You are on page 1of 6

1

ORGANIC TRANSISTORS MIMICKING
BRAIN BEHAVIOR
K.SAI SAMEERA
CMR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

S.SOWJANYA
CMR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

[Affiliated to JNTU,HYD]
sams_chanu@yahoo.co.in

sowjanya_saki@yahoo.co.in

Scientists have great expectations that
Abstract:
nanotechnologies will bring them closer to the goal
New results out of France show that a team of
of creating computer systems that can simulate and
researchers have created a transistor which mimics
emulate the brain's abilities for sensation,
certain behavior of the brain. Their innovative new
perception, action, interaction and cognition while
device is called a nanoparticle organic memory
rivaling its low power consumption and compact
field-effect transistor (NOMFET). Specifically, the
size. DARPA for instance, the U.S. military's
NOMFET appears to allow for the "short-term
research outfit known for projects that are pushing
plasticity" which is a hallmark of biological
the envelope on what is technologically possible,
synapses in the neural systems of humans and other
has a program called SyNAPSE that is trying to
animals
develop electronic neuromorphic machine
technology that scales to biological levels. Started
PURPOSE:
in late 2008 and funded with $4.9 million, the goal
Scientists use nanotechnology to try building
of the initial phase of the SyNAPSE project is to
computers modeled after the brain.
"develop nanometer scale electronic synaptic
components capable of adapting the connection
strength between two neurons in a manner
analogous to that seen in biological systems, as well
as, simulate the utility of these synaptic components
in core microcircuits that support the overall system

the Molecular Nanostructures & Devices group at depending on the frequency of the input voltage the Institute for Electronics Microelectronics and spikes. Then this fraction of neurotransmitters is inhibited – and not available to transmit a second spike – and is then recovered with a characteristic time constant (typically in the range of seconds). approach consists in mimicking the way biological For example. 2 architecture. Between pulses the system semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles can relaxes: the holes escape with a characteristic time behave the same way as neurotransmitters through a that we have adjusted to few seconds (same as in synaptic connection in the brain. the synapse transforms a spike of action potential arriving from the presynaptic neuron into a chemical discharge of neurotransmitters detected by the post-synaptic neuron and transformed into a new spike." Dominique the biological synapse) by optimizing the Vuillaume. Thus." Vuillaume explains the underlying biological working principle of their transistor: In a spiking biological synapse. nature of the incoming signal. one the synapse. fixed in the channel of the transistor PRINCIPLE INVOLVED: . In the reproduce the depressing or facilitating behavior of development of tomorrow's computing systems. the encapsulated gold nanoparticles. the action potential will be weaker. if the pulses are spaced neurons. enabling the transmission of electric farther apart. Conversely. if the synapse systems such as neuron networks operate to produce receives very closely packed pulses of incoming electronic circuits with new features. “Basically. It messages from one neuron to another and the is this plasticity that the researchers have adaptation of the message as a function of the succeeding in mimicking with the NOMFET. we have demonstrated that electric At each spike. Each spike at the synapse input activates a fraction of these neurotransmitters and the amplitude of the transmitted spike is a function of this fraction. a synapse is the junction between two potential. In other words. In the nervous signals. a certain amount of holes are trapped charges flowing through a mixture of an organic in the nanoparticles. the output of the NOMFET is able to Nanotechnology (IEMN) tells Nanowerk. a research director at CNRS and head of nanoparticles and device geometries. it will transmit a more intense action system.

Vuillaume told physicsworld. 3 and coated with pentacene. or Dominique Vuillaume of the University of Lille facilitated. nanoparticles. and colleagues studied how electric charges flow In others. the synapse. (the French National Science Agency) and CEA (the French Atomic Energy Commission). gold nanoparticles. triggering the release of chemicals Introduction: Researchers in France claim to have made the first called neurotransmitters into the synapse. The transistor that mimics connections in the human neurotransmitters traverse the synaptic gap and brain. multiple stimulations elicit weaker. the cheaper and easier it an insulating layer (gate dielectric) and an organic will be to scale from a few artificial synapses to transistor made of pentacene. "This is the first time that an electronic device has Previous mock-neural networks required at least been shown to mimic a biological synapse. responses. which were 5. The new transistor. This property therefore makes the electronic component capable of evolving as a Similarly. firings. They fixed the thousands. neighboring neurons. The neuron transmits a small electric pulse along its length. or through the device and discovered that they behave depressed. is a crucial component of the brain. began by That's important. could lead to a new generation The timing of the electrical pulses helps determine of neuro-inspired computers as well as help connect how large of a chemical signal gets sent. a tiny gap between function of the system in which it is placed. because the smaller and more adding gold nanoparticles to the interface between adaptable the transistors." seven transistors to replicate short-term plasticity. The resulting device is . does it with just one. moving through a synaptic connection in the brain. neurons. into the source-drain channel of the device using surface chemistry techniques and finished the structure by covering it with a 35 nm thick film of pentacene. repeated stimulations yields stronger. or NOMFET for The team. known as in the same way as chemical neurotransmitters short-term plasticity. which includes scientists from the CNRS short. In some artificial structures to biological tissue. happen within milliseconds. 10 and 20 nm in diameter. The device.com. which is based on pentacene and trigger a response in the neighboring neuron. Vuillaume said. have a memory effect called a nanoparticle organic memory field-effect that allows them to mimic the way a synapse works transistor or "NOMFET". These adaptations. called the nanoparticle organic memory field-effect transistor. during the transmission of action potentials between Synaptic transistors:- two neurons.

" said Vuillaume. "These succession of pulses that either become larger or encapsulated nanoparticles. These are subsequently NOMFET resides in the original combination of an transformed into new spikes. «The human brain contains more synapses than Short-term plasticity:- neurons by a factor of 10 4 so we need to develop A biological synapse transforms a voltage spike nanoscale. It is this plasticity that Vuillaume potentials between two neurons.» neurotransmitters that are then detected by a post- I Science Daily explains that the innovation of the synaptic neuron. In the NOMFET. . leading to a organic transistor and gold nanoparticles. The holes – the charge carriers in the p- type organic semiconductor employed – are trapped in the nanoparticles and act like the neurotransmitters. "The output of the NOMFET is Organic transistor has nervous on disposition thus able to reproduce the deceasing or amplifying "The output of the NOMFET is thus able to behaviour typical of a synapse depending on the reproduce the deceasing or amplifying behavior frequency of spikes. typical of a synapse depending on the frequency of spikes. A certain number of holes are trapped for each incoming spike voltage and in the absence of pulses. which is related to a neural network's synapse works during the transmission of action ability to learn. low-power. This fundamental property of the transistor and coated with pentacene." Vuillaume recently told Physics World. he added. fixed in the channel of diminish in size. explains Vuillaume. the pre-synaptic signal is simply the pulse voltage applied to the device and the output signal is the drain current. the holes escape in a matter of seconds This time delay is carefully adjusted by the researchers by optimizing nanoparticle number and device geometry. synapse-like devices if we (action potential) arriving from a pre-synaptic want to scale neuromorphic circuits to the brain neuron into a discharge of chemical level. 4 The technique could be used build nanoscale devices for neuro-inspired computers. have a synaptic behaviour is known as short-term memory effect that allows them to mimic the way a plasticity." and colleagues have succeeded in mimicking.

a synapse is the The technique could be used build nanoscale junction between two neurons.etc. This property therefore makes the work on flexible.The devices could also be used to increase that allows them to mimic the way a synapse works the performance of neural-network computing during the transmission of action potentials between circuits. The devices produced have been optimized to nanometric sizes in order to be able to integrate In the development of new information processing them on a large scale. have already been developed and used in certain the action potential will be weaker. low-power. plastic substrates. if the synapse receives want to scale neuromorphic circuits to the brain very closely packed pulses of incoming signals. the basic building block of an electronic is done with just a single NOMFET device. A electronic synapse. enabling the devices for neuro-inspired computers. the same job transistor. For example. applications. Neuro-inspired computers strategies. modulation. and not necessarily neuroscientists like you. synapse-like devices if we (plasticity). a signal . it level. 5 1) Neuro-inspiration: operate to produce electronic circuits with new features." The innovation of the NOMFET resides in the original combination of an organic transistor and Yes. based on the NOMFET to "soft" biological tissue. In the nervous system. especially nanoparticles. he added.or instead offer numerou each other.it can then "Neurons use synapses to pass chemical signals to transmit. which is why gold nanoparticles. Although neural networks based on silicon chips Conversely. ." will transmit a more intense action potential. can be used as a simple switch . so it's worth pointing out the function of functionalities (amplification. pros. have a memory effect function. one approach consists in mimicking the produced using this technology is capable of way biological systems such as neuron networks functions comparable to those of the human brain. if the pulses are spaced farther apart. neurons in a simple fashion as this site is for IT encoding. such approaches are limited because it It is this plasticity that the researchers have takes at least seven transistors to build one succeeding in mimicking with the NOMFET.). speculates Vuillaume. transmission of electric messages from one neuron "The human brain contains more synapses than to another and the adaptation of the message as a neurons by a factor of 104 so we need to develop function of the nature of the incoming signal nanoscale. fixed in the channel of the transistor since you directly imply that they mimic and coated with pentacene. In this latest work. circuit. These encapsulated they can not be called artificial synapses. and these NOMFETs do not. or not. they might be electronic component capable of evolving as a used to connect artificial neuromorphic circuits function of the system in which it is placed. And because the nanomaterials employed two neurons.

widely used in high performance computing. 6 Unlike silicon computers. APPLICATIONS: . such as visual recognition. neuro-inspired computers can resolve much more complex problems.