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Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam

**Mathematical representation of thermodynamic properties
**

Part 2. Derivation of the combined nearly ideal binary

solvent (NIBS)/Redlich-Kister mathematical

representation from a two-body and three-body

interactional mixing model

William E. Acree, Jr.

Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-5068 (USA)

(Received 6 August 1991)

Abstract

**A relatively simple two-body and three-body interactional mixing model is used to derive
**

expressions for the mathematical representation of experimental solute solubilities and

activity coefficients in binary solvent mixtures. The derived expressions are identical with

those based upon the combined NIBS/Redlich-Kister model, and enable solute

solubility/activity coefficient data to be expressed as a mole fraction average of measured

solute properties in both pure solvents plus a term involving a power series expansion in

solvent composition.

INTRODUCTION

**Knowledge of infinite dilution activity coefficients is required in the
**

qualitative and quantitative analysis of separation processes such as

liquid-liquid extraction, extractive distillation and azeotropic distillation.

In recent years considerable effort has been devoted to the design of better

instrumentation, establishment of data bases and development of predic-

tive methods specifically for infinite dilution properties. Several expressions

have been suggested for predicting vapor-liquid equilibria in dilute solu-

tions using pure component properties and binary parameters determined

from experimental data over the entire binary composition range. The

more sophisticated solution models, which assume preferential solvation

and/or local compositions, require that at least two parameters be calcula-

ble for each contributing sub-binary system.

Prediction of solid-liquid equilibria and solute solubilities in mixed

solvents is also possible; however, the number of available predictive

**Correspondence to: W.E. Acree, Jr., Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas,
**

Denton, TX 76203-5068, USA.

0040-6031/92/$05.00 0 1992 - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved

Approximation of weighting factors with molecular surface areas enables eqn.” = 1 -f. carbazole./(xjr.. +X:X.I-*(x$. iodine.“. The nature of solubility determinations restricts the number of adjustable parameters to no more than one per binary mixture. thianthrene. To date ‘eqn.ln[ a. p-dibromobenzene. (1) to provide accurate predictions for anthracene [9] and pyrene [lo] solubilities in binary solvent mixtures containing benzene.0 i S. tolylacetic acid. benzil. + x. and carbazole solubilities in binary alkane + dibutyl ether and alkane + tetrahydropyran solvent mix- tures covering up to a 300-fold range in mole fraction solubilities [12-141. alkane + carbon tetrachloride.“‘“/( Xf'). (1) f. =xjr. (3) has been successfully used to describe an- thracene solubilities in numerous binary alkane + dibutyl oxalate. p-benzo- quinone. and a contribution owing to the unmixing of the solvent pair by the presence of the solute.> [3-81. More recently. I .] ) ln(a. Equation (1) (with Z”” = G”) gives accurate predictions for naphthalene.(Xz -Xz)i (3) i=O and Xi{ 1 . and phenylacetic acid solubilities in systems of nonspecific interactions when molar volumes are used as weighting factors (Ii = V. +x&J1z. The symbols are defined at the end of the manuscript.“‘id/Xpt) = 1 - X0 + XOA=ij B c BC X$1 . alkane + dibutyl ether.) (2) in terms of a weighted mole fraction average of solute properties in the two pure solvents (Zr)n and <ZF)c.72 equations is significantly reduced. as there is only a single data point associated with the saturated solute in a pure solvent. alkane + aromatic hydrocar- bon and alkane + dimethyl adipate mixtures. both the NIBS model and a modified version of the Wilson equation [ll] have served as the point of departure fo the mathe- matical representation of solute solubility as a function of solvent composi- tion [12.r.13] In XE’=Xi ln(Xz’).lid/( Xpt)o]} - x. benzoic acid. The nearly ideal binary solvent (NIBS) model [l-3] developed previously provides a relatively simple method for estimating the excess partial molar properties of a solute Zr at infinite dilution in a binary solvent (components B and C) zr =fi(ZF)u +f~(z& .IF($n + x0C (4) with the various Si and A$ coefficients computed from measured solubility data via least-squares analysis. +Xz ln(Xf’).ln[ .

and also to predict fairly accurately ternary free energies of several aqueous-organic systems.u. c&) (8) . Higher-order interactions are generally negligi- ble. (3)) based upon a two/three-body interactional model. B-B-B.g. and that the number of each type of interaction must be proportional to a weighted mole fraction product. I noted that through appropriate algebraic manipulations and simplifying assumptions it was possible to transform the model’s infinite dilution activity coefficient expression into eqn.. Hence the apparent interactions are concentration depen- dent. though. and three-body interactions (es.. + x$4. In a non-random mixture. The empirical forms for the apparent interactions at infinite dilution are assumed to be ‘LB = ‘AAB (1 . Molecular interactions between molecules A and B are counted twice as either A-B or B-A. whereas ternary interactions are triply degenerate.(3) = xp7u. For simplicity the present model is restricted to molecules of comparable size so that Raoult’s law will represent a good approxima- tion of the entropic contribution to the overall free energy of mixing. 73 have been unable. (3). In this paper I present the formal derivation of the combined NIBS/Redlich-Kis- ter mathematical representation (eqn. A-A. Random mixing requires that internal energy contributions from all two-body interactions be U. Hwang and coworkers [15] recently presented a thermodynamic mixing model that includes contributions from both two-body and three-body interactions.) given as a simple summation over all possible interactions. (31.. A-A-B and A-B- B) to a much lesser extent.. The apparent three-body interactional parameters u&a and uzan are not purely cross-parameters except in infinitely dilute solutions. (5) and that those from all three-body interactions be U.uAA +x&a. The derived expressions were found to correlate exactly binary excess free energy data.. + 2x. to derive its basic mathematical form from any of the known two-body interactional solution models. I will first briefly review the interaction model of Hwang et al. + 3X*X. CIXA2) (7) ‘:BB = ‘ABB (1 . B-B and A- B). A-A-A.( X*z& + X&. To familiarize readers with the procedure used in the derivation of eqn. During the course of extend- ing Hwang and coworkers’ two/three-body interactional model to other thermodynamic properties. DEVELOPMENT OF BINARY MIXING MODEL AND CORRELATION EXPRES- SIONS Binary mixtures contain two-body interactions (e. some AAA and BBB clustering may occur along with mixed collisions..(2) = x.x.

3u_c.(3) =x$.X. + UBBB) +xAxB x [2UAB+ 8U(3. +x.. u.( a.. EBB . + aiX2 + a..] (9) The compositional dependence can be further simplified by assuming that 3u.x.AB). 3uAABc.3u. as will often be the case for pressures not too far removed from 1. eqns.. the model yields the relation between excess Helmholtz and Gibbs functions G” =Aex . is converted to the excess Helmholtz energy A” =X. + UiXi + ~2~x2) (14) .(UBB + UBBB) .3UAABCJ.3u. EAA . 3uABB c 2 x’) B (11) where EM c Um i-U_. A more rigorous treatment involving chemical lattice theory and coordination numbers is presented elsewhere [15]..AB) (10) where &..Unnn) .) (12) by subtracting ( XAeAA+ Xn~nn) from urn... then the Gibbs and Helmholtz free energies are identical.3UAABC& =X.Q.3 .. -&3%Bl x [3(X‘44AB +X&La) -X. . The molar internal energy u. and EM G 2U. + UAAA)+Xe(u. a.+x*X.q Recalling that the model assumes that the entropic contribution is described by Raoult’s law. = -3~4~c.0 atm.x.74 where ci and c2 denote constants..( AV)2/2pV+ .U*nn = 8uo. p is the compressibility and G”” is the excess Gibbs free energy. (13) where AV denotes volume change on mixing.u.AB) .unnB +x*x.3UABBC&l =XAEAA + XBEBB +xAxB x ( lAB .(u.+X~u. .c..[ x*(3u.@AA + UAAA) .EM).( a.3] + q3.3. If (AV12/2/3V and higher-order terms are negligible..x. = 3u. Aex = G” =X. Through suitable mathematical manipu- lation.~) eliminates the effect of pure three-body interactions uAAA and ‘BBB from mixed interactions.4%_&% =x~u.-uAA‘4) +Xn(3uAi3n . and a2 = -3umB c 2.X. i. involves the sum of all molecular interactions in solution % = %l(2)+ %(3) =mUAA+ UAAA) +xixUBB + UBBB) +&xB x [2UAB .. . Similarly.c2x. EBB s UBB •k UBBB.6Ug.X. (6)-(8) can be combined u. with a0 = -(Ed + EBB.

AB) + s”(3.Uccc) + (3u~~~ . x [(X.Uiii .43B~)l = ‘i6[ SUQ.X.ij .] +X. (15) and ten ternary interactions u. x [(x.ujjj (19) ternary systems.( X*u& + X*2&n) + 3XAXC(XAGAC +X&cc) + 3XBXC(X&K +X&cc) + 6XAXBXCGBC (16) which result from molecular interactions between similar (uii> and dissimi- lar (uiij and uLjk) mixture components.e~*%.DEVELOPMENT OF TERNARY MIXING MODEL AND PREDICTIVE EXPRES- SIONS The basic model presented in the preceeding section can be easily extended to ternary and higher-order multicomponent systems.(3) = xzuAAA + X. 3u&&. (19) into eqn. one first assumes that 3u& = u..c$Bc’X. In the case of ternary mixtures.Uiii) .. + 2x. + x.BC)] (20) .ujjj = su3. Using steps analogous to those employed in the case of binary mixtures..x.nP~X. (10) to 6Uij = (3Uiii .unJj +x&. = 1 -X.. + 6u.] + 6X.ujjj = (3Uijj . + 2x. . and remembering that in the ternary mixture the mole fraction compositions are interrelated via X.(3) = x~uAAA + Xj$nBB + x&Accc + 3X*X.Uiii .u. the internal energy is described in terms of six binary interactions z&(2) =x&AA + x.3u.) (18) and then uses the resulting approximation to expand eqn.3u. + 2x. x [(x. + Unnn + UCCC+ 1/2( au.Ujjj) ..] +X. -XC. . + ?k..c$Bc’Xj?j .. Direct substitution of eqn. +x&h.e~*%.. 3u.X...&. .UAAA) + (3”~~~ .x.uiii .UnBB +x&cc +x.AB)x..X..xnu. (17) In order to reduce the compositional dependence of the terms in the parentheses. . +&)h@JC) . (14) as u.. -3u . (18) yields UABC = 1/6[ (3U.x+.&. 3u.AC) + $3.... we rewrite eqn.)su(3#Q.X.

3U.X.EBB. = X*EAA + XBEBB+X&c +X.Ecc . (15)-(201.3U. The nine a coefficients can be obtained by either curve-fitting binary excess free energy data or by parameterizing experimental ternary data. [ ah*‘) + CZ$*~)X~ + u$*‘)XJ + n.) + XnXc( lnc . the internal energy and excess molar Gibbs free energy of the ternary mixture can be expressed by the equations u.cc$*c)x. .Ecc . 1 + u(zBc)x.( EAn.cIAB)X.AC)f a~*c’x~ + fzl”“‘x.3UAccc’3^c’x.X.“)XG] + n.. and the various eii and lij are defined in accordance with the binary reduction.( a$=’ + LPx. DERIVATION OF THE COMBINED NIBS/REDLICH-KISTER EXPRESSION OF SOLUBILITY Solubility is related to chemical potential (pi) rather than to the integral excess Gibbs free energy of mixing. Our preliminary observations [16]. and then differentiating the resulting equation G “‘=RT[n. along with unpublished calculations on over 75 ternary systems [17].3u~ncc$~~)Xi . From an operational standpoint. After suitable algebraic manipulation of eqns. + u(2AB)x.~~) + u\Bc’Xz + uc. In XA+nn In Xn+nc In Xc] +nAXn x [ ubm) + uiAB)Xi + u’.X. and more importantly it is far less time-consuming to compute three sets of three parameters each than one large set of nine parameters. dissimilar three-body interactions.) + XAXC( a(. (a(.. (22) will be applicable to other thermodynamic properties such as excess volumes and enthalpies.3u.) (22) Again the entropic contribution to the configurational entropy has been described in terms of Raoult’s law.( EAC.x. which should be applicable in the case of small.EM . the former method is preferred in that experimental ternary data are relatively scarce.76 a mathematical relationship between the three-body ARC interactional term and the various binary combinations. [ u(. (221. .EBB.X. indicate that eqn.3U.~cc$~~)X~) (21) G W*nc) = X. The expression for the solubility of a crystalline nonelectrolyte solute in binary solvent mixture is derived by first adding the ideal contribution of the Gibbs free energy of mixing based upon Raoult’s law to eqn.AB)+ a(*n)x.EM .“c)X~] (23) .) +x*x.4*“‘X.) +x.

P. for model systems obeying this expression.Xj”] (28) where P.. the a$$) and a?‘) interaction parameters can be eliminated via the saturation solubilities in the two pure solvents <Xz’>n and (XF’lc.& = @Gmk/&ZA).BC)+ 4u$no’ P.o* + P. enables one to express solute solubility in binary solvent mixtures as a simple mole fraction average of the measured solute properties in both pure solvents minus a term involving a power series expansion in solvent composition RT In Xf’ = XiRT ln( X2’). . ln Gfid= / T (AHp/RT*) dT (25) Tmp Not too much emphasis is placed upon this particular solute standard state.xz x [up + 4a~nc)x~ + 4&=‘X&y3] (24) provided that the solute solubility is sufficiently small so that XFt = 0 and Xi0 =Xi. (26) and (27) into eqn. + XZRT ln( Xft)C -X:X. (24). and can be cancelled mathematically from the final solubility expression. the standard state is common for any given crystalline solute dissolved in binary solvent mixtures and both pure solvents.pi= RT In us\olid= RT In Xp’ + Xi[ ahABI+ u(. Performing this differentiation. RT ln[ uzlid/( Xrt)B] = ubAB)+ u$~) (26) RT ln[ uTlid/( XEt)c] = ubAC)+ uiAC) (27) Direct substitution of eqns. = &‘JQ + 3&‘o’ + u(. is found by integrating the molar enthalpy of fusion (AHE) from the normal melting point Tmp to the desired solution temperature. followed by algebraic rearrangement. (24) reveals that. = &W _ 3&C’ _ I2@c’ P* = a$-’ + u’2AC’+ 12@o’ P3 = @o) _ 4@C) .\B)xi3] + xc”[ a’jC’ + a$AC)x~3] -x. As will be shown in the next few paragraphs. ng and no constant. + PIXi + p. while holding T. x [P. 77 with respect to the number of moles of solute. defined as the ratio of the fugacity of the solid to the fugacity of the pure subcooled liquid. one obtains the following expression pA . and uFlid denotes the activity of the solid solute. Mole fractions refer to the initial composition of the binary solvent mixture calculated as if the solute were not present._&A. This activity.x. Inspection of eqn.

RT In aTlid and . or infinite dilution solute enthalpies of solution (In Xpt replaced by AH~‘n~m) in binary solvent mixtures.and three-body interactional energies. (29) i=O Equation (29) is mathematically identical to our combined NIBS/Redlich-Kister expression. The power series expansion is third-order in Xi. defined as the ratio of the fugacity of the solid to the fugacity of the pure subcooled liquid &K) adjustable “curve-fit” parameter in the two/three-body interac- I tional mixing model for the JK binary system f. 18-20 for details).and right-hand sides of eqn. appeared on the left.“. No theoretical justification was offered in the original article [12]. calculated as if the solute were not nresent . (28) as . nor in the followup investigation [13] involving the ability of eqn. aTlid. Readers will recall that eqn. respectively. (3) from a two/three-body interac- tional mixing model provides some theoretical justification for our com- bined NIBS/Redlich-Kister approach. RT In Xr’ = XiRT ln( XTt)n + X$RT ln( Xp’). LIST solid aA activity of the solid solute. (3) was first suggested as a mathematical representation for describing how solute solubility varies as a function of binary solvent composition. (3) to describe accurately carbazole solubilities in binary alkane + dibutyl ether and alkane + tetrahydropyran mixtures. I hope that by providing a theoretical basis for the combined NIBS/Redlich-Kister expression I will encourage other research groups to adopt this particular mathematical representation in future data presentations involving either solute solubilities.(Xz + X{> RT In azlid. or infinite dilution solute activity coefficients (In Xzt replaced by In Q. CTS-8922485). Although it is possible to relate the various Si coefficients back to two. The mathematical derivation of eqn. and can be easily transformed into the Redlich-Kister form (see refs. and has thus been cancelled mathematically. fC weighted mole fraction composition of the binary solvent mixture.78 Readers will note that the activity of the solid solute. I prefer to view the actual numerical values as “curve-fit” parameters determined via least-squares analysis of solubility data. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research was supported in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation (Grant No.

Phys.L. Judy.M.E... Acree.H. Chem. Jr. 21 (1990) 45.I.E. Burchfield and G. 3 W.. Tucker and A. Hall and G. Teng. FL. Tomiska.E. Chem. Teng and W. Naidu. Acree... Tomiska. calcu- lated as if the solute were not present ri weighting factor of component i used in the NIBS model PA chemical potential of the solute m infinite dilution activity coefficient of the solute adjustable “curve-fit” parameter in the modified Wilson mathe- matical representation REFERENCES 1 T.. Kopecni.. 19 J.. Pharm. Acree.A. Pharm.. Acree. Academic Press. Zvaigzne and P. Phys. Jr. Chem.E. Pontikos and C. 20 J. 5 C. 11 J. B. McCargar. Thermochim. and G. J. and J. 151 (1989) 159.. 14 A. Jr. CALPHAD. i and j xi mole fraction composition of component i Xp saturated mole fraction solubility of the solute CxF’>i saturated mole fraction solubility of the solute in pure solvent i Xi. Judy and W. A. Acree. and J. Jr. Acta. 15 C. submitted for publication.. Zvaigzne. 81 (1977) 1180. Mansoori. Fluid Phase Equilib.. 18 J.E. Pontikos and W. 13 W.E. J.. Acree..E. 16 W. Acree. Zvaigzne.E. Chem. S. J. 79 Gc excess molar Gibbs free energy of the binary solvent mixture based upon Raoult’s law AHpfu molar enthalpy of fusion of the solute A Hrr”F molar enthalpy of solution of the solute at infinite dilution si adjustable “curve-fit” parameter in the combined NIBS/ Redlich-Kister mathematical representation uij two-body interactional energy involving molecules i and j uiij three-body interactional energy involving molecules i.E. 62 (1990) 991.. Bertrand.F. 30 (1985) 70. Acta. Jr. J. 17 A. Thermochim. and A.R. Acta. Pharm. Chem.-L.I.I. 4 W. Liq. Jr.I. Jr.M.E. Sci.I. 62 (1991) 173.L.M. 27 (1985) 39. Zvaigzne and I. Holste. 178 (1991) 151. 23 (1991) 27. Anal. Bertrand.. Chem. Tomiska. 8 W. Thermochim. Smith. 10 C. 6 W. Data.. Chem. A.L. Xc0 mole fraction composition of the binary solvent mixture. Acree. Jr. 31 (1986) 225. Int. Acree. J. Liq.. unpublished results. 151 (1989) 145.L. Jr. Solution Chem.. Chem. 2 W. Liq.I. 1984. Hwang. Jr. 7 W. Corder0 and W. Jr. 72 (1983) 292. Acree. Liq. 8 (1984) 283.-L. Phys. Liq.R.C. Rytting. Comer and M.E. N.-A. Chem. Jr. 9 W. Eng. submitted for publication... Orlando. Zvaigzne. Acree. Y.E. 12 W. 4 (1975) 205. K. Jr. N.A. . Thermodynamic Properties of Nonelectrolyte Solutions. Judy. I. Int. Zvaigzne. Jr.E.. Acree.W. J.E. 22 (1990) 157. Phys. Liq.E. Acree. Phys.L.. Phys. 16 (1987) 179. Acree. J. Phys.

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