Chapter 2  Answers are not provided for questions that require individual research or practice.


 1 (a) H Chemical reactions are only possible in cells,
blood plasma, etc., because the majority of
H C OH solutes in living organisms are polar and are thus
water soluble. Polarity is also directly related
to cohesion and adhesion of water molecules,
Formula = C
 H4O and is important in any answer dealing with
formula = CH4O
or CH
orCH 3OH
OH movement of water. Maintenance of a stable
internal temperature is directly related to the high
(b) H H O specific heat of water, and also attributed to the
polarity of water molecules.
 6 glycerol + 3 fatty acids → triglyceride + 3 water
 7 trans fatty acid, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated
= C2H=5O
C22HN5O2N fatty acid.

 8 Body mass does not account for differences in
 2 (a) Many glucose molecules.
heights between individuals.
(b) Lactose and water.
 9 (a) Proline.
(c) One glycerol and three fatty acid molecules.
(b) Methionine and cysteine.
 3 Metabolism is a combination of anabolism
(c) Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, arginine,
and catabolism. Anabolism often involves
and histidine.
small ‘building block’ molecules being bonded
together by condensation reactions into 10 75 (there is always one less peptide bond than
macromolecules. Catabolism often involves the the number of amino acids).
hydrolysis of macromolecules into monomers.
11 160 000 combinations. Each position would
 4 Many different possible answers exist for this have a 1 in 20 chance of being any one amino
question. You should pick an organism that acid. Thus, 20 × 20 × 20 × 20 = 160 000.
you are familiar with. Ways in which water is
12 The specificity is explained by a combination
important could include, but are not limited
of molecular shapes that must correspond and
to: water for cytoplasm in every cell; blood
molecular charges that must align. The substrate
plasma; environment for all chemical reactions;
must have a complementary/opposite shape to
distribution of nutrients within the organism;
the active site of the enzyme. In general, if an
distribution of wastes within the organism;
enzyme has an internal positive charge, then the
habitat for some organisms; redistribution
substrate will have a negative charge, although
of water often changes the shape of some
there are exceptions to this.
cells/organisms (e.g. guard cells in plants);
maintenance of stable internal temperature. 13 They are neither a reactant nor a product. In
addition, they influence the rate of the reaction.
 5 Answers for this question are also expected
The difference between a non-enzyme catalyst
to be highly varied. Many answers will and
and an enzyme is that an enzyme is organic.
should focus on the polarity of water molecules.


alpha/central carbon atom 20 Phosphate. There is starch (amylose). high 2 .Answers 14 One way of answering this is to predict the being absorbed and so black surfaces get hotter hydrogen ion content of each solution relative than lighter surfaces in sunlight. of a molecule. It is also common to give is converted to starch and can be used in the only one side of a double-stranded molecule ‘non-growing’ season (usually the cold months because it is obvious what the complementary of the year). If the ions compared with the solution of pH 6. and the by-product  3 A (Total 1 mark) is carbon dioxide. for photosynthesis. the excess is typically converted to within DNA molecules are constant. This means more energy is floats over water providing winter habitat. solvent – chemical areas of the visible light spectrum and would reactions take place in water. plant does not need all the glucose for energy 15 The phosphate groups and deoxyribose sugars at that time.  1 H O H 18 Codons occur on mRNA and are made up of three RNA nucleotides.32. water is most dense at 4°C so ice and reflect none. The excess nitrogenous bases. the 27 If the sugar is needed for energy. Triplets are three C C N nucleotide bases of DNA that produce codons HO H H by complementary base pairing. label indicates 21 Glycolysis. peptide bond forms between -COOH and -NH2 22 In the cytoplasm. Be certain the bases are in the correct sequence and are properly base-paired. it enters the solution of pH 3 has 1000 times more hydrogen process of cell respiration to generate ATP. no genetic information (message) written within 28 Most plants experience a ‘growing season’ their presence. high boiling point makes liquid water available to organisms/water is liquid over a range of 26 Black surfaces absorb all colours (wavelengths) temperatures. strand is. and a nitrogenous with carboxyl and amine groups bonded to it base. The only message is the order in which far more sugar is produced than is of the nucleotides as given by the order of the necessary to stay alive at that time. correctly radical and hydrogen also bonded correctly to (alpha) carbon. As pH is a logarithmic scale. pentose sugar. many substances reflect the blue wavelengths. only eukaryotic cells have mitochondria. carboxyl and amine groups shown as part 19 Transcription and translation. The colour reflected dissolve in water and can be transported. to the other. is the colour that we see. 16 Compare your answer with Figure 2. groups/label indicates peptide bond forms between groups labelled as amine and carboxyl 23 All cells need some form of cell respiration and groups all have cytoplasm. cohesion of water molecules 25 A blue object would absorb the red and green allow transport in plants. Carbon dioxide is carried back  4 water is transparent/allows light to pass through to our lungs and we breathe it out. Practice questions 17 Hydrogen bonds. (Total 4 marks)  2 D (Total 1 mark) 24 The inhaled oxygen is distributed by blood to our body cells for cell respiration.

3 .0 µmol m–2 s–1. In addition.0 µmol m–2 s–1 C3 pyruvate and 4. high surface tension – less/stays constant/increases. specific heat capacity so stable environment whereas rate of respiration decreases (internal/external). virtually all enzymes are proteins and thus trypsin and lipase are proteins as well.642 = 29. (units required) Accept answers between 3. The triglyceride molecules are an example of lipid molecules. temperatures/between 40°C and 50°C coolant – absorbs heat when it evaporates/ photosynthesis decreases as respiration changes states decreases less/stays constant/increases (Total 5 marks)  (2 max)  5 B (Total 1 mark) (Total 7 marks)  7 D (Total 1 mark)  6 (a) 40°C (1)  8 (a) (i) and (ii) (b) 40°C: 3.64) = 79/1.5 µmol m–2 s–1.(2) (c) rate of respiration is increasing (1) (d) (i) rate increases as the temperature C4 C6 increases up to a point/40°C and then decarboxylation/ decreases(1) C5 CO2 formed Both required for (1) (ii) at low temperatures/between 25°C decarboxylation/CO2 formed and 35°C the rate of photosynthesis  (2) increases and the rate of respiration is (approximately) constant.4 . at high supports (near) surface-dwelling organisms. decarboxylation/ Both required for (1) Link reaction 50°C: 10 µmol m–2 s–1. probably learned previously that muscle is primarily protein and that explains why the actin and myosin are protein molecules. as (b) matrix of mitochondrion (1) temperature continues to increase the rate of photosynthesis reaches optimum (Total 4 marks) Challenge yourself  1 In this example no carbohydrates or nucleic  3 79/(1. This person acids were directly mentioned. between (iii) NADH + H+/FADH2/ATP (or GTP) (1) 35°C and 40°C both increase.64 × 1. (units required) CO2 formed Accept answers between 9 µmol m–2 s–1 C2 acetyl CoA and 11 µmol m–2 s–1. You have is overweight and approaching obese.

10 (d) Elodea. 4 . an increase in either (c) 1. C.  9 (a) 3 and 5. They are then no longer able to affect the reaction rate in a positive way. is very effective Feature RNA DNA to use in the investigation of photosynthetic Number of strands 1 2 rates under different conditions. so does the rate of photosynthesis. P P (b) TACGGGGCGTGCAAAGGTTCGGGGCCC. U. continues to increase. the band for generation quantitative measure of photosynthetic rate. and amount band and the heavy bands would be. G A. light intensity or temperature could cause a change. P P (b) When the enzymes and other proteins involved in photosynthesis are denatured. A T 12 (a) Methionine-proline-arginine-threonine- phenylalanine-proline-serine-proline-glycine. half the DNA was where the light strand would be and half was DNA nucleotides where the intermediate band would be for P P generation 1. G diagram below represents a typical set- Pentose present Ribose Deoxyribose up using this aquatic plant. 1 was half-way between where the light Temperature. a type of pondweed. The Bases present A. C G their shape changes. The bubbles Name of monomers Nucleotides Nucleotides of oxygen produced per minute allow a 11 (a) After centrifugation. C G (c) Methionine-serine-arginine-threonine- phenylalanine-proline-serine-proline-glycine RNA nucleotides (note that only the second amino acid has P P been changed).Answers  7 OH CH3 OH H O H O CH2 O CH O H O H N C C N C C N C C N C C N C C OH H CH H H H H H H H CH3 CH3 CH3 Val Gly Ser Thr Ala  8 (b) In the second generation. T. (c) As long as the carbon dioxide concentration (b) 5. amount of light. A U 13 (a) As light intensity increases. C. of carbon dioxide can all be tested with this basic set-up.

Elodea 2 Leaves from different plants will have different pigments present. This will result in different colours (pigments) on the chromatograph at different distances from the application point. The charge of molecules also affects the rate of movement funnel lamp and distance moved. The pigment that moves the longest hydrogen carbonate solution distance has the smallest molecule. 5 .9 Separation of photosynthetic pigments by chromatograph 1 The four pigments have different sized water and sodium molecules. oxygen Labs 2.