# NUGGETS

Vol. 2, No. 5, December 2000/rev. December 2015 T E C H N I C A L A P P L I C AT I O N B R I E F

Introduction to SPC and Weld
Checkers and Monitors ®

BACKGROUND
Statistical Process Control (SPC) and

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Statistical Quality Control (SQC), are

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Frequency Distribution
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the buzzwords for manufacturing

••••••• 3σ
of X's

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X= Pull Strength (lbs)

today. Most large manufacturers and

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many small ones are using these

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terms interchangeably to represent a
450
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method to improve quality, reduce X R

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rejects and improve yield.

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Weld Checkers and monitors are SPC
devices. What is SPC and how does it
relate to the Weld Checkers and 426
Monitors and the Resistance Welding
process? SPC is a method which
uses the concepts of probability and
statistics to determine a normal and Frequency Distribution- an arrangement of data showing the number of times that a value
acceptable pattern of variation in a has occurred.
process. The process is then
monitored in order to identify Normal Distribution- a predictable tendency for data to form a “bell curve” frequency
unacceptable variations and to distribution.
eliminate the causes. Weld Checkers Sample Size (n)- number of observations in a group of data. A minimum sample size of 100 is
and monitors measure voltage advised when collecting Weld Sentry data, some customers use 200.
and/or current during the resistance
welding process. Their basic Mean (Average, X)- for a group of data, the sum of observations divided by the number of
O
functions are to provide data to be observations.
used in statistical determinations
dispersion. 3
Range, R- difference between the largest and the smallest values in a group of data, amount of
U ( X + 3σ )
and to monitor the ongoing process
and alert the user to unacceptable
variations in a voltage or current- Standard Deviation (Sigma, σ)- measures the uncertainty of the data to spread out from the

( X = average )
based parameter. mean.
C
STATISTICAL DEFINITIONS PROCESS
Certain accepted statistical patterns Some of the process components of resistance welding include development of weld
( X + 3σ )
determine the allowable amount of schedules, tooling and fixturing, equipment maintenance, proper materials, and operator
variation in a process. The graph training. It is expected that any of these could vary to a slight degree. No two parts are ever
above illustrates how data on weld exactly the same even if they are of acceptable quality. However, process variations such as
pull strengths is used. power fluctuations, misalignment of parts, electrode wear, material differences, or operator
5
error could cause serious variation 10
and produce 15
unacceptable parts. When this variation is
discovered, the “assignable cause” must be determined and remedied.

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