ELECTRICITY

Electricity is a form of energy found in all matter. It consists of a movement of
electrons - components of atoms - from one place to another. Free electrons, that is to
say, electrons separated from their parent atoms, take the first opportunity of
rejoining an atom that is short of its proper number. The amount of electricity is
measured by the number of electrons in the charge and as each one of them repels its
neighbour vigorously, the charge has a lively nature which is described as its
potential.

We can produce a charge of electricity by rubbing a stick of sealing wax in our coat
sleeve. The wax is charged with negative particles ready to return to an association to
the positive particles. If we bring the end of the wax stick near some small bits of
tissue paper, they will fly up and stick to the wax. This occurs because the charge of
negative particles is strong enough to attract the positive particles, or protons, that
form the paper; so the bits are held until all the electrons reach those various atoms
and finally they drop.

From this easy experiment, we infer one of the principles that govern the science of
electricity: "Like particles repel; unlike particles attract each other".

In the experiment given we see that friction - as well as induction - is the first
important source of static electricity, so called because of its property to keep still.

The second form in which electricity exists is the current or flowing state produced by
chemical decomposition in a battery or by moving a conductor across the lines of force
of a magnetic field as in a dynamo or by differences of temperature between the
junctions of a thermoelement.

Statical electricity is, then, the electricity of stationary charges however produced.
Dynamic, voltaic or current electricity deals with moving charges which give origin to
the phenomena of the electric current whether generated by friction, by induction, by
means of a voltaic battery or dynamo, or in any other way.

In 1780, Luigi Galvani observed that when the charge from a friction machine was
applied to the leg of a dead frog, the leg twitched violently. Further more, with a brass
wire driven into a spinal marrow and formed into a stand to support the frog above an
iron plate, the legs twitched whenever the feet touched the iron plate. He imagined
that the charge flowing along nerves caused the frog's muscles to contract and he was
right. The flow of charge was called electric current.

Following Galvani's researches, Volta invented the pile bearing his name, which is
equivalent to a number of electrochemical cells in series. He made a pile of disks
consisting of copper, zinc, moist paper, copper, zinc, moist paper, copper and so on in
that order, with which he was able to produce effects like those the friction machines
produce. Nicholson and Carlisle in 1800 were able to deposit copper from a copper
sulfate solution on a copper wire. Wollaston showed that similar electrolitic results
could be produced with charges from a friction machine.

ACTIVITIES:

1- TEMA GENERAL DEL ARTÍCULO:

True 3) Free electrons are electrons joined from their parent atoms. 2) Electricity consists of the movement of electrons from one place to another. CORRIJA LAS FALSAS: 1) Electricity is a form of energy only found in human beings. 4) The amount of electricity isn’t measured by the number of electrons in the charge. 6) Friction is the first important source of static electricity because of its property of keep moving. False _ Friction is the first important source of static electricity because of its property of keep still. False _Volta followed Luigi Galvagni´s research on electric current. False _Electricity is a form of energy found in all matter.2. 7) Luigi Galvagni followed Volta’s research on electric current.RESPONDA VERDADERO O FALSO. False _ Free electrons are electrons separated from their parent atoms. . False _ The amount of electricity is measured by the number of electrons in the charge 5) Luigi Galvani observed that when the charge from a friction machine was applied to the arm of a living frog. False _The charge was applied to the leg of a dead frog. the arm twitched violently.