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DFD: A Basic Example

display Panel
commands display
Control and data
panel alarm

EEC 521: Software Home

Engineering Sensors sensor
telephone Telephone
tones line
Analysis Modeling - 2

External entities Data flows Processes
(squares) (directed edges) (circles)
Notice that the system is represented as a single bubble
This is known as a level 0 DFD, or a context diagram
EEC 521 EEC 521
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DFDs and Progressive
Data Flow Diagrams
Each DFD reveals progressively more detail than
Structured Analysis Modeling Tools the DFD that preceded it
• Models data elements • Data object diagrams
– Attributes modeled • ERD diagrams Level 1 DFD:
– Relationships commands Configure
and data request Configure
• Models processes that • Data flow diagram Control Interact

panel with user
transform data modeled • Process narrative
A data flow diagram describes information flow among a Activate /
set of processes and actors. password deactivate …
1 system
Refinement continues until
* each bubble can be (easily)
A process narrative describes how a single process implemented as a program
module Process
transforms input data to output data. password

EEC 521 EEC 521
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and data stores user function. process Grammatical Next level narratives parse DFD What would the level 1 data flow diagram look like? (nouns = external entities. data stores) (verbs = processes) Note that nouns and verbs are associated with one another EEC 521 EEC 521 Software Engineering Software Engineering . bubble password • All arrows and bubbles should be meaningfully labeled “The process password transform performs password validation at the control panel for the SafeHome security function. Process • Refinement begins by isolating next level password receives a four-digit password from the interact with processes. EEC 521 EEC 521 Software Engineering Software Engineering Exercise: Data Flow DFD Construction Scope Grammatical Level 0 Diagrams document parse DFD Create a level 0 data flow diagram for a basic automated teller machine (ATM).Process Narrative Some Guidelines … password A process specification describes • Level 0 DFD should contain only a single all of the flow processes in the Process … final (most detailed) DFD. Develop You can ignore administrative scenarios. data objects. data/control objects. The password is first compared to the master password stored within the system …” • Refine only one bubble at a time • Data flow continuity must be maintained A process specification can be represented as a collection between levels of process narratives.

and attributes exports a set of operations for working with those elements EEC 521 EEC 521 Software Engineering Software Engineering Classes and Objects Inheritance • A class consists of a set of attributes and methods. A class diagram is used to show the static structure of a • Inheritance allows a subclass to inherit the class attributes and methods of a superclass AnsweringMachine Class name -greeting AnsweringMachine AnsweringMachineWithTime -messages Attributes -greeting -time +setGreeting() -messages +getMessages() Methods +setGreeting() +setTime() +recordMessage() +getMessages() “Inherits from” +recordMessage() or “Specializes” • Each class is like a template that defines how instances of the class – objects – should be created • A subclass begins with everything provided by its superclass (or base class) classes objects – Can add additional attributes and methods – Can override existing public/protected methods EEC 521 EEC 521 Software Engineering Software Engineering .A Different View Accessibility Object-Oriented Analysis Modeling Tools • Attributes and Methods can be declared at three • Models analysis classes • Class diagrams levels of accessibility modeled – Data using • Packages – Public (+) – Processes • Visible everywhere • Models class • CRC cards – Private (-) modeled collaborations using • Sequence diagrams • Visible only from inside the declaring class – Protected (#) • Visible only from within the declaring class and any of its Object-oriented analysis results in an analysis model that subclasses describes a system of collaborating objects • We will all now swear never to declare public Every object encapsulates a set of data elements.

• Candidate attributes – Entities that naturally belong to a class Phone direction AnsweringMachine – Verbs -phoneNumber -greeting • Candidate methods -messages – Operations that manipulate data +getPhoneNumber() * 1 +setGreeting() +dialPhone() +getMessages() – Operations that perform a computation +answerPhone() +recordMessage() – Operations that inquire about state “Handles calls for” – Operations that check for a control event multiplicity EEC 521 EEC 521 Software Engineering Software Engineering .Inheritance Hierarchy Other Relationships Whole Collection • An inheritance hierarchy (or class hierarchy) refers to all of the classes in a system.asp?url= Defines a whole/part Defines a containment /library/en-us/cpref/html/frlrfsystemhierarchy. and the inheritance relations among them • Depending on the type of system being things.asp relationship relationship Multiplicity may be specified in either case EEC 521 EEC 521 Software Engineering Software Engineering Identifying Analysis Associations Classes • Just like data objects. the class hierarchy can be complex! PartA PartB Items http://java. structures. events. classes can be • We begin with a grammatical parse – Nouns related to one These • Candidate classes relationships are called “associations” – External entities. etc.3/docs/api/ Composition Aggregation http://msdn.

Distribution. Cohesion. and Building the OOA Model Encapsulation • Use the initial set of analysis classes as the basis for • Some additional model desiderata building the OOA model • Identify class responsibilities – Responsibility distribution – What are its primary jobs? • Intelligence should be distributed across classes • Identify class relationships and collaborations • Avoid monolithic classes – What other classes does it need to interact with? – Class cohesion – How will they interact? • Classes should be single minded • Identify class commonalities and variabilities • Avoid classes with unrelated members – Which attributes/methods do they have in common? – Which attributes/methods vary? – Encapsulation • The class with the data should do the work This will be an iterative • Avoid passing state to other classes process! EEC 521 EEC 521 Software Engineering Software Engineering Some Rules of Thumb Categorization • Focus on the problem • Categorization is one of the most – Identify “what” classes/attributes important tools in our intellectual toolbox – Ignore “how” classes/attributes • Focus on core classes • How do we manage (intellectually) a large – Eliminate procedural classes number of related items? – Avoid data classes – We group the items into categories of items – Avoid classes with only a single attribute that share common characteristics or satisfy • Use (don’t overuse) inheritance intelligently common goals – Move commonalities up the hierarchy – Move variabilities down the hierarchy • In object-oriented analysis. we categorize – Avoid deep hierarchies classes using analysis packages EEC 521 EEC 521 Software Engineering Software Engineering .

C#.NET use a similar notion for categorizing implementation EEC 521 classes Software Engineering . and VB .Analysis Packages • An analysis package is a collection of related analysis classes grouped under a representative name package name UML notation classes accessibility modifiers Java.