they they would
would speedily
speedily fallfall into the group
into the group
of the philosophers
of the philosophers and
and Sravakas,
Sravakas, and
and they
they would
would never be
never be
able to attain
able to attain supreme enlightenment
supreme enlightenment and
and preach
preach the
the doctrine
doctrine
of
of universal
universal emancipation.
emancipation. Indeed, Indeed, when when the the Buddha
Buddha so so
wishes,
wishes, even
even such
such inanimate
inanimate objects
objects as as mountains,
mountains, woods, woods,
palaces,
palaces, etc.
etc. will
will resound
resound withwith the
the voice
voice of of the
the Buddha;
Buddha;
how
how much
much more
more the the Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas who who are are his spiritual
his spiritual
inheritors!
inheritors !

The
The doctrine
doctrine of of Adhishthana
Adhishthana gains gains all the more
all the more signific­
signific-
ance
ance when
when we we consider
consider the the development
development of
of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism intointo the
the doctrine
doctrine ofof salvation
salvation by by faith
faith alone.
alone. The
The
power
power of of a
a Bodhisattva's
Bodhisattva's original
original vows
vows may may also
also bebe judged
judged
as being derived
as being derived from from thethe Buddha.
Buddha. If If thethe possibility
possibility of of
enlightenment
enlightenment is is due
due toto the Adhishthana or
the Adhishthana Pl'abhava of
or Prabhava the
of the
Buddha,
Buddha, all all the wonders that
the wonders that areare toto take place by
take place by thethe
INTRODUCTION xix
xix

strength
strength, of of the
the enlighten
enlightenment
ment mustmust be inferred ultimately
be inferred ultimately
to
to issue
issue from
from the
the fountain-head
fountain-head of
of Buddhahood
Buddhahood itself.
itself.

At
At any
any raterate the
the Mahayana
Mahayana idea idea of of the
the Buddha
Buddha being being
able
able toto impart
impart his
his power
power to
to others
others marks
marks one
one of
of those
those epoch­
epoch-
making
making deviations
deviations which which set set off
off the
the Mahayana
Mahayana from so-called
from so-called
primitive
primitive or or original
original Buddhism.
Buddhism. When the the Buddha
Buddha comes comes
to be
to be considered
considered capablecapable of of Adhishthana,
Adhishthana, the the next
next step
step his
his
devotees
devotees are are logically
logically led led toto take
take would
would be be the
the idea
idea of of
vicarious
vicarious suffering
suffering or
or atonement.
atonement. Giving power
Giving power to
to another
another
is
is aa positive
positive ideaidea while
while suffering
suffering for for another
another maymay be be said
said to
to
be
be a a negative
negative one.
one. Though
Though this
this latter
latter is
is strangely
strangely absent
absent
in
in the La;nka, the
the Lanka, the Ga, 'YpJ,avyuha as
Gandavyuha as well
well asas the
the P')'ajiiapam·
Prajnapdramita mita
are
are quite
quite eloquent
eloquent in in elucidating
elucidating the doctrine of
the doctrine of vicarious
vicarious
suffering.
suffering. According
According to to this
this doctrine,
doctrine, whatever
whatever suffering
suffering one one
is
is enduring
enduring may may be be transferred
transferred on on toto another
another if if the
the latter
latter
sincerely
sincerely desires
desires out out of of his
his unselfish
unselfish �nd and all-embracing
all-embracing love love
for
for others,
others, to
to take
take these
these sufferings
sufferings upon upon himself
himself so
so that
that the
the
real
real sufferers
sufferers may may not
not only
only be
be relieved
relieved of
of them
them but
but escape
escape
their
their evil
evil consequences,
consequences, thus thus enabling
enabling him him to to advance
advance more more
easily
easily andand successfully
successfully towards towards the the attainment
attainment of of the
the blissful
blissful
life. This
life. This goes
goes quite
quite against
against the the idea
idea of of individual
individual respon­
respon-
sibility.
sibility. But
But really
really religious
religious minds
minds require
require this vicarious
this vicarious
suffering
suffering for for their
their spiritual
spiritual life. life.

To
To suffer
suffer or or atone
atone vicariously
vicariously is is still
still negative
negative and and fails
fails
to
to entirely satisfy
entirely satisfy our
our spiritual
spiritual needs.
needs. The
The latter
latter demand
demand
that
that more
more goodgood mustmust be be done
done in in order
order to to suppress
suppress the the evils
evils
which
which are are found
found claiming
claiming this this world
world for for their
their own
own glorifica­
glorifica-
tion.
tion. So
So the Mahayanists accumulate
the Mahayanists accumulate stocks stocks of of merit
merit not not
only
only forfor the material of
the material of their
their own
own enlightenment
enlightenment but but for
for the
the
general
general cultivation
cultivation of of merit
merit which
which can can be shared equally
be shared equally by by
their fellow-beings,
their fellow-beings, animate animate and and inanimate.
inanimate. This This is the true
is the true
meaning
meaning of of P ariJ;lamana, that
Parinamana, that is,is, turning
turning one'sone's merit
merit over
over toto
others
others forfor their
their spiritual
spiritual interest.
interest.
As II said
said elsewhere,
elsewhere, this this notion
notion of of Parir) amana is
Parinamana is not
not
at
at all traceable in
all traceable in the Lanka,, which
the Lanka, which is strange. The
is strange. The Lanka
Lanka
cannot
cannot be imagined to
be imagined to have
have been compiled prior
been compiled prior to the
to the
Prajnapdramita, nor
Prajnapiirarnita, nor to to the Gandavyuha or
the Ga'YJiJavyuha Avatamsaka;; if
or Avatarhsaka if

so,
so, why
why this absence?� How can
this absence can this
this be explained 1
be explained?
xx
xx THE
THE LANKAVATARA·SUTRA
LANKAVATARA SUTRA

Buddha the
Buddha the Enlightened
Enlightened- and and Sarvasattva
Sarvasattva
the
the Ignorant
Ignorant
To
To conclude
conclude this this section,
section, Buddhism
Buddhism is is the
the story
story of of rela­
rela-
tionship
tionship between
between the the two
two groups
groups of of beings:
beings the: the one
one is is called
called
Buddha
Buddha who who is is the
the enlightened,
enlightened, the the Tathagata,
Tathagata, the the Arhat,
Arhat,
and
and the
the other
other is generally designated
is generally designated as Sarvasattva, literally
as Sarvasattva, literally
"all
"all beings
beings", " , who
who are ignorant, greedy
are ignorant, greedy for for worldly
worldly things,
things,
and therefore in
and therefore perpetual torment.
in perpetual torment. In In spite
spite of their
of their
hankering for
hankering for worldly enjoyments, they
worldly enjoyments, they are conscious of
are conscious of
their
their condition
condition and and not
not at at aUall satisfied
satisfied with
with it; it; when
when they they
reflect
reflect they
they find
find themselves
themselves quitequite forlorn
forlorn inwardly,
inwardly, they they long long
for
for real
real happiness,
happiness, for for ultimate
ultimate reality,
reality, and blissful en­
and blissful en-
lightenment.
lightenment. They They look
look upwards,
upwards, where where the
the Buddha
Buddha sits sits rapt
rapt
in
in · his
his meditation
meditation serenely
serenely regarding
regarding them them with with his trans­
his trans-
cendental wisdom. As
cendental wisdom. As hehe looks
looks downdown at at his
his fellow-beings
fellow-beings
inexplicably tormented with
inexplicably tormented with their greed and
their greed and ignorance
ignorance and and
egotism,
egotism, he he isis disturbed,
disturbed, for for he feels an
he feels inextinguishable
an inextinguishable
feeling
feeling of love stirring
of love stirring within
within himself-the
himself the feeling feeling now now per­ per-
fectly
fectly purified
purified of of all
all the
the defilements
defilements of of selfishness,
selfishness, which which
embraces
embraces the the whole
whole world
world in in pity though not
pity though not attached
attached to to it.
it.

The
The Buddha
Buddha leaves leaves his
his transcendental
transcendental abode. abode. He He is is seen
seen
among
among sentient
sentient beings,
beings, each
each one one of of whom
whom recognises
recognises him him
according
according to to his
his own
own light.
light.
"
Transcendental
Transcendental wisdom wisdom (prajna)(prajna) and and a a heart
heart of of all­
all-

embracing
embracing love (mahakaruna) constitute
love (mahakaru'lJa) constitute the the very
very reason
reason of of
Buddhahood,
Buddhahood, while while the desire or
the desire or thirst
thirst for
for life
life (trish'f}a
(trishna), ) , and
and
ignorance
ignorance as as toto the meaning of
the meaning of life (avidya),, and
life (avidya) and deedsdeeds
(karma) following
(Jcarma) following from
from the
the blind
blind assertion
assertion of
of life-impulse­
life-impulse
these
these are
are the factors that
the factors enter into
that enter into the
the nature
nature of of Sarva­
Sarva-
sattva,
sattva, all
all ignorant
ignorant and and infatuated
infatuated ones. ones. The
The oneone who who is is

above,
above, looking downward, extends
looking downward, extends his his arms
arms to to help
help ; the
;
the other
other
unable
unable to to extricate
extricate himself
himself from entanglements looks
from entanglements looks up up in in
despair,
despair, andand finding
finding thethe helping
helping arms arms stretches
stretches his his own
own· to to
take hold
take hold ofof them.
them. And from from thisthis scene
scene the
the following narra­
following narra-
tives psychological,
tives psychological, logical,
logical, and and ontological,
ontological, unfoldunfold them­ them-
selves
selves toto the Buddhist soul.
the Buddhist soul.
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION xxi
xxi

II
II

Psychology
Psychology
What may
What may be psychology in
Buddhist psychology
termed Buddhist
be termed in thethe Lanka
Lanka
consists in
consists analysis of
the analysis
in the mind, that
of mind, that is, the classification
in the
is, in classification
of the
of Vijnanas. To
the Vijiianas. understand thus
To understand thus the psychology of
the psychology of Bud­
Bud-
dhism properly
dhism properly the
the knowledge
knowledge of
of these
these terms
terms is
is necessary:
necessary :

citta., ma/nas, vijfill
citta, manas, vijnana, manovijnana, and
na, manovijfi'{ina, alayavijnana..
and alayavijfiana-
'ro begin with
To begin with Vijiiana.
Vijnana. V ijfiana is
Vijnana is composed
composed of of the
the
prefix
prefix vi, meaning "to
vi, meaning divide", and
"to divide", and the the root
root jfia jnd which
which
means
means "to "to perceive
perceive", ", "to
"to know".
know". Thus, Thus, Vijiiana
Vijnana is is the
the
faculty
faculty of of distinguishing
distinguishing or or discerning
discerning or judging. When
or judging. When
an object is
an object is presented
presented beforebefore the eye, it
the eye, it is
is perceived
perceived and and
judged
judged as
as a
a red
red apple
apple or
or a
a piece
piece of
of white
white linen
linen ;
; the
the faculty
faculty
ot doing this
of doing this isis called
called eye-vijiiana.
eye-vijnana. In In thethe same
same way, way, there
there
are
are ear-vijiiana
ear-vijnana for for sound,
sound, nose-vijfiana
nose-vijnana for for odour,
odour, tongue­
tongue-
vijfiana for
vijnana for taste, body-vijiiana for
taste, body-vijnana for touch,
touch, and and thought­
thought-
vijfiana (manovijnana) for
vijnana (manovijfiana) for ideas-altogether
ideas altogether six six forms
forms of of
Vijfiana
Vijnana for for distinguishing
distinguishing the the various
various aspectsaspects of world
of world
external or
external or internal.
internal.
. Of
Of these
these six six Vijfianas,
Vijnanas, the the Manojiviiana
Manojivnana is is the
the mostmost
important
important as
as it
it is
is directly
directly related
related to
to an
an inner
inner faculty
faculty known
known
as
as Manas.
Manas. Manas Manas roughly
roughly corresponds
corresponds to to mind
mind as as an
an organ
organ
of
of thought,
thought, but but in in fact
fact it'
it is
'

is more
more than than that,that, forfor it it isis also
also
aa . strong
strong powerpower of of attaching
attaching itself
itself to to the
the result
result of of thinking.
thinking.
The
The latter
latter may
may eveneven bebe considered
considered subordinate
subordinate to to this power
this power
of
of attachment.
attachment. The Manas first
The Manas first wills,
wills, then
then it it discriminates
discriminates
to
to judge
judge;; to judge is
to judge is to
to divide,
divide, and and thisthis dividing
dividing ends ends in in
viewing
viewing existence
existence dualistically.
dualistically. Hence
Hence the
the Manas'
Manas' tenacious
tenacious
attachment
attachment to to the the dualistic
dualistic interpretation
interpretation of of existenee.
existence.
Willing
Willing and and thinking
thinking are are inextricably
inextricably woven woven into into thethe texture
texture
of-Ma
of Manas. nas.
Citt a comes
Citta comes from from thethe root cit, "to
root cit, "to think",
think", but but in in the
the
Lanka the derivation is
the derivation made from
is made from the the root
root ci,ci, "to
"to pile up",
pile up",
"to -arrange in
"to -arrange in order".
order". The Gitta is
The Citta is thus
thus a a storehouse
storehouse where where
the
the seedsseeds of of all
all thoughts
thoughts and
and deeds
deeds are
are accumulated
accumulated and
and
stored
stored up. up. The The Citta, however,
Citta, however, has
has a
a double
double sense, general
sense, general
and
and specific.
specific. When
When it it is
is used
used in in the
the general
general sense sense it it means
means
xxii
xxii THE LANKAVATARA
LANKAVATARA SUTRA
SUTRA
"mind", "
"mind", "mentation",
mentation", " ideas ", including
"ideas", including the the activities
activities ofof
Manas
Manas and and Manovijfiana,
Manovijnana, and and also
also of of the
the Vijfianas;
Vijnanas; while while
specifically
specifically it it is
is a
a synonym
synonym of of A layavijiiana in
Alayavijnana in its
its relative
relative
aspects,
aspects, and
d istinguishable from
and distinguishable from allall the
the rest of the
rest of the mental
mental
fac ulties. When,
faculties. When, however,
however, it it is used in
is used in the
the form
form of of Citta­
Citta-
matra, Mind-only,
inatra, Mind-only, it
it acquires
acquires still
still another
another connotation.
connotation. We
can
can say
say that
that Citta
Citta appears
appears here
here in
in its
its highest possible
highest possible sense,
sense,
for
for it
it is
is then
then neither
neither simply
simply mentation
mentation nOl' nor intellection,
intellection, nor nor
perception
perception as as a a function
function of consciousness. It
of consciousness. It isis identifiable
identifiable
with the A
with the laya in
Alaya in itsits absolute aspect. This
absolute aspect. This will
will become
become
clearer later 011.
clearer later on.
A la,y a.vijiiiina is
Alayavijnana is iila. ya +vijniina, and
alaya+vijnana, alaya is
and iilaya is aa store
store
where
where things
things are
are hoarded
hoarded for
for future
future use.
use. The
The Citta
Citta as a
as a
cumulative
cumulative faculty
faculty is
is thus
thus identified
identified with
with the
the A layavijiiana.
Alayavijnana.
Strictly
Strictly speaking,
speaking, the the A laya is
Alaya is not
not a a Vijiiana,
Vijnana, has has nono discern­
discern-
ing power
ing power in in itit;; it
it indiscriminately harbours aU
indiscriminately harbours all that
that isis
poured
poured intointo it it through
through the the channel
channel of of the
the Vijiianas.
Vijnanas. The The
A laya is
Alaya is perfectly
perfectly neutral,
neutral, indifferent,
indifferent, and and does
does not not offer
offer to
to
give
give judgments.
judgments.

Relation
Relation Between
Between the the Various
Various Functions
Functions
Having explained
Having explained what
what the
the various
various important
important termsterms
mean
mean and and what
what functions
functions are are indicated
indicated by them,
by them, let
let us
us
proceed
proceed to to see
see in
in what
what relationship
relationship they they stand
stand to one another.
to one another.
The
The whole
whole system
system of of mental
mental functions
functions is is called
called inin the
the
La/likrt
Lanka Cittakulapa
Cittakulapa or or Vijiianakfi.
Vijnanakaya; y a ; Citta
Citta and
and Vijfiana
Vijnana are are
here used
here used synonymously.
synonymously. In In this mental system
this mental system eight
eight modes
modes
of
of activity
activity are distinguished : A
are distinguished : Iayavijiiana, Manas,
Alayavijnana, Manas, Mano­
Mano-
vijiiana,
vijnana, and
and the
the five
five sense-Vijiianas.
sense-Vijnanas. When these
these eight Vij­
eight Vij-
nanas
nanas areare grouped
grouped together
together under
under two two general
general heads, the
heads, the
one
one group
group is known as
is known as Khyati-Vijiiana
Khyati- Vijnana (perceiving
(perceiving Vijiianas)
Vijnanas)
and
and the
the other
other asas Vastuprativikalpa-vijfiana
Vastuprativikalpa-vijnana ((object-discrimi-
object-discrimi­
nating Vijiiana
nating Vijnana)) . But
. But inin fact
fact the
the Vijiianas
Vijnanas areare not
not separable
separable
into
into these
these two two groups,
groups, for for perceiving
perceiving is is discriminating.
discriminating.
When an an individual
individual object
object is is perceived
perceived as as such,
such, that
that is,
is, as
as
solid,
solid, or
or as
as coloured, etc.,
coloured, etc., discrimination
discrimination has
has already
already taken
taken
place here; indeed
place here; indeed without
without the the latter, the former
latter, the former is impos­
is impos-

sible
sible and
and conversely.
conversely. Every
Every Vijiiana performs
Vijnana performs these
these two
two
INTRODUCTION xxiii
xxiii

functions
functions simultaneously,
simultaneously, which which is is to
to say,
say, one
one functioning
functioning is is

analysable
analysable into
into two
two ideas, perceiving
ideas, perceiving and
and discriminating.
discriminating.
But
But it is to
it is to bebe observed
observed that that this
this double
double activity
activity doesdoes notnot
belong
belong to
to the
the A layavijiiana.
Alayavijnana.
Another
Another way way of of classifying
classifying the Vijiianas is
the Vijnanas is according
according to to
their
their Lakshaa).
Lakshana a oror modes
modes of of being,
being, of of which
which three
three areare dis­
dis-
tinguishable
tinguishable as as evolving
evolving (pravritti),
(pravritti) ,
as performing,
as performing deeds deeds
(karma), and
(karma), and as as retaining
retaining their their ownown original
original nature
nature (jati).
(jati).
From
From this viewpoint, all
this viewpoint, all the
the Vijfi anas are
Vijnanas are evolving
evolving and and deed­
deed-
performing Vijfianas
performing Vijnanas except except the
the A laya
Alaya which
which always
always abides
abides
in
in its
its self-nature.
self -nature. For
For the the Vijiianas
Vijnanas may may cease
cease from evolv­
from evolv-
ing
ing and
and performing
performing deeds
deeds for
for some
some reason,
reason, but
but the
the M aya
Alaya
ever
ever remains
remains itself.
itself.

The A
The laya, according
Alaya, according to to the
the Lanka,
Lanka, has has twotwo aspects:
aspects:
the A laya as
the Alaya as it
it is
is in
in itself,
itself, which
which is is in
in the
the Sagathakam
Sagathakam called called
Paramalaya-vijiiana,
Paramalaya-vijnana, and the A
and the laya as
Alaya as mental
mental representation
representation
called Vijiiaptir .i
called Vijnaptir laya. These
Alaya. These two aspeets are
two aspects are also
also known
known
l'espectively
respectively as
as the
the Prabandha
Prabandha (incessant)
(incessant) and
and the
the Lakshal}a
Lakshana
(manifested) . The
(manifested) . The A laya is
Alaya is incessant because of
incessant because of its uninter­
its uninter-

rupted
rupted existence
existence ,
; it
it is
is manifested
manifested because
because of
of its
its activity
activity being
being
perceptible by
perceptible by the
the mind.
mind.
From
From this,this, we we cancan seesee that the A
that the laya is
Alaya conceived in
is conceived in the
the
Lanka as
La1ika as being
being absolute
absolute in in oneone respect
respect and and inin the
the other
other as as
being
being subject
subject to to ""evolution"
evolution " (pravritti).
(pravritti). It
It is
is this
this evolving
evolving
aspect
aspect of the A
of the laya that
Alaya that lends
lends itself
itself toto the
the treacherous
treacherous inter-inter­
pretation
pretation of
of Manas.
Manas. As
As long
long as
as the
the A laya
Alaya remains
remains in
in and
and
by
by itself,
itself, it
it is
is beyond
beyond the
the grasp
grasp of
of an
an individual, empirical
individual, empirical
consciousness,
consciousness, it it isis almost
almost like like Emptiness
Emptiness itself itself although
although it it

ever lies behind
ever lies behind all the Vijfi
all the ana-activities, for
Vijnana-activities, for the latter will
the latter will
cease
cease working
working ,at once when
at once when the the A laya is
Alaya is taken
taken out out of of
existence.
existence.
Manas
Manas is is conscious
conscious of of the
the presence
presence behind
behind itself
itself ofof the
the
A laya
Alaya and
and also
also of
of the
the latter"s
latter's uninterrupted
uninterrupted working working Oll
on the
the
entire
entire system
system of of the
the Vijfianas. Reflecting on
Vijnanas. Reflecting the A
on the laya and
Alaya and
imagining
imagining it it to
to be be an ego, Manas
an ego, Manas clings
clings to
to it
it as
as if
if it
it were
were
reality
reality andand disposes
disposes of of the reports of
the reports of the
the six
six Vijfianas
Vijnanas ac- ac­
cordingly. In
cordingly. In other words, Manas
other words, Manas is is the individual will
the individual will to to
live
live and
and thethe principle
principle of of discrimination.
discrimination. The The notion
notion of of anan
xxiv
xxiv SUTRA
THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
ego-substance is·
ego-substance is herein
herein established,
established, and
and also the acceptance
also the acceptance
of
of a world external
a world external to
to itself
itself and distinct from
and distinct from itself.
itself.

The
The six
six Vijiianas
Vijnanas function,
function, asas it were, mechanically
it were, mechanically
when the
when the conditions
conditions are
are satisfied
satisfied and
and are
are not
not conscious
conscious of
of
their
their own
own doings.
doings. They
They have
have nono intelligence
intelligence outside
outside their
their
respective
respective fields
fields of
of activity.
activity. They
They are not organised
are not organised in them­
in them-
selves and
selves and have
have no
no theory
theory for their existence
for their existence and
and doings.
doings.
What
What they
they experience
experience is
is reported
reported to the headquarters
to the with
headquarters with
no
no comment
comment or
or interpretation.
interpretation. Manas
Manas sits
sits at
at the
the head­
head-
quarters
quarters and like a
and like a great
great general
general gathers up all
gathers up the informa-
all the informa­
tion coming
tion coming from
from the
the six
six Vijfianas.
Vijnanas. For
For it
it is
is he
he who
who shifts
shifts
and
and arranges the reports
arranges the reports and
and gives
gives orders
orders again
again to the
to the
reporters
reporters according to his
according to Ms own
own will
will and intelligence. The
and intelligence. The
orders
orders are then faithfully
are then faithfully executed.
executed.
The
The Manas
Manas is a double-headed
is a double-headed monster, the one
monster, the one face
face looks
looks
towards the
towards the ..Alaya
Alaya and and the
the other
other towards
towards the Vijiianas. He
the Vijnanas. He
does not understand
does not understand whatwhat the Alaya really
the Alaya really is.
is. Discrimimi­
Discrimina-
tion being
tion being one
one ofof his
his fundamental
fundamental functions,
functions, he he sees multi­
sees multi-
tudinousness there
tudinousness there and
and clings to it
clings to it as
as final.
final. The
The clinging
clinging
now binds him
now binds him to to aa world
world ofof particulars..
particulars. Thus,
Thus, ·desire
desire is
is

mother, and
mother, and ignorance
ignorance is father, and
is father, this existence
and this existence takes
takes its
its

rise. But
rise. But the
the Manas
Manas isis also
also aa double-edged.
double-edged sword. When
sword. When
there takes
there takes place
place aa "turning-back" (paravritU} in
"turning-back" (pariivritti) in it, the
it, the

entire arrangement of
entire arrangement things in
of things in the Vijfianakaya or
the Vijnanakaya or Citta­
Citta-
kalapa changes.
kalapa changes. With
With one
one swing
swing of the sword
of the sword the
the pluralities
pluralities
are
are cut
cut asunder
asunder and
and the
the Alaya
Alaya is
is Seen in its
seen in its native
native form
form
svalaksha1Ja), that
((svalakskana) ,
that is,
is, as
as solitary
solitary reality
reality ((viviktadharma),
viviktadharma),
which is
which is from
from the
the first beyond discrimination.
first beyond discrimination. The The Manas
Manas
is not of
is not of course
course an
an independent
independent worker,
worker, itit is
is always
always depend­
depend-
ing
ing on the Alaya,
on the Alaya, without
without which
which it has no
it has no reason
reason ofof being
being
itself;
itself; but
but at
at the
the same
same time
time the
the Alaya
Alaya is
is also
also depending
depending on on
the Manas.
the Manas. The The Alaya
Alaya is
is absolutely one,
absolutely one, but
but this
this oneness
oneness
gains
gains significance
significance only
only when
when it
it is
is realised
realised byby the
the Manas
Manas and and
recognised as
recognised as its
its own
own supporter (alamba).. This
supporter (alamba) relation­
This relation-
ship
ship is
is altogether
altogether too
too subtle
subtle to. be perceived
to be perceived by
by ordinary
ordinary
minds that
minds that are
are found
found choked
choked with
with defilements
defilements and
and false
false ideas
ideas
since- beginningless time.
since beginningless time.
The
The Manas backed by
Manas backed by the
the Alaya
Alaya has been the
has been the seat
seat of
of
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION xxv
xxv

desire
desire or or thirst (trishna), karma,
thirst (trish1}a), karma, andand ignorance.
ignorance. The The seeds
seeds
grow
grow out
out of
of them,
them, and
and are
are deposited
deposited in
in the
the .A.laya.
Alaya. When
When
the
the waves
waves are
are stirred
stirred up up inin the
the Alaya-ocean
Alaya-oeean by by thethe wind
wind of of
objectivity-so
objectivity so interpreted
interpreted by by the
the Manas-these
Manas these seeds seeds give
give
aa constant
constant supply
supply to to thethe uninterrupted
uninterrupted flow flow ofof the
the Vijnana­
Vijnana-
waters.
waters. In In this
this general
general turmoil
turmoil in in which
which we we sentient
sentient beings
beings
are
are all
all living,
living, the
the Alaya
Alaya is is as
as responsible
responsible as as the
the Manas;
Manas for;
for ifif
the Alaya
the Alaya refused
refused to
to take
take the
the seeds
seeds in
in that
that are
are sent
sent up
up from
from
the
the region
region ofof the
the Vijiiana,
Vijnana, l\fanas
Manas may may notnot have
have opportunities
opportunities
to exercise its
to exercise its two
two fundamental functions, willing
fundamental functions, willing and dis­
and dis-
criminating.
criminating. But But at at thethe same
same time
time it it is
is due
due to to the
the Alaya
Alaya's 's
self-purifying
self -purifying naturenature that that there
there takes
takes place
place a a great
great cata­
cata-
strophe
strophe in in it
it known
known as as " turning-back". With
"turning-back". "With thisthis " turn­
"turn-
ing-back
ing-back" " in
in the
the Alaya,
Alaya, ManasManas so so intimately
intimately in in relation
relation with
with
it
it also
also experiences
experiences a a transformation
transformation in in its
its fundamental
fundamental
attitude towards the
attitude towards the Vijiianas.
Vijnanas. The The latter
latter are are nono more
more
regarded
regarded as
as reporters
reporters of
of an
an external
external world
world which
which is
is charac­
charac-
terised
terised with
with individuality
individuality and and manifoldness.
manifoldness. This This position
position
is
is now
now abandoned,
abandoned, the the external
external world
world is is no
no more
more adhered
adhered to to
as such,
as such, that
that is, as reality
is, a"c:{ reality ; for
;
for itit is
is no
no more
more thanthan a a mere
mere
reflection
reflection ofof the Alaya. The
the Alaya. The Alaya
Alaya hashas been
been looking
looking at at itself
itself
in
in the
the Manas
Manas'' mirror.
mirror. There There hashas been
been fromfrom the the very first
very first

nothing
nothing other
other than
than itself.
itself. Hence
Hence the
the doctrine
doctrine of
of Mind-only
Mind-only
(cittamatra) or
(cittamiztra), ,
or the
the Alaya-only.
Alaya-only.

The Religious
The Religious Signification
Signification
The necessity of
The necessity of conceiving
conceiving Alaya
Alaya in in its
its double
double aspect,
aspect,
(1)
(1) asas absolute
absolute reality (viviktadharma) and
reality (viviktadharma) 2 ) as
and ((2) as subject
subject
to
to causation
causation (het'ltka
(hetuka), ), comes
comes from
from the
the Mahayana
Mahayana idea idea of
of
Buddhahood
Buddhahood ((luddhoM).
buddhata) . If If Buddhahood
Buddhahood is is something
something
absolutely
absolutely solitary,
solitary, all
all the
the efforts
efforts put
put forward
forward by by sentient
sentient
beings
beings to realise enlightenment
to realise enlightenment would
would be
be of
of no
no avail
avail what­
what-
ever.
ever. In
In other words, all
other words, all that
that the
the Tathagata
Tathagata wantswants toto do
do
for
for sentient
sentient beings
beings would
would never
never have
have its
its opportunity
opportunity to to reach
reach
them.
them. ThereThere must
must bebe something
something commonly
commonly shared
shared by each
by each
so
so that
that when
when aa note
note is
is struck
struck at
at one
one end
end a a corresponding
corresponding one one
will
will answer
answer atat the
the other.
other. The
The Alaya
Alaya is is thus
thus known
known on on the
the
one hand as
one hand as Tathagata-garbha,
Tathagata-garbha, the the womb
womb of of Tathagatahood,
Tathagatahood,
xxvi
xxvi THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
and
and onon the
the other
other hand
hand imagined
imagined by the ignorant
by the ignorant as ah ego­
as ail ego-
soul
soul (pudgala
(pudgala or
or iitman)
atman) ..

The Tathagata-garbha, therefore,
The Tathagata-garbha, therefore, whose psychological
whose psychological
name
name is Alayavijiiana, is
is Alayavijnana, is a reservoir of
a reservoir things good
of things good and bad,
and bad,
pure and
pure and defiled.
defiled. Expressed
Expressed differently,
differently, the the Tathagata·
Tathagata-
garbha is
garbha is originally,
originally, in in its self-nature, immaculate,
its self-nature, immaculate, but but
because
because of of its
its external
external d i rt (iigantuklesa)
dirt (dgantuklesa) it it is
is soiled, and
soiled, and
when soiled-which
when soiled which is is thethe state generally found
state generally found in in allall
sentient
sentient beings-an
beings an intuitive
intuitive penetration (pratyaksha) is
penetration (pTatyaksha) is

impossible.
impossible. When
When this
this is
is impossible
impossible as
as is
is the
the case
case with
with the
the
philosophers
philosophers and and ignorant
ignorant masses, masses, the the Garbha
Garbha is believed
is believed

sometimes
sometimes to to be
be aa creator kara'rJa ) and
creator ((Tcarana) and sometimes
sometimes to to be
be anan
ego-substance (atmari). As
ego-substance (ii,trnan). As it is so
it is believed, it
so believed, it allows
allows itself
itself
to
to transmigrate
transmigrate through
through the the six paths of
six paths of existence.
existence. Let there
Let there
be, however,
be, however, an an intuitive penetration into
intuitive penetration into thethe primitive
primitive
purity (pmkritiparisuddhi) of
purity (prakritipariSuddhi) of the Tathagata-garbha, and
the Tathagata-garbha, and the
the
whole
whole system
system of
of the
the Vijiianas goes
Vijnanas goes through through a
a revolution.
revolution. If
If
the
the Tathagata-garbha
Tathagata-garbha or
or Alaya-vijiiana
Alaya-vijnana were
were not
not a
a mysterious
mysterious
mixtul'e
mixture of of purity
purity and and defilement,
defilement, good good andand evil, this abrupt
evil, this abrupt
transformation (pa1'iivritti) of
transformation (paravritti) of an entire personality
an entire personality would would
be
be an impossibility. That
an impossibility. That is is to
to say,
say, if
if the
the Garbha
Garbha or or the
the
Alaya
Alaya while
while absolutely
absolutely neutral
neutral and and colourless
colourless in in itself
itself did
did
not
not yet
yet harbour
harbour in in itself
itself a a certain irrationality, no
certain irrationality, no sentient
sentient
beings
beings would
would ever
ever be
be a
a Buddha,
Buddha, no
no enlightenment
enlightenment would
would be
be
experienced by
experienced by any any human
human beings. Logicalness
beings. Logicalness is
is to
to be
be
transcended
transcended somewhere
somewhere and somehow. And
and somehow. And as this illogical-
as this illogical­
ness
ness is practically possible,
is practically possible, the IVlahayana establishes
the Mahayana establishes the the
theory
theory of of Mind-only
Mind-only (cittamiit1'a)
(cittamatra) . .

Ontology U/nd
Ontology and the
the Twofold
Twofold Egolessness
Egolessness
In considering the
In considering the theory
theory of
of Mind-only,
Mind-only, we have to
we have to be
be
careful
careful not
not to
to understand
understand this
this term
term psychologically.
psychologically. Mind
Mind
(citta) here
(citta) here does
does not
not mean
mean our
our individual
individual mind
mind which
which is is

subject
subject to the law
to the law of
of causation
causation (het�(,pratya.
(hetupratyaya)y a) . Absolute
Absolute .

Citta transcends
Citta transcends thethe dualistic
dualistic conception
conception of of existence,
existence, it it

belongs
belongs neither
neither toto the
the Vijfiana-system
Vijnana-system nor nor to
to our
our objective
objective
world (vishaya).. Therefore,
world (vishaya.) Therefore, in
in the
the Lai 1ikii this
Lanka this Citta
Citta is
is fre­
fre-
quently
quently described
described in
in ontological
ontological terms.
terms.
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION xxvii
xxvii

The most
The most significant
significant one one is is Vastu,
Vastu, which which is is found
found
coupled
coupled with Tathata in
with Tathata one place
in one place (p. 147, line
(p. 147, line 6 6)) )) and
and with
with
A rya in
Arya in another
another place place (p. 164, lines
(p. 164, lines 9 and 10)
9 and 10) . In
. In the the first
first

case,
case, Vastu
Vastu and
and Tathata
Tathata are
are synonymously
synonymously used; used ; what
what is
is

Tathata,
Tathata, that
that is
is Vastu.
Vastu. Tathata
Tathata is
is to
to be
be rendered
rendered either
either
""suchness",
suchness " , or or ""thatness",
thatness " , which which is is a term most
a term most frequently
frequently
used in
used the Mahayana
in the Mahayana texts texts to to designate
designate the the highest
highest realityreality
ever approachable by
ever approachable by Prajiia, transcendental wisdom
Prajna, transcendental wisdom ; Vastu
;
Vastu
in Buddhism
in Buddhism is is usually
usually an an individual
individual object object regarded
regarded as as
existing
existing externally
externally to to thethe Vijiianas,
Vijnanas, and and so so isis it
it in
in most
most casescases
in
in the Lanka also.
the LQilikii also. But
But evidently
evidently in in this
this connection
connection w here
where
Vastu
Vastu is is Tathata,
Tathata, it
it must
must mean
mean the
the highest reality.
highest reality.
In
In the second case
the second case in which A
in which Aryarya is is affixed
affixed to to Vastu,
Vastu, the the
arya,
dry a, must
must be
be a
a modifier
modifier here,
here, that
that is,
is, this
this reality
reality is
is something'
something
to
to be
be described
described as as {j,1i'ya,
arya, "noble",
"noble", " holy", or
"holy", or " worthy ".
"worthy".
The
The highest
highest reality
reality is is also
also called
called "something
"something that that has has
been
been in in existence
existence since since the the very
very first
first" " (piirvadha. 1'masthititii,
(purvadharmasthitita,
p. 241, 1.
p. 241, 1. 14)
14),, oror (pau1'ii1}asthitidhar'
(pauranasthitidharmata, m atii, p. p. 143, 11. 55 and
143, 11. and 9 ).
9).
As
As itit is
is the
the most ancient reality,
most ancient reality, itsits realisation
realisation means means return­ return-
ing
ing toto one
one 's 's own original abode
own original abode in in which
which everything
everything one one sees
sees
around
around is is anan old
old familiar
familiar object.object. In
In Zen
Zen Buddhism,
Buddhism, there­
there-
'
fore,
fore, the experience is
the experience compared to
is compared to thethe visiting
visiting one one's 8 native
native
home
home and and quietly
quietly getting
getting settledsettled (���.�,
(llfl^iil^fe, kuei-chia·
kuei-chia wen­ wen-
tso)
tso).. The
The Buddhas, enlightened ones,
Buddhas, enlightened ones, are are all abiding here
all abiding here
as
as gold
gold is embedded in
is embedded in the mine. The
the mine. ever-enduring reality
The ever-enduring reality
(sthititii dharmata) is
(sthitita dha1'matii) is above
above changes.
changes.
To
To be be above
above changes
changes means means to to remain
remain in in one one's 's own
own
abode,
abode, not
not to
to move
move away
away from
from it,
it, and
and for
for this
this reason
reason reality
reality
is
is known
known as as " self-abiding " (svastha.,
"self-abiding" (svastha, p. p. 199, line 4)
199, line 4),, or
or
" remaining
"remaining in
in its
its own
own abode
abode" " (svastMne 'vatishthate, p.
(svasthiino 'vatishthate, p.
178,
178, 1.1. 15).1
15).
1
To
To keep
keep one one's 's own
own abode
abode it it t o be
to be single,
single, solitary,
solitary,
absolute
absolute:: hence hence Reality
Reality is is Viviktadharma,
Viviktadharma, a a thing
thing of of soli­
soli-

tude
tude ; Bh'l
; 'Uakopi, limit
Bhutakoti, limit of of reality,
reality, which
which points points to to a a similar
similar
mode
mode of of thinking.
thinking. It It is is again Ekagra, the
again Ekagra, the summit
summit of oneness,
of oneness,
and
and this
this summit
summit or or limit leoti) is
limit ((Iwti) is at
at the
the same
same timetime no-summit,
no-summit,
no-limit,
no-limit, because
because this this is is gained
gained onlyonly whenwhen one one makes
makes a a final
final
leap beyond
leap beyond the the manifoldness
mahifoldness of of things.
things.
1 Cf. p.
Cf. 124, line l.
1
p. 124, line 1.
xxviii
xxviii THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
The
The more
more ordinary ordinary expressions
expressions given given to to the
the highest
highest
reality
reality known
known as as Citta
Citta are are Tathata,
Tathata, " suchness" or
"suehness" or " thus�
"thus-
ness
ness",", Satyata,
Satyata, " the state
"the state of of being
being true
true", ", Bhutata,
Bhutata, " the
"the
state
state ofof being
being real real"," , Dharmadhatu,
Dharmadhatu, "realm "realm of of truth
truth", " , Nir�
Nir-
vana,
vana, the Permanent (nitya)
the Permanent (nitya),, Sameness
Sameness (sarnata)(samata),, the the OneOne
(advaya)
(advaya), , Cessation
Cessation (nirodka.)
(nirodha), , the
the Formless
.
Formless (anirnitta.)
(anwuitta) , ,

Emptiness ' (
Emptiness (sunyata), s'/,
t nyatii) , etc.
etc.
'
From
From these these descriptions
descriptions it is found
it is found llatural
natural for for Maha­
Maha-
yanists
yanists psychologically
psychologically to to deny
deny thethe existence
existence of of anan ego-soul
ego-soul
or
or ego-substance
ego-substance in the A
in the laya, and
Alaya, and ontologically
ontologieally to to insist
insist
that
that the
the tragedy
tragedy of of life
life comes
comes fromfrom believing
believing in in the
the sub�sub-
stantiality
stantiality or or finality
finality of of an individual object.
an individual object. The The former
former
is technically called
is technically called thethe doctrine
doctrine of of Pudgalanairatmya,
Pudgalanairatmya, ego� ego-
lessness
lessness of of persons,!
persons,
1
and
and the
the latter
latter that
that of
of Dharmanairatmya,
Dharmanairatmya,
egolessness
egolessness of of things
things ; the
;
the one
one denies
denies the
the reality
reality of of an
an ego-soul
ego-soul
and
and the
the other
other the the ultimacy
ultimacy of of an
an individual
individual object. object.
Superficially,
Superficially, this this denial
denial of of anan A tman in
Atman in persons
persons and and
individual
individual objects objects sounds sounds negative
negative and and productive
productive of of no no
moral
moral signification.
signification. But
But whenwhen one one lmderstands
understands what what is is

ultimately
ultimately meant
meant by
by Cittamatra
Cittamatra (Mind-only
(Mind-only) ) or
or by
by Vivikta­
Vivikta-
dharma (the
dharma (the Solitary)Solitary),, the the negations
negations are are on on thethe plane
plane of of
relativity and
relativity and intellection.
intellection.
The
The termterm " the Middle
"the Middle" " (madkyarna.
(madhyama), ) , meaning
meaning " the
"the
Middle
Middle Way Way", " , does
does not
not occur
occur in in the LanM proper
the Lwnkii proper exceptexcept in in
its
its Sagathakam
Sagathakam portion. portion. But But the idea that
the idea that the the truth
truth is is not
not
found
found in in the
the dualistic
dualistic way way of of interpreting
interpreting existence,
existence, that that it it

is beyond
is beyond the
the category
category of
of being
being and
and non-being,
non-being, is
is ev erywhere
everywhere
emphasised in
emphasised in the the Lankii.
LanM. In fact, we
In fact, we cancan say say that
that one one of of
the principal
the principal theses
theses of
of the
the Lankii
LanM is
is to
to establish
establish the
the Absolute
Absolute
which makes a
which makes world of
a world of particulars
particulars possible
possible but which is
but which is

not to
not to be
be grasped
grasped by means of
by means being and
of being non-being (a.
and non-being stinii­
(astina-
stitva.) . This
stitva). This AbsoluteAbsolute is is the Middle "'!\fay
the Middle Way of of the
the Madhya­
Madhya-
maka
maka school.
school.

The
The conception
conception of
of the
the Tathagata-garbha
Tathagata-gavbha isis not
not to
to be
be confused
1
1 confused
with that of a
with that of
a Pudgala
Pudgala or
or Atman.
Atman. See § XXVIII.
See xxvin. For
For the
the non-existence non-existence
of
of a personal
a ego-soul and
personal ego-soul and the non-reality f
the non-reality o an individual
of an individual object, see object, see
especially
especially pp.
pp. 61-62 of
61-62 of tl1is
this tl'ullslation.
translation.
, INTRODUCTION xxix
xxix

U nobtainability
Unobtainability
This
This going
going beyond
beyond all all forms
forms of of dualism,
dualism, howeverhowever differ­differ-

ently it
ently it may
may be be ex p ressed, whether
expressed, whether as as being
being and non-being,
and non-being,
or
or asas oneness
oneness and and manyness,
manyness, or or as
as this
this and
and that,
that, or or asas causa­
causa-
tion
tion and
and no-causation,
no-causation, or
or as
as form
form and
and no-form,
no-form, or
or as
as assertion
assertion
and
and negation,
negation, or or as as Sarilsara
Samsara and and Nirval;la,
Nirvaria, or or as ignorance
as ignorance
and
and knowledge,
knowledge, or or as
as work
work and no-work, or
and no-work, or as as good
good and and evil,
evil,
or
or as as purity
purity and and defilement,
defilement, or or asas ego
ego andand non-ego,
non-ego, or or asas
worldly
worldly and and super-worldly,
super-worldly, ad nfinitum this
ad iinfinitum - this going
going beyond
beyond
a world
a world of of opposi�ions
oppositions and and contrasts
contrasts constitutes
constitutes one one of the
of the
most
most significant thoughts
significant thoughts of
of the
the Mahayana.
Mahayana. There
There is
is nothing
nothing
real
real as long as
as long as we
we remain entangled in
remain entangled in the
the skein
skein of of relativity,
relativity,
and
and our our sufferings
sufferings will never come
will never come to to an an end.end. We We mustmust
therefore
therefore endeavour
endeavour to to take
take hold
hold of of reality,
reality, but but this
this reality
reality
is
is not
not something
something altogether
altogether solitary.
solitary. For
For in in this
this case
case nono one
one
of
of usus will
will bebe able
able to to have
have even
even a a glimpse
glimpse of of it,
it, and
and if if we
we had,
had,
it
it will
will turn
turn into
into something
something standing
standing in in opposition
opposition to to this
this
world
world of of relativity,
relativity, which
which means
means the
the loss
loss of
of solitariness,
solitariness, that
that
is,
is, the solitary now
the solitary now forms
forms partpart of this world.
of this world.
Thus,
Thus, according
according to to Buddhist
Buddhist philosophy,
philosophy, reality reality must must
be
be grasped
grasped in in this
this world
world and and by by this
this world,
world, for for it it is
is that
that
""Beyond
Beyond which which is is also
also Within
Within". " . The Lanka compares
The Lanka compares it it

to
to the
the moon
moon in in water
water or or aa flower
flower in in a a mirror.
mirror. It It isis within
within
and
and yet
yet outside,
outside, it it is
is outside
outside and and yet
yet within.
within. This This aspect
aspect of of
reality
reality is
is described
described as
as " unobtainable
"unobtainable" " or
or " unattainable
"unattainable" "
(anupalabdha)
(anupalabdha) .
. And
And just
just because
because it
it is
is unobtainable
unobtainable in
in aa
world
world of particulars, the
of particulars, the latter
latter from
from thethe point
point of of view
view of of
reality
reality isis like
like a dream, like
a dream, like aa mirage,
mirage, and and so so on.
on. The subtlest
The subtlest
I'elation,
relation of reality to
of reality to the
the world
world is beyond description,
is beyond description, it it yields
yields
its
its secrets
secrets only
only to to him
him whowho hashas actually
actually realised
realised it it in
in himself
himself
by
by means
means of of noble
noble wisdom aryajfiiin a or
wisdom ((aryajnana prajna).. This
or prajfia) This
realisation
realisation is is also
also a a kil1d
kind of of knowledge
knowledge though different
though different from from
what
what is is generally
generally Imown known by by this name.
this name.

Epistemology
Epistemology
Without
Without aa theory
theory of
of cognition,
cognition, therefore,
therefore, Mahayana
Mahayana
philosophy
philosophy b�comes
becomes incomprehensible.
incomprehensible. The Lanka is
The Lanka is quite
quite
xxx
xxx THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
SUTRA
explicit in
explicit in assuming
assuming two two forms
forms of of lmowledge
knowledge:: the the one for
one for
grasping
grasping the absolute or
the absolute entering into
or entering into the realm of
the realm Mind­
of Mind-
only,
only, andand the other for
the other for understanding
understanding existenceexistence in its dualis­
in its dualis-
tic
tic aspect
aspect in in which
which logic
logic prevails
prevails and and the
the Vij:fianas
Vijnanas are active.
are active.
'l'he
The latter
latter is is designated
designated Discrimination
Discrimination ((vikalpa) vikalpa) in in the
the
Lanka and
La!'i"ka and the
the former
former transcendental
transcendental wisdom wisdom or or knowledge
knowledge
(prajna).. To
(p'J'ujfiii) To distinguish
distinguish these these two two forms
forms of of knowledge
knowledge is is
most
most essential
essential in in Buddhist
Buddhist philosophy.
philosophy.
The Lanka is
The Lanka is decidedly
decidedly partial
partial to to the
the use
use ofof Aryajfiana
Aryajnana
instead
instead of Prajfia, although
of Prajna, although the the latter
latter has
has been
been in in useuse since
since
the
the early
early days
days of of Buddhism.
Buddhism. Aryajnana, Aryajiiana, noble noble wisdom,
wisdom, iiss
generally
generally coupled
coupled with with Pratyatma,
Pratyatma, inner inner self,
self, showing
showing that that
this noble,
this noble, supreme
supreme wisdomwisdom is is aa mental
mental function
function operating
operating
in
in thethe depths
depths of of ourour being.
being. As As it it is
is concerned
concerned with with the
the
highest reality
highest reality or
or the
the ultimate
ultimate truth
truth of
of things,
things, it
it is
is no
no super­
super-
ficial
ficial knowledge
knowledge dealingdealing with with particular
particular objects
objects and and their
their
relations.
relations. It
It is
is an
an intllitive
intuitive understanding
understanding which, which, penetra­
penetra-
ting
ting through
through the the surface
surface of of existence,
existence, sees sees into
into that
that which
which isis
the
the reason
reason of of everything
everything logically
logically and and ontologically.
ontologically.
The Lanka is
The La1ilfii is never
never tired
tired of of impressing
impressing upon upon its its readers
readers
the
the importance
importance of of this
this understanding
understanding in in the
the attainment
attainment of of
spiritual
spiritual freedom
freedom;; for for this
this understanding
understanding is is aa fundamental
fundamental
intuition
intuition into into the
the truth
truth of of Mind-only
Mind-only and and constitutes
constitutes the the
Buddhist
Buddhist enlightenment
enlightenment with with which
which truly
truly starts
starts the
the religious
religious
life
life ofof aa Bodhisattva.
Bodhisattva.
This
This transcendental
transcendental Jfiana Jnana is is variously
variously designated
designated in in
the
the La, nka. It
Lanka, It is
is Pravicayabuddhi,
Pravieayabuddhi, that s, an
that iis, an insight
insight fixed
fixed
upon
upon the the ultimate
ultimate groundground of of existence.
existence. It
It is
is Svabuddhi,
Svabuddhi,
innate in
innate in oneself
oneself;; Nirabhasa,
Nirabhasa, or or Anabhasa
Anabhasa (imagelessness),
(imagelessness) ,

beyond all
beyond all forms
forms of of tangibility
tangibility;; Nirvikalpa,
Nirvikalpa, beyond beyond dis­ dis-
crimination,
crimination, meaning meaning direct
direct empirical knowledge
empirical knowledge before
before
analysis
analysis starts
starts in in any
any form
form whatever
whatever;; which which therefore
therefore is is

not
not at at all
all expressible
expressible by by means
means of of words
words ((vacvae or rut a).. The
or ruta) The
awaking
awaking of of supreme
supreme knowledge
knowledge (anuttaj·asa. myaksambodki)
(anuttarasamyaksambodhi)
is
is the
the theme
theme of of the Prajnaparamita-sutras, but
the Prajfiapiiramitii-sfdras, but inin the
the Lanka
Lanka
the
the weight
weight of of t.he
the discourse
discourse :iis s placed
placed uponupon thethe realisation
realisation by by
means
means of of Aryajfiana
Aryajnana of of ultimate
ultimate reality
reality which
which is is Mind-only.
Mind-only.
This psychological
This psychological emphasisemphasis so so distinctive
distinctive of of the
the Lanka
Lanka
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION xxxi
xxxi

makes
makes this
this sutra
sutra occupy
occupy aa unique
unique position
position in
in Mahayana
Mahayana
lite rature.
literature.
The
The knowledge
knowledge that
that stands
stands contrasted
contrasted to Prajiia or
to Prajna or
Aryajiiana
Aryajnana isis Vikalpabuddhi,
Vikalpabuddhi, oror simply
simply Vikalpa, which I
Vikalpa, which I
have
have translated
translated " discrimination ". It
"discrimination". It is
is relative knowledge
relative knowledge
worki ng on
working on the
the plane
plane of
of dualism,
dualism, it may be
it may be called
called the
the
principle
principle of
of dichotomy, whereby judgment
dichotomy, whereby judgment is made possible.
is made possible.
By us
By us existence
existence is
is always
always divided
divided into
into pairs
pairs of
of conception,
conception,
thesis
thesis and
and antithesis,
antithesis, that
that is, being and
is, being non-being, permanent
and non-being, permanent
and
and impermanent,
impermanent, Nirvana
Nirvana and
and Samsara, birth and
Samsara, birth and death,
death,
creating
creating and
and created,
created, this
this and
and that,
that, Me
Me and
and not-Me,
not-Me, ad
ad
libitum.
libitum,. This
This isis due
due to
to the working of
the working Vikalpa. The
of Vikalpa. The
LakshalJa ((form)
Lakshana form ) of of existence thus presented
existence thus presented to
to us
us is
is not
not
its
its real
real nature,
nature, it
it is
is our
our own
own thought-construction (vijnapti) ;
thought-construction (vijnapti) ;

but
but our
our Buddhi
Buddhi which
which seeks
seeks after
after pluralities
pluralities fails
fails to
to under­
under-
stand
stand this
this fact
fact and
and makes
makes usus cling
cling toto appearances
appearances asas realities.
realities.
As
As the
the result,
result, the
the world
world in
in which
which we
we now
now find
find ourselves
ourselves living'
living-
ceases
ceases to be what
to be what it
it is
is in
in itself
itself;; for
for it
it is
is one
one we
we have
have con­
con-
structed
structed according
according to
to our
our own
own ignorance
ignorance and
and discrimination.
discrimination.
Reality
Reality escapes
escapes us,
us, truth
truth slips
slips off
off our
our grasp,
grasp, false
false views
views ac­
ac-
cumulate,
cumulate, wrong judgments go
wrong judgments go on
on adding
adding complexities
complexities upon
upon
complexities.
complexities. The
The habit-energy
habit-energy (vasa. na) thus
(vasana) thus created takes
created takes
complete
complete hold
hold on
on the Alayavijiiana, and
the Alayavijnana, and Alaya
Alaya the
the Absolute
Absolute
is
is forever
forever unable
unable to
to extricate
extricate itself
itself from
from these
these encumbrances;
encumbrances.
Eternal
Eternal transmigration
transmigration to no purpose
to no must be
purpose must be our
our destiny.
destiny.

The
The Twofold
Twofold Truth
Truth (satya)
(satya)
The
The distinction between the
distinction between the highest
highest truth
truth (paramartha­
(paramartha-
satya) and
satya) and conventional truth (samvriti-satya)
conventional truth (samvriti-satya) is not ex­
is not ex-
plicitly
plicitly held
held in
in the
the Lanka,
Lanka, but
but allusions
allusions are
are occasionally
occasionally made
made
to
to them
them;; and
and it
it is
is said
said that
that false
false discrimination
discrimination belongs
belongs to
to
conventionalism p. 131,
conventionalism ((p. 131, 1.
1. 3 )
3). . Another
Another word
word for
for conven­
conven-
tionalism
tionalism is
is Vyavahara, worldly experience,
Vyavahara, worldly experience, according
according to
to
which
which we
we talk
talk of
of things
things being
being born
born and
and destroyed,
destroyed, and
and also
also
of
of the
the how,
how, what,
what, where,
where, etc.
etc. of
of existence.
existence. This kind of
This kind of
kno wledge does
knowledge does not help us
not help us to
to have
have an
an insight
insight into
into the
the depths
depths
of being.
of being.
xxxii
xxxii THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
SUTRA

The Three
The Three Svabhavas
Svabhavas
Another
Another way way of of classifying
classifying knowledge
knowledge is is known
known as as three
three
Svabhavas
Svabhavas in in the Lanka. This
the Lanka. This is is a a generally recognised
generally recognised
classification
classification in in all all thethe schools
schools of of Mahayana
Mahay ana Buddhism.
Buddhism.
Svabhava, means
Svabhava means " self-nature"
"self -nature" or or " self-reality
"self -reality" " oror " self­
"self-
substance
substance", " , the
the existence
existence of
of which
which in
in some
some form
form is
is popularly
popularly
accepted.
accepted. The The firstfirst form
form of of knowledge
knowledge by by which
which the the reality
reality
of
of things
things is is assumed
assumed is is called Parikalpita, "
called Parikalpita, imagined", that
"imagined", that
is, imagination
is, imagination in
in its
its ordinary
ordinary sense.
sense. This
This is
is an
an illusion,
illusion,
for
for things
things are imagined to
are imagined to exist really where
exist really where in in fact
fact there
there
are none. It
are none. It isis like
like seeing
seeing a a mirage
mirage which which vanishes
vanishes as as one
one
approaches. Imagined
approaches. (parikalpita) objects
Imagined (parikf!;�pita) objects have,
have, therefore,
therefore,
no
no objective
objective reality.
reality.
The
The second
second form form of knowledge by
of knowledge by which
which we examine
we examine
existence
existence is is Paratantra, ' � depending
Paratantra, "depending upon upon another
another". " . This
This
is
is aa kind
kind of of scientific
scientific knowledge
knowledge based
based on
on analysis.
analysis. Bud­
Bud-
dhists
dhists make
make use use of of this
this knowledge
knowledge to to disprove
disprove the the sub­sub-
stantiality of
stantiality of individual
individual objects,objects, that that is, is, the svabhavatva of
the svabhavatva of
things.
things. According
According to them, there
to them, there is nothing self-existing
is nothing self -existing in in
the world,
the world, everything
everything is is depending
depending for for itsits existence
existence on on
something
something else, else, things
things are are universally
universally mutually mutually conditioned,
conditioned,
endlessly
endlessly related
related to to oneone another.
another. Dissect Dissect an an object
object con­ con-
sidered
sidered final,
final, and
and it
it dissolves
dissolves itself
itself into
into airy nothingness.
airy nothingness.
Modern
Modern scientists
scientists declare declare that that existence
existence is is no
no more
more than than
mathematical
mathematical formulae. formulae. The Mahayanists
The Mahay anists would
would say say that
that
there is
there is no
no Svabhava
Svabhava in in anything
anything appealing
appealing as as such
such to to the
the
Vijfianas when
Vijnanas when it it isis examined
examined from from the the Paratantra
Paratantra point point
of
of view.
view.
The
The imagined
imagined view (parikalpita)) of
view (parikaZpita of reality
reality dO€sdoes not not
give
give us
us aa true
true knowledge
knowledge of of it,it, and
and thethe relativity
relativity viewview (para.­
(para-
reduces it
tantra) reduces
tantra) it into
into nothingness
nothingness:: if if so,
so, where
where does does our our
boat
boat of enlightenment get
of enlightenment get ancnol'-sd
anchored? � The
The Lanka
Lanka, tells
tells us
us
that
that there
there is is aa third
third way way of viewing existence,
of viewing existence, called
called Pari­Pari-
nishpanna,
nishpanna, " perfected", which
"perfected", which allowsallows us us to become truly
to become truly
acquainted
acquainted with with reality
reality as as it it is.
is. It
It isis this
this " perfected " know­
"perfected" know-
ledge
ledge whereby
whereby we we areare enabled
enabled to see really
to see really into
into the
the nature
nature
of
of existence,
existence, to to perceive
perceive rightly
rightly what what is is meant
meant by by Svabhava,
Svabhava,
INTRODUCTION xxxiii
xxxiii

and
and to to declare
declare that there is
that there is no Svabhava as
no Svabhava as is is imagined
imagined by by
the
the ignorant
ignorant and
and that
that all
all is
is empty
empty (§unya)
(sunya) .
.

Perfect
Perfect or or ""perfected"
perfected " knowledge
knowledge issues issues fromfrom Prajfia,
Prajna,
or Aryajfiana, oorr sometimes
or Aryajnana, sometimes simply simply Jfiana,
Jnana, seeing seeing intointo thethe
suchness
suchness of of things.
things. It perceives
It perceives things
things as as they
they are,are, because
because
going beyond the re.alm of being and non-being which
going beyond the realm of being and non-being which
belongs to
belo ngs to discrimination,
discrimination, the the principle
principle of of dichotomisation,
dichotomisation,
it
it dives
dives into
into the
the abyss
abyss where
where there
there are
are no
no shadows
shadows anabhasa) .
((analhasa) .

This
This is is called self-realisation (s'lJasiddhi)
called self-realisation (svasiddhi) . . So
So states
states the the
Lanka that
Lanka, that asas the
the wise
wise see see reality
reality with their eye
with their eye of of Prajfia,
Prajna,
they
they ascertain
ascertain definitely
definitely what what it it is,
is, i.
i. e.
e. inin itsits self-nature
self -nature

(bhdvasvabhdva) and
(bhavasvabhava) and notnot as as is
is seen
seen byby thethe ignorant
ignorant whosewhose
eye
eye isis never raised beyond
never raised beyond the the horizon
horizon of of relativity.
relativity.
This
This is is again called seeing
again called seeing into
into the
the emptiness
emptiness of of things.
things.
Emptiness ( §unyata)
Emptiness (sunyata), however, , however, does
does not
not mean
mean "relativity
"relativity", ",
as
as is
is thought
thought by by some
some scholars.
scholars. Relativity-emptiness
Relativity-emptiness is
is on
on
the lower plane
the lower plane of of knowledge
knowledge and does not
and does not reveal
reveal the the real
real
view
view of of existence
existence as as it
it is.
is. Emptiness
Emptiness taughttaught in in the
the Mahayana
Mahayana
texts
texts goes
goes far deeper into
far deeper into the matter. It
the matter. It is is the
the object
object of of
transcendental
transcendental knowledge.
knowledge. As As long
long asas one
one stays
stays in in the
the world
world
of
of relativity
relativity wherewhere logic
logic rulesrules supreme,
supreme, one one cannot
cannot have have
even
even thethe re motest idea
remotest idea ofof true
true emptiness
emptiness or or what
what is
is designated
designated
in the
in the Prajfiii paramita as
Pmjndparamita as Mahasiinyata.
Mahasunyata. The Lanka has
The Lanka has also
also
this
this kind
kind of of S ilnyata
Sunyata mentioned
mentioned as
as one
one of
of the
the seven
seven Empti­
Empti-
nesses
nesses (p. (p. 94)
94).. Relativity-emptiness
Relativity-emptiness so so called
called corresponds
corresponds
to
to the
the first
first ofof the
the seven
seven Emptinesses,
Emptinesses, while while the the Mahayana
Mahayana
S iinyata is
Sunyata is Paramartha-aryajfiana-mahasiinyata,
Paramartha-aryajnana-mahasunyata, that that is,
is, the
the
great
great void
void of of noble wisdom which
noble wisdom which is is the highest reality.
the highest reality.

The'
The Five
Five Dharmas
Dharmas
Before
Before concluding
concluding this
this section, we
section, we must
must not
not forget
forget to
to
mention
mention what
what is
is known
known as as the
the Five
Five Dharmas
Dharmas in in the Lanka
the Lanka
making
making up up one
one of
of the
the main
main topics
topics of
of discourses.
discourses. The
The Five
Five
Dharmas
Dharmas and and the
the Three
Three Svabhavas
Svabhavas areare different
different ways
ways of
of
classifying
classifying the
the same
same material.
material. The
The Five
Five are
are:: Appearances
Appearances
(nimitta) Names ((nama),
(nimitta),, Names nama) , Discrimination (sOYrhkalpa) ,
Discrimination (samJcalpa) ,

Right
Eight Knowledge sa;myagjnana) , and
Knowledge ((samyagjndna), and Suchness
Suchness ((tathatd).
tathata) .
The
The first
first three
three correspond
correspond to to the
the two
two of
of the
the Three
Three Svabhavas,
Svabhavas,
xxxiv
xxxiv THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
LANKAVATARA
Parikalpita and
Parikalpita Paratantra, while
and Paratantra, while the last two
the last two belong
belong to the
to the
Parinishpanna.
Parinishpanna.
Our
Our relative
relative knowledge
knowledge starts starts with
with perceiving
perceiving Appear­
Appear-
ances to
ances to which
which Names
Names are are given.
given. Names
Names are
are then
then thought
thought
real
real andand discrimination
discrimination is is carried
carried on. on. WeWe can can say
say that
that dis­
dis-
crimination
crimination has has been
been with
with us us from
from the the first
first even
even when
when what what
is
is called
called perception
perception has has notnot taken
taken place.
place. ForFor naming
naming is is im­
im-
possible
possible without
without somesome form
form of of discrimination.
discrimination. Then Then thethe worst
worst
thing comes
thing comes upon
upon us us asas wewe begin
begin to to persuade
persuade ourselves
ourselves and and
think
think thatthat byby giving
giving Names
Names existence
existence has been s"Q.ccessfully
has been successfully
disposed
disposed of, of, and
and feel
feel comfortable
comfortable about about the the problems
problems of of
religion.
religion. Although
Although without
without naming
naming no
no knowledge
knowledge is
is pos­
pos-
sible, Right
sible, Eight Knowledge (samyagjnana) is
Knowledge (samyagjfiana) is not
not toto be had here.
be had here.
For this
For this is
is the
the inexpressible,
inexpressible, the the unnamable,
unnamable, it it is
is the
the mean­
mean-
ing (arfha) not
ing (artha) not toto be
be grasped
grasped by by words.
words. In In this
this the Lad/,ka
the Lanka
permits
permits no no equivocation,
equivocation, it it most
most emphatically
emphatically advises
advises us us not
not
to attach ourselves
to attach ourselves to to words.
words.
The
The object
object of of Right
Right Knowledge
Knowledge is is Suchness
Suchness of of things
things
as
as not
not conditioned
conditioned by by the
the category
category of
of being
being and
and non-being.
non-being.
It
It isis in
in this
this sense
sense that
that ultimate
ultimate reality
reality isis said
said toto be
be like
like thethe
moon
moon in in the water, it
the water, it is
is not
not immersed
immersed in in it,
it, nor
nor isis it
it outside
outside
it. We
it. We cannot
cannot say say that
that the the moon
moon is is in water, for
in water, for it it is
is aa
mere
mere reflection
reflection;; butbut wewe cannot
cannot say say that
that itit is
is not there, for
not there, for
aa reflection
reflection though
though it it may
may be be itit is really before
is really before us.us. Plurality
Plurality
of
of objects
objects is
is not
not real
real from
from the
the point
point of
of view
view of
of relativity
relativity as as
well
well asas from
from the the point
point of
of view
view of
of Suchness.
Suchness. If
If some
some one
one
declares
declares such
such reality
reality as as maintained
maintained by by the Mahayana is
the Mahayana is too
too
ethereal, too
ethereal, too phantom-like,
phantom-like, too too unreal
unreal for for ourour religious
religious
aspirations,
aspirations, the Lanka will
the Lanka will immediately
immediately retort,retort, ""YouYou are are still
still

on
on the plane of
the plane of relativity.
relativity." " When
When the Aryajiiana is
the Aryajnana is awaken­
awaken-
ed, Tathata
ed, Tathata is is the
the most
most realreal thing
thing and and a a term
term most
most fittingly
fittingly
applied
applied as as far
far asas our power of
our power of designation
designation is is concerned.
concerned.

III
Ill

The Message of
The Message the Lanka
of the Lanka
There
There are
are many
many other
other thoughts
thoughts of
of interest
interest in
in the Lanka
the Lanka
which
which may
may be
be discussed
discussed in
in this
this Introduction.
Introduction. ButBut as
as I
I have
have
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION xxxv
xxxv

already
already givengiven up up many
many pagespages toto it
it andand as the reader
as the reader who who
wishes to
wishes to know know more
more about
about the
the Sutra
Sutra may
may go go to
to my Studies
my Studies
in
in the Lankavatara, I
the Lankavatara, I will
will say just aa few
say just few words
words about
about the the
position
position
of
of this
this Sutra
Sutra among
among the
the general
general Mahayana
Mahayana Buddhist
Buddhist
texts.
texts.
While
"While we we areare still
still in
in the
the dark
dark as as toto how
how Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism developed in
Buddhism developed India, we
in India, we know
know that that when
when · itit was
was
introduced
introduced into into China
China by by the
the missionaries
missionaries from from India
India and and
central
central Asia,
Asia, it it was
was already
already regarded
regarded as as directly
directly coming
coming
from
from thethe Buddha
Buddha's 's own
own golden mouth,
golden mouth, and
and that
that what
what must
must
have developed during
have developed during several
several hundred
hundred years
years after
after his
his death
death
was
was taken
taken in in aa wholesale
wholesale mannermanner for for aa system
system fully
fully matured
matured
in
in his
his life-time
life-time extending
extending over over aa period
period of of about
about half
half a a
century
century after
after hishis Enlightenment.
Enlightenment. As As the the sutras
sutras were
were trans­
trans-
lated
lated into
into Chinese,
Chinese, the the first
first of
of which
which appeared
appeared in in 68 A.D., they
68 A.D., they
profoundly
profoundly stirred
stirred the
the Chinese
Chinese and
and then
then the
the Japanese
Japanese mind mind
awakening
awakening their their religious
religious consciousness
consciousness to to its very depths.
its very depths.
The
The following
following are
are the
the most
most important
important Mahayana texts
Mahayana texts that
that
thus
thus served
served to to move
move the the religious
religious feelings
feelings of of the
the Far-eastern
Far-eastern
peoples
peoples and and areare still
still continuing
continuing to to do
do so.so.

((1)
1 ) The
The S addharma"'p1(/i!,g,arika-sutra. Dne
Saddharma-pundanka-sutra. jOne ofof the
the main
main
theses
theses of of this
this inspiring
inspiring scripture
scripture is is the
the announcement
announcement that that
the
the Buddha
Buddha never never died, died, that
that he
he is
is forever
forever living
living on
on the
the
Mount
Mount of of the
the HolyVulture
Holy Vulture and
and preaching
preaching to
to a
a group
group of
of the
the
Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and
Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, Bodhisattvas, who
and Bodhisattvas, who areare no no
less
less beings
beings than than ourselves,
ourselves, and and that
that the
the Buddha
Buddha has just one
has just one
vehicle (yana) for
vehicle (yana) for all beings. This
all beings. This must
must have have been
been a a revolu­
revolu-
tionary teaching at
tionary teaching at the
the time
time when
when thethe Buddha
Buddha was was thought
thought
to
to be
be just
just as as transient
transient and and mortal
mortal as as ourselves,
ourselves, and and when
when
the
the only
only thing
thing that
that was
was left
left behind
behind after
after his
his Nirvana
Nirvana was
was
his
his Dharma,
Dharma, in in which
which his his followers
followers were
were asked asked to to find their
find their
Master.
Master.
(2) Avalokitesvaror-vikurvana-nirdesa. This
(2) The Avalokitesvara-vikurva11,a-nirdesa. This isis com­
o com-
monly
monly known known as as K wcunnon-gyo in
Kwcmnon-gyo in J apan and
Japan and forms
forms the the
twenty-fourth
twenty-fourth chapter chapter of of the
the Sanskrit Saddharma-pu1}q,arika,
Sanskrit Saddharma-pundarika,
but
but itit will
will be better to
be better to treat
treat itit as
as a separate document
a separate document as as it
it

has
has quite
quite an independent message
an independent message andand has been so
has been so considered
considered
though
though not not always
always consciously
consciously by by its
its devotees.
devotees. A valokites-
Avalokites-
xxxvi
xxxvi THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
LANKAVATARA SUTRA
vara
vara is is here
here represented
represented as as a a god
god of of mercy
mercy who who willwill help
help
anybody
anybody who who finds
finds himself
himself in in trouble
trouble spiritually
spiritually as
as well
well as as
materially.
materially. In In popular
popular mindsminds the the god
god isis no
no more
more masculine
masculine
than
than feminine
feminine ; if ;
if anything,
anything, more more feminine, because of
feminine, because of mercy
mercy
being
being moremore reality
reality associated
associated with with eternal
eternal femininity.
femininity. That That
he can assume
he can assume various
various forms vikurva1Ja) in
forms ((vikurvana) in order
order to to achieve
achieve
his
his ends appeals very
ends appeals very muchmuch to to the religious imagination
the religious imagination of of
the Eastern peoples.
the Eastern peoples. And this
this doctrine
doctrine of
of transformation
transformation
is
is one
one of of the
the characteristic
characteristic features
features of of Mahayana
Mahayana Buddhism. Buddhism.
((3)
3 ) The Avatamsakd-sutra. This
The AvatamsakarsiUra. This is is an encyclopedic
an encyclopedic
sutra
sutra of of which
which we we find
find the Gandavyuha and
the Ga1JcJ,avyuha and the the Ddabhumika
Desabhumika
forming
forming a a part.
part. It
It isis another
another Mahayana
Mahayana sutra sutra that that has has
influenced
influenced the the Chinese
Chinese and and thethe Japanese
Japanese mind mind profoundly.
profoundly.
The so-called Interpenetration
The so-called Interpenetration which which constitutes
constitutes the the central
central
thought
thought of
of the
the sutra
sutra is
is symbolically
symbolically and
and effectively
effectively treated
treated
in
in the
the Chinese
Chinese translations
translations by Buddhabhadra (60
by Buddhabhadra (60 fas.
fas.),) , by
by
S ikshananda (80
Sikshananda (80 fas. )
fas.), , and
and by
by Prajfia
Prajna (40
(40 fas.
fas.).) . The
The sutra
sutra
as
as we
we havehave it it now
now contains
contains many many sutras
sutras which
which may may be be con­
con-
sidered
sidered independent
independent though though they they nono doubt
doubt belong
belong to to the
the same
same
class
class of of literature.
literature. The reading may
The reading may be tedious from
be tedious from the the
modern
modern point point of of view
view as as the
the main
main theme
theme is is not
not so so succinctly
succinctly
presented,
presented, and and it it takes
takes some
some time before the
time before reader can
the reader can get get
into
into the mood of
the mood of the
the sutra
sutra itself.
itself. After aa quiet
After quiet and
and patient
patient
pursuit
pursuit of of the
the text,
text, however,
however, he he cannot
cannot help help but but be be deeply
deeply
impressed
impressed with
with its
its underlying
underlying spirit
spirit whose
whose grandeur
grandeur of
of out­
out-
look
look almost
almost surpasses
surpasses human
human comprehension.
comprehension. The The huge
huge rock­
rock-
cut
cut figure
figure of of Vairocana
Vairocana at at Lung-men
Lung-men and and the the bronze
bronze figure
figure
in N
in ara are
Nara are respectively
respectively the the Chinese
Chinese and and thethe Japanese
Japanese artistic
artistic
response
response to to the
the spiritual
spiritual stimulation caused by
stimulation caused by the Avatarh­
the Avatam-
saka,
saka, or
or the
the Ga1JcJ,avYiiha
G-andavyuha which
which is
is the
the same
same thing.
thing.
Another profound
Another profound effect produced by
effect produced by thisthis sutra
sutra on on thethe
Eastern
Eastern mind mind is is the
the conception
conception of
of the
the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva Samanta­
Samanta-
bhadra
bhadra with with his his ""ten
ten inexhaus�ible
inexhaustible vows. vows." " He would would not not
enter
enter into
into Nirvana,
Nirvana, that that coveted object of
coveted object of allall the
the Buddhists,
Buddhists,
because he
because he would
would not not have
have one one single
single soul
soul unsaved
unsaved behind behind
him.
him. And by by this
this ""soul"
soul " was was meant
meant not not onlyonly human
human soul soul
but
but the
the soul
soul of of every
every being
being animate
animate or or inanimate.
inanimate. It It was
was the the
vow
vow of Samantabhadra to
of Samantabhadra to release
release animals,
animals, plants,
plants, and and eveneven
INTRODUCTION xxxvii
xxxvii

such
such inanimate
inanimate existences
existences as as mountains,
mountains, waters,waters, earths,
earths, etc.,
etc.,
from
from the the bondage
bondage of of ignorance
ignorance and and karma.
karma. His His universe,
universe,
moreover,
moreover, was was ' far
far wider
wider and and more
more spiritualistic
spiritualistic than than ourour
ordinary
ordinary one
one
(4)
(4) The Prajna-paramita-sutra. This
The Prajna-paramita-sutra. This is regarded by
is regarded by
most
most Mahayana
Mahayana sc h olars
scholars to
to have
have been
been one
one of
of the
the first
first Maha;.
Maha-
yana
yana literature
literature that that was was declared
declared against
against the the hair-splitting
hair-splitting
scholastic
scholastic philosophy
philosophy of of early
early Buddhist doctors, gives
Buddhist doctors, gives usus the
the
doctrine
doctrine of of Emptiness
Emptiness or or Void (sunyata),, whereby
Void (§unyat'a) whereby every every
possible
possible strawstraw of of attachment
attachment is is taken
taken awayaway from
from us. us. To
To bebe
left alone
left alone in
in the
the Void,
Void, even
even with
with this
this Void
Void vanishing
vanishing from
from
around
around us, us, isis the
the method
method of of perfect
perfect emancipation
emancipation proposed proposed
by
by the Prajna-paramita. This
the Prajiia-paramita. This waswas quite
quite a a direct
direct straight­
straight-
forward
forward proposition
proposition on on the
the part
part of of the
the Mahayanist.
Mahayanist. It It
appealed greatly
appealed greatly to to intellectual
intellectual minds
minds as as well
well asas the
the mystical.
mystical.
While
While the Avatmhsaka filled
the Avatamsaka filled the
the universe
universe with with things
things of of
imagination
imagination even even to to itsits minutest
minutest particle,
particle, the the Prajfia­
Prajna-
paramita swept
paramita swept everything
everything away away fromfrom the the universe
universe whichwhich
now
now becomes
becomes a a vast
vast VoidVoid indeed.
indeed. And in in six
six hundred
hundred
fascicles
fascicles of of the
the sutra
sutra we we are
are warned
warned not not toto be
be afraid
afraid of, of, not
not
to
to be
be taken
taken aback
aback by by this
this vast
vast Void.
Void. If
If we
we stagger
stagger at
at this
this
gospel
gospel of of absolute
absolute Emptiness,
Emptiness, we we areare told
told by by the
the Buddha
Buddha
that
that we we cannot
cannot be good followers
be good followers of of the
the Mahayana.
Mahayana.
((5)
5 ) The
The V imalakirli-sutra. This
Vimalakirti-sutra. This is is aa masterpiece,
masterpiece, aa
drama
drama with great literary
with great literary merit,
merit, and because of
and because of this
this fact
fact it it

is
is read
read more more generally
generally than than other
other Buddhist
Buddhist sutrassutras by by the
the
laity.
laity. The
The signification
signification of of this
this sutra
sutra lies
lies in
in taking
taking our our soiled
soiled
coat
coat ofof attachment
attachment off off our back which
our back which we we have
have been
been wearing
wearing
ever
ever since
since we we became
became aware aware of of an
an external
external existence.
existence. Another
Another
significant
significant feature
feature of of the
the sutra
sutra isis that
that itsits chief
chief figure
figure of of
interest
interest is is not
not thethe Buddha
Buddha but but a a wealthy
wealthy laymanlayman calledcalled
Vimalakirti.
Vimalaklrti. It It is
is this
this crafty
crafty old gentleman-philosopher who
old gentleman-philosopher who
puts
puts to to shame
shame all the S
all the ravakas and
Sravakas and Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas coming coming to to
argue
argue withwith himhim about
about the deepest truths
the deepest truths of Buddhism, except
of Buddhism, except
MaiijU§ri,
Manjusri, the the head
head of of the Bodhisattvas. The
the Bodhisattvas. The latter
latter proved
proved
aa good
good matchmatch for for thethe eloquence
eloquence of
of the
the lay-disciple
lay-disciple of of the
the
Buddha.
Buddha. What "What we have have to to notice
notice especially
especially in
in this
this Maha­
Maha-
yana
yana texttext is is that
that Buddhism
Buddhism does does notnot require
require us us toto lead
lead a a
xxxviii
xxxviii THE LANKAVATAEA
LANKAVATARA SUTRA
SUTEA
homeless
homeless life life as as aa Bhikshu
Bhikshu in in order
order to to attain
attain enlightenment,
enlightenment,
that
that is, is, the
the householder's
householder's life
life is
is as
as good
good and
and pure
pure as as thethe
mendicant
mendicant's. 's.
((6)6) In In this
this respeet
respect thethe S rimala-siitra is
Srimala-sutra is also
also significant,
significant,
for S rimala the
for Srimala the queen inspired by
queen inspired by the
the wisdom
wisdom and power of
and power of
the Buddha delivers
the Buddha delivers a a great
great sermon
sermon on on thethe Tathagata-garbha.
Tathagata-garbha.
The
The Mahayana
Mahayana may may be be said
said to to bebe the
the revolt
revolt ofof laymen
laymen and and
laywomen
laywomen against against the
the ascetic
ascetic spirit
spirit of
of exclusion
exclusion pervading
pervading
among
among early early advocates
advocates of of Buddhism.
Buddhism.
((7)
7 ) The Sukhavati-vyuhor-sutra. The
The Sukhavati-vyiiha-siitra. The influence
influence of of this
this
sutra
sutra on on Oriental
Oriental people people is is quite
quite different
different from from that
that of of the
the
other
other sutras,
sutras, for for it it has
has awakened
awakened the the faith-aspect
faith-aspect of of their
their
religious
religious consciousness,
consciousness, which which is is established
established on on the
the general
general
basis
basis of Mahayana philosophy.
of Mahayana philosophy. Superficially,
Superficially, the the faith
faith of of
Amitabha
Amitabha looks looks veryvery much
much like like Christian
Christian faith faith inin Christ,
Christ, but but
the
the underlying
underlying thoughts thoughts are are not
not at at all
all the same. The
the same. The JodoJodo
school
school couldcould not not take
take its
its rise
rise from
from any any other
other soil
soil than
than Maha­
Maha-
yana
yana Buddhism.
Buddhism. In In Japan
Japan thisthis school
school has has achieved
achieved a a unique
unique
development marking
development marking a spiritual epoch
a spiritual epoch in in the history of
the history of
religious
religious faith faith in in the
the East.
Bast.
((8)
8 ) The
The Parinirva'l'}a-sutra.
Parinirvanu-sutra. This
This once once formed
formed the the
foundation
foundation of of thethe Nirvana
Nirvana school school in in the the early
early history
history of of
Chinese Buddhism. Its
Chinese Buddhism. Its main assertion is
main assertion is that
that the Buddha­
the Buddha-
nature
nature is is present
present in in every
every one one of of us.
us. Before the
Before the arrival
arrival of of
this
this sutra
sutra in in China
China it it was
was generally
generally believed
believed that that there
there was was
a
a class
class of of people
people knownknown as as Icchanti
Icchanti who who hadhad no no Buddha­
Buddha-
nature
nature in in them
them and and therefore
therefore who who were were eternally
eternally barredbarred
from
from attaining enlightenment. This
attaining enlightenment. This belief
belief was
was entirely
entirely ex­ ex-
pelled,
pelled, however,
however, when when aa statement
statement to to the
the contrary
contrary was found
was found
in
in the sutra, saying
the sutra, saying thatthat ""There
There is something in
is something in all
all beings
beings
which
which is true, real,
is true, eternal, self-governing,
real, eternal, self-governing, and
and forever
forever un­
un-
changing-this
changing this is
is called
called Ego,
Ego, though
though quite
quite different
different from
from
what
what is is generally.
generally known known as as such
such by by the
the philosophers.
philosophers. This This
Ego is
Ego is the
the Tathagata-garbha,
Tathagata-garbha, Buddha-nature,
Buddha-nature, which which existsexists
in
in every
every one one of of us,
us, and
and is is characterised
characterised with with such
such virtues
virtues
as
as permanency,
permanency, bliss, bliss, freedom,
freedom, and and purity.
purity." "
(9)
(9) All these and
All these and other-
other sutras
sutras of Mahayana Buddhism
of Mahayana Buddhism
may
may seem
seem to
to exhaust
exhaust the
the many-sided
many-sided aspects · aspects of
of this
this school,
school,
INTRODUCTION
INTEODUCTION xxxix
xxxix

but
but another
another is is needed
needed to to tell
tell usus that
that mere
mere understanding
understanding
is
is not
not enough
enough in
in the
the Buddhist
Buddhist life,
life, that
that without
without self-realisa­
self-realisa-
tion
tion allall intellection
intellection amounts
amounts to to nothing.
nothing. To To tell
tell us
us this
this is is
the
the office
office ofof the
the Lankavatara-s'/,
Lankavatara-sutra, (,tra, and
and Bodhidharma,
Bodhidharma, father father
of
of Zen
Zen Buddhism,
Buddhism, made made useuse of of the
the text
text quite
quite effectively
effectively ; for
;
for
it
it was
was through
through him him that
that a a special
special school
school ofof Buddhism
Buddhism under under
the
the title
title of of Zen
Zen or or Ch' an has
Ch'an has come
come to to develop
develop in in China
China and and
in Japan. While
in Japan. While Zen Zen asas wewe have
have it it now
now is is not
not the
the same
same in in
many respects
many respects as
as Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma first
first proclaimed
proclaimed it
it about
about
fifteen
fifteen centuries
centuries ago, ago, the
the spirit
spirit itself
itself flows
flows quite unchanged
quite unchanged
in the
in East. And
the Bast. And thisthis is
is eloquently
eloquently embodied
embodied in in the Lan­
the Lan-
kavatara-sutra. It
kavatara-sutra. It is
is not,
not, however,
however, necessary
necessary here here forfor usus toto
enter
enter into
into details,
details, for for the
the point
point has been fully
has been fully dwelt
dwelt uponupon
in my
in my recent
recent work,
work, Studies
Studies in in the
the Lankavatara
Lankavatara Sutra. Sutra. Suffice
Suffice
it
it to touch lightly
to touch lightly uponupon the the characteristic features of
characteristic features of the
the
Sutra,
Sutra, which
which constitute
constitute its
its special message
special message as
as distinguished
distinguished
from
from the the other
other sutras
sutras already
already referred
referred to. to.

There
There is is nono doubt
doubt that
that the Lanka is
the Lanka is closely
closely connected
connected
in
in time
time as as well
well as as in
in doctrine
doctrine with with TheThe Awakening
Awakening of of Faith
Faith
in Mahayana generally
the Mahayana
in the generally ascribed
ascribed to to Asvaghosha.
Asvaghosha. While While
he
he may
may not not have been the
have been the author
author of of this
this most
most important
important
treatise
treatise of of Mahayana
Mahayana philosophy,
philosophy, there there was
was surely
surely a a great
great
Buddhist
Buddhist mind, who, inspired
mind, who, inspired by by the
the same
same spirit
spirit which
which
pervades
pervades the Lanka, the
the Lanka, Avatariisaka, the
the Avatarhsaka, Parinirvana, etc.,
the Parinirvii/J'}a, etc.,
poured
poured out out hishis thoughts
thoughts in
in The
The Awakening. Some
Awakening. Some scholars
scholars
contend
contend that that The Awakening is
The Awakenimg is aa Chinese
Chinese work,
work, but but this
this isis

not
not well
well grounded.
grounded.
In
In a a way
way The Awakening is
The Awakening is an
an attempt
attempt to to systematise
systematise
the La.itka, for
the Lanka, for allall the principal teachings
the principal teachings of of the latter are
the latter are
found
found there developed in
there developed in due order. As
due order. As far
far as
as the
the theoretical
theoretical
side
side isis concerned,
concerned, both both teach
teach the the existence
existence of of th
th Garbha
Garbha as as
ultimate reality. While
ultimate reality. While thisthis lies
lies inin ordinary people
ordinary people defiled
defiled
by
by the
the evil
evil passions
passions and and does does notnot shine
shine outout in in j.ts
its native
native
purity,
purity, we cannot cannot deny deny its its existence
existence in in them.
them. When the the
external
external wrappage
wrappage of of impurities
impurities is peeled off
is peeled off wewe all
all become
become
Buddhas
Buddhas and and Tathagatas.
Tathagatas. In In fact,
fact, the
the birth
birth ofof aa Tathagata
Tathagata
is
is nowhere
nowhere else else than
than inin this
this Garbha.
Garbha.
The
The Garbha
Garbha is is from
from thethe psychological
psychological point point of of view
view the the
xl
xl THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
A layavijfiana, all-conserving
Alayavijiiana, all-conserving mind, mind, in in which
which good good and and badbad
are
are mingled,
mingled, and and thethe work
work of of the
the Yogin,
Yogin, thatthat is, is, one
one whowho
seeks
seeks the
the truth
truth by means of
by means of self-discipline,
self -discipline, is is to
to separate
separate the the
one
one from
from thethe other.
other. Why Why is
is the
the A laya
Alaya found
found contaminated
contaminated
by
by evil
evil thoughts
thoughts and and desires
desires?? What What is is the
the evil
evil?? How does does
it
it come
come · out
out in
in this
this world
world ?? How is is the
the truth
truth to to be realised 1?
be realised
These questions
These questions are answered by
are answered by postulating
postulating a a system
system of of
Vijfianas
Vijnanas and and byby the
the doctrine
doctrine of of Discrimination
Discrimination (viJcalpa),(vikaZpa) ,
as
as has
has already
already been expounded above.
been expounded above.
This
This isis the
the point
point where
where the Lanka comes
the Lanka comes in in contact
contact with with
the
the Y ogacara school.
Yogaeara school. The
The Y ogacara is
Yogacara is essentially
essentially psycho­psycho-
logical standing
logical standing in in contrast
contrast in in this respect to
this respect to the
the :Th1adhya­
Madhya-
maka school which
maka school which is is epistemological.
epistemological. But
But the
the A layavijfiana
Alayavijnana
of
of the
the Y ogacara is
Yogacara is not
not thethe same
same as as that
that of Lanka and
of Lanka and the
the
Awakening
Awakening of Faith. The
of Faith. former conceives
The former conceives the the A laya to
Alaya to bebe
purity
purity itself
itself with
with nothing
nothing defiled
defiled in in itit whereas
whereas the the Lanka
Lanka
and
and the Awakening make
the Awakening make it it the
the cause
cause of of purity
purity and and defile­
defile-

ment. Further,
ment. Further, the Yogacara upholds
the Yogaeara upholds the the theory
theory of of Vij­
Vij-
fiaptimatra
naptimatra and and notnot that
that of of Cittamatra,
Cittamatra, which which belongs
belongs to to
the
the Lanka, Av at
Lanka, Avatamsaka,amsak a, and
and Awakening
Awakening of of Faith.
Faith. The
The
difference
difference is is this
this : According
According to
: to the
the Vijfiaptimatra,
Vijnaptimatra, the the world
world
is
is nothing
nothing but but ideas,
ideas, there
there are
are no
no realities
realities behind
behind them
them ;
; but
but
the
the Cittamatra
Cittamatra statesstates that
that there
there is is nothing
nothing but but Citta,
Citta, Mind,
Mind,
in the
in the world
world and and thatthat thethe world
world is is the
the objectification
objectifieation of of
Mind. The
Mind. The one one isis pure
pure idealism
idealism and and the the other idealistic
other idealistic
realism.
realism.
To
To realise
realise the
the Cittamatra
Cittamatra is is the
the object
object of of the
the Lanka,
Lainka,
and
and tilis
tais isis done
done when
when Discrimination
Discrimination is discarded, that
is discarded, that is,
is,
when
when aa state state of of non-discrimination
non-discrimination is is attained
attained in in one
one's's
spiritual
spiritual life.
life. Discrimination
Discrimination is
is a
a logical
logical term
term and
and belongs
belongs
to
to the
the intellect.
intellect. Thus
Thus we we seesee that
that the the endend ofof the
the religious
religious
discipline
discipline is is to
to go
go beyond
beyond intellectualism,
intellectualism, for for toto discriminate,
discriminate,
to
to divide,
divide, is is the
the function
function of of the
the intellect.
intellect. Logic
Logic does does not
not
lead
lead oneone toto self-realisation.
self-realisation. Hence
Hence Nagarjuna's
Nagarjuna's hair-split­
hair-split-
ting dialectics. His
ting dialectics. His ideaidea isis to prove the
to prove the ineffectiveness
ineffectiveness · of of
logic
logic in
in the
the domain
domain of
of our
our spiritual
spiritual life.
life. This
This is
is where
where the
the
Lanka joins
Lanka joins hands
hands with
with thethe Madhyamaka.
Madhyamaka. The The doctrine
doctrine of of the
the
Void
Void isis indeed
indeed thethe foundation
foundation of of Mahayana
Mahayana philosophy.
philosophy. But
But
INTRODUCTION xli
xli

this
this is is not
not to to be understood in
be understood in thethe manner
manner of of analytical
analytical
reasoning.
reasoning. The
The Larnka
Lanka is
is quite explicit
quite explicit and
and not
not to
to be
be mis­
mis-
taken
taken in in this
this respect.
respect.
So
So far,
far, the Lanka may
the Lanka may seem seem to to bebe only
only a a philosophical
philosophical
treatise
treatise with with nothing
nothing religious
religious in in it,
it, but
but the
the fact
fact isis that
that the
the
Sutra
Sutra is is deeply
deeply tingedtinged with with religious
religious sentiments.
sentiments. For For in­
in-
stance,
stance, the the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva would would not not enter
enter into
into Nirvana
Nirvana because
because
of
of his
his vows
vows to to save
save all all sentient
sentient beings,
beings, and and hishis vows
vows are
are not
not
limited
limited in in time
time andand space,
space, and
and for
for this
this reason
reason they
they are
are called
called
" inexhaustible ". Not
"inexhaustible". Not onlyonly areare hishis vows
vows inexhaustible
inexhaustible but but
the
the " skilful means
"skilful means" " hehe uses
uses forfor thethe emancipation
emancipation of of all
all
beings
beings know know no no limits.
limits. He knows
knows how how to to make
make the the best
best use
use
of
of hishis inexhaustible
inexhaustible resourcesresources intellectual
intellectual and and practical
practical for
for
this
this single
single purpose.
purpose. Here Here we we maymay say say that
that thethe Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Samantabhadra of
Samantabhadra of the Avatarhsaka or
the Avatamsaka or the
the Ga'Yfif,avyuha
G-andavyuha is is
reflected.
reflected.
In
In the Lanka all
the Lanka all the
the most
most fundamental
fundamental conceptions
conceptions of of
the
the Mahayana
Mahayana are are thrown
thrown in in without
without any any attempt
attempt on on the
the part
part
of
of the
the compiler
compiler or or compilers
compilers to to give
give them
them a a system.
system. This This isis

left
left toto the
the thoughtful
thoughtful reader reader himself
himself who who will
will pick
pick them
them upup
from
from the the medley
medley and and string
string themthem into into a a garland
garland of of pearls
pearls
out
out of of his
his own
own religious
religious efrperience.
experience.
The
The oneone significant
significant Mahayana
Mahayana thought, thought, however,
however, whichwhich
is
is not
not expressly
expressly touched
touched upon
upon in
in the
the Sutra
Sutra is
is that
that of
of Pari­
Pari-
l).amana. Pan
namana. '1Jamana means
Parvnamana means to to turn
turn oneone's 's merit
merit over
over toto
somebody else
somebody else so so asas toto expedite
expedite the the latter
latter 's
's attainment
attainment of of
Nirvana.
Nirvana. If If anybody
anybody does does anythi,
anything ng good,
good, itsits merit
merit is is sure
sure
to come
to come backback to to the
the doer
doer himself-this
himself this is is the doctrine of
the doctrine of
Karma
Karma;; but but according
according to the Mahayana
to the Mahayana the the recipient
recipient needneed
not
not always
always be be the
the doer
doer himself,
himself, he he may
may be be anybody,
anybody, he he may
may
be
be thethe whole
whole world
world; ; merit
merit being
being of
of · universal
universal character
character can can
be
be transferred
transferred upon upon anything
anything the the doer
doer wishes.
wishes. This This trans­
trans-
ferability
ferability is is known as as the
the doctrine
doctrine of of PariI). amana, the
Parinamana, the turn­
turn-
ing
ing overover of of one
one's's good
good workwork to to somebody
somebody else. else. This
This idea
idea
comes
comes fromfrom the the philosophical
philosophical teachingteaching of of Interpenetration
Interpenetration as as
upheld
upheld in in the
the Avatarhsaka.
Avatamsaka.
xlii
xlii THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
LANKAVATAEA SUTEA

IV
The Date
The Date of of the
the Lanka
Lanka,
As
As is the ease with, other Buddhist texts
is the case with other Buddhist texts it it is
is quite
quite
impossible
impossible with
with our
our present lmowledge
present knowledge of
of Indian
Indian history
history to to
decide
decide the the age
age of
of the
the Lanka.
Lanka. The
The one
one thing
thing that
that is
is certain
certain
is
is that
that it was compiled
it was before 443
compiled before A.D. when
443 A.D. when the the first
first Chinese
Chinese
translation
translation is reported to
is reported to have
have been attempted. But
been attempted. But thisthis
does not
does not mean
mean thatthat thethe whole
whole texttext asas wewe have
have it it now
now was was
then already in
then already in existence,
existence, for for wewe know
know that
that the
the later trans­
later trans-
lations done
lations done in in 513513 and 700-704 contain
and 700-704 contain the DharaJ;ll and
the Dharani and
the
the Sagathakam
Sagathakam section
section which
which are
are missing
missing in
in the 443 one
the 443 one
((Sung).
Sung ) . Further,
Further, the
the Meat-eating
Meat-eating chapter chapter also
also suffered
suffered
certain modifications, especially
certain modifications, especially in in the 513 (Wei
the 513 (Wei)) one.one.
Even
Even withwith thethe text
text that
that was
was in in existence
existence before
before 443 443 A.D.
A.D.
we
we do do not
not know
know how how it it developed,
developed, for for itit was
was not not surely
surely
written
written from from the beginning as
the beginning as one
one complete
complete piece piece of of work
work
as
as wewe write
write a book in
a book in these
these modern
modern days.days. Some Some partsparts of of it
it

must
must be be older
older than
than others,
others, since
since there
there isis no
no doubt
doubt that that itit

has
has many
many layers
layers of of added
added passages.
passages.
To aa certain
To certain extent,
extent, thethe contents
contents may may give
give a a clue
clue to to the
the
age of
age of the
the text,
text, but
but because
because of of the
the difficulty
difficulty of of separating
separating
one part
one part from
from another
another from from the the point
point of of view
view of of textual
textual
criticism, arguments from
criticism, arguments from the the contents
contents as as to
to the
the date
date are are of
of
very
very doubtful character. As
doubtful character. As long
long asas we
we have
have practically
practically no no
knowledge of
knowledge of historical
historical circumstances
circumstances in in which
which the Buddhist
the Buddhist
texts
texts were
were produced
produced one
one after
after another
another in
in India
India or
or somewhere
somewhere
else,
else, allall the
the statements
statements are are more
more or or less
less ofof the
the character
character of of
an
an ingenious
ingenious surmise.
surmise. All All that
that we we can
can say
say is is this
this that
that thethe
Lanka is
LOJnka not aa discourse
is not discourse directly
directly given
given by by the founder of
the founder of
Buddhism, that
Buddhism, that it it is
is aa later
later composition
composition than than the the Nikayas
Nikayas
or A
or gamas which
Agamas which also also developed
developed some some time
time after
after thethe Buddha,
Buddha,
that
that whenwhen Mahayana
Mahayana thoughtsthoughts began began to to crystallise
crystallise in in the
the
Northern
Northern as as well
well as as in
in the
the Southern
Southern part part of
of India
India probably
probably
about
about the the Christian
Christian era era oror even earlier, the
even earlier, the compiler
compiler or or com­
com-
pilers began
pilers began to
to collect
collect passages
passages as
as he
he or
or they
they came
came across
across in
in
their
their study
study of of the
the Mahayana,
Mahayana, which which finally
finally resulted
resulted in in the
the
INTRODUCTION xliii
xliii

Buddhist text
Buddhist now known
text now under the
known under the title
title of
of Lanklivatlira­
Lankavatara-
sutra.
sutra.

Some
Some Remarks
Remarks Concerning the Text
Concerning the Text
Certain
Certain irregularities
irregularities of
of the
the chapter-endings
chapter-endings areare to
to be
be
noticed in
noticed in this
this connection.
connection. Generally
Generally these
these endings
endings show
show
that
that the
the chapters
chapters are
are composite
composite parts
parts of
of a
a sutra
sutra and
and belong
belong
to
to it
it;; but
but in
in the
the case
case of
of the Lanka some
the Lanka some endings
endings are
are quite
quite
of
of an
an independent
independent character,
character, and their relation
and their relation to
to the
the text
text
is
is not
not at
at all
all definite.
definite. For
For instance
instance ::

Chapter 1-"
Chapter Chapter One
I "Chapter One Known
Known as as RavaJ;la-invita­
Havana-invita-
tion "
tion"; ;
Chapter II-"
Chapter Here Ends
II "Here Chapter Two
Ends Chapter Two Known as as the
the
Collection
Collection of of All
All the
the Dharmas
Dharmas in in the 36,000 (sloka)
the 36,000 (sloka)
LaJikavatara"
Lankavatara";;
Chapter
Chapter III-"
III "HereHere Ends Chapter Three
Ends Chapter Three on Imperma­
on Imperma-
nency
nency in in the
the Lm:i.kavatara,
Lankavatara, a a Mahayana
Mahayana Siitra
Sutra";" ;
Chapter
Chapter IV IV-""Here
Here EndsEnds Chapter
Chapter Four
Four on on Realisa­
Bealisa-
tion " ;
tion";
Chapter V-"
Chapter V "HereHere Ends Chapter Five
Ends Chapter Five on
on the
the Perm
Perma-a­
mency
mency and and Impermanency
Impermanency of
of the
the Tathagata"
Tathagata"; ;
Chapter VI-"
Chapter VI "HereHere Ends
Ends Chapter
Chapter SixSix on
on Momentari­
Momentari-
ness
ness";" ;
Chapter VII
Chapter VII-'"Here
' Here Ends
Ends Chapter
Chapter Seven
Seven onon Egoless­
Egoless-
ness
ness";" ;
Chapter
Chapter VIII-"
VIII "Here Here Ends
Ends Chapter
Chapter Eight
Eight onon Meat­
Meat-
eating
eating from
from the
the LaIikavatara
Lankavatara which
which is
is the
the Essence
Essence
of
of All
All thethe Buddha-Teachings
Buddha-Teachings" " ;
;

Chapter
Chapter IX-"IX "HereHere EndsEnds Chapter
Chapter NineNine Known as as
DharaJ;J.i
Dharani in in the
the Laitkavatara.
Lankavatara." "
These irregularities, at
These irregularities, at least
least in
in one
one ease,
case, show
show that
that there
there was
was
aa larger
larger La. n ka containing
Lanka 36,000
containing 36,000 slokas1
slokas 1
as
as referred
referred to
to in
in
Fa-tsang
Fa-tsang's 's notices,
notices,22 and
and in another case
in another ease that
that the
the Lanka was
Lanka was
also
also known,
known, or contained, aa chapter
or contained, chapter known
known asas the
the ""Essence
Essence
of
of all
all the
the Buddha-teachings
Buddha-teachings" " which
which is
is indeed
indeed a a sort
sort of
of sub-
sub-

1 Suggested by Hokei Idzumi.
1
Suggested by Mr Hokei Idzumi.
2 See my
See my Studies
Studies in
in the
the Lankavatara Sutra, p.
Lankavatara Sutra, 42.
p. 42.
xliv
xliv THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
SUTRA
title
title given
given to
to the
the four-volume
four-volume Chinese Lanka by
Chinese Lanka GUJ;labhadra
by Gunabhadra
((Sung),
Sung ) , 443
443 A.D.
A.D.
The
The Gatha
Gatha section
section called , Sagathakam ' , presents
called '"Sagathakam" presents
peculiar
peculiar difficulties.
difficulties. As
As the
the earliest
earliest Chinese
Chinese translation
translation by
by
Gill} abhadra does
Gunabhadra does not
not contain
contain it,
it, it
it is
is highly
highly probable that
probable that it
it

was
was not
not then included in
then included in the Lanka text.
the Lanka text. But
But the
the fact
fact that
that
both
both the Wei version
the Wei version and
and the
the Sanskrit
Sanskrit edition
edition contain
contain not
not
only
only the verses properly
the verses properly belonging
belonging to
to the
the Sagathakam
Sagathakam but
but
those!
those 1 already
already appearing
appearing in the prose
in the prose section,
section, hints
hints at
at the
the
existence
existence of
of a
a larger
larger or
or more
more complete
complete text
text of
of the Lanka in
the Lanka in
which
which all
all these
these Sagathakam
Sagathakam verses
verses were
were incorporated
incorporated in
in the
the
prose section,
prose section, which, therefore, must
which, therefore, must have been naturally
have been naturally
much
much fuller
fuller than
than the existing Lanka-perhaps
the existing something like
Lanka perhaps something like
the
the one
one containing
containing 3 6,000 slokas.
36,000 slokas. There are
There are many verses in
many verses in
the
the Sagathakam which are
Sagathakam which too obscure
are too obscure to
to be
be intelligently
intelligently
interpreted
interpreted without their corresponding
without their prose passages.
corresponding prose The
passages. The
verses are
verses generally meant
are generally for memorising
meant for memorising the
the principal
principal
doctrines,
doctrines, and
and they
they give sometimes no
give sometimes no sense
sense when
when they
they are
are
separately considered,
separately considered, for
for some
some watch-words
watch-words only
only are
are rhyth­
rhyth-
mically
mically arranged
arranged to
to facilitate
facilitate the
the memory.
memory.
In the
In the Sanskrit
Sanskrit text,
text, the
the Sagathakam
Sagathakam begins
begins with
with this
this
stanza
stanza : :

"Listen
"Listen to
to the wonderful Mahayana
the wonderful doctrine,
Mahayana doctrine,
Declared in
Declared in this
this LaDkavatara
Lankavatara Sutra,
Sutra,
Composed in
Composed in verse-gems,
verse-gems,
And
And destroying
destroying a a net
net of
of the
the philosophical
philosophical views."
views."

This
This may
may be
be understood
understood to
to mean
mean that
that this
this section
section is
is that
that
part
part of
of the
the Lanka
Lanka which
which is
is made
made up
up with
with the verses, that
the verses, that
is to
is say, the
to say, the verses taken from
verses taken from the
the entire
entire text
text of
of the
the Lanka.
Lanka.
The
The term sagathakam also
term sagathakam also suggests
suggests this,
this, for
for it
it means
means the
the
, ' one
one with
with verses.
verses. "
But
But in
in this
this case
case the
the following
following questions
' ' ' '
questions
may
may bebe asked
asked::
If
If there
there were
were a larger Lanka
a larger Lankii containing
containing all
all these verses
these verses
in
in the
the Sagathakam
Sagathakam in
in the
the body
body of
of the
the text,
text, or
or if
if there
there were
were
a L(})nka with
a Lanka with the
the verses
verses alone and as
alone and as a
a separete
separete text
text which
which
was later
was later on
on put together
put together with
with the
the present one
present one,, are
are all
all these
these
verses
verses as
as a
a whole
whole to
to be regarded as
be regarded as belonging
belonging to
to the
the same
same
3 These are
are systematically
systematically excluded
excluded in
in the
the T'ang.
3
These T'ang.
INTRODUCTION
INTEODUCTION xlv
xlv

period
period ?? If so, what
If so, what caused
caused the the disappearance
disappearance of of the
the prose
prose
passages
passages which
which accompanied
accompanied the the verses
verses now now retained
retained in in the
the
Sagathakam
Sagathakam only? only � Is
Is there
there no
no possibility
possibility of
of some
some of
of the
the
verses
verses added
added later
later to
to the
the te xt independently
text independently �
? There
There is
is some
some
evidence
evidence of of such
such additions
additions as as we
we can
can see,see, for
for instance,
instance, in in the
the
conception
conception of of the
the Sambhogak
Sambhogakaya aya (verse
(verse 384)384) and and of of the
the
ninth
ninth Vijiiana
Vijnana (verse(verse 1313),) , which
which are are surely
surely of of later
later develop­
develop-
ment.
ment. The The solution
solution of of these
these andand somesome other
other possible
possible ques­ ques-
tions
tions isis to
to be
be left
left to
to some
some future
future time time when
when all all the
the circum­
circum-
stances
stances leading
leading to to the
the production
production of of thethe Buddhist
Buddhist sutras sutras
Mahayana
Mahayana and
and Hinayana
Hinayana in
in various
various districts
districts of
of India
India are
are
ascertained.
ascertained.
The
The bestbest way
way of reading the
of reading Lamka, as
the Lanka, as I I said
said in in mymy
Studies, 11 as the
Studies, is is to
to cut
cut the
the whole
whole texttext into
into as as many
many pieces
pieces as the
sense
sense allows
allows andand to regard each
to regard each piece
piece as as completely
completely express­
express-
ing
ing one
one chief
chief thought
thought in in the
the philosophy
philosophy of of Mahayana
Mahayana Bud­ Bud-
dhism.
dhism. In In some
some cases
cases thethe pieces
pieces so so severed
severed may may seemseem to to
conflict
conflict with
with one
one another.
another. In In such eases aa higher
such cases principle
higher principle
will
will bebe found
found somewhere
somewhere else else that
that unifies
unifies the the twotwo contra­
contra-
dictory
dictory notions
notions harmoniously.
harmoniously. For
For after
after all
all there
there is
is but
but
one
one highest
highest truth
truth in in the Lanka, of
the Lanika, of which
which all all others
others are are soso
many
many aspects
aspects viewed
viewed at at various
various angles
angles of of thought.
thought.
II thought
thought I I would
would treattreat thethe Sagathakam
Sagathakam in in a a similar
similar
manner,
manner, by by dividing
dividing thethe whole
whole portion
portion into into soso many
many groupsgroups
of verses, each
of verses, each of of which
which is is presumably
presumably concerned
concerned with
with one
one
theme. But
theme. But thethe verses
verses being
being too
too concise
concise and
and often
often merely
merely
mllemonic,
mnemonic, one one finds
finds it too risky
it too risky to to cut
cut them
them up up into groups
into groups
and
and toto take
take the latter as
the latter as containing
containing so so many
many definite
definite sets sets
of
of thoughts,
thoughts. As As we notice in
we notice in the cases of
the cases of repetition
repetition occur- occur­
ring
ring soso frequently
frequently in in the
the Sagathakam
Sagathakam the verses are
the verses are notnot
solidly transferred from
solidly transferred from the text, that
the text, that is,is, they
they areare not
not always
always
found
found in in the
the Sagathakam
Sagathakam in in the
the same
same orderorder as as they
they are are in
in
the
the text
text proper,
proper, nor
nor are
are they complete,
they complete. Sometimes
Sometimes one
one
single
single verse
verse is is taken
taken outout of of the
the group
group where where it it belongs
belongs in in
the
the main
main text
text and inserted in
and inserted in an unexpected connection.
an unexpected connection. In In
1 This
This cutting
cutting isis indicated
indicated in
in the
the following
following translation
translation by
by the
the
Roman
Roman fi gures running
figures running consecutively
consecutively through
through the
the entire
entire text except the
text except the
Raval},a,
Eavana, the
the Dha such divi­
. and
l'am,
Dharani, and the Meat-eating chapter,
the Meat-eating chapter, where
where no
no such divi-
ding
ding is necessa.
is ry.
necessary.
xlvi
xlvi THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
these
these circumstances
circumstances I I thought
thought it it wise
wise to to leave
leave the
the Sagathakam
Sagathakam
as
as it
it stands
stands and
and not
not toto arrange
arrange the verses into
the verses groups until
into groups until
we
we know
know more
more exactly
exactly about
about thethe historical
historical evolution
evolution of of this
this
portion of
portion of the
the Lanka.
Lanka.
In
In fact,
fact, the
the Sagathakam
Sagathakam is is a a curious
curious mixture
mixture wherewhere
subjects
subjects not
not at
at all
all referred
referred to
to in
in the
the prose
prose section
section are
are in
in
juxtaposition
juxtaposition with
with those
those that
that have
have to
to my
my view
view no
no proper
proper
bearing
bearing in in the Lanka. Such
the Lanka. Such subjects
subjects are are those
those historical
historical
narratives
narratives concerning
concerning Vyasa,
Vyasa, Katyayana,
Katyayana, Nagahvaya,
Nagahvaya, etc., etc.,
and
and those
those relating
relating to to the
the monastery
monastery life. life. And then
then there
there
are
are some
some passages
passages in the Sagathakam
in the Sagathakam which which maymay bebe regarded
regarded
as
as later
later additions.
additions. For For instance,
instance, when
when it
it refers
refers to
to eight
eight oror
nine
nine several
several Vijiianas (verse
Vijnanas (verse 13), 13 ) , two
two forms
forms of
of Alaya (v. 59),,
M aya ( v. 59)
the
the triple body (v. 434) , thirty-six
triple body (v. 434), thirty-six Buddhas
Buddhas (v.
(v. 380)
380),, etc.,
etc.,
they
they areare evidently
evidently later
later incorporations.
incorporations. The The Sagathakam
Sagathakam
requires
requires more
more study from the
study from point of
the point of text criticism, and
text criticism, and
also
also from
from the point of
the point of doetrinal,
doctrinal, literary,
literary, and
and monachical
monachical
history.
history.

The
The Transmission
Transmission History
History of of the L(J;nka
the Lanka
In
In the
the book called �1huftiPiftie,
book called ^HflJ&WfE, " Record
"Record of
of Master
Master and and
Disciple
Disciple in
in [the
[the Transmission
Transmission of]
of] the
the Lanka,
Lanka," " which
which is
is one
one
of
of the
the Tung-huang
Tung-huang findings,findings, the
the transmission
transmission line line ofof the
the
LaJ'nka is
Lanka recorded. The
is recorded. author tJ:�,
The author ^J1, Ching-chueh,
Ching-ehueh, living living
probably
probably earlyearly in in the
the eighth century apparently
eighth century apparently identified
identified
Zen
Zen Buddhism
Buddhism with with the
the teaching
teaching of of the Lanka, for
the La.nka, for hishis
Fathers
Fathers of of the Lanka transmission
the Lanka transmission are are also
also those
those of of Zen
Zen
Buddhism. He considers
Buddhism. considers GUJ;l.abhadra,
Gunabhadra, the the translator
translator of of the
the
Sung
Sung or
or four
four volume
volume Lanka,
Lanka, the
the first
first Father
Father of
of Zen
Zen in
in China,
China,
and
and not Bodhidharma as
not Bodhidharma as is
is generally
generally donedone by by Zen historians.
Zen historians.
In
In this the author
this the author may may bebe inin the
the right,
right, forfor in in his
his day
day there
there
was
was yet
yet nono independent
independent school school which
which later
later came
came to to be
be known
known
as
as " Zen ", and
"Zen", whatever represented
and whatever represented this movement at
this movement the
at the
time was no
time was more than
no more than the
the study
study ofof the Lamka. Moreover,
the Lamka. Moreover,
Ching-chueh belonged to
Ching-chueh belonged to the
the school
school ofof Hsuan-tse
Hsiian-tse (CSHt) � � ) andand
Shen-hsiu
Shen-hsiu (jji !ft �
(Jjif^fP)) who upheld
upheld the
the Lanka
Lanka in
in opposition to
opposition to
their
their rival
rival Hui-neng 's �1m Vajracchedii
Hui-neng'sJSfg Vajracched/ika. k a. This
This book
book is
is one
one ,
of
of the
the most
most valuable
valuable documents
documents for the historical
for the historical students
students
INTRODUCTION xlvii
xlvii

of
of early
early ZenZen Buddhism
Buddhism in China. 1 It
in China.1 It contains
contains so so much
much
information of definite character
information of definite character concerning concerning its its Fathers
Fathers
whose
whose sayings
sayings and and teachings have ssoo far
teachings have far been
been shrouded
shrouded in in
obscurity.
obscurity.
There is
There is another
another equally
equally valuable
valuable history
history of of Zen
Zen Bud-Bud­
dhism
dhism which
which was was also
also discovered
discovered in in the
the Tung-huang
Tung-huang cave. cave.
It is entitled
It is �tt�Jl�c
entitled JHf^feilf
" Record of
f& " Record of the Succession of
the Succession of the­
the
Dharma-treasure.
Dharma-treasure." " This
This waswas evidently
evidently written
written to to contend
contend
the
the position
position of the �1buaiPit�c,
of the ^KHJ^iji^fB, for for itit insists
insists that
that the the first
I
first

Father
Father of of the Lanka as
the Lalnkii as representing
representing the the Dharma-treasure
Dharma-treasure
was Bodhidharma and
was Bodhidharma and not
not Gill;l abhadra who
Gunabhadra who waswas mere
mere trans­
trans-
lator
lator and
and Dot
not the
the revealer
revealer of of the
the inner
inner meaning
meaning of
of the
the Sutra.
Sutra.
Therefore,
Therefore, the the history
history of
of Zen
Zen Buddhism
Buddhism in in China,
China, which
which is is
the
the " Dharma-treasure ", should
"Dharma-treasure", should properly
properly beginbegin with
with Bodhi­
Bodhi-
dharma.
dharma. The The author
author evidently
evidently belongs
belongs to to the
the school
school of of Hui­
Hui-
neng.
neng.
The
The discovery
discovery of of these
these two
two important
important historical
historical worksworks
on
on Zen, together
Zen, together with
with the
the Sayings
Sayings of of Shen.hui,
8hen-hui f JiI$1tmt
TJ^OfWuik) �,
which
which was was edited
edited b byy M �, Professor
f^jH, Professor Hu Rsi Hsi ooff Peking
Peking
University, 1930,
University, 1930, with
with hishis able
able critical notes, sheds
critical notes, sheds an an
abundance
abundance of of light
light onon the
the early
early pages
pages of of Zen history in
Zen history in
China.
China. As a detailed discussion
a detailed discussion of the subject
of the subject does does not
not
belong
belong here,
here, I I reserve
reserve itit for
for my
my Essays
Essays in in Zen
Zen Buddhism,
Buddhism,
Series
Series II.
II.

The
The Present
Present English
English Translation
Translation
As
As regards
regards the
the English
English translation
translation ofof the
the Sutra,
Sutra, I I have
have
decided
decided after
after much hesitation
hesitation to
to send
send itit out
out to
to the
the public
public
with
with all
all its
its many imperfections. It
many imperfections. is aa bold
It is bold attempt
attempt onon the
the
part
part of
of the
the translator
translator to
to try
try to
to render
render some
some ofof the
the deepest
deepest
thoughts
thoughts that
that have
have been
been nourished
nourished in
in the
the East
East into
into aa language
language
to
to which
which he he was
was not born. But
not born. But his idea is
his idea is that
that if
if somebody
somebody
did
did not
not make a a first
first attempt,
attempt, however
however poor
poor and
and defective,
defective, the
the
precious
precious stones
stones may
may remain buried unknown
remain buried unknown except
except to
to a
a few
few
scholars,
scholars, and
and this
this perhaps longer than
perhaps longer necessary. And then
than necessary. then

1 The book has
The "book been quite
has been quite recently
recently edited
edited by
by Kin Kyukei, a
Kin Kyiiliei, a
librar ian attached
attached to
to Peking
librarian
Peking University
University and published in
and published Peking. He
in Peking. He

was
was able
able to
to do
do this
this helped
helped by Professor Hn
by Professor Hu Hai,
Hsi, who is the
who is the owner
owner of
of

,�
n
�;�
[�
xlviii
xlviii THE
THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
LANKAVATARA SUTRA
things
things develop.
develop. As As itit is
is illustrated
illustrated in in the
the long
long history
history of of
the Chinese translations
the Chinese translations of of the
the Buddhist
Buddhist texts,texts, there
there must must be be
several
several attemptsattempts beforebefore the the work assumes something
work assumes something of of
finality.
finality. There
There are are atat present
present threethree Chinese
Chinese translations
translations
and
and one one Tibetan
Tibetan of of the Lamka, and
the Lamka, and thethe first
first shows
shows many many
traces
traces of of immaturity
immaturity when when compared
compared with with thethe third.
third. We
We
can
can easily
easily understand
understand the
the difficulties
difficulties Chinese
Chinese scholars
scholars en­
en-
countered
countered in in trying
trying to
to master
master the
the translations.
translations. The
The T' ang
T'ang
version
version could could notnot perhaps
perhaps be be so so perfect
perfect as as it
it is
is unless
unless it it had
had
two
two or or three
three predecessors.
predecessors. .
II have
have done done all all I I could
could to to make
make my my translation
translation as as
intelligible
intelligible as as possible
possible to to my readers. If
my readers. If II tried
tried to to be too
be too
literal,
literal, it it would
would be be quite
quite unintelligible.
unintelligible. The
The modes
modes of of ex­
ex-
pression
pression are
are so
so different
different in
in the
the Sanskrit.
Sanskrit. There
There are
are still
still

many
many obscureobscure passages
passages which which I- failed to
I- failed interpret satis­
to interpret satis-
factorily
factorily to to myself.
myself. These These obscurities
obscurities are are found
found more more in in
the Sagathakam,
the Sagathakam, because because the the verses
verses presuppose
presuppose much much know­ know-
ledge of
ledge of the matter treated
the matter treated therein,
therein, and and this
this knowledge
knowledge
involves
involves at at present
present much much more more scholarship
scholarship and and intellectual
intellectual
perspicuity
perspicuity than than the the present
present translator
translator can can command.
command. The The
Sagathakam
Sagathakam has
has never
never had
had any
any Chinese
Chinese commentaries,
commentaries, and and
this
this fact
fact addsadds more
more to to the
the difficulties
difficulties already
already in in existence.
existence.
Chinese
Chinese and and Japanese
Japanese scholars
scholars have have chosen,
chosen, probably
probably for for
brevity
brevity's 's sake,
sake, the
the four-volume
four-volume text text byby GUJ;labhadra
Gunabhadra for their
for their
study, and
study, and thethe Sagathakam
Sagathakam has has thus
thus inevitably
inevitably been been left out.
left out.
The
The Sanskrit
Sanskrit text text itself
itself as as we
we have
have it it is
is still
still far from
far from
being
being perfect,
perfect, and and there
there is is no
no doubt
doubt thatthat N Nananjo
jo's's edition
edition
requires
requires many many corrections
corrections in
in order
order to
to y�eld
yield a
a more
more intelligible
intelligible
reading.
reading. Even Even with with it,it, however,
however, whatever
whatever shortcomings
shortcomings it it

may
may have,have, we we are
are toto be
be grateful
grateful to to the
the editor
editor whowho mademade the the
text
text more
more accessible
accessible to to the
the public
public than
than ever before.
ever before.
II have
have not not always
always followed
followed NanjoNanjo in in the
the reading
reading of of the
the
text.
text. II have
have usedused my my ownown judgment
judgment in in several
several cases
cases whenwhen
the photographic copies
the photographic copies ofof the
the original
original Manuscripts
Manuscripts of of m-roni1iIi
^flB&PKiS:1tWB
preserved in
preserved in the
the British Museum and
British Museum and in the Bibliotheque
in the Bibliotheque Nationale.
Nationale. A
collotype impression of
collotype impression of the
the London
London MS which
-which is
is not
not so
so complete
complete as
as thethe
Paris
Paris MS,
MS, though
though it
it is
is very
very much
much more
more legible
legible than
than the latter, �
the latter, as pub-
was pub­
lished
lished by
by Professor
Professor Keiki
Keiki Yabuki
Yabuki of
of Japan,
Japan, inin his
his collection
collection of
of the
the Tun­
Tun-
huang
huang MSS,
MSS, entitled
entitled ��i1-
�m\, "Echoes
R|$&f|, "Echoes ofof the Desert", 1930.
the Desert", 1930.
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION xlix
xlix

I thought
I thought the
the sense
sense became
became thereby
thereby clearer.
clearer. In
In paragraph­
paragraph-
ing too I
ing too I have
have often disregarded Nanjo.
often disregarded Nanjo. AsAs II said
said in
in my
my
Studies,
Studies, the
the Lanka.
Lamka is
is a
a highly
highly chaotic
chaotic text, and
text, and there
there are
are
also
also some
some p�ages
passages which have forced
which have forced their
their way
way in wrong
in wrong
places
places where
where they
they do
do not
not belong.
belong.
The T'
The T* ang version in
ang version in this
this respect
respect gives
gives on
on the
the whole
whole the
the
best
best rendering
rendering of the Lanka.
of the Lanka. While
"While aa first
first draft
draft of
of the
the
translatjon
translation was
was prepared by S
prepared by ikshananda, the
Sikshananda, the finishing
finishing touch
touch
was
was given
given by
by Fa-tsang,
Fa-tsang, the
the great
great teacher
teacher of
of philosophy
philosophy ofof the
the
Avatamsaka,
Avatctmsaka, with
with which
which the
the Lanka
Lanka is
is in
in the
the closest
closest relation­
relation-
ship.
ship. When
When difficulties
difficulties were
were encountered
encountered in
in the
the course
course or
of
my English
my English translation
translation of
of the
the Sanskrit
Sanskrit text,
text, I
I have
have quite
quite
frequently followed the
frequently followed the T' ang reading,
T'ang reading, though
though the
the fact
fact has
has
not
not regularly
regularly been
been noted.
noted.
A special
special index
index to
to the
the Sutra
Sutra is
is being prepared and
being prepared and will
will
be issued before
be issued before long
long as
as a separate volume.
a separate volume.
THE
THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA
LANKAVATARA SUTRA
[CHAPTER
[CHAPTER ONE]
ONE]
((I)
1 ) 11 Om
Om!! Salutation
Salutation to
to the Triple Treasure
the Triple Treasure!! Saluta­
Saluta-
tion to all
tion to all the
the Buddhas
Buddhas and
and Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas ! !

Here
Here is is carefully
carefully written
written down
down the Lankavatara Sutra
the Lankavatara Sutra
in
in which
which the the Lord
Lord of
of the
the Dharma discourses on
Dharma discourses on the egoless­
the egoless-
ness
ness of
of all
all things.
things.

Thus have I
Thus have heard. The
I heard. The Blessed
Blessed One
One onceonce stayed
stayed inin the
the
Castle
Castle of of Lanka
Lanka whichwhich isis situated
situated onon thethe peak
peak of of Mount
Mount
Malaya on
Malaya on the
the great
great ocean,
ocean, and
and which
which isis adorned
adorned withwith flowers
flowers
made
made of jewels of
of jewels of various
various kinds.2
kinds. 2 He was was with
with a a large
large
assembly
assembly of of Bhikshus
Bhikshus and and with
with aa great
great multitude
multitude of of Bodhi­
Bodhi-
sattvas,
sattvas, who
who had
had come
come together
together from
from various
various Buddha-lands.
Buddha-lands.
The
The Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas,
Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas, headed
headed by
by the
the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Mahamati,
Mahamati, were were all perfect masters3
all perfect masters 3 of
of the
the various Samadhis,
various Samadhis,
the [tenfold] self-mastery,
the [tenfold] self-mastery, the [ten] powers,
the [ten] powers, and and the
the [six]
[six]
psychic
psychic faculties
faculties ; they
; they were
were anointed
anointed byby thethe hands
hands of of all
all the
the
Buddhas
Buddhas;; they they all
all well
well understood
understood the the significance
significance of of the
the
objective
objective world
world as as the manifestation of
the manifestation of their
their own Mind;; (2)
own Mind (2)
they
they knew
knew howhow to to maintain
maintain [various]
[various] forms,
forms, teachings,
teachings, and and
disciplinary measures,
disciplinary measures, accordingaccording to
to the
the various
various mentalities
mentalities
and
and behaviours
behaviours of of beings
beings;; they
they were
were thoroughly
thoroughly versedversed in in
the
the five
five Dharmas,
Dharmas, the the [three]
[three] Svabhavas,
Svabhavas, the the [eight]
[eight]
Vijfianas,
Vijnanas, andand the
the twofold
twofold Non-atman.
Non-atman.
At
At that
that time,
time, the
the Blessed
Blessed One
One who
who had had been
been preaching
preaching
in
in the
the palace
palace of of the
the King
King ofof Sea-serpents
Sea-serpents came came outout atat thethe
expiration
expiration of of seven
seven days
days and
and was
was greeted
greeted by by an
an innumerable
innumerable
host
host ofof Nagakanyas
Nagakanyas including S akra and
including Sakra Brahma, and
and Brahma, and
looking
looking at at Lanka
Lanka on on Mount Malaya smiled
Mount Malaya smiled andand said, "
said, "By By
the Tathagatas of
the Tathagatas of the
the past,
past, who
who were
were Arhats
Arhats andand Fully-
Fully-
1 Th ese Gothic
These numerals in
Gothic numerals parentheses refer
in parentheses refer to of the
pages of
to pages the ·
Sansk rit editio
Sanskrit n.
edition.
:I Much
Much more
more fully described in
*
fully described in Bodhiruci
Bodhiruci (Wei
(Wei).).
3 Li terally, "sporting"
3
Literally, "sporting" (vik;riq,ita)
(wfcndita)..
4
4 LANKAVATARA
LANKAVATAEA SUTRA
Enlightened
Enlightened Ones, Ones, this
this Truth
Truth waswas made
made the the subject
subject of of their
their
discourse,
..discourse, at
at that
that castle
castle of
of Lanka
Lanka on
on the
the mountain-peak
mountain-peak of of
Malaya,-the
Malaya, the Truth
Truth realisable
realisable by
by noble
noble wisdom
wisdom in
in one
one's 's
inmost
inmost self,
self, which
which is
is beyond
beyond the
the reasoning knowledge
reasoning knowledge of
of the
the
philosophers
philosophers as as well
well as as the
the state
state of of consciousness
consciousness of of thethe
S ravakas and
Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas.1
Pratyekabuddhas.
1
I,
I, too,
too, would
would now now for
for thethe
sake
sake ofof RavaI)
Eavana, a, Overlord
Overlord of of the
the Yakshas,
Yakshas, discourse
discourse on on this
this
Truth.
Truth." "
[Inspired]
[Inspired] by by thethe spiritual
spiritual power
power of of thethe Tathagata,
Tathagata,
RavaJ;la,
Eavana, Lord
Lord of
of the
the Rakshasas,
Eakshasas, heard
heard [his
[his voice].. Indeed,
voice] Indeed,
the
the Blessed
Blessed One, One, surrounded
surrounded and and accompanied
accompanied by by anan in­in-
numerable
numerable host host ofof Nagakanyas
Nagakanyas including
including
S akra
Sakra and
and Brahma,
Brahma,
came
came outout of of the
the palace
palace of of the
the King
King of of Sea-serpents
Sea-serpents;; and and
looking
looking at at the
the waves
waves of of the ocean and
the ocean and also
also at at the
the mental
mental
agitations
agitations goinggoing on on inin those assembled, [he
those assembled, [he thought
thought of] of] thethe
ocean of
ocean the A
of the layavijiiana where
Alayavijnana where thethe evolving
evolving Vijiianas
Vijnanas [like[like
the
the waves]
waves] are are stirred
stirred by by the
the wind
wind of of obj ectivity. While
objectivity. While
he
he was
was standing
standing there
there [thus
[thus absorbed
absorbed in
in contemplation,
contemplation,
Rava:t;la
Eavana saw saw himhim and]
and] uttered
uttered a a joyous
joyous cry,cry, saying
saying:: " "II will
will
go
go and
and request
request of
of the
the Blessed
Blessed One
One to
to enter
enter into
into Lanka ;
Lanka; for for
this
this long
long night
night he he would probably profit,
would probably profit, do do good,
good, and and
gladden
gladden (3) (3) the
the gods
gods as as well
well asas human
human beingsbeings " "
Thereupon, RavaI)a,
Thereupon, Eavana, Lord Lord of of the Rakshasas, with
the Eakshasas, with his his
attendants,
attendants, riding riding in in his
his floral
floral celestial chariot, came
celestial chariot, came up up
where
where the
the Blessed
Blessed One One was,
was, and
and having arrived there
having arrived there he
he andand
his
his attendants
attendants came came outout of
of the chariot. Walking
the chariot. Walking aroundaround the the
Blessed
Blessed One One three
three times
times from
from left
left to
to right, they
right, they played played on
on a
a
musical instrument,
musical instrument, beatingbeating it
it with
with a
a stick
stick of
of blue
blue Indra
Indra
(saphire ) , and
(saphire), and hanging
hanging the the lute
lute atat one side, which
one side, which was was inlaid
inlaid
with the choicest
with the lapis lazuli
choicest lapis lazuli and
and supported
supported by by [a[a ribbon
ribbon of] of]
priceless cloth,
priceless yellowish-white
cloth, yellowish- like Priyangu,
white like Priyangu, they sang with
they sang with
various notes
various notes suchsuch as as Saharshya,
Saharshya, Eishabha,
Rishabha, Gandhara,
Gandhara,
Dhaivata, Nishada,
Dhaivata, Nishada, Madyama,
Madyama, and and Kaisika,
Kaisika,22 which which werewere

1 The Sanskrit
Sanskrit text is here certainly at
at fault;
fault ; there
there ought to be
be
1
The text is here certainly ought to
a negative
a negative particle
particle somewhere
somewhere in in this
this passage, which is
passage, which is the in
case in
the case
the Chinese
the Chinese translations.
translations.
2 Neither Bodhiruci
Bodhiruci nor
nOl' Sikshananda
Bikshananda refers
refers so
so specifically
specifically to
to these
these
2
Neither
various notes.
various notes.
CHAPTER
CHAPTER ONE 55

melodiously modulated in
melodiously modulated Murchana, etc.
Grama, Miirchana,
in Grama, ;
the voice
etc. ; the voice
in accompaniment
in accompaniment with
with the
the flute
flute beautifully
beautifully blended
blended with
with the
the
measure of
measure the Gatha.
of the Gatha.
1.
1. ""The truth-treasure whose
The truth-treasure principle is
whose principle the sel£­
is the self-

nature of
nature Mind, has
of Mind, has nono selfhood (nairatmyam)) , stands
selfhood (nairatmyam ,
stands above
above
all reasoning,
all reasoning, and and is is free impurities;; it
from impurities
free from points to
it points to the
the
lmowledge
knowledge attained
attained in
in one
one 's
's inmost
inmost self
self
;
; Lord,
Lord, show
show me
me here
here
the way
the leading to
way leading Truth..
the Truth
to the
2.
2. ""The Sugata is
The Sugata body in
the body
is the whom are
in whom stored im­
are stored im-
maculate virtues
maculate virtues;; in in himhim are manifested [bodies]
are manifested [bodies] trans­
trans-
forming and
forming transformed;; he
and transformed enjoys the
he enjoys the Truth realised in
Truth realised in
his inmost self
his inmost ; may he
self ; may Lanka. Now
visit Larilra.
he visit Now is is the Muni !
time, Muni
the time, !

3.
3. 4) ""This
((4) Lanka was
This Lanka inhabited by
was inhabited by the Buddhas of
the Buddhas of
the past, and
the past, and [they accompanied by
were]] accompanied
[they were by their sons who
their sons who
were owners of
were owners forms. Lord,
many forms.
of many show me
Lord, show now the
me now the highest
highest
Truth,
Truth, and
and the
the Y akshas
Yakshas who
who are
are endowed
endowed with
with many forms
many forms
listen. "
will listen.
will ' '

Thereupon, Ravana, the
Thereupon, RavaI).a, Lord of
the Lord of L anka, further
Lanka, further adapt­
adapt-
ing the
ing Totaka rhythm
the Totaka rhythm sang sang this this inin the measure of
the measure of the
the
Gatha.
Gatha.
4.
4. After
After seven nights, the
seven nights, the Blessed
Blessed One leaving the
One leaving the
ocean which is
ocean which is the abode of
the abode of the Makara,
the Makara, the
the palace of
palace of the the
sea-king,
sea-king, now
now stands
stands on
on the
the shore.
shore.
Just as
5. Just
5. the Buddha
as the Buddha rises, rises, RavaI).a, accompanied by
Ravana, accompanied by
the Apsaras and
the Apsaras and Yakshas numerous, by
Yakshas numerous, Suka, Sarana,
by Suka, Sarana, and and
lear ned men,
learned men,
6. Miraculously
6. Miraculously goes over to
goes over to the place where
the place where the Lord
the Lord
is standing.
is Alighting from
standing. Alighting from the the floral vehicle, he
floral vehicle, he greets
greets thethe
Tathagata reverentially, makes
Tathagata reverentially, m�kes him him offerings, tells him
offerings, tells who
him who
he is, and
he is, stands by
and stands by the Lord.
the Lord.
7. "I
7. "I who have come
who have here, am
come here, am called RavaI).a, the
called Ravana, ten­
the ten-
he aded king
headed king of of the Rakshasas, mayest
the Rakshasas, mayest thouthou graciously receive
graciously receive
me with
me Lanka and
with Lanka and allall its residents.
its residents.
" In this
8. "In
8. city, the
this city, inmost state
the inmost state of consciousness
of consciousness
realised, indeed, by
realised, indeed, by thethe Enlightened
Enlightened Ones Ones of of the past (5)
the past (5)
was disclosed on
was disclosed this peak
on this studded with
peak studded with precious stones.
precious stones.
9. "Let
9. " Let the Blessed One,
the Blessed One, too, surrounded by
too, surrounded sons of
by sons of
the Victorious One,
the Victorious One, now disclose the
now disclose immaculate on
Truth immaculate
the Truth on
6
6 LANKAVATARA SUTRA
LANKAVATAEA SUTEA
this
this peak
peak embellished
embellished with with precious
precious stones
stones ; we,
; we, together
together withwith
the residents of
the residents of Lanka, desire to
Lanka, desire listen.
to listen.
10. ""The
10. The Lankavatara
Lankavatara Sutra Sutra which which is praised by
is praised by the
the
Buddhas of
Buddhas of thethe past
past [discloses]
[discloses] the the inmost
inmost state
state of of con­
con-
sciousiness
seiousiness realisedrealised by by them,
them, which
which is is not
not founded
founded on on any
any
system of doctrine.
system of doctrine.
11.
11. '"I' I recollect
recollect thethe Buddhas
Buddhas of of the
the past
past surrounded
surrounded
by
by sons
sons of
of the
the Victorious
Victorious One
One recite
recite this
this Sutra
Sutra;
; the Blessed
the Blessed
One, too,
One, too, will
will speak.
speak.
12.
12. ""InIn the
the time
time to to come,
come, there
there willwill be
be Buddhas
Buddhas and and
Buddha-Sons pitying
Buddha-Sons pitying the the Y akshas ; the
Yakshas; Leaders will
the Leaders will dis­
dis-
course
course on on this
this magnificent
magnificent doctrine
doctrine on on the
the peak
peak adorned
adorned withwith
precious
precious stones.
stones.
13.
13. ""This
This magnificent
magnificent city city of of Lanka
Lanka is is adorned
adorned with with
varieties
varieties of of precious stones, [surrounded]
precious stones, [surrounded] by peaks, by peaks, refresh­
refresh-
ing
ing and
and beautiful
beautiful and and canopied
canopied by by aa net
net ofof jewels.
jewels.
14.
14. " Blessed One,
"Blessed One, here
here are
are the
the Yakshas
Yakshas who
who areare free
free
from
from faults
faults of of greed,
greed, reflecting
reflecting on on [the
[the Truth]
Truth] realised
realised in in
one
one 's
's inmost
inmost self self and
and making
making offerings
offerings to to the
the Buddhas
Buddhas of of the
the
past
past;; they
they are are believers
believers in in the
the teaching
teaching of of the
the Mahayana
Mahayana
and
and intent
intent on on disciplining
disciplining one one another.
another.
15. ""There
15. There areare younger
younger Yakshas,
Yakshas, girls girls and
and boys,
boys, desir­
desir-
ing
ing to
to know
know the
the Mahayana.
Mahayana. Come, Come, Blessed
Blessed One,
One, who
who art
art
our
our Teacher,
Teacher, come
come to
to Lanka
Lanka on
on Mount
Mount Malaya.
Malaya.
16. ((6)
16. 6) " The Rakshasas,
"The Eakshasas, with with Kumbhakar1).a
Kumbhakarna at at their
their
head,
head, whowho are are residing
residing in in the
the city,
city, wish,
wish, asas they
they are devoted
are devoted
to
to the
the Mahayana,
Mahayana, to to hear
hear about
about this
this inmost realisation.
inmost realisation.
17. '"They
17. ' They havehave made made offerings
offerings assiduously
assiduously to to the
the
Buddhas
Buddhas [in [in thethe past]
past] andand areare to-day
to-day going
going toto do
do the
the same.
same.
Come,
Come, for for compassion
compassion's 's sake,
sake, to to the
the Lanka,
Lanka, together
together withwith
[thy]
[thy] sons.
sons.
18. "
18. Mahamati, accept
"Mahamati, accept my my mansion,
mansion, the the company
company of of
the
the .A.psaras,
Apsaras, necklaces
necklaces of of various
various sorts,
sorts, and
and the
the delightful
delightful
Asoka
Asoka garden.
garden.
19. .""I
19. I give
give myself
myself up up to
to serve
serve thethe Buddhas
Buddhas and and their
their
sons
sons;; there
there is is nothing
nothing with with meme thatthat I I dodo not
not give
give up up [[for
for
their
their sake]
sake] ; Great
;
Great Muni,
Muni, havehave compassion
compassion on on me
me!" !"
20.
20. Hearing
Hearing him him �peak
speak thus,
thus, the the Lord
Lord ofof the
the Triple
Triple
CHAPTER ONE 7
7

World said, "
World said, King of
''King of Yakshas,
Yakshas, this this mountain
mountain of of precious
precious
stones
stones was
was visited
visited by
by the
the Leaders
Leaders in
in the
the past.
past.
21.
21. ""And,
And, taking
taking pitypity on
on you,
you, theythey discoursed
discoursed on on the
the
Truth
Truth revealed
revealed in in their
their inmost
inmost [consciousness]
[consciousness] . . [The
[The Bud­
Bud-
dhas
dhas of]
of] thethe future
future timetime will
will proclaim
proclaim [the [the same]
same] on on this
this
jewel-adorned
jewel-adorned mountain.
mountain.
22. "
22. This [inmost
"This [inmost Truth]
Truth] is the abode
is the abode of of those
those Yo gins
Yogins
who
who stand
stand in in the presence of
the presence of the the Truth.
Truth. King King of of the
the
Yakshas,
Yakshas, you you have
have the the compassion
compassion of of thethe Sugatas
Sugatas and and
myself.
myself." "
23. The
23. Blessed One
The Blessed accepting the
One accepting request [of
the request [of the
the
King]
King] remained
remained silent
silent and
and undisturbed
undisturbed; ; he
he now
now mounted
mounted
the
the floral
floral chariot
chariot offered
offered by by Raval)a.
Eavana.
24.
24. Thus Eavana
Thus RavaJ;1a and others, wise
and others, wise sons sons of of the
the Vic­
Vic-
torious
torious One,One, (7) honoured by
(7) honoured by the the Apsaras
Apsaras singing singing and and
dancing,
dancing, reached
reached the the city.
city.
25. Arriving
25. Arriving in in the
the delightful
delightful city city [the Buddha was]
[the Buddha was]
again
again the
the recipient
recipient of
of honours
honours; ; he
he was
was honoured
honoured by
by the
the
group
group of
of Yakshas
Yakshas including
including Raval)a
Eavana and
and by
by the
the Yaksha
Yaksha
women.
women.
26.
26. A net
net ofof jewels
jewels waswas offered
offered to to the
the Buddha
Buddha by by the
the
younger
younger Yakshas,
Yakshas, girls girls and
and boys,
boys, and and necklaces
necklaces beautifully
beautifully
ornamented with
ornamented with jewels
jewels werewere placed
placed by by RavaJ;l.a
Eavana about about thethe
neck
neck of
of the Buddha and
the Buddha and those
those of
of thethe sons
sons of of the
the Buddha.
Buddha.
27.
27. The
The Buddhas
Buddhas together
together with
with the the sons
sons of of the
the Buddha
Buddha
and
and the
the wise
wise men, accepting
men, accepting the
the offerings,
offerings, discoursed
discoursed on
on the
the
Truth
Truth which
which is is the
the state
state ofof consciousness
consciousness realised realised in in the
the
inmost
inmost self.
self.

28. Honouring
28. Honouring [him [him as]
as] the
the bestbest speaker,
speaker, Rav8J;1a
Eavana and and
the
the company
company of of the
the Yakshas
Yakshas honoured
honoured Mahamati Mahamati and and re­re-
quested
quested of of him
him again
again and and again
again ;1 :* ,

29. "
29. Thou art
"Thou art the
the asker
asker ofof the
the Buddha
Buddha concerning
concerning the the
state
state of
of consciousness realised in
consciousness realised in their
their inmost
inmost selves,
selves, of
of which
which
we
we here,
here, Y akshas as
Yakshas as well
well asas the
the sonssons ofof the Buddha, are
the Buddha, are
desirous
desirous of of hearing. I,
hearing. I, togethertogether with
with the
the Yakshas,
Yakshas, the
the sons
sons
of
of the Buddha, and
the Buddha, and thethe wise men, request
wise men, request this this orof thee.
thee.
30.
30. ""Thou
Thou art art the
the most
most eloquent
eloquent or of speakers,
speakers, and and the
the
1 Verses
Verses 20-28,
20-28, inclusive,
inclusive, are
are in
in prose
prose in
in T'ang.
T'ang.
8
8 LANKAVATARA SUTRA
LANKAVATARA
most
most strenuous
strenuous of of the
the Y ogins ; with
Yogins ;
with faith
faith I I beg
beg of
of thee.
thee. Ask
Ask
[the Buddha]
[the Buddha] about
about the
the doctrine,
doctrine, 0 thou
thou the
the proficient
proficient one
one !!
31.
31. ""Free
Free fromfrom the the faults
faults of of the philosophers and
the philosophers and
Pratyekabuddhas
Pratyekabuddhas and and S ravakas is
Sravakas is (8)(8) thethe Truth
Truth of of the
the
inmost
inmost consciousness,
consciousness, immaculateimmaculate and and culminating
culminating in in the
the
stage
stage ofof Buddhahood.
Buddhahood," "
32.1
32.
1
Thereupon
Thereupon the the Blessed
Blessed One One created
created jewel-adorned
jewel-adorned
mountains
mountains and and other
other objects
objects magnificently
magnificently embellished
embellished with with
jewels
jewels inin an an immense
immense number.
number.
33. On
33. On thethe summit
summit of of each
each mountain
mountain the Buddha
the Buddha
himself
himself was was visible,
visible, and
and RavaJ;ta,
Ravana, the
the Yaksha,
Yaksha, also
also was
was found
found
standing
standing there.
there.
34.
34. Thus
Thus the the entire
entire assembly
assembly was was seenseen on on each
each moun­
moun-
tain-peak,
tain-peak, and and allall the
the countries
countries were were there,
there, and and in
in each
each there
there
was
was a a Leader.
Leader.
35.
35. Here
Here alsoalso was
was the the King
King of of the
the Rakshasas
Rakshasas and and the
the
residents
residents of of Lanka,
Lanka, and
and the
the La:nka
Laftka created
created by
by the
the Buddha
Buddha
rivaling
rivaling [the[the real
real one]
one] . .

36.
36. Other
Other things
things were were there,
there, too,-the
too, the Asoka
Asoka with
with itsits

shining
shining woods,
woods, and and on on eacheach mountain-peak
mountain-peak Mahamati Mahamati was was
making
making aa request
request of of the
the Buddha,
Buddha,
37. Who
37. "Who discoursed
discoursed for for thethe sake
sake of of the
the Yakshas
Yakshas on on
the
the Truth
Truth leading
leading to to the
the inmost
inmost realisation
realisation ; on
;
on the
the mountain­
mountain-
peak
peak hebe delivered
delivered a a complete
complete sutra sutra with
with an an exquisite voice
exquisite voice
varied in
varied in hundreds
hundreds of of thousands
thousands of of ways.2
ways.
2

38. [After
38. [After this]
this] the the teacher
teacher and and the the sons
sons of of the
the
Buddha
Buddha vanished
vanished away away in in thethe air, leaving Rava:t;l.a
air, leaving Ravana the the
Yaksha
Yaksha himself
himself standing
standing [above] [above] in in his
his mansion.
mansion.
39. Thought
39. Thought he, he, ""How How is this?� What
is this What means means this
this??
and
and byby whom
whom was was it heard � What
it heard? What was was it it that
that waswas seen
seen??
and by
and by whom
whom was was it it seen
seen �? Where
Where is is the
the city
city �? and where
and where
is
is the Buddha �
the Buddha?
40.
40. " Where are
"Where are those countries, those
those countries, those jewel-shining
jewel-shining
Buddhas,
Buddhas, those
those Sugatas
Sugatas? (9) � ( 9 ) Is
Is it
it a
a dream
dream then then?? or
or a a
vision � or
vision? or is it a
is it a castle conjured up
castle conjured up byby the Gandharvas 7
the Gandharvas?

1From
From this
this verse T'ang isis in prose again.
1
verse T'ang in prose again.
2 Thus according to and S
Bodhiruci and ikshananda. The
The Sanskrit
2
Thus according to BodMruei Sikshananda. Sanskrit
text
text has
has:: "hundreds
"hundreds of
of tho llsands of
thousands perfect sutras."
of perfect sutras."
CHAPTER ONE 9
9

41. ""Or
41. Or is
is itit dust
dust in in the
the eye,
eye, oror a fata morgana,
a fata morgana, or or
the
the dream-child
dream-child of of a a barren
barren woman,
woman, or or the
the smoke
smoke of of " a
a :6.re­
fire-

wheel,
wheel, thatthat which
which II saw saw here
here?" �"
42.
42. Then
Then [RavaJ).a
[Havana reflected]
reflected],, ""ThisThis is is the
the nature
nature as as
it
it is dharmata) of
is ((dharmata) of all
all things,
things, which
which belongs
belongs to to the
the realm
realm of of
Mind,
Mind, and and it it is
is not
not comprehended
comprehended by the ignorant
by the ignorant as they
as they
are
are confused
confused by by every
every formform of of imagination.
imagination.
43. ""There
43. There is is neither
neither the the sOeer
seer nor
nor thethe seen,
seen, neither
neither
the speaker nor
the speaker nor the the spoken
spoken; ; the
the form
form and
and usage
usage of of the
the
Buddha
Buddha and and hishis Dharma-they
Dharma they are are nothing
nothing but but discrimina­
discrimina-
tion.
tion.
44.
44. '"Those
' Those who who seesee things
things such
such asas were
were seen
seen before,
before,
do
do notnot see
see thethe Buddha
Buddha;; [even][even] when when discrimination
discrimination is is not
not
aroused,
aroused, one
one does
does not
not see!
see 1
the
the Buddha
Buddha; ; the
the Buddha
Buddha being
being
fully-enlightened
fully-enlightened is is seen
seen where
where the the world
world itself
itself is is not
not
evolved.
evolved.
The
The LordLord of of Lanka
Lanka was was thenthen immediately
immediately awakened
awakened
[from
[from his his reflection]
reflection],, feeling
feeling aa revulsion (paravriti) in
revulsion (paravriti) in his
his
mind
mind and and realising
realising that that the
the world
world was nothing but
was nothing but his
his own
own
mind
mind : he
: he was
was settled
settled in in the
the realm
realm of of non-discrimination,
non-discrimination, was was
urged
urged by by the the stock
stock of of his
his past
past good
good deeds,
deeds, acquired
acquired the the
cleverness
cleverness of of understanding
understanding all all the
the texts,
texts, obtained
obtained the
the faculty
faculty
of seeing things
of seeing things as as they
they are,are, was
was nono more
more dependent
dependent upon upon
others,
others, observed
observed things excellently
things excellently with
with his
his own
own wisdom
wisdom
(buddhi),, gained
(buddhi) gained the the insight
insight that that waswas not not orof discursive
discursive
reasoning,
reasoning, was was nono more
more dependent
dependent upon upon others,2
others, became
2
became a a
great
great Yogin
Yogin of of the
the discipline,
discipline, was was able
able to to manifest himself
manifest himself
in
in all
all excellent
excellent forms,forms, got thoroughly acquainted
got thoroughly acquainted with with all all

i skil ful means,
skilful means, had had the knowledge of
the knowledge of the
the characteristic
characteristic aspects
aspects
1 T 'ang has
T'ang has : "He
: "He who sees in
who sees in the
the way
way as
as was
was seen
seen before,
before, cannot
cannot
see
see the
the Buddha
Buddha;; whenwhen nono discrimination
discrimination is is aroused,
aroused, this,
this, indeed,
indeed, is
is the
the
seeing."
seeing." According
According to to Wei
Wei:: "If "If he
he sees
sees things
things and
and takes
takes them
them for
for
realities,
realities, hehe does
does not
not see
see the
the Buddha.
Buddha. Even Even when
when hehe is
is not
not abiding
abiding inin
a
a discriminating
discriminating mind,mind, he
he cannot
cannot seesee the
the Buddha.
Buddha. NotNot seeing
seeing anything
anything
doing [in
doing [in the
the world]-this
world] this is said to
is said to be seeing the
be seeing Buddha. If
the Buddha. If a
a man
man
is
is able
able thus
thus to to see
see [things]
[things],, he
he is
is the
the one
one who
who sees
sees the
the Tathagata.
Tathagata.
When
When the the wise
wise observe
observe all
all experiences
experiences in in this
this manner,
manner, they
they are
are trans­
trans-
formed
formed assuming
assuming an an exquisite
exquisite body-this
body this is is the
the Enlightenment [attained
Enlightenment [attained
by
by]] the
the Buddha."
Buddha."
2 This does not
This does not appear
appear in T'ang, nor
in T'ang, nor in Wei.
in Wei.
10
10 LANKAVA TARA SUTRA
LANKAVATAEA SUTEA
of
of every
every stage,
stage, by by which
which he he would
would surmount
surmount it it skilfully,
skilfully, was was
delighted to look
delighted to look into intol 1
the
the self-nature
self -nature of
of Citta,
Citta, Manas, Mano­
Manas, Mano-
vijiiana,
vijnana, got got a a view
view whereby
whereby he he could
could cut cut himself
himself looseloose from
from
the
the triple continuation,
triple continuation, had
had the
the knowledge
knowledge of
of disposing
disposing of of
every argument
every argument of
of (10)
(10) the
the philosophers
philosophers on
on causation,
causation,
thoroughly
thoroughly understood
understood the the Tathagata-garbha,
Tathagata-garbha, the the stage
stage ofof
Buddhahood,
Buddhahood, the the inmost
inmost self,self, found
found himself
himself abiding
abiding in in the
the
Buddha-knowledge
Buddha-knowledge ; [when ; [when suddenly]
suddenly] a a voice
voice was heard from
was heard from
the
the sky,
sky, saying,
saying, " "ItIt is
is to
to be
be known
known by by oneself.
oneself." "
("Well
( Well done,done, well done, Lord
well done, Lord of of Lanka
Lanka!! Well Well done,done,
indeed,
indeed, Lord
Lord of
of Lalika,
Lafrka, for
for once
once more
more! ! The
The Yogin
Yogin is is toto
discipline
discipline himself
himself as
as thou
thou doest.
doest. The
The Tathagatas
Tathagatas and
and all
all

things are
things are toto bebe viewed
viewed as as they
they are are viewed
viewed by by thee
thee;; oth:er­
other-
wise viewed,
wise viewed, it
it is
is nihilism.
nihilism. All
All things
things are
are to
to be
be compre­
compre-
hended
hended by by transcending
transcending the the Citta,
Citta, Manas,
Manas, and and Vijiiana
Vijnana as as
is
is done
done by by thee.
thee. Thou
Thou shouldst
shouldst look look inwardly
inwardly and and notnot
become
become attachedattached to to thethe letter
letter and and a a superficial
superficial view view of of
things
things;; thou thou shouldst
shouldst not not fallfall into
into thethe attainments,
attainments, con­ con-
ceptions, experiences, views,
ceptions, experiences, views, and and Samadhis
Samadhis of the S
of the ravakas,
Sravakas,
Pratyekabuddhas,
Pratyekabuddhas, and
and philosophers
philosophers ;
; thou
thou shouldst
shouldst not
not have
have
any liking
any liking for
for small
small talk
talk and
and witticism
witticism; ; thou
thou shouldst
shouldst not
not
cherish
cherish the the notion
notion of of self-substance,2
self -substance, nor
2
nor have
have any thought
any thought
for
for the vainglory of
the vainglory of rulership,
rulership, nor nor dwell
dwell on on such
such Dhyanas
Dhyanas
as
as belong
belong to to the
the six
six Dhyanas,
Dhyanas, etc. etc.

'"Lord
( Lord of of Lanka,
Lanka, this this is is the
the realisation
realisation of of thethe great
great
Y ogins : to
Yogins: to destroy
destroy the the discourses
discourses advanced advanced by by others,
others, to to
crush
crush mischievous
mischievous views views in in pieces,
pieces, to to keep
keep themselves
themselves pro- pro­
perly
perly away away fromfrom ego-centered
ego-centered notions, notions, to to cause
cause a a revulsion
revulsion
in
in the
the depths
depths of
of the
the mind
mind fittingly
fittingly by by means
means of
of an
an exquisite
exquisite
knowledge.
knowledge. Such
Such are
are sons
sons of
of the
the Buddha
Buddha who
who walk
walk in
in the
the
way
way of
of the
the Mahayana.
Mahayana, In
In order
order to
to enter
enter upon
upon the
the stage
stage ofof
self-realisation
self-realisation as as attained
attained by by thethe Tathagatas,
Tathagatas, the
the discipline
discipline
is
is to
to bebe pursued
pursued by by thee.
thee.
"Lord
"Lord of of Lanka,
Lanka, conducting
conducting thyself thyself in in this
this manner,
manner, let let

thee be
thee be further
further purified
purified in in the
the wayway thou
thou hasthast attained
attained;; ((11) 11 )
by
by disciplining
disciplining thyself thyself well well iin n Samadhi
Samadhi and and Samapatti,
Samapatti,
T'ang
Tang:: to
to go beyond.
1
� go beyond.
2 Wei
Wei and
and T'ang
T'ang :: Do
Do not
not hold
hold the
the views
views maintained
maintained in
in the
the Vedas.
2
Vedas.
CHAPTER ONE 11
11

follow
follow not not the
the state
state realised
realised and and enjoyed
enjoyed by by thethe S ravakas,
Sravakas,
Pratyekabuddhas,
Pratyekabuddhas, and philosophers, which
and philosophers, which risesrises from
from the the

imagination of
imagination of those
those whowho discipline
discipline themselves
themselves according
according to to
the
the practices
practices of of the
the puerile
puerile philosophers.
philosophers. They They cling
cling toto the
the
individual
individual forms forms of of the
the world
world created
created by by their
their egotistical
egotistical
ideas ;
ideas; they they maintain
maintain such
such notions
notions as
as element,
element, quality,
quality, and and
substance ; they cling
substance; they cling tenaciously tenaciously to
to views
views originating
originating from
from
ignorance
ignorance;; they become confused
they become confused by by cherishing
cherishing the the idea
idea of of
birth
birth where where prevails
prevails emptiness
emptiness;; they they cling
cling toto discrimination
discrimination
[as real] ; they
[as real] ; they fall
fall into
into the
the way
way of of thinking
thinking where obtains
where obtains
[the
[the dualism
dualism of] of] qualifying
qualifying and and qualified.
qualified.
"
"LordLord of of Lallka,
Lanka, thisthis is is what
what leads
leads toto various
various excellent
excellent
attainments,
attainments, this
this is
is what
what makes
makes one
one grow
grow aware
aware of
of the
the inmost
inmost
attainment,
attainment, this
this is
is the
the Mahayana
Mahayana realisation.
realisation. This
This will
will
result
result in in the
the acquirement
acquirement of
of an
an excellent
excellent condition
condition of
of
existence.
existence.
("Lord
( Lord of of Lanka,
Lanka, by by entering
entering upon upon thethe Mahayana
Mahayana dis­ dis-
cipline
cipline the the veils [of ignorance]
veils [of ignorance] are are destroyed,
destroyed, and and one turns
one turns
away
away from from the the multitudinous
multitudinous waves waves of of the
the Vij:ii
Vijnanaana and
and falls
falls
not
not into
into the the refuge
refuge and and practice
practice of of the
the philosophers.
philosophers.
("Lord
( Lord of of Lanka,
Lanka, the the philosophers
philosophers'' practice
practice starts
starts from
from
their
their own own egotistic
egotistic attachments.
attachments. Their
Their ugly practice
ugly practice arises
arises
from
from adhering
adhering to to dualistic
dualistie views
views concerning
concerning . the
the self-nature
self -nature
of
of the Vijfiana.
the Vijnana.
("Well
(Well done, Lord of
done, Lord of Lanka;
Lanka ; reflect
reflect onon the signification
the signification
of
of this
this as as you
you diddid when seeing the
when seeing Tathagata before
the Tathagata before;; forfor
this,
this, indeed,
indeed, is is seeing
seeing the Tathagata. "
the Tathagata."
At
At thatthat time
time it occurred to
it occurred to RavaJ),a
Ravana : '"I
: ' I wish
wish toto see
see the
the
Blessed One
Blessed again, who
One again, who has has all
all the
the disciplinary
disciplinary practices
practices
at
at his
his command,
command, who who hashas turned
turned awayaway fromfrom the the practices
practices of of
the
the philosophers,
philosophers, who
who is
is born
born of
of the
the state
state of
of realisation
realisation in
in
the
the inmost
inmost consciousness,
consciousness, and and whowho is is beyond
beyond [the [the dualism
dualism
of] the
of] transformed and
the transformed and the
the transforming.
transforming. He He isis the
the know­
know-
ledge (12)
ledge realised by
(12) realised by thethe Yogins,
Yogins, he he isis the
the realisation
realisation
attained
attained by by those
those who enjoy the
who enjoy the perfect
perfect bliss
bliss ofof the
the Samadhi
Samadhi
which
which they they gain
gain by by coming
coming to to anan intuitive
intuitive understanding
understanding
through
through meditation.
meditation. May May II see see thus
thus [again]
[again] the the Com­
Com-
passionate
passionate One One by by means
means of of his
his miraculous
miraculous powers powers in in whom
whom
12
12 LANKAVATARA SUTRA
LANKAVATARA
the
the fuel
fuel of passion and
of passion, discrimination is
and discrimination destroyed, who
is destroyed, who isis
surrounded by
surrounded by sons
sons of of the Buddha, who
the Buddha, who has
has penetrated
penetrated intointo
the
the minds
minds and and thoughts
thoughts of of all beings, who
all beings, moves about
who moves every­
about every-
where, who
where, who knows
knows everything,
everything, who who keeps
keeps himself
himself away from
away from
work kriya) and
work ((kriya) form ((lakshcma)
and form seeing him
laksha'Y}a) ; seeing
; may II attain
him may attain
what II have
what have notnot yet attained, [retain]
yet attained, what II have
[retain] what have already
already
gained,
gained, maymay I
I conduct
conduct myself
myself with
with non-discrimination,
non-discrimination, abide abide
in
in the
the joy
joy of
of Samadhi
Samadhi and
and Samapatti,
Sarnapatti, and
and attain
attain the
the ground
ground
where
where thethe Tathagatas
Tathagatas walk, walk, andand in these make
in these make progress.
progress." "
At
At that
that moment,
moment, the the Blessed
Blessed One recognising that
One recognising that the
the
Lord
Lord of of Lanka
Lanka is is to
to attain
attain thethe Anutpattikadharmakshanti
Anutpattikadharmakshanti
showed
showed his his glorious
glorious compassion
compassion for for thethe ten-headed
ten-headed one one byby
making himself
making himself visible
visible once
once more
more on
on the
the mountain-peak
mountain-peak
studded
studded with with manymany jjewels
ewels andand enveloped
enveloped in in aa net-work
net-work of of
jewels.
jewels. The
The ten-headed
ten-headed King
King of
of Lanka
Lanka saw
saw the
the splendour
splendour
ag'ain
again as as seen
seen before
before on on the
the mountain-peak,
mountain-peak, [he [he saw]
saw] the
the
Tathagata,
Tathagata, who who was was the
the Arhat
Arhat and and thethe Fully-Enlightened
Fully-Enlightened
One,
One, with
with the the thirty-two
thirty-two marks marks of excellence beautifully
of excellence beautifully
adorning
adorning his his person,
person, and also saw
and also saw himself
himself on each mountain­
on each mountain-
peak, together
peak, together with with Mahamati,
Mahamati, in in front'
front of of the
the Tathagata,
Tathagata,
the
the Fully-Enlightened
Fully-Enlightened One, One, putting
putting forward
forward hishis discourse
discourse
on
on the
the realisation
realisation experienced
experienced by by the
the Tathagata
Tathagata in
in his
his inmost
inmost
self, and,
self, and, surrounded
surrounded by
by the
the Yakshas, conversing
Yakshas, conversing on
on the
the
verbal
verbal teachings
teachings and and stories
stories [of[of the
the Buddha]
Buddha].. Those Those ((13)
13)
[Buddha]
[Buddha] -lands
-lands were were seen
seen with
with the
the Leaders.l
Leaders. 1

1 There
1
There is
is surely
surely a a discrepancy
discrepancy herehere in in the
the text.
test. T' ang reads
T'ang reads::
"In
"In all
all the Buddha-lands in
the Buddha-lands in the ten quarters
the ten quarters werewere also
also seen
seen such
such events
events
going
going on,
on, and
and there
there was
was no
no difference whatever." Wei
difference whatever." Wei isis quite
quite different
different
and hashas the
the following
following:: "Besides,
"Besides, he he saw
saw all all the
the Buddha-lands
Buddha-lands and and
all
all the
the kings
kings thinking
thinking of
of the
the transitoriness
transitoriness of of the
the body.
body. As they they are
are
covetously
covetously attached
attached to
to their
their thrones,
thrones, wives,
wives, children,
children, and and relatives,
relatives, they
they
find
find themselves
themselves bound
bound byby the
the five
five passions
passions and
and havehave nono time
time for
for eman­
eman-
cipation.
cipation. Seeing
Seeing this,
this, they
they abandon
abandon their
their dominions,
dominions, palaces,
palaces, wives,
wives,
concubines, elephants,
concubines, elephants, horses,
horses, and and precious treasures, giving
precious treasures, giving them
them all
all
up
up toto the
the Buddha and and his
his Brotherhood.
Brotherhood. They They now now l'etreat
retreat into
into the
the
mountain-woods,
mountain-woods, leaving their homes
leaving their homes and
and wishing
wishing to to study
study the doctrine.
the doctrine.
He [[Eavana]
Rava�a ] then
then sees
sees the
the Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas ill in the
the mountain
mountain woodswoods strenu­
strenu-
ously
ously applying
applying themseves
themseves to to the
the mastery
mastery ofof the
the truth,
truth, even
even toto the
the extent
extent
of
of throwing themselves to
throwing themselves to the
the hungry tiger, lion,
hungry tiger, lion, and
and Rakshasas.
Rakshasas. He
thus
thus sees
sees the
the Bo dhisattvas reading
Bodhisattvas reading andand l·eciting
reciting the the sutI'as under a
sutras under a tree
tree
in
in the
the woods
woods and discoursing
discoursing on on them forfor others,
others, seeking
seeking thereby
thereby the
the
CHAPTER ONE 13
13

Then
Then the the Blessed
Blessed One One beholding
beholding again again thisthis great
great as­ as-
sembly
sembly with
with his
his wisdom-eye,
wisdom-eye, which
which is
is not
not the
the human
human eye,
eye,
laughed
laughed loudly
loudly and and mostmost vigorously
vigorously like like the
the lion-king.
lion-king.
Emitting
Emitting raysrays of
of light
light from
from the
the tuft
tuft of
of hair
hair between
between the the
eyebrows,
eyebrows, from
from the
the ribs,
ribs, from
from the
the loins,
loins, from
from the
the S rivatsa1
Srivatsa 1

on
on the
the breast,
breast, and and fromfrom everyevery pore pore of of thethe skin,-emitting
skin, emitting
rays
rays of
of light
light which
which shoneshone flaming
flaming like like the
the fire
fire taking
taking place
place
at
at the
the end
end ofof aa kalpa,
kalpa, likelike a a luminous
luminous rainbow,
rainbow, like like the
the rising
rising
sun,
sun, blazing
blazing brilliantly,
brilliantly, gloriously-which
gloriously which were were observed
observed
from
from the
the sky by S al�:ra,
sky by Sakra, Brahma, Brahma, and
and the
the guardians
guardians of of the
the
world,
world, the
the one
one who
who sat
sat on
on the
the peak [of Lalika]
peak [of Lanka] vying vying with
with
Mount
Mount Sumeru
Sumeru laughed
laughed the the loudest
loudest laugh.
laugh. At At that
that time
time the
the
assembly
assembly of
of the
the Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas together
together with
with S akra
Sakra and
and
Brahma,
Brahma, eacheach thought
thought within
within himself
himself : :

" For what
"For reason, I
what reason, wonder, from
I wonder, from what what cause
cause doesdoes the
the
Blessed
Blessed OneOne who who is is the
the master
master of of all
all thethe world
world (sarva­
(sarva-
dharma.-vasavartin)
dharma-vasavartin) , after ,
after smiling
smiling first,first,22 laugh
laugh the the loudest
loudest
laugh
laugh ?
? Why
Why does
does he
he emit
emit rays
rays of
of light
light from
from his
his own
own body
body ??
Why, emitting
Why, emitting [rays [rays of
of light]
light], , does
does he
he remain
remain silent,
silent, with
with
the
the realisation
realisation [of [of the
the Truth]
Truth] in in hishis inmost
inmost self,self, and
and absorbed
absorbed
deeply
deeply and
and showing
showing no no surprise
surprise in in the
the bliss
bliss of of Samadhi,
Samadhi, and and
reviewing
reviewing the the [ten]
[ten] quarters,
quarters, looking
looking around around like like the
the lion­
lion-
king,
king, and
and thinldng
thinking only only of of thethe discipline,
discipline, attainment,
attainment, and and
performance of
performance of RavalJ.a
Ravana?" �' ,
At
At that time, Mahamati
that time, Mahamati the the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva
Bodhisattva-Mahasattva
who
who was
was previously
previously requested by Rava:r;ta
requested by Ravana [to [to ask
ask the Buddha
the Buddha
concerning
concerning his
his self-realisation] , feeling
self-realisation], feeling pity pity on
on him, ((14)
him, 14)
and
and knowing
knowing the the minds
minds and and thoughts
thoughts of
of the
the assembly
assembly of
of the
the

truth
truth of of the
the Buddha.
Buddha. He He then
then sees
sees the
the Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas seated
seated nnder
under the
the
Bodh i-tree in
Bodhi-tree in the
the Bodhi-ma1J.<J.ala
Bodhi-mandala thinking
thinking ofof the
the suffering
suffering beings
beings and
and
meditating
meditating on on the
the tl'Uth
truth of
of the
the Buddha.
Buddha. He He then
then sees
sees the
the venerable
venerable
Mahamati
Mahamati the the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva before
before each
each Buddha
Buddha preaching
preaching about
about the
the
spirit ual di
spiritual scipline of
discipline of one's
one's inner
inner life,
life, and
and also
also sees [the Bodhisattva]
sees [the Bodhisattva]
surro unded by
surrounded by all
all the
the Yakshas
Yakshas and
and families
families and
and talking about names,
talking about names,
words, phrases, ancl
words, phrases, and paragraphs."
paragraphs." ThisThis last sentence is
last sentence is evidently
evidently the
the
trans lation of
translation of the
the Sanskrit desanapathaJcatliam, which
Sanskrit desanlipiiphakathli1n, which is contrasted in
is contrasted in
the
the Lah"klivatiim
Lankavatara throughout
throughout with pratyatmaryajnanagocara ((the
with pratyiitmiiryajiilinagocara the
sp iritual l'ealm
spiritual realm l'ealised
realised by
by noble
noble wisdom
wisdom inin one's inmost consciousness
one's inmost consciousness).).
1 Swastika,
1
Swastika.
2 This
This is wanting in
is wanting in the
the Chinese
Chinese translations,
translations.
14
14 LANKAVATARA
LANKAVATAEA SUTRA
SUTEA
Bodhisattvas,
Bodhisattvas, and and observing
observing that that beings
beings to to be be born
born in in thethe
future
future would
would be be confused
confused in in their
their minds because of
minds because of their
their
delight
delight in in the
the verbal
verbal teaching
teaching (desanapatha)
(desanapatha) , because
,
because of of
their
their clinging
clinging to
to the
the letter
letter as
as [fully
[fully in
in accordance
accordance with]
with] the
the
spirit artha) , because
spirit ((artha), because of of their
their clinging
clinging to to the
the disciplinary
disciplinary
powers
powers of the S
of the ravakas, Pratyekabuddhas,
Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and philosophers,
and philosophers,
-which
which might
might lead lead them
them to to think
think how how it it were
were that
that the the
Tathagatas, the
Tathagatas, the Blessed
_ Blessed Ones,Ones, eveneven in in their
their transcendental
transcendental
state
state ofof consciousness
consciousness should should burst
burst out out into
into loudest
loudest laughter
laughter
-Mahamati
Mahamati the the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva asked asked the Buddha in
the Buddha order to
in order to
put
put a
a stop
stop to
to their
their inquisitiveness
inquisitiveness the
the following
following question::
question
" For what
"For what reason,
reason, for
for what
what cause
cause did
did this
this laughter
laughter take take
place
place?" �"
Said
Said the
the Blessed
Blessed One One:: '"Well' Well done,
done, well done, Maha-
well done, Mahar
mati!! Well
mati Well done,done, indeed,
indeed, for for onceonce mOl'e, Mahamati !
more, Mahamati!
Viewing
Viewing the the world
world as as it is in
it is in itself
itself andand wishing
wishing to to enlighten
enlighten
the
the people
people in in the
the world
world who who are are fallen
fallen intointo a a wrong
wrong view view
of
of things
things in
in the
the past, present,
past, present, and
and future,
future, thou
thou undertakest
undertakest
to
to ask
ask me
me the
the question.
question. Thus
Thus should
should it it be
be with
with thethe wise
wise menmen
who
who want
want to to ask
ask questions
questions for
for both
both themselves
themselves and
and others.
others.
Raval).a,
Eavana, LordLord of Lanka, 0 Mahamati,
of Lanka, Mahamati, asked asked a a twofold
twofold ques­
ques-
tion
tion ofof the
the Tathagatas
Tathagatas of of the
the past
past who who are are Arhats
Arhats and and
perfect
perfect Buddhas
Buddhas;; and and he he wishes
wishes now now to to ask
ask me me too
too a a two­
two-
fold
fold question
question in in order
order to to have
have its its distinction,
distinction, attainment,
attainment,
and scope ascertained-this
and scope ascertained this is is what
what is is never tasted by
never tasted those
by those
who practise the
who practise the meditation
meditation of the S
of the ravakas, Pratyekabud­
Sravakas, Pratyekabud-
dhas, and
dhas, and philosophers
philosophers;; and and thethe same
same will will be be asked
asked by by thethe
question-loving
question-loving ten-headed
ten-headed one
one of
of the
the Buddhas
Buddhas to
to come.
come." "
Knowing
Knowing that, that, the Blessed One
the Blessed One saidsaid to to the Lord of
the Lord of
Lanka,
Lanka, thusthus:: ""Ask, Ask, thou Lord of
thou Lord of La'itka
Lanka;; the the Tathagata
Tathagata
has
has given
given thee
thee permission
permission [to [to ask]
ask],, delay
delay not, not, whatever
whatever
questions
questions thou
thou desirest
desirest to to have answered, II will
have answered, will answer
answer each each
of them (15)
of them (15) withwith judgment
judgment to to the
the satisfaction
satisfaction of your
of your
heart. Keeping
heart. Keeping thy thy seat
seat ofof thought
thought free free from
from [false]
[false] dis-dis­
crimination,
crimination, observe
observe well
well what
what is
is to
to be
be subdued
subdued at
at each
each
stage
stage;; ponder
ponder things
things withwith wisdom
wisdom;; [seeing[seeing into]into] thethe nature
nature
of
of the
the inner
inner principle
principle in in thyself,
thyself, abide abide in in the
the bliss
bliss of of
Samadhi
Samadhi;; embraced
embraced by by the Buddhas in
the Buddhas Samadhi, abide
in Samadhi, abide in in
CHAPTER ONE 15
15

the
the bliss
bliss ofof tranquillisation
tranquillisation ; going
;
beyond the
going beyond Samadhi and
the Samadhi and
understanding attained by
understanding attained by the Sravakas the S ravakas and
and Pratyekabud­
Pratyekabud-
dhas,
dhas, abide
abide in in . [the
[the attainment
attainment of of the
the Bodhisattvas]
Bodhisattvas] in in the
the
stages
stages of
of Acala, Sadhumati,
Aeala, Sadhumati, and
and Dharmamegha
Dharmamegha; grasp ; grasp well
well
the
the egolessness
egolessness of of allall things
things in in its
its true
true significance
significance;; be be
anointed
anointed by by the
the Buddhas
Buddhas in
in Samadhi
Samadhi at
at the
the great
great palace
palace of
of
lotus-jewels.
lotus- jewels, lSurrounded
Surrounded by by the
the Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas who who are are
sitting
sitting on lotuses of
on lotuses of various
various sorts
sorts . each
each supported
supported by by thethe
gracious
gracious powerpower of of the
the Buddhas,
Buddhas, thou thou shalt
shalt find
find thyself
thyself sitting
sitting
on
on a a lotus
lotus and
and each
each oneone of
of the
the Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas lookinglooking at at thee
thee
face
face to face. This
to face. This isis aa realm
realm beyond
beyond the
the imagination.
imagination. Thou
Thou
shouldst
shouldst plan plan out
out an an adequate
adequate plan plan and
and establish
establish thyself
thyself at at
aa stage
stage of
of discipline by planning
discipline by planning out
out such
such a
a plan
plan as
as shall
shall
include
include [all kinds of]
[all kinds of] skilful
skilful means,
means, so so that
that thou comest to
thou comest to
realise that
realise realm which
that realm which is is beyond
beyond imagination
imagination;; and thou
and thou
shouldst
shouldst attain
attain the stage of
the stage of Tathagatahood
Tathagatahood in which one
in which one isis
able
able toto manifest oneself in
manifest oneself in various forms, and
various forms, and which
which is is

something
something never never seenseen before
before by the S
by the ravakas, Pratyeka­
Sravakas, Pratyeka-
buddhas,
buddhas, philosophers, Brahma, Indra, Upendra,
philosophers, Brahma, Indra, Upendra, and and
others. "
others. ' '

At
At that
that moment
moment the Lord of
the Lord of Lanka being permitted
Lanka being permitted by by
the
the Blessed
Blessed One,One, rose
rose from
from his seat on
his seat on the
the peak
peak of of the
the jewel­
jewel-
mountain
mountain which which shone
shone like
like the
the jewel-lotus
jewel-lotus immaculate
immaculate and and
shining
shining :in in splendour
splendour;; he he was
was surrounded
surrounded by by aa large
large com­
com-
pany
pany of of celestial
celestial maidens,
maidens, and and all all kinds
kinds of of garlands,
garlands,
flowers,
flowers, perfumes,
perfumes, incense,
incense, unguents,
unguents, umbrellas,
umbrellas, banners,
banners,
flags,
flags, necklaces,
necklaces, half-necklaces,
half -necklaces, diadems,
diadems, tiaras, 16) and
tiaras, ((16) and other
other
ornaments
ornaments whose whose splendour
splendour and
and excellence
excellence were
were never
never heard
heard
of
of or
or seen
seen before,
before, were
were created
created ; music
;
music waswas played
played surpassing
surpassing
1 The
The following
following sentence
sentence isis done
done byby the
the aid
aid of
of T'ang,
T'ang, as as the
1
the
Sanskrit
Sanskrit does
does not seem to
not seem to give
give any
any sense.
sense. Literally
Literally translated
translated it it
reads
reads:: "There
"There by by the
the becoming
becoming lotuses,
lotuses, by those lotuses
by those lotuses that are
that are
blessed variously by
blessed variously by the
the benediction
benediction ofof his
his own
own person
person . . . . " Wei
"
Wei has
has::
"0
"O King
King ofof Lanka,
Lanka, thou
thou wilt before long
wilt before long see
see thy person, too,
thy person, too, thus
thus sitting
sitting
on
on the lotus-throne and
the lotus-throne and continuing
continuing toto abide
abide there in a
there in a most natural
most natural
manner.
manner. There
There are
are innumerable
innumerable families
families ofof lotus-kings
lotus-kings and innumer­
and innumer-
able
able families
families ofof Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas there,
there, each
each one
one of
of whom
whom is is sitting
sitting on
on a a
lotus-throne,
lotus-throne, and
and surrounded
surrounded byby those
those thon
thou wilt
wilt find
find thyself
thyself and and looking
looking
face
face to
to face
face at
at one another, and
one another, and each
each one
one of
of them
them will before long
will before come
long come
to
to abide
abide in
in aa realm
realm 'beyond
beyond the
the understanding."
understanding."
16
16 LANKAVATARA SUTRA

anything
anything thatthat could
could bebe had had by by the
the gods,
gods, Nagas,
Nagas, Yakshas,
Yakshas,
Rakshasas,
Rakshasas, Gandharvas,
Gandharvas, Kinnaras,
Kinnaras, Mahoragas,
Mahoragas, and and men men;;
musical instruments
musical instruments were were created
created equalequal to to anything
anything that that
could
could bebe had
had inin all
all the world of
the world of desire
desire and and also
also such
such superior
superior
musical
musical instruments
instruments were were created
created as as were
were to to bebe seen
seen in in the
the
Buddha-lands
Buddha-lands; ; the
the Blessed
Blessed One
One and
and the
the Bodhisattvas
Bodhisattvas were
were
enveloped
enveloped in in aa net
net ofof jewels
jewels;; a a variety
variety of dresses and
of dresses and highhigh
banners was
banners made rising
was made rising highhigh in in the
the airair asas high
high as seven
as seven
tala trees to
tala trees to great
great [the
[the Buddha]
Buddha],, showering
showering great clouds
great clouds
of offerings, playing
of offerings, playing music
music which resounded [all
which resounded [all around]
around],,
and
and then descending from
then descending from the the air, [the Lord
air, [the Lord of Lanka] sat
of Lanka] sat
down
down on on the
the peak
peak of of the
the jjewel-mountain
ewel-mountain ornamentedornamented with with
magnificent
magnificent jewel-lotus
jewel-lotus whose
whose splendour
splendour was was second
second only only to to
the
the sun
sun and
and lightning.
lightning. Sitting
Sitting he
he made
made courtesy
courtesy smilingsmiling
first
first to
to the
the Blessed
Blessed OneOne for his permission
for his permission and and proposed
proposed him him
aa twofold
twofold question
question:: " It was
"It was asked
asked of of the
the Tathagatas
Tathagatas of of the
the
past, who
past, were Arhats,
who were Arhats, Fully-Enlightened
Fully-Enlightened Ones, Ones, and and it it was
was
solved
solved by by them.
them. Blessed
Blessed One, One, now now II ask ask of of thee
thee;; [the [the
request]
request] will
will certainly
certainly be be · complied
complied with with by by thee
thee as as far
far as as
verbal
verbal instl'uction
instruction is is concerned!
concerned 1 as as it was by
it was by thethe Buddhas
Buddhas
[of
[of the
the past]
past].. Blessed
Blessed One, One, duality
duality was was discoursed
discoursed upon upon
by
by the
the Transformed
Transformed Tathagatas
Tathagatas and
and Tathagatas
Tathagatas of
of Trans­
Trans-
formation,
formation, but but not
not byby the the Tathagatas
Tathagatas of of Silence.2
Silence.
2
The
The
Tathagatas
Tathagatas of of Silence
Silence are are absorbed
absorbed in in the
the blissful
blissful state state of of
Samadhi,
Samadhi, theythey dodo not
not discriminate
discriminate concerning
concerning this this state,
state, nornor
do they
do they discourse
discourse on on it.
it. Blessed
Blessed One, One, thouthou assuredly
assuredly wilt wilt
discourse
discourse on this subject
on this subject of of duality.
duality. Thou
Thou art art thyself
thyself a a
master of
master of all
all things,
things, anan Arhat,
Arhat, a Tathagata. The
a Tathagata. The sons sons of of
the
the Buddha
Buddha and and myself
myself are are anxious
anxious to to listen
listen toto it.
it.""
The Blessed One
The Blessed said, ""Lord
One said, Lord of Lalildi, tell
of Lanka, tell me
me what
what you you
mean
mean by by duaIity
duality?" 1"
The
The Lord
Lord of of the
the Rakshasas,
Rakshasas, (17) (17) who who waswas renewed
renewed in in
his
his ornaments,
ornaments, full full of
of splendour
splendour and and beauty,
beauty, withwith a diadem,
a diadem,
bracelet,
bracelet, and
and necklace
necklace strung
strung withwith vajra
vajra thread,
thread, said,
said, ""It It is
is

1 That
That is,
is, as
as far
far as
as the
the teaching
teaching could
could be
be conveyed
conveyed in
in words.
1
words.
Desanapatha
DeSanapatha stands
stands in
in contrast with siaahanta,
contrast with or pratyatmagati
siddlianta, or pratyatmagati in
in the
the
La,hkavatara.
Laiikavatara.
2 In T'ang and
and Wei
Wei:: "Original
"Original Tathagatas."
2
In T'ang Tathagatas."
CHAPTER
CHAPTER ONE
ONE · 17
17

said
said that
that even
even dharmas
dharmas are are toto bebe abandoned,
abandoned, and and how how much much
more adharmas. Blessed
more adharmas. Blessed One, One, why why doesdoes . this
this dualism
dualism exist exist
that
that wewe areare called
called upon
upon to abandon �? What
to abandon What are are adharmas
adharmas �?
and
and what
what are are dharmas
dharmas?? How can there be
can there be a a duality
duality of of
things
things to
to abandon-a
abandon a duality
duality that
that arises
arises from
from falling
falling into
into
discrimination,
discrimination, from from discriminating
discriminating self-substance
self-substance where where
there
there is is none,
none, from
from [the
[the idea
idea of]
of] things
things created
created ( bhautika)
(bhautika)
and
and uncreated, because the
uncreated, because the non-differentiating
non-differentiating nature nature of of the
the
A layavijfiana is
Alayavijnana is not recognised?� Like
not recognised Like the the seeing
seeing of of a a hair­
hair-
circle
circle as as really
really existing
existing in in the
the air,
air, [the
[the notion
notion of of dualism]
dualism]
belongs
belongs to to the
the realm
realm of of intellection
intellection not not exhaustively
exhaustively pur­ pur-
gated. This
gated. This being
being the case as
the case as itit should
should be, be, how
how could
could therethere
be
be any
any abandonment
abandonment [of [of dharmas
dharmas and and adharmas]
adharmas] V?" "�
Said
Said thethe Blessed
Blessed One, One, " Lord
"Lord of
of Laitka,
Lanka, seest
seest thou
thou not not
that
that the
the differentiation
differentiation of things, such
of things, such as as isis perceived
perceived in in jjars
ars
and
and other breakable objects
other breakable objects whose
whose nature
nature it it is
is toto perish
perish in in
time,
time, takes
takes place
place in a realm
in a realm of of discrimination
discrimination [cherished[cherished by] by]
the
the ignorant
ignorant V? This This being
being so, so, is is it
it not
not to to bebe so understood �?
so understood
It is
It is due
due to to discrimination
discrimination [cherished
[cherished by] by] the the ignorant
ignorant that that
there
there exists
exists the the differentiation
differentiation of of dharma
dharma and and adharma.
adharma.
Noble
Noble wisdom
wisdom (aryajriii
(aryajnwna) n a) , however,
however, is
,
is not
not to to be
be realised
realised by by
seeing
seeing [things
[things this this way
way]] . Lord
. Lord of of Lanka,
Lanka, let
let it
it be
be soso with
with
the ignorant who
the ignorant follow the
who follow the particularised
particularised aspect aspect of of existence
existence
that
that there
there are are such objects as
such objects as jars,
jars, etc.,
etc., butbut it it is is not
not so so
with
with the wise. One
the wise. One flame
flame of of uniform
uniform nature
nature rises rises upup depend­
depend-
ing
ing onon houses,
houses, mansions,
mansions, parks, parks, and terraces, and
and terraces, and burns burns
them
them down ;
while a
down ; while difference in
a difference in the
the flames
flames is seEm according
is seen according
to
to the
the power
power of of each
each burning
burning material
material which which variesvaries in in length,
length,
magnitude,
magnitude, etc. etc. ThisThis being
being so, so, why
why ( 18)
(18) is
is it
it not
not to
to be be soso
understood � The
understood? duality of
The duality of dharma
dharma and adharma thus
and adharma thus
comes
comes intointo existence.
existence. Not
Not onlyonly is there seen
is there seen a a fire-flame
fire-flame
spreading
spreading out out in in one
one continuity
continuity and and yet yet showing
showing a a variety
variety
of
of flames,
flames, but but from
from one
one seed,
seed, Lord
Lord of of Lanka,
Lanka, are are produced,
produced,
also
also inin one
one continuity,
continuity, stems,stems, shoots,
shoots, knots,
knots, leaves,
leaves, petals,petals,
flowers,
flowers, fruit, branches,
fruit, branches, all
all individualised.
individualised. As
As it
it isis with
with
every
every external
external objectobject from from whichwhich grows grows [a variety of]
[a variety of]
objects,
objects, so so also
also with
with internal
internal objects.
objects. From
From ignorance
ignorance there there
develop
develop the the Skandhas, Dhatus, A
Skandhas, Dhatus, yatanas, with
Ayatanas, with all all kinds
kinds of of
18
18 LANKAVATARA
LANKAVATAKA SUTRA
objects
objects accompanying,
accompanying, which which growgrow out out inin the
the triple
triple world
world
where
where we we have,
have, as as we see, happiness,
we see, happiness, form, speech, and
form, speech, and
behaviour,
behaviour, each each differentiating
differentiating [infinitely]
[infinitely].. The
The oneness
oneness of of
the Vijiiana is
the Vijnana grasped variously
is grasped according
variously according to
to the
the evolution
evolution
of
of an an objective
objective world world;; thus thus there
there are seen things
are seen inferior,
things inferior,
superior, and
superior, middling, things
and middling, defiled and
things defiled and free from defile-
free from defile·
ment, things good,
ment, things good, and and bad.bad. Not Not only,
only, Lord
Lord of Larika, is
of Lanka, is
there
there such such a a difference
difference of of conditions
conditions in in things
things generally,
generally,
there
there is is also
also seenseen aa variety
variety of of realisations attained innerly
realisations attained innerly
by
by eacheach Yogin
Yogin as as he treads the
he treads the path
path of of discipline
discipline whichwhich
constitutes
constitutes his his practice.
practice. How much much more more difference
difference in in
dharma
dharma and and adharma
adharma do do we
we not
not see in a
see in a world
world of of particulars
particulars
which
which is is evolved
evolved by by discrimination
discrimination?? Indeed, Indeed, we we do.
do.
""Lord
Lord of of Lanka,
Lanka, the the differentiation
differentiation of of dharma
dharma and and
adharma
adharma comes comes from from discrimination.
discrimination. Lord Lorq of of Lanka,
Lanka, whatwhat
are
are dharmas
dharmas ?? That That is, is, they
they are are discriminated
discriminated by by the
the
discriminations
discriminations cherished cherished by by the philosophers, S
the philosophers, ravakas,
Sravakas,
Pratyekabuddhas,
Pratyekabuddhas, and and ignorant
ignorant people.
people. They
They think
think that
that
the
the dharmas
dharmas headed headed by quality
by quality and
and substance
substance are
are produced
produced
by
by causes-
causes [these
[these are are thethe notions]
notions] to to bebe abandoned.
abandoned. Such Such
are
are not
not toto bebe regarded [as
regarded [as real] real] because
because they
they are
are appearances
appearances
laksha'Y}a) . It
((Icbkshana) . It comes
comes from from oneone's's clinging
clinging [to [to appearances]
appearances]
that
that the the manifestations
manifestations of of his
his own
own Mind
Mind are are regarded
regarded as as
reality
reality (dharm.
(dharmata). atii) . (19) (19) Such
Such things
things as as jars,
jars, etc.,
etc., are
are
products
products of of discrimination
discrimination conceived conceived by by the
the ignorant,
ignorant, theythey
exist
exist notnot ; their
;
their substances
substances are are not
not attainable.
attainable. The
The viewing
viewing
of
of things
things from from this this viewpoint
viewpoint is is known
known as as their
their abandon·
abandon-
ment.
ment.
" What, then,
"What, then, areare adharmas
adharmas?? Lord Lord of of Lanka,
Lanka, [dharmas
[dharmas]]
are
are unattainable
unattainable a ass tto
o their
their selfhood,
selfhood, they are not
they are not appearances
appearances
born
born of of discrimination,
discrimination, they they areare above
above causality
causality ; there
;
there isis in
in
them
them no no such
such [dualistic]
[dualistic] happening
happening as is seen
as is seen as reality and
as reality and
non·reality.
non-reality. This
This is is known
known as as the
the abandoning
abandoning of dharmas.
of dharmas.
What
What again again is is meant
meant by by the
the unattainability
unattainability of dharmas?1
of dharmas
That
That is,is, it
it is
is like horns of
like horns of a hare, or
a hare, or an
an ass,
ass, or
or a a camel,
camel, or or
aa horse,
horse, or
or a
a child
child conceived
conceived by
by a
a barren
barren woman.
woman. They
They are
are
dharmas
dharmas the the nature
nature of of which
which is is unattainable
unattainable;; they they areare not
not
to
to bebe thought [as
thought [as real] real] because
because they
they are
are appearances.
appearances. They They
CHAPTER ONE 19
19

are
are only
only talked
talked aboutabout in in popular
popular parlance
parlance if if they
they havehave any
any
sense
sense at
at all ; they
all; they are
are not
not to
to be
be adhered
adhered to
to as
as in
in the
the case
ease
of jars, etc.
of jars, etc. As these
As [unrealities] are
these [unrealities] are toto be
be abandoned
abandoned as as
not
not comprehensible
comprehensible by
by the
the mind
mind ( vijniina)
(vijnana), , so
so are
are things
things
(bhava) of
(bkiiva) discrimination also
of discrimination also to
to be abandoned. This
be abandoned. This is is
called
called thethe abandoning
abandoning of of dharmas
dharmas and and adharmas.
adharmas. Lord Lord of of
Lanka,
Lanka, youryour question
question as as to
to the
the way
way of of abandoning
abandoning dharmasdharmas
and
and adharmas
adharmas is is . hereby answered.
hereby answered.
""Lord
Lord of of Lanka,
Lanka, thouthou sayest
sayest again
again thatthat thou
thou hast
hast asked
asked
[this question]
[this question] of
of the
the Tathagatas
Tathagatas of
of the
the past
past who
who were
were
Arhats
Arhats and and Fully-Enlightened
Fully-Enlightened Ones
Ones and
and that
that it
it was
was solved
solved, .
by
by them.
them. Lord
Lord of
of LaiLka,
Lanka, that
that which
which is
is spoken
spoken of
of as
as the
the
past
past belongs
belongs to to discrimination
discrimination;; as as thethe past
past isis thus
thus a a dis­
dis-
criminated
criminated [idea][idea] , even
,
even so
so are
are the
the [ideas]
[ideas] of of the
the future
future and
and
the present.
the present. Because Because of of reality d'harmatii) the
reality ((dharmata) the Tathagatas
Tathagatas
do
do not
not discriminate,
discriminate, they they go go beyond
beyond discrimination
discrimination and and
futile reasoning, they
futile reasoning, they do
do not
not follow
follow (20)
(20) the
the individuation­
individuation-
aspect
aspect ofof forms (rupa) except
forms (rupa) except when
when [reality]
[reality] is disclosed for
is disclosed for
the
the edification
edification of of thethe unknowing
unknowing and
and for
for the
the sake
sake of
of their
their
happiness.1
happiness.
1
It
It is
is byby transcendental
transcendental wisdom (prajna)) that
wisdom (prajriii that

1 This
1
This is
is one
one of
of the
the most
most important sections in
important sections in this
this first
first intro­
intro-
ductory
ductory chapter,
chapter, but
but singularly
singularly allall the
the three
three texts,
texts, perhaps
perhaps excepting
excepting
T'ang,
T'ang, present
present some
some difficulties
difficulties for
for clear
clear understanding.
understanding. WeiWei:: "Lord
"Lord
of
of LaIika,
Lanka, what
what you
you speak
speak ofof as
as past
past is
is a
a form
form ofof discrimination, and
discrimination, and
so
so are
are the
the future
future and
and the
the present,
present, also
also of
of discrimination.
discrimination. Lord
Lord of of
Laiika,
Lanka, when
when I I speak
speak of
of the
the real
real nature
nature ofof suchness
suchness as
as being
being real,
real, it
it
also
also belongs
belongs toto discrimination
discrimination;; it
it is
is like
like discriminating
discriminating forms
forms asas the
the
ultimate
ultimate limit.
limit. If
If one wishes to
one wishes realise the
to realise the bliss
bliss of real wisdom,
of real wisdom, letlet
hjm
him discipline himself in
discipline himself in the knowledge that
the knowledge transcends forms
that transcends forms;; there­
there-
fore,
fore, do
do not
not discriminate
discriminate the
the Tathagatas
Tathagatas as
as having
having knowledge-body
knowledge-body or or
wisdom-essence.
wisdom-essence. Do Do not
not cherish
cherish any
any discrimination
discrimination in in [thy]
[thy] mind.
mind.
Do
Do not
not cling
cling in
in [thy]
[thy] will
will to
to such
such notions
notions as
as ego,
ego, personality,
personality, soul,
soul, etc.
etc.
How notnot to discriminate?� It
to discriminate It is
is in
in the
the Manovijiiana
Manovijnana that that various
various con­
con-
ditio ns are
ditions are cherished
cherished such
such as
as forms,
forms, figures,
figures, [etc.]
[etc.] ;; do
do not
not cherish
cherish such
such
[discriminations]
[discriminations].. Do Do not
not discriminate
discriminate nor
nor be
be discriminated.
discriminated. Further,
Further,
Lord
Lord ofof Lanka, it is
Lanka, it is like
like various
various forms painted on
forms painted on the
the wall,
wall, all
all sentient
sentient
beings
beings are
are such. Lord of
such. Lord LaIika, all
of Lanka, all sentient beings are
sentient beings are like
like grasses
grasses
ds, Lord
and
and trees,
trees, with
with them
them there
there are
are no
no acts,
acts, no
no dee
deeds, Lord of Lanka, all
of Lailka, all
"
dharmas and
dharmas and adharmas,
adharmas, of them nothing
of them nothing is
is heard, nothing talked
heard, nothing talked . . . . "
T'ang
T'ang : "Lord
"Lord of
: of Lalika,
Lanka, what
what you speak
you speak of
of as
as past
past is
is no
no more
more than
than
discrimination,
discrimination, so
so is
is the future;"; I
the future I too
too am like him.
am like him. [Is this
[Is this to
to be
be read,
read,
"the
"the present,
present, too,
too, is
is like
like it" �]
it"?] Lord
Lord of
of Lalika,
Lanka, the
the teaching
teaching of
of all
all the
the
20
20 LANKAVATARA
LANKAVATAEA SUTRA
SUTRA

the
the Tathagata
Tathagata performs
performs deeds
deeds transcending
transcending forms forms (animitta­
(animitta-
cii�'a) ; therefore,
cara) therefore,
;
what
what eonstitutes
constitutes the
the Tathagatas
Tathagatas in in essenee
essence
as
as well
well as as in
in body
body is
is wisdom
wisdom (jnana)
(jnana) . . They
They do
do not
not discri­
discri-
minate,
minate, nor nor are
are they
they discriminated.
discriminated. Wherefore
Wherefore do do they
they notnot
discriminate
discriminate the the Manas
Manas?? Because
Because discrimination
discrimination is is of
of the
the
self,
self of
5
of soul,
soul, of
of personality.
personality. How
How do do they
they not not discriminate
discriminate ??
The
The Manovijiifma
Manovi jnana is is meant
meant for for the
the objective
objective world world where
where
causality
causality prevails
prevails as as regards
regards forms,
forms, appearances,
appearances, eonditions,
conditions,
and
and figures.
figures. Therefore,
Therefore, discrimination
discrimination and and non-discrimina­
non-discrimina-
tion
tion must
must be transcended.
be transcended.
" Lord of
"Lord of Lanka,
Lanka, beings
beings are are appearances,
appearances, they they are
are like
like
figures painted on
figures painted on the
the wall,
wall, they
they have
have no no sensibility
sensibility [or [or con­
con-
sciousness]
sciousness] . Lord
. Lord ofof Lanka,
Lanka, all all that
that is
is inin the
the world
world is is devoid
devoid
of
of work
work and and action
action because
because all all things
things have have no no reality,
reality, and
and
there
there is is nothing
nothing heard,
heard, nothing
nothing hearing.
hearing. Lord Lord of of Lanka,
Lanka, all all

that is
that is inin the world is
the world like an
is like an image magically transformed.
image magically transformed.
This
This is is not
not comprehended
comprehended by by the
the philosophers
philosophers and and thethe
ignorant.
ignorant. Lord
Lord of
of Lanka,
Lanka, he
he who
who thus
thus sees
sees things,
things, is
is the
the
one
one whowho seessees truthfully.
truthfully. Those
Those who
who see
see things
things otherwise
otherwise
walk
walk in in discrimination
discrimination;; as as they depend on
they depend on discrimination,
discrimination,
they
they cling
cling toto dualism.
dualism. It It isis like
like seeing
seeing one one's's own
own image
image
reflected
reflected in in a a mirror,
mirror, oror one
one's's own
own shadow
shadow in in the
the water,
water, or or
in
in the
the moonlight,
moonlight, or or seeing
seeing one 's shadow
one's shadow in in the
the house,
house, or or
hearing an
hearing an echo
echo inin the
the valley.
valley. People
People grasping
grasping theirtheir own
own
shadows
shadows of of discrimination
discrimination (21) (21) uphold
uphold the the discrimination
discrimination of of
Buddhas is
Buddhas outside discrimination
is outside discrimination ; as
; as it goes beyond
it goes beyond allall discriminations
discriminations
and
and futile reasonings, it
futile reasonings, it is
is not
not aa form
form of of particularisation,
particularisation, it it is realised
is realised
only
only by wisdom. That
by wisdom. That [this absolute] teaching
[this absolute] teaching is is at
at all
all discoursed
discoursed
about
about isis for
for thethe sake
sake ofof giving
giving bliss
bliss to
to all
all sentient
sentient beings.
beings. The
The dis­
dis-
coursing
coursing is is done
done by
by the
the wisdom
wisdom transcending
transcending forms.
forms. It It is
is called
called thethe
Tathagata
Tathagata;; therefore,
therefore, the Tathagata has
the Tathagata has his essence, his
his essence, Ms body
body in in this
this
wisdom. He
wisdom. He thus does not
thus does not discriminate,
discriminate, nornor is
is he
he to
to be discriminated.
be discriminated.
Do
Do not discriminate him
not discriminate him after
after the notion of
the notion ego, personality,
of ego, personality, or or being.
being.
Why
Why this
this impossibility
impossibility of discrimination?� because
of discrimination because the
the ManovijiHina
Manovijnana is is
aroused on
aroused account of
on account of an objective world
an objective world wherein
wherein it attaches itself
it attaches itself to
to
forms and
forms and figures.
figures. Therefore, [the
Therefore, [the Tathagata]
Tathagata] is is outside
outside thethe dis­
dis-
criminating
criminating [view][view] as as well
well asas the
the discriminated [idea].. Lord
discriminated [idea] Lord of of
Lanka,
Lanka, it it isis like
like beings
beings painted
painted in in colours
colours on on aa wall,
wall, they
they have
have no no
sensibility
sensibility [or[or intelligence]
intelligence].. Sentient
Sentient beings
beings inin the
the world
world areare also
also like
like
them
them;; no acts, no
no acts, no rewards
rewards [are[are with
with them].
them]. So So are
are all
all the
the teachings,
teachings,
no
no hearing,
hearing, no no preaching."
preaching."
CHAPTER ONE 21
21

dhar
dharma adharma and,
and adharma
ma and to carry
failing to
and, failing the abandon­
out the
carry out abandon-
ment
ment of
of the
the dualism, they
dualism, they go go on
on discriminating
discriminating and
and never
never
attain tranquillity,
attain tranquillity, By
By tranquillity
tranquillity is
is meant
meant oneness
oneness
ekagra) , and
((eMgra), oneness gives
and oneness to the
birth to
gives birth highest Samadhi,
the highest Samadhi,
which is
which by entering
gained by
is gained womb of
the womb
into the
entering into of Tathagatahood,
Tathagatahood,
which is
which realm of
the realm
is the wisdom realised
noble wisdom
of noble in one
realised in 's inmost
one's inmost
self.
self.""
The First Chapter
The First Chapter Called
Called ""Ravana
RavaI)a Asking
Asking for
for Instruc­
Instruc-
tion.
tion."" l1

11 It
It is
is noteworthy
noteworthy that that the
the chapter
chapter endings
endings areare not
not the
the same
same
throughout
throughout the the entire
entire text.
text. Generally,
Generally, reference
reference is is made
made toto the
the Sutra
Sutra
itself
itself atat the
the end
end ofof aa chapter,
chapter, stating
stating that
that the
the chapter
chapter bears
bears such
such aa
title
title belonging
belonging to to such
such a a Sutra.
Sutra. ButBut in
in the
the present
present case
case there
there isis no
no
mention
mention at at all
all of the Lan7ciivatiira
of the Lankavatara Butra as if
Sutra as if this
this Ravana
Bavaria section
section were
were
something
something quitequite independent.
independent. WhileWhile there
there is
is no doubt �
no doubt bout its
about its being
being
a
a later
later addition.
addition, seeing
seeing what
what a a complete
complete piece
piece ofof narrative
narrative itit forms
forms by by
itself,
itself, and
and again
again seeing
seeing that
that the rest of
the rest of the
the text
text makes
makes no no further
further
l'eference
reference to to Raval}.a,
Ravana, the
the trend
trend ofof the
the discourse
discourse as presented by
as presented by the
the
Buddha shows
shows that
that it
it is
is closely
closely related
related to
to the
the Sutra,
Sutra, especially
especially when
when itit
emphasises at
emphasises at the
the end
end the
the importance
importance of of self-realisation
self-realisation against
against thethe
inan ity or
inanity or futility
futility ofof the verbal teaching
the verbal teaching ordinarily
ordinarily given
given out
out byby a a
mas ter.
master.
[CHAPTER
[CHAPTER TWO]
TWO]
II
1
I
(22)
(22) .At
At that
that time
time Mahamati
Mahamati the the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva
Bodhisattva-Mahasattva
who
who hadhad visited
visited allall the
the Buddha-lands,
Buddha-lands, together together with
with all the
all the

Bodhisattvas, rose
Bodhisattvas, rose from
from hishis seat
seat by by the power of
the power of the
the Buddhas,
Buddhas,
drawing his
drawing upper garment
his upper garment over over one one shoulder,
shoulder, placing
placing his his
right
right knee
knee on on the
the ground
ground and and withwith folded
folded hands,
hands, turning
turning
in the
in the direction
direction of of the Blessed One,
the Blessed One, respectfully
respectfully saluted
saluted him,him,
and praised him
and praised him with
with thethe following
following verses verses::
1. .As
1. As thou reviewest the
thou reviewest the world
world with with thy
thy transcendental
transcendental
knowledge
knowledge and
and compassion,
compassion, it
it is
is to
to thee
thee like
like an
an ethereal
ethereal
flower,
flower, of
of which
which one
one cannot
cannot say
say whether
whether it
it is
is born
born or
or
destroyed,
destroyed, as as [the
[the category
category of]of] being
being and and non-being
non-being is is in­
in-
applicable
applicable to to it.
it.

2.
2. As thou
As thou reviewest
reviewest all all things
things withwith thy
thy transcendental
transcendental
knowledge
knowledge and and compassion,
compassion, they they are are to
to thee
thee like
like visions,
visions, they
they
are
are beyond
beyond the reach of
the reach of intellectual
intellectual grasp, grasp, asas [the category
[the category
of] being
of] being and non-being is
and non-being is inapplicable
inapplicable to to them.
them.
3. As thou
3. thou reviewest
reviewest the the world
world withwith thy
thy transcendental
transcendental
knowledge
knowledge and
and compassion,
compassion, it
it is
is to
to thee
thee always
always like
like a dream,
a dream,
of
of which
which one one cannot
cannot say say whether
whether it it is
is permanent
permanent or or destruc­
destruc-
tible,
tible, asas [the
[the category
category of] of] being
being and non-being is
and non-being is inapplicable
inapplicable
to
to it.
it.

4.
4. In
In the
the Dharmakaya,
Dharmakaya, whose whose self-nature
self-nature is is like
like a vision'
a vision
or
or a
a dream,
dream, what
what is
is there
there to
to praise
praise �
? When
When no
no thought
thought arises
arises
as
as to
to existence
existence or or as
as to
to not-having-self-nature,
not-having-self-nature, then then there
there is is
praise.
praise.
5. Of
5. Of aa thing
thing whose
whose appearance