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A 76, 385–396 (2003) Applied Physics A

Invited paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00339-002-1511-8 Materials Science & Processing

**v.n. tokarev1,2 High-aspect-ratio microdrilling of polymers
**

j. lopez1

s. lazare1,✉ with UV laser ablation: experiment with

f. weisbuch1

analytical model

1 Laboratoire de Physicochimie Moléculaire (LPCM), UMR 5803 du CNRS, Université de Bordeaux 1,

351 cours de la Libération, 33 405 Talence, France

2 General Physics Institute, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow 117 942, Russia

Received: 11 June 2002/Accepted: 12 June 2002 and alloys (e.g. holes in gas-turbine blades for cooling),

Published online: 28 October 2002 • © Springer-Verlag 2002 drilling ultra-hard refractory ceramics [5, 6] (Al2 O3 , ZrO2 ,

Si3 N4 , SiC, AlN [7]), e.g. in production fuel injection noz-

ABSTRACT Systematic experimental studies of KrF laser mi- zles in advanced ceramic engines;

crodrilling in polymers (PMMA, PET, PS, PC, PI, PEEK) have

(c) micromechanics (watch industry, medical devices, jew-

led to high-aspect-ratio microholes (up to 600) in a final sta-

tionary profile. From these results, an original theory is derived, elry industry): drilling and microprocessing of dia-

which gives an analytical modeling of the multi-pulse ablation mond [8], ruby, gemstones and glasses.

process. In the experiments holes with diameters in the range

of 10 to 100 µm and from one to several tens of millimeters in Studies and applications have been performed with quite

depth, depending on fluence, are obtained for various polymers. different laser sources having radiation wavelengths in the

The stationary depth increases with fluence and this dependence IR, visible and the UV and pulse durations from cw, milli-,

is well reproduced by the present model. The particular mech- nano-, pico-, up to femtosecond pulses. UV nanosecond (ns)

anism of radiation propagation and absorption inside the deep laser sources [9] attract special attention owing to their ver-

laser keyhole is clarified, and does not suggest a significant satility. UV radiation is strongly absorbed by most materials

channeling of the radiation in the forming hole. This mechan- and it is interesting for advanced technology materials such

ism alongside the angular divergence of the beam are important as polymers and ultra-hard refractory ceramics, as well as soft

key factors for the mathematical description of high-aspect-ratio complex organic and inorganic solids. These lasers provide

laser drilling. As a result (a) the controlling factors of drilling an excellent reproducibility of results from site to site on the

are outlined; (b) final keyhole profile and depth vs. incident

treated surface in combination with a high spatial resolution,

fluence are calculated for the rectangular, Gaussian and other

spatial distributions of the beam and the comparison with the

high precision and quality, unachievable for competitive IR

experiment is given; and (c) the laser drilling is optimized, i.e. and visible sources [10]. A relatively small ablation depth

the matching conditions for the level and distribution of laser in- per pulse for ns pulses (about 1 µm or less) can be compen-

tensity, parameters of the optical focusing scheme and material sated in large-scale industrial applications by a high repeti-

parameters are derived in an explicit analytical form, allowing tion rate of the pulses. For instance, copper-vapor lasers have

us to produce deep keyholes with practically parallel side walls 5–10-kHz rates, modern excimer lasers are up to 1 kHz and

and aspect ratios as high as 300–600. diode-pumped Nd-YAG lasers are multi-kHz with an output

in the UV at 355 and 266 nm.

PACS 42.62.Cf; 61.80.Ba; 61.80.Az

There are two significant problems deteriorating the qual-

ity of UV ns laser drilling: (i) laser keyholes as a rule are not

cylindrical, but are convergent into the depth of a treated ma-

1 Introduction terial and (ii) the aspect ratio of the obtained holes (i.e. the

Laser microdrilling of small-diameter holes [1, 2], ratio of the hole depth to its diameter) is usually not high, e.g.

with diameters from a few microns up to about one hundred for metals and ceramics it does not exceed about 10–16. In

microns, is one of the most widely used applications of laser some applications these drawbacks make the drilling results

materials processing. The wide scope of its practical applica- unacceptable. A ‘blind’ empirical search for the optimum by

tions includes a ‘probe and trial’ method in every particular situation is in

many cases expensive, time-consuming and not efficient, due

(a) microelectronics: drilling narrow holes in polymers used to an extremely large number of parameters influencing the

for microcircuit boards, texturing of magnetic hard disks, result of drilling. These are material parameters (thermophys-

video heads [3] and diamond films; ical and optical constants), radiation parameters (intensity and

(b) aerospace and the advanced automotive industry [4]: its spatial distribution, pulse duration, wavelength), geometri-

drilling of precise hole patterns in hard refractory metals cal parameters of focusing (angular divergence of radiation at

the treated surface, irradiated spot size, mask demagnification

✉ Fax: +33-556/846975, E-mail: lazare@frbdx11.cribx1.u-bordeaux.fr factor and mask diameter, beam compression or decompres-

61 1. the initial sample tempera. the particular mechanism of radiation propagation eling. 1. when the laser radiation is consid- predictability.7 565 PS 0. A point source O is considered de- plasma stream. the model calculations key factors should be taken into account. eously with very high aspect ratio will be predicted. the mechanism of material removal mechanism of radiation propagation and absorption inside the and its energetic characteristics. convergent into the material depth. focusing and radiation parameters. For example. etc). al. ablation (µm−1 ) (µm) (mJ/cm2 ) (mJ/cm2 ) (µm/pulse) threshold Ft at 248 nm and drilling character- istics: extinction threshold Fte (given by the PMMA 0. This factor has been considered previously in numerical Despite a lot of papers on UV ns laser drilling (see for ex.065 30 1 0. such an approach gas are important. pulse du- amplitude is a result of the effect of a great number of fac. it appears also to be difficult to find out the ical structure of the target. It should peared recently [19].6 2. side walls. as will be shown below. For the holes with high aspect ratio Rm (e. This complexity makes does not allow a function (top-hat or Gaussian) of angle α with respect to the .g. The excimer laser scattering is mostly occurring [11]. an analytical method has the advantage of giving the and absorption inside the deep laser keyhole is established parameters of the final keyhole profile in an explicit form.2 0. the distance between the beam waist a correct theoretical calculation of roughness in the model. Such propriate for a wide variety of material properties. model this factor is considered in this paper for the first time.1 50 8. since at highly oblique incidence of and focusing parameters. radiation a concept is approximate. The particular mechanism of radiation propagation and absorption inside the high-aspect-ratio laser keyhole. energy 350 mJ/pulse and repetition rate up to tors (e. A preliminary communication on such modeling ap. to recognize the obstacles for obtaining keyholes with high aspect ratio (e.6 40 5 − 315 PEEK ∼ 10 ∼ 0. according to model of drilling. as there is 300 – 600 in Table 1) and in the framework of an analytical no clear understanding of the interaction of intense laser radi. of repeated evaporation–redeposition cycles in the 200 Hz). is extremely small. its properties and its the angular divergence. Besides. Consequently. a possible shrinkage at a cooling stage after livering a beam to the entrance of the keyhole and given by each laser pulse. 18].0 40 2. inevitably predict only conical.g. high-aspect-ratio hole in a theoretical way. ration 25 ns. whereas at significant roughness diffuse aperture α0 is obtained as in [16] and [19]. for the aspect-ratio keyholes. droplets and tiny particles in the growing selected by means of a diaphragm if necessary. Compared to numerical computer mod. pene- Polymer γ 1/γ Ft Fte Dr Rm tration depth 1/γ (low intensity). by a rigorous comparison of our systematic experimental re- lowing us to follow easily their variation for a wide variety sults of laser drilling obtained [15–17] for a wide number of of materials. the physical and chem.5 255 model). ation with a deep laser keyhole. in a number of papers does not allow us to see the general situation and to understand this problem is not considered.8 390 PET 16 0. keyholes [12. The central part of the raw laser beam is eventually form of a vapor. in par.5 0. This paper describes in more detail the be noted. could be based on an analytical the radiation on the side walls the absorptivity. model. 13. However the roughness is a Lambda Physik LPX 220i (wavelength 248 nm. first time. at a small roughness ampli- tude the specular multiple reflections of the rays on the side A high-intensity microbeam with low numerical walls can dominate. 2. etc. drilling rate Dr and maximum aspect PI 22 0. that without taking into account experimental foundations of the model. mathematical model and to show that it is in good agreement For example. 2 Experiment This mechanism depends on the surface roughness in. ap. It can only be done ture and the physical and chemical parameters of an ambient based on the experimental results. total (100%) absorption of the radiation takes place [13]. focal length.). Moreover.1 Laser set-up and polymers side the keyhole.386 Applied Physics A – Materials Science & Processing TABLE 1 Absorption coefficient γ .g. at the first strike of the laser beam rays with the side walls A general clear and effective guide for optimization.0063 150 250 6. Angular divergence of the focused laser beam. but it is assumed that already how far we are from the optimum. Numerical modeling gives the result only has never been realized in previous papers on modeling of UV for a particular set of parameters [11–14]. various types of surface-relief instabilities of tails the ray model used to describe propagation of the laser the melt layer on the side walls in the presence of a strong laser beam inside the keyhole. but unfortunately ns laser drilling [11–14].045 54 3 0. the angular distribution of the beam providing with the experimental results reviewed in the experimental the hole drilling with strictly parallel side walls and simultan- part. for comparison. For the high-aspect-ratio drilling the following ered for simplicity as a parallel beam. and the treated surface. such an analytical model of high-aspect-ratio ratio (< 4) [14]. Figure 1 de- laser keyhole. ticular. appropriate for the description of high. Its taking into account. However.4 360 ratio Rm for the studied polymers PC 1 1. laser drilling has not been constructed up to now. will allow The purpose of this paper is to develop such an analytical us to obtain a number of quite new results for laser drilling.6 385 sion factor. a few hundreds) and practically parallel 2. In this paper. the Fresnel formulas. to find out polymers (Table 1) with the predictions made with the present in transparent form the main controlling factors and. computer modeling of laser drilling of holes with small aspect ample [1–18]).

This phenomenon is strongly simi- from Table 1. fluence as typical measurements leading to Fig. around 600 for PET.2 High-aspect-ratio holes FIGURE 3 a Example of a laser-drilled hole in PC displaying branching A high-aspect-ratio laser-drilled hole is shown in on the side of the main axis with an 8◦ angle. PI. see below) even at low enough incident laser fluences (< 7 J/cm2 ).TOKAREV et al. This gives laser ablation under multi-pulse irradiation. reveals a saturation phenomenon [16]. It is usually evaluated by ablation diameter Φ = 35 µm. slightly altered of obtaining the aspect ratio vs. As seen can be easily reproduced. Indeed the possibility to study the effect of this important parameter 1. (Fig. whereas PMMA. PS and PC are weak absorbers at tially flat surface of some polymers and ceramics in shallow room temperature for the laser wavelength used. the mentioned effect of the laser plasma is not negligibly small. 3) Kapton for PI. Mylar). It al- lows us to obtain in the experiment the laser keyholes with a high aspect ratio (e. It should be noted that it is not so in the case of drilling of metals and ceramics by laser radiation with the same wavelength and pulse duration at fluences typical for the drilling of deep holes in these materials (> 30 J/cm2 ).g. poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET. polystyrene (PS). Commercial names are In well-defined conditions. 3 below). diameter 8 µm). In drilling. F = 1–20 J/cm2 ) of polycarbonate (PC) with a single pulse and measuring the crater profile with scanning optical microscopy. PS samples that drilling propagation is not stable. so that side branches are taken from a Petri dish and PC samples from polycar. b Series of five holes with branching showing Figure 2b displays a series of holes in PC as a function of reproducibility of the phenomenon . All angles are strongly exaggerated for illustration purposes FIGURE 2 High-aspect-ratio holes (stationary profile after many pulses) drilled at 248 nm in a PMMA (keyhole length 500 µm. 3a) develop along the main hole. High-aspect-ratio microdrilling of polymers with UV laser ablation: experiment with analytical model 387 FIGURE 1 Schematic of drilling a keyhole with a ray model of the incident beam inside the keyhole. PET and PEEK have high absorption coef. thus essentially complicating the construction of the model. poly(ether 2. since is necessary to obtain good-quality holes with a high aspect the ablation front is moving ahead.3 Keyhole branching and interpretation ether ketone) (PEEK). Mylar for PET. But at some high value of the fluence (> 10 J/cm2 ). poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC). instabilities in an intense laser–surface interaction in the For the studied polymers the ablation thresholds Ft are low presence of an inhomogeneity of a polymer: ablation- enough (see Table 1) compared to metals and ceramics. which smoothed. allowing easier con- struction of the model. which occurs in the case of Fig. the deed substantially altered by this defocus and becomes more aspect ratio does not increase more than a certain value. lar to the previously observed formation of cones on an ini- ficients. 2. the beam profile is in. see Ft in Table 1) with some fluctuations due to diffraction. 2a for PMMA (hole length 500 µm. fluence curve of Fig. 4) is initiated by surface on the results of drilling. it is observed (Fig. diameter 8 µm) and main axis (see model in Sect. ratio. The polymers studied are polyimide (PI). It was ob- act position of the mask image it is in fact close to top-hat served that a high-intensity beam ( F Ft . The real experimental b PC (series of holes) obtained at various starting fluences for the purpose laser profile is not Gaussian but more top-hat. a not properly adjusted beam. 6 (keyhole entrance with diffraction patterns. 6. At the ex. when the complications for the study and modeling the effect of the laser plasma on the heating of the side walls and on the results of drilling are significantly minimized. Stabar for PEEK. Development of the cones (Fig. Figure 3b proves that it bonate panels Axxis (DSM Engineering Products).

3. 2. tion of pulse number: a superficial ablation in a shallow hole characterized by a three-dimensional plume expansion: the rate depends on fluence. 5. an inhomogeneity of laser energy deposition inside the deep keyhole can also be im- portant. c spontaneous stopping of the microdrilling after complete ab- sorption of the beam by the side walls in a deep keyhole. although it continues at the parts of the irra- diated surface with other slopes (or on other cones) cor- responding to smaller angles of incidence of the incoming beam i < i . Cones represent an example of self-organization of the surface profile under laser ablation.4 Drilling rate and profiles vs. Besides. centered or too divergent. A(i = 0)Ft = FA(i) cos i . when the laser beam is not properly adjusted. 2. with the lowest value 255 for PMMA (see Table 1). i. 6 in comparison with modeling curves. (here i is the angle of incidence of the laser beam on the cone’s surface and A is the surface absorptivity. resistant particles in or on the surface of the material [20. depend- ing on i ). The curve displays three distinct features referred to keyhole . (b) deep ablation with one-dimensional plume ex- pansion and (c) spontaneous stopping of the drilling. In (a) 3D expansion does not attenuate the incident beam as much as in (b) where the plume is forced to expand within the in- cident beam. The top-right inset in Fig. Such cones form when the fluence is in a well-defined window. Thus. This phenomenon is explained in the model below.e. Therefore deep ablation (b) is found to operate at a constant rate in a wide range of depths. at least not too high. we expect that interac- tion of the laser beam with the keyhole bottom covered with such cones is a probable cause for the development of FIGURE 5 Three stages in the typical experimental drilling rate as a func- keyhole branching. Similarly. The same can be true for development of keyhole branching in drilling. number of pulses 1 µm/pulse. Maximum aspect (PMDA-ODA polyimide) with a 130-mJ/cm2 fluence and approximately ratios attained for other studied polymers are smaller and ex- 30 pulses in air hibit a great variety depending on the material. 21]. otherwise ablation-resistant particles at the tips of the cones would be removed by the ablation. It means that ablation stops on the cone’s surface with such i .5 Fluence dependence and beam transmission Experimental dependences of depth of the finished holes on the laser fluence for each of the studied polymers are shown in Fig. e. The highest measured depth for PET of about 22 mm corresponds FIGURE 4 Conical structures obtained in KrF laser ablation of Kapton in this figure to aspect ratios of about 600.388 Applied Physics A – Materials Science & Processing as: (a) surface ablation with three-dimensional (3D) plume expansion. b deep hole ablation: dense plasma and strong beam attenuation due to a one- dimensional expansion inside the hole: the rate is constant. After many pulses an inclination of their surface is self-adjusted to the in- cident beam in such a way that the absorbed fluence Fa = FA(i) cos i becomes equal to the ablation threshold A(i = 0)Ft for the absorbed fluence. approximately 2. keyhole branching appears usually at some well-defined depth when the laser fluence becomes attenuated enough by the transmission through the already drilled part of the keyhole. The top-right inset Drilling rate as a function of depth is shown in shows schematically intermediate and final stationary profiles of the laser Fig. 5 displays successive profiles to explain schemat- ically two main experimentally observed stages in multi-pulse drilling of polymers.g.

This can lead to the amount and the distribution of the scat.6 This theoretical statement is consistent with the above- described experimental observation of a constant depth of the Beam transmission through the via hole vs. 29]. To describe the keyhole profile for drilling with an axisymmetrical intensity distribu- tion a cylindrical co-ordinate system 0rz is introduced. tive ambient medium Tst can be lower than Tm . Here.2 µm/pulse or less (an ablation rate typical for a nanosecond fluence in comparison with the top-hat model (solid curves given by (20a)) pulse) about 5000 pulses or more are required to obtain a via for the studied polymers PET. 3. The full surface profile of the keyhole consists of two main parts: (i) Non-stationary profile. This profile is on the side walls of the deep key- hole (Fig. 0. This kind of profile is characterized by the bottom of the keyhole (Fig. whose absolute value depends on ered below we put the material and applied laser fluence. PS. If we suppose that some higher . As one can see. hole. 1). PC.g. 28]. by small steps from pulse to pulse. depth for PET. 7. ceramics or polymer) with 1-mm thickness at FIGURE 6 Experimental data (points) for the depth of finished keyholes vs. where significant material re- moval takes place. and the taking into account of different inclinations of different parts of the keyhole surface with respect to the incident beam becomes important [18]. Its slope is established after a certain number of pulses as a result of self-regulated processes in such a way that a maximum vs. time local surface temperature T(r. 5). Rigorous use of the melting concept is only valid for a metal According to the mask projection scheme used in without any other reaction.TOKAREV et al. PMMA and PEEK. r0 being an irradiated spot radius on the en- trance plane of the treated sample. depth for PET (). Kapton. PC and PMMA is shown in Fig. This experiment was done Tst is the maximum temperature at which there is no ma- to understand and characterize the propagation and absorption terial removal from the side walls in the presence of a strong of laser energy inside the keyhole. A study of the affected zone around the keyhole profile in PMMA is possible by the Tst = Tm . e. For example. High-aspect-ratio microdrilling of polymers with UV laser ablation: experiment with analytical model 389 at the distance z 0 from the front surface of the workpiece and having an angular divergence. z ) is constant across this profile. For drilling in a chemically ac- tered light absorbed around the keyhole. 5) and also by a certain transition region between the bottom and the inclined side walls of the keyhole. the laser beam irradiating the target is The last relation means that the melt depth is practically considered in the model as a point source O (see Fig. 1) placed zero on the side walls [18. α0 = r0 /z 0 for a top-hat beam profile. affected zone across the side walls. the laser drilling of deep keyholes has been considered in a great number of papers for continuous-wave radiation. PC ( ) and PMMA. Thresh. with z = 0 corresponding to the position of the point source O (Fig. in all cases expulsion effect of a vapor plume propagating from the bot- (PET. when deepening of the keyhole takes place gradually. for a mate- rial plate (metal. or for single-pulse drilling by long (millisecond) laser pulses – see for example [23–27]. (2) confocal microRaman technique. (ii) Stationary profile. z) = const = Tst . as already described [22]. close to a linear dependence (as predicted by the model be- For the processing in a chemically inert ambient consid- low) with a negative slope. z) attained as a result of laser pulse action at each point of the surface profile with co-ordinates (r. where there is practically no mate- rial removal and whose slope therefore does not change from pulse to pulse. (1) in the experiment. Previously. FIGURE 7 Keyhole transmission of the beam energy (the ratio of the en- ergy transmitted through the via hole to the incident energy) vs. 3 Theoretical model although for polymers decomposition is often simultaneous. The scheme of the corner-shape sample used T(r. The laser drilling is controlled in this case by some self- olds of ablation extinction Fte obtained by fitting the model to the experiment are given in Table 1 regulated processes (similar to the above-considered situation with the formation of cones). PC or PMMA) the experimental data exhibit a behavior tom to the orifice of the keyhole [18. where Tm is a melting point. our experiment [16]. Here the term ‘melting’ is used independently of the nature of the material. another regime is considered – multi-pulse drilling by shorter (nanosecond) pulses. The model is given in Sect.

then this would provide a melt of across this part of the profile. The factor 0.e. Therefore. ate in nanosecond drilling of polymers. Thus. z) = . h (here where. when 1/γ . the non-stationary part of the profile be called a threshold of material removal or mobility (not to decreases in area (correspondingly. z) = F(α)z 20 /z 2 . 1): the shielding can be caused by the component of the plasma plume which is generated at the non-stationary part of the F(α) z 20 + r12 F(r. Thus. 2 nal shape of the keyhole side walls is defined by a stationary whereas for a volumetric heating (γ 2 χτ < 1). when the F(r. another part of the plume can be generated on the side walls. ation of the repeated pulse irradiation – all the keyhole surface 1 becomes a stationary type of the profile and a non-stationary Fte = (πχτ)1/2 C (Tm − Ti ) . a certain depth. Besides.e. z) = const = Fte . the isothermal property of the stationary profile (1) corresponds β = arctan( dr/ dz) ∼ = dr/ dz . z) . 1). the target material respectively and t is the pulse duration). whereas the area of in Table 1). z) = α(r. at least in a certain part of the station. (7) profile of the side walls becomes close to stationary. z) − β(r. However. which is follows from the geometrical relations in Fig. 5). Fte is a threshold of extinction (or extinguishing) of ablation At a deepening of the keyhole with the number of pulses (when ablation stops) in drilling experiments.5 – 5) × 105 cm/s. the main contribution to general form (see Fig. β . (4) part practically disappears. There is no attenuation of the incident laser radiation Here F(r. z) becomes narrow bottom region. Strictly speaking. (9) . temperature. z) = A(ϕ(r. (6) neglected. the absorbed fluence corresponding to it reach- the stationary part of the profile increases. corresponding to nanosecond pulses (20 – 30 ns) practically stops or considerably decreases despite a continu. face of the sample. corresponding to a characteristic distance vp τ of (z 20 + r12 )/(z√ 2 + r 2 ) describes the decrease of the fluence with plasma plume propagation from the keyhole bottom during a distance z 2 + r 2 from the point source O as ∝ 1/(z 2 + the nanosecond laser pulse with τ = 20 – 40 ns and vp about r 2 ) due to the angular divergence of the beam. cos α z 2 + r 2 respondingly the plume density is maximal.1– 0. only this kind of keyhole profile is consid- ered below. 1. (8) At pulsed laser processing. For the axisymmetrical tion plasma plume. one can conclude that the fi. z) can be described in the following here with a depth about of 5 – 22 mm. 5. T ∗ > Tm . i. the inclination of the side walls and the final ity (in g/cm3) of the material. therefore we put cos α ∼ = 1. a constant absorbed fluence ary profile. γ and χ are the ab- sorption coefficient (in cm−1 ) and the thermal diffusivity of α = arctan(r/z) ∼= r/z . z) is the grazing angle for the ray OP propagating at or very small compared to the bottom. r and h are the keyhole radius and depth. (χτ)1/2 r . as the temperature of an angle α with respect to the optical axis z to the point P. In the drilling of deep keyholes considered fluence distribution. z 0 ) on the entrance of the keyhole. the usual threshold of ablation given rial removed per pulse also decreases).390 Applied Physics A – Materials Science & Processing temperatures. Tm . z = z 0 . at the bot- tom of the keyhole and probably the narrow transient region Here F(α) is an angular fluence distribution in the front sur- immediately adjacent to the bottom – see Fig. profile where the material-removal rate is maximal and cor. be confused with Ft . z))F(r.2 mm. The term F(α)/ cos α is a flu- during the laser pulse. from bottom has practically no effect on the attenuation of the radi. z) sin ϕ(r. plasma plume heating of the side walls is Fa (r. for the drilling of metals. in the paraxial optics approximation (α. to its iso-absorption property. perimental observation of spontaneous stopping of the drilling when the keyhole reaches a certain depth – see stage (c) in Fte = C (Tm − Ti ) /γ . ing the surface temperature T = Tm . a part Fa (r. On the side walls only absorption of the incident beam is considered. z) is the incident fluence at the point P of the pro- incoming onto the side walls in a deep keyhole by the abla. and here material removal takes place. and Ti is an initial (ambient) saturated depth. Then F(r. file with co-ordinates (r. (5) Fig. F(r. ence in the cross section perpendicular to the ray OP at fined near the bottom in a narrow region of thickness about the point (r1 . (3) of the profile where T > Tm can not be stationary. which can also of the same intensity. It means that this part of the plume at the ial beam α 1. 1. i. the most dense part of the plume is con. usually not sufficient for vaporization and therefore can not produce a plume with a more or less considerable shielding. z ) (Fig. more appropri- type of profile (this agrees well with the above-described ex. (z 20 +r12 )/(z 2 + ation incoming onto the main part of the side walls above this r 2 ) = z 20 /z 2 . As this profile does not exceed the melting point. the evident geometrical relationships in Fig. which in the presence of expulsion by the tan- gential plasma and vapor flow could be removed. as it defines the final parameters of the keyhole – Here C and are the heat capacity (in J/(g × K)) and dens- the aspect ratio. However. For a superficial heating sible when the growth of the keyhole depth from pulse to pulse (γ 2 χτ > 1). A situation is pos. ϕ(r. an evap- oration of the material from such a profile is practically absent ϕ(r. the amount of the mate. ϕ 1). could be reached. 2. The following assumptions are used below in the Under the above assumptions the absorbed fluence on the modeling: side walls is expressed as 1. z) . For a parax- (1.

The solution z(α) of (13) droplets expelled both from the bottom and from the side allows us to find the profile r(z) in a parametric form (with α walls. in this model the keyhole totally traps the radiation inside the keyhole. The substitution of (7). In the specular reflection model. r = αz . with the boundary condition z(α = α∞ ) = z 0 . r = r0 . The main part of (15) these rays strikes the opposite wall at not grazing. The value Fpar follows after the substitution of (6). z)) in (6) depends on the profile is in such a case proportional to the local incident flu- particular mechanism of propagation and absorption of laser ence F(r. incident α∞ 2 on the surface profile at the grazing angle ϕ. (7) and (8) into (3). z) is an angle of local inclination of the side walls of the i.1 Threshold fluence for obtaining parallel side walls energy of the original ray OP on the side walls in a small re. z(α) = z 0 1 + F(α ) dα . reaches a threshold. entrance. It to (9). In the multiple-scattering model the side walls are as. in dα Fte which A = 1. h . the side walls are ex. a certain limiting angle in a spatially concentrated angular dis- sumed to strongly scatter the incoming rays due to a surface tribution of the incident laser beam. sorption and heating at a particular point. z ). z)): at different incidence angles. The same can be concluded for any other neighbor- keyhole at the point (r. and/or (ii) disturbances and rippling of the molten layer as the parameter) and the final keyhole depth. Fte 0 ber of secondary rays in different directions. As a result. It means that just one or two further collisions and scatterings of these rays with the side walls are sufficient to provide a practically total absorption of 3. at each point across the keyhole β∼ = d(αz)/ dz = α + z( dα/ dz) . the last relation takes the form means that such an effective total absorption can be consid- ered as taking place locally. are provided when the fluence at the spot border ceed a few keyhole diameters near the point (r. the rays incoming from the point tions are small regions immediately adjacent to the keyhole source O to the side walls are considered then as specularly entrance and bottom (tip).e. Therefore the local absorptivity in neglected. according ing original rays or beamlets coming from the point source. Further multiple reflections inside the keyhole are come only from one side. z) ∼ = −z( dα/ dz) . Fresnel formulas is A(ϕ) = 2nϕ (n is the real part of the refrac. z ): (α = α0 ) in the entrance plane. the specular reflection model is not considered any more. while the cal. z 0 ≤ z ≤ h) a high-aspect-ratio hole. 1/2 ing and absorption of the incoming ray OP (Fig. Ft α A(ϕ(r. z). (10) depth. 1). taking into account that at z = z 0 . but having in fact only a small contribution to the total ratios of about 100 – 300) the absorptivity according to the absorptivity. taking into account multiple scatter. 1/2 por and plasma propagating from the bottom to the orifice of α∞ 2 the keyhole and/or (iii) keyhole profile shrinkage on cooling r(α) = αz(α) . for which the scattered rays can reflected.015 –0. Therefore. tered rays come from the left. For the grazing angle ϕ of about 1/200 – 1/600 these regions is expected to be about two times smaller than (which corresponds to the holes considered here with aspect (12). After the first h(F) = z(α = 0) − z 0 = z 0 1 + F(α ) dα − 1 strike on the side wall the ray OP is scattered into a great num. The only excep- pected to be ideally smooth. at the keyhole entrance gion in the vicinity of the point (r. for high-aspect-ratio keyholes considered here the α = α0 = r0 /z 0 and the walls’ inclination at the entrance total depth is much higher: β = dr/ dz(z = z 0 ) = 0: h = (200 – 600) d . z ). for which the absorptivity A = 1 − R Some particular cases are considered below. dz z2 z = − 0 F(α) (13) culations from the multiple-scattering model (see below). vs. F(α0 ).005. the dependence of hole depth differential equation for the stationary keyhole profile: on fluence in the specular reflection model gives 10 – 30 times smaller values compared to the experiment. beyond which the beam roughness induced by (i) deposition of the vapor. However. fluence: on the side walls due to its interaction with a strong flow of va. Fpar . The length L of this The parallel side walls. at least near the keyhole diffused absorption region along the keyhole axis does not ex.TOKAREV et al. (12) sin ϕ(r. High-aspect-ratio microdrilling of polymers with UV laser ablation: experiment with analytical model 391 β(r. agree well with the experiment. (14) after each pulse. Here α∞ is 2. clusters and intensity becomes negligibly small. This mechanism depends in turn stray light. of polymers is high (about 95%). L = (2 – 4) d . Thus. Therefore. Taking into account that. incidence. L h . Fpar = Fte /α0 . z)) ∼ = 1. but not far from normal. z) ∼ = ϕ(r. (16) . (11) and (12) into relation (6) and tive index) and appears to be very low for the considered ϕ: iso-absorption condition (3) gives rise to the following simple A = 0. The substitution of (10) into (8) gives A(ϕ(r. z)) = Aeff (ϕ(r. z)) is in this case a local effective absorptivity for (0 ≤ α ≤ α∞ . providing finally the energy ab- 1.and from the right-hand sides two extreme cases can be considered to estimate A(ϕ(r. (11) and the absorbed fluence in (6) in each point of the side walls’ The value of the absorptivity A(ϕ(r. and to each point of the stationary profile scat- on the surface conditions on the keyhole side walls.

relations (14) for r(α) and z(α) after the sub- comes divergent at the orifice.2 Fluence distribution providing strictly cylindrical r(z) = c1 z − c3 z 3 . whereas at F(α0 ) > Fpar the keyhole be. although convergent in a deeper stitution α∞ = α0 allow us to obtain an explicit dependence part of the keyhole. laser irradiation. side walls .392 Applied Physics A – Materials Science & Processing At F(α0 ) < Fpar the keyhole walls at the entrance are conver. typical for the use of the mask projection scheme in excimer gent into the depth. where c1 = α0 (1 + 2ψ)/(2ψ) . for r(z): 3.

as the coefficients c1 the substitutions r(z) = const = r0 . ψ(F) = F/Fpar . providing strictly cylindrical side walls in drilling of Fpar is given by (16). but also divergent ones (at F (α) = Fpar α03 /α3 at α1 ≤ α ≤ α0 least near the entrance) are possible. (17) The mathematically simple dependence of r(z) allows us to find easily all characteristic points of the profile: Here α1 = r0 /(z 0 + h) corresponds to the exit of the keyhole at z 1 = z 0 + h s . A few examples of profiles for dif- Fig. F (α). The particular shape of the drilled cav- a via hole in a plate of thickness h s . As seen in Fig. F (α) = 0 at α ≥ α0 . which demonstrates that not only keyholes convergent into the depth. F (α) should strongly increase √ z 1 = z 0 (1 + 2ψ)1/2 . rmax = r0 (1 + 2ψ)3/2/ 3 3ψ . c3 = α0 / 2z 20 ψ . 8) and using (16): ferent F are shown in Fig. as the rays with α < α1 propagate 1/2 . 9. z max = z 1 / 3 . r0 /z 0 = α0 (see and c3 are functions of F . 8. to be highly concentrated √ to the optical axis at least in the range of angles α0 ≥ α ≥ α1 . i.e. with a decrease of α as 1/α3 . (19) Exact details of the F (α) behavior at α < α1 strictly speak- ing are not very important. z = r0 /α. follows from (13) after ity depends on the applied laser fluence. (18) The fluence profile at the keyhole entrance plane.

Fpar = Fte z 0 /r0 is a threshold fluence at the focal point is at z = 0. rmax is a maximum (vs. r0 is the radius of the cylindrical via keyhole. provided by b an optimized fluence distribu. striking the walls. z 0 is the distance between the focal point of the a sample of thickness h s . C(Tm − Ti )z 0 const = F at α ≤ α0 .25. Fte z 0 (20a) 3. Here (1) 0. (5) 6. Here z 1 is a position of the blind keyhole tip obtained from the condition r(z 1 ) = 0. α0 = r0 /z 0 is the angular size of the incident beam on the irradiated surface The point source irradiating the surface is placed at z/z 0 = 0 and sample and α1 = r0 /(z 0 + h s ) is the angular size of the hole exit material occupies the region z/z 0 ≥ (D/z 0 ≥ 0) . 2Fγr0 h(F) = z 0 1+ −1 (20b) hole entrance plane. α > α0 . providing parallel side walls at the keyhole entrance. z ) radius of the profile at ψ ≥ 1. z max is a position of the maximum radius of the profile r = rmax defined from the condition dr/ dz(z = FIGURE 9 Calculated stationary profiles for a number of laser fluences for a top-hat distribution of the incident beam. F/Fpar : tion [F (α) = Fpar (α0 /α)3 at α1 ≤ α ≤ α0 and F (α) = 0 at α > α0 ]. (3) 3.3 Keyhole shape and depth for top-hat spatial fluence or distribution 1/2 For a top-hat spatial fluence distribution at the key. 2Fr0 through the via keyhole at its final stationary state without h(F) = z 0 (1 + 2ψ)1/2 − 1 = z 0 1+ −1 .3. r0 is the beam radius at the en- FIGURE 8 a Strictly cylindrical keyhole profile (r(z) = const = r0 ) in trance plane of the sample. (21) 0. F(α) = β(z = z 0 ) = α0 (ψ − 1)/ψ . the spot border. r = r0 . beam and the position of the material front surface and D = z − z 0 . (2) 1. (4) 4.

at F = Fpar – see curve 2 in Fig.5 for PEEK (Table 1). As seen from (21). although 193 nm one obtains a much greater value a0 = 390 (with the the slope decreases with z and becomes negative (i. Kapton. F = 0. F < Fpar . h s . are taken in such a modeling description to be the same a0 = 1/(2α0 ). e.. (24) way the controlling factors of drilling – material parameters (C . which corres- timated as 2a0 = λ/df . 4 and 5 in Fig. These formulas (in particular (20b)) show in an explicit h s = Hopt . Tm . one hat beam demonstrate that not only keyholes convergent into obtains that the parameter the depth. 3. 9. the keyhole is conver. 6) exhibits a good agree.e. in Fig. However for d = 150 µm and λ = divergent side walls at the entrance (β(z = z 0 ) > 0). geometrical focusing parameters (z 0 and r0 ) one obtains the close to straight cylindrical via hole with an and energetic parameters (F). but also divergent ones. 5 for PS. the pro. for the gent into the depth across all its depth: β(z ≥ z 0 ) < 0 (curve 1 above-described experiments d = 30 µm and λ = 248 nm.2 for PC. 2a0 can be simply es- for all polymers: z 0 = 1. As known from optics. γ ). 3 for Kapton. as one can see from Fig. F > Fpar . 9). the result for the aspect ratio aopt is teresting to note that two remaining parameters in (20a). It is in- As one can see. PC. For example.7 mm and r0 = 15 µm. At fluences below the threshold. . z 0 proportional to the inverse angular divergence of the beam. waist. 9).6 for PMMA and 8. 6. 9). corresponding aopt = 580). aopt = 1. where df is the diameter of the beam ponds to the experiment. Comparison of the analytical aspect ratio dependence (20a) of the keyhole depth on the laser fluence with experimental data (see Fig.TOKAREV et al.48a0 . Similar to the previous case we put in distribution the model below the angular distribution of the beam profile at the entrance plane of the sample as The obtained profiles. β(z = z 0 ) sample. and r0 . When the position of the entrance Calculated keyhole shapes for different fluences for a top- plane is chosen outside the waist so that.4 Drilling of long via holes with a small variation of Another important practical case is the drilling the diameter across the length for a top-hat fluence with a Gaussian beam. are possible (Fig.e. when the values of Fte (in mJ/cm2 ) used in the Fte ≈ 1 mJ/cm2 for PET (see Table 1) gives aopt = 89 at model calculations are: 1 for PET. .g. hence a0 = df /λ. file becomes convergent) for z > z max (curves 3. while fluences beyond the threshold. PS. PEEK The substitution of the experimental value a0 = 60 and and PMMA). i. d = 2df . High-aspect-ratio microdrilling of polymers with UV laser ablation: experiment with analytical model 393 z max ) = 0. is matched in such a way that is a local inclination of the side walls at the entrance z = z 0 . increases with d and decreases with λ.52 J/cm2 . 9. h is a depth of the obtained blind keyhole. β(z = z 0 ) = 0 (side walls at the entrance are a0 = d/(2λ) parallel) at ψ = 1. (25) ment for all studied polymers (PET. give which gives a0 = 60.5 Gaussian beam 3. 2.

6a0 Fte (22) √ √ 1/2 πwα F 2α r(α) = αz(α) . w0 is the radius keyhole diameter) changes with z to a smallest extent. The substitution of (26) into the general formulas (14). which means that the position of depth inside the profile. at F = Fopt . the slope of the profile (and also the surface. z = 0 corresponds as previously to the position of the curves 3. (23) (0 ≤ α ≤ 3wα ) . compared to the optimized F(α) = F exp −2α2 /w2α . i. Thus when the thickness of the ously for a top-hat beam. It has a physical meaning of an inverse angular divergence of the The relation for h(F) is very similar to (20a) obtained previ- beam going out of the waist. In the vicinity of the maximum ra.33. (15) where allows us to find the keyhole profile r(z) in a parametric form and the final depth h vs. material occupies the region z ≥ z 0 . denoted as Hopt is attained. (28) 2Fte itself. hole radius r(z) from a maximal value in this region. For of the waist and z R = πw20 /λ is the so-called Rayleigh length. 33. (27) √ 1/2 πwα F Here a0 = z 0 /(2r0 ) = 1/(2α0 ) is the aspect ratio of the beam h(F) = z 0 1 + √ −1 . for going out from the point source placed at z = 0. waist of the beam. The length of such a re. is described by the form (7). z). ditions a spatial distribution of the beam F(r.48z 0 . 4 and 5 in Fig. taking into gion H depends on the fluence. 9). a parameter defined by beam focusing on the surface. z = z max . rmax /rmin ≤ 1. rmax . in this region does not exceed. rmin . the maximum value of H(F) account an angular divergence. With the increase of fluence the pos- ition z = z max of the maximum radius of the profile rmax is where wα characterizes an angular divergence of the Gaussian shifted to greater z and at F ≥ Fpar is inside the material (see beam. (26) fluence distribution (17).e. as calculations show. . up in the region where the Gaussian beam can be considered as to a minimum value. z(α) = z 0 1 + √ erfc . do not have strictly parallel walls. At such con- example. each value of the fluence one can find a region of a certain In the model we take z 0 > z R .3%. the entrance plane of the sample is taken outside of the waist. and is 2Fte wα Hopt = 1. across which the change of the key. z = z 0 is the position of the sample front dius position. fluence for a Gaussian beam: Fopt = 8.

for the transmission T(z) = E(z)/E 0 (z) one obtains r 2 (z) z 20 T(z) = . E 0 (z) ∝ Ω0 (z) = πr02 (z)/z 20 . Thus. for the incident laser energy.394 Applied Physics A – Materials Science & Processing at which the exit diameter is seen from the point source. (31) z 2 r02 where the keyhole profile r(z) is given by (18). Cor- respondingly. For a Gaussian beam the calculation appears to be more FIGURE 10 Calculated dimensionless stationaryprofiles for .

z 0 is the dis- complicated: T(z) is given in parametric form with α as a pa- tance between the position of the focal point of the beam and the position of rameter: the material front surface and D = z − z 0 .43. F/Fopt : (1) 0.4F√ te /wα . Here Fopt = 15. (3) 2.5. wα characterizes the angular divergence of . (2) 1. (4) 4. a number of laser fluences for a Gaussian beam (F(α) = F exp −2α2 /w2α ).25.

Here r0 = 2wα z 0 (32) is a characteristic scale for the measurement of the radius of the hole. rmax /rmin ≤ 1. the substitution of the experimental value a0 = 60 gives aopt = 100. strongly divergent into the depth at least at the entrance (such as. dimensionless hole depth for top-hat and Gaussian beam pro- up to a minimum value in this region. in the are shown with solid curves. as we have put for the effective absorptivity on the side walls (taking into account the multiple scattering) A = 1.4Fte /wα . FIGURE 11 Via hole transmission (dashed) vs. Here r0 is the beam radius at the entrance plane of the sample. H = Hopt = 1. is matched in such a way that h s = Hopt . (30) For example. similar to the case considered above of a top-hat beam when the thickness of the sample.e. is attained at a certain optimum fluence (see curve 2) F = Fopt = 15. h s . rmin . for example. rmax . 10 for a number of fluences. z 0 is the dis- simply directly proportional to the solid angle tance between the beam waist and the position of the material front surface and D = z − z 0 . z = 0 corresponds to the position of the T(α) = 1 − exp −2α2 /w2α . the Gaussian beam. in the case of curves 3 and 4). for example.6 Via hole transmission In the multiple-scattering model all rays propagat- ing from the point source to the side walls are totally absorbed.05). the ation of the radius from a maximum value in this region. r0 = 2wα z 0 .5Fpar and b F = 3Fpar . dimensionless hole depth for For a top-hat beam the transmitted energy E(z) is then a top-hat beam for different laser fluences: a F = 0. (29) Thus. Let H denote a thickness of the region where the vari. Further details are given in the case of curve 1) and at high F when the keyhole appears to be corresponding figure captions. The keyhole profiles rapidly convergent into the depth (such as. Therefore the only contribution to the transmission is given by the en- ergy of the rays directly reaching the via hole exit from the point source O. The corresponding keyhole profiles are shown with solid E(z) ∝ Ω(z) = πr 2 (z)/z 2 . (0 ≤ α ≤ 3wα ) 2Fte w α Dimensionless stationary profiles calculated from√ (27) are shown in Fig. waist of the beam and material occupies the region z/z 0 ≥ 1 (D/z 0 ≥ 0) √ √ 1/2 πwα F 2α z(α) = z 0 1 + √ erfc .66a0 . 3. Via hole transmissions calculated from (31) and (32) vs. one obtains the close to straight cylindrical via hole with an aspect ratio aopt = 1. 11 (i. curves . So.66z 0. does not exceed 5% files for low and high laser fluences are shown in Figs. H is small at low F when the keyhole is and 12 respectively with dashed lines. the max- imum value for H .

polymers differ from metals by the viscosity of the melt and are in general less sensitive to melt flow along the surface. a plasma stream. Moreover. melt expulsion is an important contribu- tion: as seen for PMMA [16] the hole entrance is covered with many redeposited droplets. also possibly a shock wave. mate- rial removal is assisted by additional environmental effects. In the usual shallow-spot ablation. material removal is only due to expansion of the laser-excited volume. because Fte could also be under- stood as the usual ablation threshold. More detailed investigations are necessary to clarify what is going on in the hole during pulsed ablation.TOKAREV et al. It is remarkable that Fte is systematically much lower than Ft for the studied poly- mers. Part of the reason may be that the mechanisms of material removal are strongly different in the drilling situ- ation. In other words. In particular. PMMA represents one limiting case where liquid is very abundant at this wave- 12 Via. These thresholds are presented in Table 1 and one may ask why they are different. Therefore. Inside the hole all wall surfaces can be considered as an ablation front and a stream of flowing ma- terial (gas. High-aspect-ratio microdrilling of polymers with UV laser ablation: experiment with analytical model 395 sion with the classical ablation threshold in a shallow spot Ft . liquid. we can say that this effect makes material removal more effi- cient in hole drilling than in the regular surface ablation [30] that we have studied for many years. As a consequence any elementary surface on the keyhole side walls experiences a strong drag effect of gas flow in the outward direction during ablation. solid particles) develops in the outward direction.

.

Here Fopt = 15. with the ratio of the beam according to the simple relation a0 ∝ f/D0 .8Fte ) . However. plane of the sample the fluence (10 – 20) J/cm2. of the laser wavelength. 1). Ti . and/or by using the irradi- laser energy on the walls falls below a certain threshold. of the sample can also be used. T(z) exhibits a be. which is much greater than the ablation threshold of the virgin ma- terial. stationary profile of the formed keyhole: divergence. for which we have waist and the front surface of the material and D = z − z 0 . r0 = 2wα z 0 . Therefore. havior close to the linear dependence in all cases considered – the aspect ratio of the uniform-diameter part of the keyhole. Such tain such holes.25Fopt and b F = 4. In fact abla. and/or by introducing strongly ab- tion and drilling spontaneously stop because the absorbed sorbing dopant into the material. Correspondingly. (see Fig. Fopt . ation in a chemically reactive ambient. The corresponding measured recently [31] a liquid-layer flow upon ablation with keyhole profiles are shown with solid curves microbeams. regardless of the value aopt . The use of a greater focal length. initial temperature. atten. Another limiting case is PC. can exceed a behavior predicted by the model shows good agreement with a characteristic threshold Fpl . e. both for top-hat and Gaussian beams. as follows from (25) and (30). beyond which plasma effects on the experimental data discussed above and shown in Fig.6Fte ). z 0 is the distance between the beam termediate situation is observed for PET. exception of a relatively small portion of the keyhole length where D0 is the diameter of the beam on the projection lens in the immediate vicinity of the bottom. the optimum fluence to ob- of fluence and corresponding particular keyhole profile. increases the aspect As one can see. With the use side walls.4Fte√ /wα .g. which gives mostly gas Fexp −2α2 /w2α for different laser fluences: a F = 0. e. in the main part of the keyhole. When the ablation front moves inside the material This simple relation makes evident the ways to increase a fluence reaching the keyhole bottom is continuously de. the keyhole profile extension become significant.g. of (22) this relation gives a0 max = Fpl /(8. The (a) to increase Fpl . aopt max : creasing. wα characterizes the angular divergence and displays only solid particles seen after ablation.hole transmission (dashed) for a Gaussian beam F(α) = FIGURE length. increases with a0 . as seen from (5). in the case of absorption coefficient γ of the polymer with a proper choice well-defined profiles (top-hat and Gaussian).5Fopt . f . . The increase of the that we name the extinction threshold Fte to avoid confu. (b) to decrease Fte . which accord- ing to (25) gives the limit for the maximum value of the aspect 4 Discussion ratio of the uniform-diameter part of the keyhole: In microdrilling the incident beam has on the front aopt max = Fpl /(5. 7. The obtained agreement is also a proof of the validity of our to avoid these disturbing effects it can be reasonable to limit a0 hypothesis of effective total absorption of laser energy on the (a0 ≤ a0 max ) in such a way that Fopt (a0 max ) ≈ Fpl . by using a shorter wavelength or above model accounts for the effects that control the final irradiation in a vacuum. particularly for deep high-aspect-ratio holes. An in- of the Gaussian beam. by increasing the uation with distance and hole transmission. which also increases with a0 .

Tokarev. Kufner. Lopez. high aspect ratio (Fig. National de Recherche Scientifique) of France for providing a visiting fellow. Phys. Stuttgart. P. 6th Eur. Mag. 26 R. Schittenhelm.I.N. R. F.E. R. Ooie: in Proc. Gedrat: Proc.H. along the keyhole axis into the material depth. J. In our polymer case the 8 T. Lazare: J. D. A. Moscow 1970) [in Russian] 24 E. Hügel: in Proc. M. 49. 52. 3686 (1992) eters are derived in an explicit analytical form. Technol.F. 25 A. Z. 5003 – laser drilling is optimized.N. J. calculated for the rectangular. Kaplan: Appl. 7. 2. V. Lopez. 86. Tokarev.N. Sci. Marsden: J. param. Hodapp. Osgood: Appl. 65.N. H. i. E. Japan. D. Romanov. They can be significantly (a few times) 1 B. It allows us Maruo: Proc. Sci. Homolya.I. B 3. Lazare. Smith: J. J. Damigos: Appl. Lopez.D. Vac. Kaplan: J. Dowden. Spalding. Zvirin: J. 613 Based on the results of systematic experimental 12 T.S. O. R. Y. 54. in particular 20 P. Garnov. Wu. M. Holmes. by F. Weisbuch: Rev. F. Sidhu: Appl. Tsetseku. 265 (1998). Lazare. Braren. 2836 (1999) 30 S.J. Lazare: Appl. J. Fleming: J. Phys. 421 (1991) 11 G. Bor. LAMP’92. Appl. 7 A. T. Vac. 4 (1987) further improved when using a more complicated drilling 3 G. Gaussian and other spatial Opt. Swope: J. Jubber.V. 572 (1993) Finally. Phys. Konov.C. Pimenov. H. 942 (1999) us to produce deep keyholes with practically parallel side 28 V. 6538 (1999) of an excimer KrF laser is developed in this paper. Basting (Ed. 458 (1998) above multiple-scattering model. Lazare.E. the obstacles for obtaining the holes with highly parallel P. Srinivasan: J. A 52. Pilkington: Proc.H.G. Kononenko. Germany. 106. Tokarev.H.J. Sowada. A.D.F. SPIE 3343. Debarre: Appl. Callies. Surf. IV Fr. P. P.M. Phys. Wilson. Olson. V. Appl. Phys.V. S.J. P. 95 (2002) ship for VNT. 9. C. Sidhu: Appl. 4471 (1996) distributions of the beam and a comparison with the ex. Phys. Phys. 5 Conclusions Conf. incident fluence are 22 S. in French time some particular aspects of the mechanism of the radia. Berger. Surf. J. F. J. 70 (1990). Sci.I.F. 186. München 1993) p.K. Weisbuch: Appl. Lett. M. P. Lopez. Wehner: in Werkstoffbearbeitung mit Laserstrahlung. Mater. Lett. K. V. 35.M. Y. Mazumder: J. 23 S. Anisimov. Laser Treat. ed. 32.S. 496 thanked for complementary funding. 109–110. H. P.J. R. June (1992) [Lambda Highlights 34. D. J.W. the matching conditions for (1989) the level and spatial distribution of laser intensity. Appl. G.M.A. 1059 (1986). Kapadia. Hopp. Lopez. Vol. Herziger. 84.W. Podlesnik et al. [32] have put forward the pos. 295 (1998) 19 V. Stournaras: Proc. 6 H. ed. S.V. Dyer. E. H. 6. P. S. John. D. Gilgen. Surf. SPIE 1279. R. W. S. Podlesnik. 16 S. Phys.e. Basting: Laser Optoelektron. Nagaoka. D: Appl. J. M. allowing 27 P.B. A 69. Région Aquitaine and European Communities (FEDER) are 32 D. (ECLAT’96). Lett. G. Sigel (1996) p. High Power Radiation on Metals (Nauka. Zambetakis. 2 (1989). Kar. J. 913 (1985) 2 D. SPIE 3274. 48. Chavel: Appl. S. H. Kufner. Sci. Phys. 169 (1995) 29 V. 75 (2000) – controlling factors of the drilling are revealed. I. Imas. Phys.H. H. E.D. Armon. Soc. Hesse. W. 68.M.R.396 Applied Physics A – Materials Science & Processing These optimized results for the aspect ratio are obtained REFERENCES here for a simple situation – a standing beam waist with re- spect to the material. Lokai. Phys. Granier: J. Phys. J. Schröder.K. Milne: Diamond walls and an aspect ratio as high as 300 – 600. Jenkins. (1986) . Mater. 232 (1997) – final keyhole profile and depth vs. Dausinger.): Lambda Highlights 7. 4. Tönshoff. Schulze. J. I. Miyamoto.N. by of 100% effective local absorptivity at the walls. Dausinger: Proc. 66 (1990) to increase the length of the uniform-diameter part of the 5 I. an analytical theoretical model of high-aspect-ratio 13 F. 86. Jenkins. 1 (1999) tion propagation and absorption inside the deep laser keyhole 17 J.): Lambda Highlights 18. Lazare. 615 sibility of light channeling into the keyhole in order to ex. Appl. E. Kahlert. Mihalik: Appl. Dyer. (1993) plain the high-aspect-ratio drilling. 306 (1998) drilling of a number of polymers by multi-pulse UV radiation 14 C. 107 (1989). Hontzopoulos. 168. As a result: 18 V. P. Kaplan: Lasers Eng. D. A. 72. Tokarev. Sci. 2110 (1988) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank CNRS (Centre 31 F. 21. Phys. 180 firm such a phenomenon since it can satisfactorily explain the 10 U. Solana. Maruo.W.W. Appl. Surf. Relat. Tokarev. S. Drilhole. A. Weisbuch. SPIE 1810. Poprawe. 1880 (1988) side walls and a very high aspect ratio are suggested. Bergmann. Appl. Lazare. 2 (1992)] keyhole. 63. 21 B. does not con. Basting (Ed. 3884 (1990) eters of the optical focusing scheme and material param. SPIE 1810.V. Appl. 6) of the laser keyholes. 153 (1999) in polymers are established. Miyamoto. Paterson. Hill. Phys. Phys. based on the approximation 9 M. Khodyko: The Action of periment is given. 577 (1998) studies. Loosen (Hanser. such as gradual translation of the beam waist 4 D. 374 (1996) ‘strategy’. H. For the first 15 S. S. Wehner: Opto Elektron. T. Turlet. Liedl. Fr. S. Y.

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