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**Lectures #23 & #24
**

Chapter 11: Pages 317-19, 321-22,

326-333

**Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density
**

Calculations

{ Methods Discussed

z Given composition of saturated liquid-

iterative procedure (guess contribution

of C1 & C2) – Excel file & Ex. 11-4

z Given composition of saturated liquid-

correlation - using W1 & W2 – Excel file

& Ex. 11-5

z Given solution gas-oil-ratio, gas

composition and stock tank oil gravity

(or API) – Excel file & Ex. 11-6

**Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density
**

Calculations

**{ Methods Discussed (cont.)
**

z All these methods evaluate oil density

in stages

a) Pseudo-oil at Tsc, Psc

b) Correct oil density in (a) 1st for reservoir

pressure

c) Correct density in (b) for reservoir

temperature

• JCPT paper method & Example 11-7 of

text book

1

separator gas gravity. Rs. γgs z Find molecular weight of gas as Mwg = γ gs × 29 z Find mass of gas dissolved in one STB of oil as SCF lb − mole × Mwg [=] Rs lb × × VM id STB SCF lb − mole z Find mass of oil in 1 STB as… (your turn!) Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density Calculations { Example 11-7 highlights… (more) z Pretend that the oil components are two: stock tank oil & surface gas Liquid density Liquid volume at 60F & 14. API gravity of stok tank. p. • Compare densities from both methods Oil density is at or below pb Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density Calculations { Example 11-7 highlights… z Given data: API. and temperature • JCPT includes a more current correlation • Both calculate pseudoliquid density at standard conditions and adjust for reservoir pressure and temperature using same equations as in the other methods. T. Psc Surface gas … *fig 11-8 … Stock-tank oil … … sum(masses) sum(volumes) pseudoliquid density = ? You tell me what comes next 2 .696 Component Mass (lb/cu ft) psia (cu ft/ STB) lb/STB at Tsc. pressure. Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density Calculations • JCPT paper method & Example 11-7 of text book • Both require solution gas-oil-ratio.

01357 × Rs γ gs Bo = ρOR { How do we evaluate Bo above the bubble point? 3 .Figure 11.8 Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density Calculations { Compare the densities obtained by JCPT procedure with that from Example 11-7 { Discuss results { Different evaluation methods will result in different values of Bo Consolidate Oil Reservoir Density Calculations { The oil formation volume factor is evaluated at or below pb ρSTO + 0.

For Pressures Above pb The Oil Density Above Pb Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility of Oil (Co) Why?? 4 .

Correlations for Co { Above bubblepoint pressure (undersaturated) { Below bubblepoint pressure (saturated) Co for pressures higher than pb Co for pressures above pb (Appendix B – page 522) 5 .

Co for pressures below pb { Oil volume will change because of z Pressure z Gas in solution ⎡⎛ ∂B ⎞ ⎛ ∂R ⎞⎤ −1 Co = − ⎢⎜⎜ o ⎟⎟ − Bg ⎜⎜ s ⎟⎟⎥Bo ⎣ ⎝ ∂p ⎠ ⎝ ∂p ⎠⎦ ⎡⎛ ∂B ⎞⎛ ∂R ⎞ ⎛ ∂R ⎞⎤ −1 Co = − ⎢⎜⎜ o ⎟⎟⎜⎜ s ⎟⎟ − Bg ⎜⎜ s ⎟⎟⎥Bo ⎣⎝ ∂Rs ⎠⎝ ∂p ⎠ ⎝ ∂p ⎠⎦ −1 ⎛ ∂R ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ ∂B ⎞⎤ Co = Bo ⎜⎜ s ⎟⎟ ⎢Bg − ⎜⎜ o ⎟⎟⎥ ⎝ ∂p ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ ∂Rs ⎠⎦ Co for pressures below pb { You can evaluate Co using the methods of JCPT paper… { Need to have Bg ⎡⎛ ∂B ⎞⎛ ∂R ⎞ ⎛ ∂R ⎞⎤ −1 Co = − ⎢⎜⎜ o ⎟⎟⎜⎜ s ⎟⎟ − Bg ⎜⎜ s ⎟⎟⎥Bo ∂ ⎣⎝ s ⎠⎝ R ∂p ⎠ ⎝ ∂p ⎠⎦ −1 ⎛ ∂R ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ ∂B ⎞⎤ Co = Bo ⎜⎜ s ⎟⎟ ⎢Bg − ⎜⎜ o ⎟⎟⎥ ⎝ ∂p ⎠⎣ ⎝ ∂Rs ⎠⎦ Co for p < pb 6 .

Co for pressures below pb (Appendix B) Bo for pressures below pb Bo for pressures below pb 7 .

Rs. units are in centistokes = centipoise /g/cc 8 . etc. z Does Bo increase with Rs? z Does Bo increase with API? { Provide quick estimates (sometimes) { Exercise our visual skills Total Formation Volume Factor Oil Viscosity { Viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow exerted by a fluid { This is called dynamic viscosity and has units of centipoise = g mass / 100 sec cm { Kinematic viscosity is viscosity / density. T. API. p…) { Determine trends for the physical properties as a function of p.These ancient plots are useful to… { Establish ranges of applicability (API.

Needs of Crude Oil Viscosity { Calculation of two-phase flow { Gas-lift and pipeline design { Calculate oil recovery either from natural depletion or from recovery techniques such as waterflooding and gas-injection processes Separation and Production Well Storage Facilities HC Gas Injection Injection Well from Pipeline or Recycle 2 1 Oil Bank / 1 Oil Zone 2 Miscible Front Variation of Oil Viscosity T = constant Oil Viscosity Gas Out of Solution Two Phase Flow Single Phase Flow Pb 9 .

Evaluation of Oil Viscosity { Evaluate dead oil viscosity (no gas in solution) given oil API and reservoir temperature (Figure 11- 13) { Correct for pressure by “adding gas in solution” (Fig 11-14) { Most of the oil viscosity correlations are oil dependent (large errors) Dead Oil Viscosity Dead Oil Viscosity (Appendix B) 10 .

Saturated Oil Viscosity (add gas) Saturated Oil Viscosity (Appendix B) Oil Viscosities above pb 11 .

Oil Viscosity Above Pb pb { No correction for p p> pb =pb { Larger corrections for higher pressures Viscosity of Undersaturated Black Oils Viscosity Correlations 12 .

Judge These Oil Viscosity Correlations Judging Correlations… Judging Viscosity Correlations… 13 .

Chevron Oil Corporation Al-Marhoun Viscosity References Viscosity References 14 .Okpobiri Omoregie Reg: CPTC PSS .Judging Bubble Point Correlations Untitled Correlation Comparison Bubble Point 3000 2800 2600 Bubble Point. Poillion and Todd Mendez 1600 Lasater 0 5 10 15 20 Osorio Glaso Correlation Obomanu . psia 2400 2200 2000 Vazquez and Beggs Kartoatmodjo Generalized Standing Standing 1800 Kaye Petrosky Palmer.

Oil Viscosity References 15 .

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