Vol. 2, No. 5, December 2000/rev. December 2015 T E C H N I C A L A P P L I C AT I O N B R I E F

Introduction to SPC and Weld
Checkers and Monitors ®

Statistical Process Control (SPC) and

Statistical Quality Control (SQC), are

Frequency Distribution
the buzzwords for manufacturing

••••••• 3σ
of X's

X= Pull Strength (lbs)

today. Most large manufacturers and

many small ones are using these

terms interchangeably to represent a
method to improve quality, reduce X R

rejects and improve yield.


Weld Checkers and monitors are SPC
devices. What is SPC and how does it
relate to the Weld Checkers and 426
Monitors and the Resistance Welding
process? SPC is a method which
uses the concepts of probability and
statistics to determine a normal and Frequency Distribution- an arrangement of data showing the number of times that a value
acceptable pattern of variation in a has occurred.
process. The process is then
monitored in order to identify Normal Distribution- a predictable tendency for data to form a “bell curve” frequency
unacceptable variations and to distribution.
eliminate the causes. Weld Checkers Sample Size (n)- number of observations in a group of data. A minimum sample size of 100 is
and monitors measure voltage advised when collecting Weld Sentry data, some customers use 200.
and/or current during the resistance
welding process. Their basic Mean (Average, X)- for a group of data, the sum of observations divided by the number of
functions are to provide data to be observations.
used in statistical determinations
dispersion. 3
Range, R- difference between the largest and the smallest values in a group of data, amount of
U ( X + 3σ )
and to monitor the ongoing process
and alert the user to unacceptable
variations in a voltage or current- Standard Deviation (Sigma, σ)- measures the uncertainty of the data to spread out from the

( X = average )
based parameter. mean.
Certain accepted statistical patterns Some of the process components of resistance welding include development of weld
( X + 3σ )
determine the allowable amount of schedules, tooling and fixturing, equipment maintenance, proper materials, and operator
variation in a process. The graph training. It is expected that any of these could vary to a slight degree. No two parts are ever
above illustrates how data on weld exactly the same even if they are of acceptable quality. However, process variations such as
pull strengths is used. power fluctuations, misalignment of parts, electrode wear, material differences, or operator
error could cause serious variation 10
and produce 15
unacceptable parts. When this variation is
discovered, the “assignable cause” must be determined and remedied.


Ltd.. deviation]. controlling the production process for Typically. provide a graphic method to chart process process as required. TX 79925 T: +86-21-6448-6000 Taipei. Germany T: +81-4-7125-6177 Gyeonggi-do. • Monrovia.. Ltd.. even through exceptional weld Please contact your local Amada Miyachi strength may not be info@mtl. 278-0016 Japan Korea keigaku@miyachi. value of the introduction to the use of SPC which has data. control limits are set at +/-3 σ(sigma). It is for this reason follow us on: Specifications subject to change without notice. Ltd. A Weld Strength Profile should be developed and control limits antonio.. Karnataka T: (248) 313-3078 T: +55-11-4193-3607 T: +49 (0) 89 83 94 030 sales@miyachi. the cause must be investigated. India Pvt. Ho Chi Minh ISO 9001 Certified Company • 24/7 Repair Service: 1-866-751-7378 AMERICAS EUROPE ASIA Amada Miyachi Amada Miyachi do Amada Miyachi Amada Miyachi Co. or visit our web site at If the process is not controlled it would be just as likely that an unacceptable part could be www. (Thailand) Co. Korea Samutprakarn. WELD NUMBER data can be collected for every weld. Vietnam 991-476 T: (915) 881-8765 zqzhang@msc. the common method for 3. parameters to maintain production requirements.. System variables. been shown to be a valuable tool in Control Limits.C. T: +82-31-8015-6810 T: +66-2751-9337-8 T: 080-4092-1749 & 3549 midwestsales@amadamiyachi. Ltd. CA 91016 US T: (626) 303-5676 • F: (626) 358-8048 info@amadamiyachi. Wixom.miyachi. Ltd.amadamiyachi. MI 48393 Sao Paulo. Copyright© 2015 Amada Miyachi America. LCL = X . Amada Miyachi Amada Miyachi America Mexico Shanghai. Ltd. Brasil Puchheim. with Weld Checkers and Monitors. 2/2 . The 6 σ(sigma) commonly referred to by SPC/SQC is simply the acceptable monitored and compared to established range of values based on these limits. without destroying the weld. China Taiwan El Paso. UCL = X + 3 σ(sigma) measurement of resistance welding dykim@mkc.34 LCL x Lower Control Limit ( X + 3σ ) data used for SPC has been the weld strength.. Vietnam Co. NUGGETS ™ T E C H N I C A L A P P L I C AT I O N B R I E F Out-of-Control Point produced. All rights reserved.27%. 3. Taiwan R. can be Control Limits. Control Charts. As a leader in the Upper Control Limit. the fact that it falls outside of control limits makes it America distributor for more information unacceptable. such as X or R Charts.3 σ(sigma) developed a complete line of Weld When variation occurs outside the control limits the process has gone “out of control” and Checkers which offer SPC capability. Myrtle Ave.line on the control chart indicating the average. [Average +/. There is a 99. or mean.miyachi. infode@amadamiyachi. Amada Miyachi Amada Miyachi Amada Miyachi America Midwest Brasil Ltda. Europe GmbH Noda..3 times the standard resistance welding.50 UCL Upper Control Limit ( X + 3σ ) x only 0. Inc. SUMMARY This Nugget has been a simplified Central info@miyachiindia.46 OHM•SECONDS Historically. 1 5 10 15 Today.73% probability that chance variations will occur within +/-3 σ which tend to change over time.the range of observed values between which variation is allowed to occur. The probability that a chance variation would fall outside of the limits is 3. The material contained herein cannot be reproduced or used in any other way without the express written permission of Amada Miyachi Amada Miyachi Amada Miyachi Shanghai. and can be CONTROL acted upon immediately to modify the In SPC. variation and a means to evaluate the data in order to evaluate the performance of the process. Co.42 Xa Central Line ( X = average ) determining acceptability of a welded part 3. Thailand • www. Amada Miyachi America has Lower Control Limit. Ltd.38 has been the Destructive Pull Test and the 3. 1820 S. Of course this Destructive Weld Test cannot be performed on all T: 886-2-2397-4778 T: +84-8-3771-7972 mxsales@amadamiyachi.