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ISSN 0734–242X
Waste Management & Research
2010: 28: 545–551
DOI: 10.1177/0734242X09343118

Studying municipal solid waste generation and
composition in the urban areas of Bhutan
Sherub Phuntsho, Ichharam Dulal, Dechen Yangden, Ugyen M. Tenzin
The Department of Urban Development & Engineering Services, Ministry of Works & Human Settlements, Thimphu, Bhutan

Sunil Herat
Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia

Hokyong Shon, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran
Department of Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia

Bhutan lacks the solid waste data which are essential parameters for planning and scheduling of municipal solid waste man-
agement (MSWM) systems. The first ever large-scale research survey on solid waste generation and characterization in the
urban areas of Bhutan was conducted between November 2007 and January 2008 using the method of waste sampling at source.
The MSW generation rates in the urban centres were 0.53 kg capita–1 day–1, which consists predominantly of organic waste
materials of up to 58% indicating a great opportunity for composting. Domestic waste from the households contributed the max-
imum (47%) component of the total MSW generated from the urban centres followed by wastes from the commercial estab-
lishments. Attempt to study the correlation between household monthly income and the waste per capita generation rates did
not yield any conclusive result.

Keywords: Bhutan, municipal solid waste, household waste, urban centres, waste characterization

Bhutan is a small landlocked country located in the eastern 1961; however, inadequate management of solid waste and
Himalaya between Tibet-China (in the north) and India (in wastewater are a conspicuous environmental problem aris-
the east, south and west). Its total population in 2005 was ing due to insufficient infrastructure planning, municipal
672 425 (PHCB 2006) and it has a total area of 38 394 km2 facilities and services (RSPN 2006). Garbage has become
(MoA 2004). Like any other developing country, Bhutan too is an emerging issue and the problem is particularly noticea-
facing the challenges of rapid urbanization with more than ble in the largest cities of Thimphu and Phuntsholing (UNEP
30% of the country’s population living in the urban areas which 2001).
is expected to increase in the next few decades. Although the The answer to starting a successful municipal solid waste
national annual population growth rate in Bhutan is 1.28% (MSW) management system not only depends on the availa-
(PHCB 2005, MoWHS 2007), its average urban population bility of adequate funds but also on proper planning and
growth rate has been reported to be 7.3% annually with the design of the system using accurate planning tools and reliable
western region, including Thimphu, experiencing maximum data. For developed countries, solid waste has been a concern
growth rate of about 11% (MoWHS 2007). Thimphu is the for some years and so existing data from long-term characteri-
capital city of Bhutan with a total population of 79 185 (PHCB zation studies and monitoring of solid waste streams, on both
2005) in 2005 which is more than 40% of the entire urban the local and national level, are usually readily available. How-
population in Bhutan. ever, such data are usually non-existent in many developing
Bhutan has achieved considerable economic growth countries (Hristovski et al. 2007). The data on solid waste gen-
although its planned economic development only began in eration and composition are key parameters for the plan-

Corresponding author: Sunil Herat, Senior Lecturer, Griffith School of Engineering, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, Queensland 4111, Aus-
E-mail: s.herat@griffith.edu.au
Received 28 December 2008; accepted in revised form 24 June 2009
Figures 1, 2 appear in color online: http://wmr.sagepub.com


ronment and Urban Sector Programme Support. Samdrup Jongkhar. Shon. The households were randomly selected within the ria on the selection of towns.000 in Recognizing the need to have more reliable solid waste gen. population 160. The survey targeted a minimum coverage of 30% of the total neering Services (DUDES) under the Ministry of Works and households. eration and composition data.2% of the tems. households in the zone. Yangden. entire urban population of Bhutan projected at 225. Vigneswaran Fig. 50% of the total offices within the survey towns for waste tan (RGOB). 1: Map of Bhutan with 20 districts and the location of the 10 survey towns. The study area has a combined total projected lowed for waste sampling from the commercial establish- 546 . Having decided the target sample Research methodology size for each survey town. opment control rules regarding maximum number of floors The present paper reports the analysis of the data were used to calculate the approximate number of house- obtained from the above survey. approximate settlement density through satellite maps and tions. The main In the absence of disaggregated population data in each objective of this research survey was to study the waste genera. D. Gelephu. I. Tenzin. survey zones using the latest available maps from DUDES. 2007 (Table 1). zone. There were no specific crite. U. S. H. Tra. Dulal. Survey enumerators visited a fixed Paro. these were the towns survey zone and were provided with one or two standard waste where the issues of waste management mostly surfaced and sampling bags. which consisted of black biodegradable plastic incidentally the towns which had the greatest population con. The same procedure was fol- centration.S. design and implementation of MSW management sys. the sample size of each survey Overview of the study area zone was calculated based on the percentage of the total The study covered 10 towns: Thimphu. Royal Government of Bhu. Phuntsho. This research study was funded by Danish Inter.M. sampling and interviews. Damphu. Phuntsholing. Bumthang. Samtse. Sampling methods ary 2008 by the Department of Urban Development and Engi. S.000 in 2007 which represents 71. bags 40 cm × 65 cm × 2. number of 20 households every day and distributed waste sam- shigang and Mongger (Figure 1). the number of buildings shown on the maps and devel- tion rates from different sources and their compositions. a survey covering 10 selected towns was conducted between 17 November 007 and 17 Janu. Herat. pling bags. 50% of the total commercial establishments and Human Settlement (MoWHS). Each town was divided into several national Development Agency (DANIDA) under the Envi. The percentage of the total house- in this paper would serve as valuable indicator data for waste holds in the survey zone was calculated by determining the managers who so far have been relying on certain assump. however. The information presented holds in each survey zone. then accordingly assigning a percentage of the total house- holds in each of the zone. ning.5 cm.

1 97 740 Phuntsholing 20 537 11.25 kg day–1 (Table 2). The non-household waste sources excluded in the sam- Sample collection. It was observed that then spread flat on a high-density polyethylene sheet on the each household with an average of 4. grocery stores for a total sample population of 52 371.3 225 000 Sources: Base year population for 2005 (PHCB 2006) and growth rate (MoWHS 2006).4 2450 Monggar 3502 1.3% of the entire urban population.7 persons which was of 3.0 to 2.57 kg day–1. hospitals) and The waste samples were then collected from the household weekly markets. waste generation rates (Kockett et al. textiles/leather. in this Office sources.9 kg day–1 with MSW.4 3601 Total for 10 towns 133 000 160 000 Total for all urban centres in Bhutan 196 000 7. It was observed that each commercial establish- was therefore 32.4 6120 Bumthang 3246 5. The sample coverage (Table 3). restaurants and bars. generation and composition of household waste ranging between 1.0 10 142 Damphu 1666 5. Many hotels contribute large quantities of waste materials in socio-economic and other variables influence the rate of solid comparison with other commercial sources. A total of 2311 waste samples were col- sample population lected from commercial establishments including retail The actual survey covered 11 068 households. NSB These two towns together with Thimphu host the maxi- 2007) and the sample population included all formal and mum number of hotels and resorts suggesting that the non-formal residences in the town without distinction. glass and others. The response to waste sampling from the study we have assumed that all sections of different income offices was rather poor and only a total of 351 waste sam- groups were covered during the random sampling.1 kg day–1. measurement and recording pling were: institutions (schools. The sample Sources and types of waste included in this survey offices had an average staff of 16.18 and samples.0 3579 Trashigang 2383 1. Each component the 10 survey towns was 0.36 kg day–1 with a mean of 0. The average house. was weighed and recorded and the total weight of all the Mean household waste per capita. (Table 2). ples from office sources were collected from the 10 survey towns (Table 4).5 who produced non- When reporting the quantity. generated per employee was 0.1 6148 Paro 2362 11. The samples were Mean household waste per household. In this partic.4 kg day–1. ments and offices. The contents were then weighed Household waste to determine its loose waste bulk density. metals. the next day and then transported to the designated municipal disposal sites or landfill sites.6 to 1.0 1837 Samdrup Jongkhar 5952 1. sorting. however larger sampling bags of 50 litres ular study not all the non-household sources could be included capacity and made of polypropylene.1 kg day–1 with 23. 547 .6 to 3.8% of population in the survey towns and ment produced waste ranging from 1. 1995). The mean household waste generation rate in electrical/electronics. Most offices in Thimphu did not return Municipal solid waste generation and composition the samples during the collection schedule. a mean of 2. Results and discussion Non-household waste Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the Commercial sources. The mean non-household waste materials included and excluded in the survey. Bumthang showed the highest mean hold size of the sample population was 4. however. institutes.1 2915 Gelephu 9199 5. MSW generation and composition in the urban areas of Bhutan Table 1: Population details of the 10 survey towns. 0. general shops. because of the difficulty in sampling and due to logistical rea- sons. quite close to the national average of 4. it is also important to clearly specify the types of waste a mean of 1. plastics.21 kg day–1. The average per capita house- components checked against the original weight of the hold waste generation was observed to be between 0.2 kg day–1 paper/paperboards.12 kg day–1 followed by Paro with a mean of 3. organics.96 kg household–1 day–1.7 persons (HH size) ground and manually sorted into eight different components: generated domestic waste ranging from 0. Towns Total population (2005) Average population growth rate (%) Population 2007 (projected) Thimphu 79 185 11. which accounted shops.1 25 349 Samtse 4981 11.6 (PHCB 2006.

96 0.48 0. Organic waste formed the highest fraction for all the waste Average for all towns 2311 (total) 2. S. household.7 0.3 0.62 the urban areas.7 0.8 0. The average organic fraction of Composition of MSW MSW would be higher if waste generated from the weekly A total of about 30 tons of MSW were segregated into eight markets were included.15 Phuntsholing 1707 4.17 0. food Damphu 108 2.8 0.M. Table 4: Mean non-household waste generation rates from office sources.18 0. Yangden. fruits.5 0.15 Damphu 819 4.5 1.4 0.12 2.22 Gelephu 1805 4.44 0.28 0.18 0.10 0.7 1.97 highest organic fraction found in Samdrup Jongkhar and Bumthang 234 3.02 1. etc. and thereby generating more waste. D.77 0.08 Samdrup Jongkhar 57 18.96 0.85 1. position data.25 0.9 1. Tenzin.66 0. Total office (kg office–1 day–1) (kg staff–1 day–1) Names of towns Mean staff/office samples Mean Median Mean Median Thimphu 22 19. much as 70 to 90% of the organic content.59 1.6 1.75 0.36 0.02 0.54 0.11 Phuntsholing 115 14.17 Trashigang 837 4.12 Samdrup Jongkhar 1128 4.43 0.74 1.01 0.73 0. Herat.88 the south combined with the hot climatic conditions spoil- Monggar 222 2. and not much garden waste was observed.70 0.89 0.21 0. P.21 0.70 0.5 1.05 Gelephu 38 20.71 0.88 0.19 0.07 Samtse 49 17. H. HH size (kg HH–1 day–1) (kg capita–1 day–1) Names of towns Total samples (P HH–1) Mean Median Mean Median Thimphu 1762 5.85 2.10 Monggar 645 4.9 1.19 0.1 0.63 0.95 2. Vigneswaran Table 2: Average household waste generation rates in the 10 survey towns. mixed MSW were also sampled from a few ran- domly selected municipal collection trucks at Thimphu and Total (kg commercial unit–1 day–1) Names of towns Phuntsholing.36 1.16 HH.82 0.70 0.84 2.59 0.20 0.44 the highest (58%) fraction of the total MSW generated from Paro 201 3.40 1.22 0.S.72 towns.97 0.17 Average for 10 towns 11 068 (total) 4.06 0.47 0.04 Damphu 14 10.43 0. Dulal.06 Monggar 9 7.73 0.37 0.34 0.23 0.22 0.35 ing food faster. Organic waste is mainly composed of Gelephu 293 1. The results of the waste analysis in the weekly market waste materials in Thimphu contain as 10 survey towns are shown in Table 5. From visual observation the different components. Phuntsholing 488 1.28 0.81 kitchen waste materials such as vegetables.68 0. S.15 0. The Samdrup Jongkhar 294 1.96 0.28 0.6 1.21 0.9 1.74 0.34 Phuntsholing could be due to food items being cheaper in Trashigang 162 2. Shon.23 0. Phuntsho.07 Trashigang 47 18.92 0.10 2.95 0.2 2.08 548 .15 Bumthang 717 4. To supplement the com.18 Average for all 351 (total) 16. U.53 sources and household waste formed the maximum organic fraction at 62%.18 0.66 1. Table 3: Average waste generation rates from commercial sources. persons.21 0.75 1. The results of this analysis are combined to sample Mean Median determine the average composition fraction for the 10 survey Thimphu 175 2.14 Paro 851 4. The organic waste constituted on average Samtse 134 2.5 1.67 0.9 1.26 remains. I.1 1.65 0.64 0.22 Samtse 797 4.08 Organic (50–66%).

Electrical and electronic landfill life.4 0.) and synthetic-based (synthetic clothes.5 10. cookers. The glass waste mainly consisted of beer bottles. period. As all metal tan since 1999 through a government decree. notebooks). offices generated the vations. and electronic equipment such as TV sets.7 3. plastic waste and especially steel prices are ever rising.7 3. gadgets and other equipment are still limited in Bhutan sisted of leather shoes. The remaining few categories of waste such MSW. newspapers and magazines. hard and flexible plastic household municipal property such as manhole covers. which are packaging materials does not decompose or compact eas. ily and so it significantly affects transportation cost and Electrical and electronics (0–2%). Most residents prefer storing metal package wrappers and pouches has been banned in Bhu. Carton boxes were sourced mainly from com.5 0.9 1. paper.2 4.4 Monggar 14. although offices and household indicating that recyclables were in fact removed from the also produced significant quantities. Papers and paper boards Plastics Organics Metals Glasses Textiles/ leathers EL&ET Others Towns (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Thimphu 24.3 16.6 3.0 16.4 0.5 0.9 12. available and often discarded due to changing fashion.2 1.5 3.9 13. especially boundary poles. as ash.3 Gelephu 15. south have complained about frequent cases of theft of aging. wrap.8 14.0 52.6 Residential 15. Textiles included both organic-based (such as cotton.4 0. This cate.3 3. waste materials formed only 0.4 0.2 0.4 2. jerry cans. dust.4 0. the second highest (17%) fraction of the MSW.4 3. Paper and paperboard (11–25%).0 Phuntsholing 14. Most carton boxes sample waste stream. 549 .0 0.7 0.3 0.2 13.1 0.0 4.2 12.7 EL&ET.4% of the total municipal Textiles/leathers (3–11%).7 60.4 Municipal bins 14.1 0.1 62. etc.8 0.6 4.7 4.6 3.7 0. Some municipalities in the urban areas. belts and other items. The leather component mainly con.2 0.1 Samtse 11.7 2.4 10.8 59.4 2.2 2. etc. bags.3 62.0 58.7 58.5 6.0 S-Jongkhar 16.9 56.0 5.8 9.0 8.1 1.4 Offices 31. Glass (2–9%). have only recently become popular.0 0.7 2.3 0.5 3.3 15.7% commercial sources (21%). where electronic and electrical equipment are readily dom thrown out as waste.9 1.8 0.7 3. ceramics. bags) materials. Most and hence are expected to be used for the full life and of the textile and leather waste observed was completely repaired whenever possible.9 9. construction wastes such as timber.6 0.6 13. Electronic pers. computers. This could be one reason why the observed in the waste were damaged. etc. scrap at home for later sale to scrap dealers.5 65.8 3.8 0.9 4.7 11. most of gory of waste included all paper products (printed or plain the glass was either broken bottles or household utensils. a few were glass and the metal component remained low in our obser- intact or reusable.6 1.3 9. recyclable waste materials at home during the survey ages.9 6. Although the use of plastics for carrier bags.3 51.6 Trashigang 17. items.3 2. MSW generation and composition in the urban areas of Bhutan Table 5: Composition of municipal wastes for the 10 survey towns. Although intact glass bottles were also observed. smuggled across the border for sale as scrap.4 0. and other beverage and juice bottles.2 13.8 4.4 Bumthang 10. the metal scrap formed up to 13% of the total MSW generated in the can have high resale value.4 2.7 3. all types Although the residents were asked not to withhold any of corrugated and non-corrugated carton boxes and pack.4 58.7 4.7 5. etc. electric transmission poles.0 Average 17.1 65.1 12.5 50.8 0.8 Commercial 21.8 50. municipal waste.8 0. Plastic waste. few intact bottles were observed in the samples mercial establishments. plastic products.7 0.3 5. unlike in developed countries worn out indicating that useable clothes and shoes are sel. etc.7 4. however. electronics and electrical equipment.6 3.8 0.2 Damphu 20. The textiles and leather component waste and it consisted mostly of printer cartridges from the formed the third highest fraction (4.7%) of the municipal offices. The composition of metals was a mere 0. Glass on average made up only 3. highest paper and paperboard fraction (31%) followed by Metals (0–3%). PET bottles. rice jute.7% of the Others (0–5%).0 35.2 0. As expected.6 1. indicating that metal scrap is normally not disposed off as Plastics (9–16%).0 0.1 3.0 1.0 6.1 6.0 Paro 14.7 5. It should be mentioned here that most electrical waste. Paper and paperboard formed liquor bottles. Plastic waste was composed mainly of pack. MS fencing.4 2.

d Average waste generated from the schools and institutions (Penjor 2007).0 d –1 –1 e Schools and institutions 0.36 kg unit–1 day–1 20 688 licences a 10 000 23 Office sources 0. in Chihuahua. 2008).30c kg person–1 week–1 224 527 p 3500 8. open non-compacting trucks are not suitable for the collec- This fraction formed only 2. from all three sources was observed to be about 160 kg m–3.676 kg day–1 Waste density is a very important parameter for planning. H. D. urban centres The total actual MSW generated from the entire urban areas Household income as a factor for waste generation rates of Bhutan included household waste materials and non. The total MSW generated from the urban areas of Bhutan in ipal solid waste generation has been therefore estimated at 2007 has been estimated at 43 700 tons year–1 with an aver- 195 kg year–1 or 0.25 kg person–1 day–1 224 527 p 21 000 47 Non-household wastes Commercial sources 2. Yangden. generated % distribution from Types of wastes Generation rates Quantity (tons year–1) each source Household wastes 0. Total qty. age per capita generation of 0. The average per capita munic. A total of 1149 household waste samples were randomly household waste from all sources (commercial. poor. Dulal.S. insti. tion of municipal solid waste.10 kg person day 117 734 total enrolled 4200 10 Total estimated in 2007 43 700 100.39 kg day–1 in average loose or bulk density of the municipal solid waste Allahabad. and than double the quantity of waste carried by a non-compact- any other waste that could not be included under any of ing truck.0% and lishment–1. the most recent figures reported relation between income and waste generation rate for income in the existing literature have also been used to estimate the groups A to D after which the correlation was observed to be total MSW generation from the entire urban areas. 0.6% of the total MSW.62 kg day–1 in Mostahanem Density of municipal solid waste City. It also indicates that if the waste is simply deposited in the landfills without compaction. Herat. The low density is therefore an indication that the above seven categories were all classified as Others.0 Average per capita total MSW 195 kg capita–1 year–1 generation 0. Tenzin.M. There is currently no survey have been used to determine the total MSW gener.96 kg household–1 day–1 and the per capita household commercial sources made up the next largest component of waste generation was 0. As generation rates from and without such a standard a grouping was devised solely sources such as institutions and weekly markets could not be for the purpose of this study.53 kg day–1. Average non-household the municipal solid wastes at 23%. The results from the group and waste generation rates. India (Kumar & Goel 2009) and 0. potential hazardous household waste a compactor truck of equal volume capacity can carry more materials such as dry batteries. c About 10 tons of MSW generated every week from Thimphu vegetable market equivalent to average 0. sand and gravels.44 kg day–1 office–1 or 0. b Total urban population employed as of 2005 in all the sectors (PHCB 2006). e Total enrolment in 2007 in all schools & institutions including NFEP and day care centres in the urban centres which is 65% of the total 181 129 enrolment. 1. India (Sharholy et al. Non-household waste from the was 0.53 kg capita–1 day–1 a Total licences issued as of 31 December 2007 (DoT 2008).21 kg employee–1 day–1 70 132b employees 5000 12 Weekly vegetable markets 0. Household waste formed the major portion (40%) of the The density of the waste in the compactor truck after com.3 kg capita–1 week–1. Figure 2 shows the positive cor- assessed through this survey.36 kg day–1 commercial estab- offices made up 12%. Shon. Western Algeria (Guermoud et al. In the MSW composition study. offices. organic waste 550 .25 kg day–1. This compares well with per capita generation of 0. household chemicals. 2009). 2007). national standard that defines the different income groups ated from the entire urban areas. selected to observe the correlation between household income tutions and weekly vegetable markets). schools and institutions 8.53 kg day–1 in the urban areas of Bhutan. 0.4 kg day–1 in scheduling and designing of MSWM infrastructure. Vigneswaran Table 6: Total municipal solid waste generation in the entire urban centres from various sources. Total household and non-household waste generation in the life of the landfills would be significantly reduced.33 kg–1 employee–1 day–1. Non-household waste from waste generation rates were 2. Phuntsho. I. S. The Kharagpur. S. Table 6 shows that about 43 700 tonnes of MSW was esti- mated to have generated from the urban centres of Bhutan Conclusion in 2007 in which the domestic or household waste formed the The average household waste generation in the urban centres highest component (47%). U. MSW followed by commercial sources at 35% of the total paction could be as high as 300 to 400 kg m–3 indicating that surveyed. Mexico (Gomez et al. weekly vegetable markets 10%.

S. Department of Trade. India.30 001–40 000. Income group A. 2465–2471. & Gupta. electrical/electronics be developed and updated continuously by a long-term study (0. D. Nu. S. Macedonia. Waste Management. F. N.7%). (2007) Municipal Kumar. AIT. Royal Government of Bhutan. formed the largest fraction of the MSW with 58%.100 000+. followed recycling of organic waste materials through composting.N. Royal Government of Bhutan. MoWHS (2007) Bhutan National Urbanization Strategy – Final Report. (2007) First segregated waste inventory of Bhutan. 551 . 490–496. M. N. especially those MSW indicates an opportunity to give top priority to the that affect medium and long-term trends. Royal municipal solid waste generation in the South Eastern United Society for Protection of Nature.. MSW generation and composition in the urban areas of Bhutan Fig. work. D. Office of 1689. West Waste Management. A. (1995) Determinants of per capita RSPN (2006) Policy Framework for Solid Waste Management. 27. F.75 001–100 000. Thailand. NSB (2007) Statistical Yearbook of Bhutan 2007. K. (2009) Characterisation of municipal solid waste solid waste characteristics and management in Allahabad. D. Hristovski. (2008) Characterisa.10 001– 20 000. D. Nu. http:// MoA (2004) Decentralized Rural Development Project. Lober. Sharholy.50 000–75 000. (2009) Municipal solid waste in Mostaganem city (western Alge. Bureau. textiles/leather The authors would like to reiterate that the above data must (4. R.6%. 896–902. Population and Housing Census of Bhutan 2005. Ballinas.J. 28. & Castells. K. municipality of Veles. G.10 000. References DOT (2008) Trade Statistics of Bhutan. Journal of Environmental Management. 27.. Vaishya. Un-published inventory. Ahmed. National Statistical ria). Royal Government of Bhutan. C. Meneses. Ouadjnia.. State of the Environment 2000. & Burge. Bhutan. (MSW) and a proposed management plan for Kharagpur. States. Currency conversion: US$1. Bhutan. L.7%). 29. Abdelmalek. B. Conservation and Recycling. F: Nu. Thimphu. Peterson. glass (3. Bhutan: Environ- www. Olson. Chapter 12 Solid waste management.7%). plastics (13%). 2: Monthly household income group plotted against household (HH) waste generation rates. 166–174. & Addou. E. 53. K. H: Nu.20 001–30 000... Y.40 000–50 000. M. & Pilgrim. & Goel. Thim- Gomez. Bhutan. Nu. 205–217. Bhutan. Kockett.40 at the time of survey.00 ~ Nu. Royal Government of Guermoud.. (2007) The Penjor. 45. Bhutan. Bang- municipal solid waste system and solid waste characterization at the kok. Nu. metals (0. F.. Ministry of Works and Human Settlements. Thimphu. Waste Management. Mexico.4%) and others 2. 1680– PHCB (2006). Waste Manage. India.xls (Accessed 2 July mental Assessment Report and Environmental Management Frame- 2008). UNEP (2001) Bhutan.trade. < Nu. High organic content of the urban that will take into consideration many factors.D. F. United Nations Environment Programme. R. Ministry of Agriculture. Hild.C. K. G: Nu.gov. L. Resources. ment. phu... tion of urban solid waste in Chihuahua. Census Commissioner. by paper/paperboards (17%).bt/administration/statistics/13. Bengal.. Taleb..