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∗

Signal Energy vs. Signal Power

Melissa Selik

Richard Baraniuk

Adam Blair

This work is produced by The Connexions Project and licensed under the

Creative Commons Attribution License †

Abstract

Denes energy and power as ways to measure a signal.

The idea of the "size" of a signal is crucial to many applications. It is nice to know how much electricity

can be used in a debrillator without ill eects, for instance. It is also nice to know if the signal driving a

set of headpones is enough to create a sound. While both of these examples deal with electric signals, they

are clearly very dierent signals with very dierent tolerances. For this reason, it is convenient to quantify

this idea of "size". This leads to the ideas of signal energy and signal power.

1 Signal Energy

**Since we often think of signal as a function of varying amplitude through time, it seems to reason that a
**

good measurement of the strength of a signal would be the area under the curve. However, this area may

have a negative part. This negative part does not have less strength than a positive signal of the same size

(reversing your grip on the paper clip in the socket is not going to make you any more lively). This suggests

either squaring the signal or taking its absolute value, then nding the area under that curve. It turns out

that what we call the energy of a signal is the area under the squared signal.

Figure 1: The energy of this signal is the shaded region.

**∗ Version 2.10: Aug 12, 2004 3:58 pm GMT-5
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† http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0

http://cnx.org/content/m10055/2.10/

Compute Energy T 2. Does this mean that a sixty hertz sine wave feeding into your headphones is as strong as the sixty hertz sine wave coming out of your outlet? Obviously not. what if the signal does not decay? In this case we have innite energy for any such signal. 1. then allow that time to go to innity. Z T 1 2 Pf = lim 2 (|f (t) |) dt (2) T →∞ T −( T ) 2 Figure 3: We compute the energy per a specic unit of time.org/content/m10055/2. common signal with innite energy. Power is a time average of energy (energy per unit time).10/ . Then look at lim Energy T T →∞ http://cnx. Figure 2: A simple. This is useful when the energy of the signal goes to innity.Connexions module: m10055 2 Z ∞ Ef = (|f (t) |) dt 2 (1) −∞ 2 Signal Power Our denition of energy seems reasonable. However. and it is. This is what leads us to the idea of signal power.

4.10/ . 4.org/content/m10055/2. Exercise 1 (Solution on p. Power • "Energy signals" have nite energy. 4.) Are all power signals also energy signals? Exercise 3 (Solution on p.) Are all energy signals also power signals? Exercise 2 (Solution on p.Connexions module: m10055 3 Pf is often called the mean-square value of f .) Are all signals either energy or power signals? http://cnx. 3 Energy vs. • "Power signals" have nite and non-zero power. Pf is then called the root mean squared (RMS) value p of f .

any signal with nite energy will have zero power. In fact. (eg f (t) = t is neither) http://cnx.10/ .Connexions module: m10055 4 Solutions to Exercises in this Module Solution to Exercise 1 (p. 3) No. 3) No. increasing-magnitude function will not be either. Solution to Exercise 3 (p. Any innite-duration.org/content/m10055/2. any signal with non-zero power will have innite energy. 3) No. Solution to Exercise 2 (p.

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