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c c cc 

(in certain Lutheran churches) a body of lay delegates chosen from the congregation and charged with supporting the pastor in
religious instruction, contributions to the church, etc. 


Anglicans. 3cc  Assyrian Church of the East. Old Catholics. Alexander of Alexandria (and also   Emperor Constantine)[1] 3 c ±î18 (only five from Western Church) Arianism. Oriental Orthodox. Lutherans. Eastern Orthodox. celebration of Passover (Easter). Calvinists   None (Council of Jerusalem is not generally cc considered to be ecumenical)  cc First Council of Constantinople  Emperor Constantine I St. c  . c First Council of Nicaea   î  AD Roman Catholics.

The   c. ca. lapsed Christians c  Original Nicene Creed and about  decrees     Chronological list of Ecumenical councils Constantine the Great summoned the bishops of the Christian Church to Nicaea to address divisions in the Church (mosaic in Hagia Sophia. 1). Constantinople (Istanbul). Miletian schism. validity of baptism by  c  heretics.

 c was a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in A. î .[ ] Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the relationship of Jesus to God the Father. settling the calculation of the date of Easter.D.[î][4] . and promulgation of early canon law. the construction of the first part of the Nicene Creed. The Council was the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom.

a The   c .

With the creation of the creed. Athanasius' 3  3  . there is no evidence to suggest that the Biblical canon. the earliest extant uses of the term for a council are Eusebius' a      î. The divinity of Christ had also been widely endorsed by the Christian community in the otherwise pagan city of Rome. The council did not create the doctrine of the deity of Christ as is sometimes claimed but it did settle to some degree the debate within the early Christian communities regarding the divinity of Christ. was even discussed at the Council of Nicaea.6[6] around îî8. This idea of the divinity of Christ along with the idea of Christ as a messenger from the one God ("The Father") had long existed in various parts of the Roman empire. a precedent was established for subsequent general (ecumenical) councils of Bishops (Synods) to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy² the intent being to define unity of beliefs for the whole of Christendom. Contrary to the view popularised by Dan Brown's novel The Da Vinci Code. which states "ıȪȞȠįȠȞ ȠùȠȣȝ ȞȚùȞ ıȣȞ  Ț" (he convoked an Ecumenical council).[] The council affirmed and defined what it believed to be the teachings of the Apostles regarding who Christ is: that Christ is the one true God in deity with the Father. the list of books decided to be authorative as scripture. let alone established or edited. Most significantly. it resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine. "ecumenical" means "worldwide" but generally is assumed to be limited to the Roman Empire in this context as in Augustus' claim to be ruler of the oikoumene/world. Derived from Greek oikoumenikos. c is commonly regarded to have been the first Ecumenical council of the Christian Church. called the Creed of Nicaea.

Egypt.[16] and Evagrius. "the Church had taken her first great step to define doctrine more precisely in response to a challenge from a heretical theology. Historically significant as the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. the teachings of Arius were heretical and dangerous to the salvation of souls. Palestine. . all but two voted against Arius. whether Jesus was the literal son of God or was he a figurative son.     in î69. Alexander of Alexandria and Athanasius claimed to take the first position. but a lesser and unknown number attended. a place easily accessible to the majority of delegates. c   The First Council of Nicaea was convened by Constantine I upon the recommendations of a synod led by Hosius of Cordoba in the Eastertide of î . from whom the term Arianism comes. The council decided against the Arians overwhelmingly (of the estimated ±î18 attendees. Socrates Scholasticus recorded more than î.[7] and the Letter in î8 to Pope Damasus I and the Latin bishops from the First Council of Constantinople. the popular presbyter Arius.[14] and Eustathius of Antioch counted 7[1] (all three were present at the council).[11] In the Council of Nicaea. particularly those of Asia Minor. It authorized the Bishop of Alexandria (presumably using the Alexandrian calendar) to announce annually the exact date to his fellow bishops. In the summer of î . The participating bishops were given free travel to and from their episcopal sees to the council. in particular. The council decided in favour of celebrating the resurrection on the first Sunday after the first full moon following the vernal equinox. as well as lodging.[18] Jerome[19] and Rufinus recorded î18. Syria. Delegates came from every region of the Roman Empire except Britain. is said to have taken the second. Eusebius speaks of an almost innumerable host of accompanying priests.[9]) Another result of the council was an agreement on when to celebrate the Easter.[8] One purpose of the council was to resolve disagreements arising from within the Church of Alexandria over the nature of Jesus in relationship to God the Father. This synod had been charged with investigation of the trouble brought about by the Arian controversy in the Greek- speaking east.[ ] Through it a precedent was set for subsequent general councils to adopt creeds and canons. This council is generally considered the beginning of the period of the First seven Ecumenical Councils in the History of Christianity. Greece. the bishops of all provinces were summoned to Nicaea (now known as İznik. like the other "sons of God" in the Bible.[1] To most bishops. each one had permission to bring with him two priests and three deacons."[1 ] 3   Constantine had invited all 18 bishops of the Christian church (about 1 in the east and 8 in the west). This was the first general council in the history of the Church since the Apostolic Council of Jerusalem.[ ] the Council was the first occasion where the technical aspects of Christology were discussed. which had established the conditions upon which Gentiles could join the Church. and Thrace. These bishops did not travel alone. independent of the Hebrew Calendar (see also Quartodecimanism and Easter controversy). in modern-day Turkey). Eusebius of Caesarea counted . Later. so the total number of attendees could have been above 18.[1î] Athanasius of Alexandria counted î18. the most important feast of the ecclesiastical calendar. St. deacons and acolytes.[17] Hilarius.

pleading infirmity. Nicholas of Myra. Nicasius of Dijon from Gaul. Constantine "himself proceeded through the midst of the assembly."[ î] He was present as an observer. and did not vote. Other remarkable attendees were Eusebius of Nicomedia.[ ] The supporters of Arius included Secundus of Ptolemais. Constantine made a ceremonial entrance at the opening of the council. Eusebius of Caesarea.[ 1] Eusebius of Caesarea. Of these. was among the assistants.[ ] and Domnus of Stridon from the province of the Danube. Hosius of Córdoba from Hispania. a former hermit. Pope Sylvester I declined to attend. Actius of Lydda.A special prominence was also attached to this council because the persecution of Christians had just ended with the February î1î Edict of Milan by Emperors Constantine and Licinius. Hosius of Cordoba may have presided over its deliberations. a young deacon and companion of Bishop Alexander of Alexandria. and Dathes. but sent two Papal legates. Protogenes of Sardica. Hypatius of Gangra.[11][ 4] 3 c Fresco depicting the First Council of Nicaea The agenda of the synod included: 1. Menophantus of Ephesus. Theonus of Marmarica.[11] Eusebius of Nicomedia probably gave the welcoming address. the first church historian. From foreign places came a Persian bishop John. Leontius of Caesarea. who even while a bishop made his living as a shepherd. the first rank was held by the three patriarchs: Alexander of Alexandria. then a presbyter. all of whom hailed from Libya and the Pentapolis[á  ]. Potamon of Heraclea and Paul of Neocaesarea²had stood forth as confessors of the faith and came to the council with the marks of persecution on their faces. was also present as representative of his aged bishop. Athanasius of Alexandria. and adorned with the brilliant splendor of gold and precious stones. Aristakes of Armenia (son of Saint Gregory the Illuminator). and Theognus of Nicaea. and Macarius of Jerusalem. Alexander of Constantinople. a Gothic bishop Theophilus and Stratophilus. he was probably one of the Papal legates. Athanasius eventually spent most of his life battling against Arianism. bishop of Pitiunt in Abkhazia (located in the western part of South Caucasus outside of the Roman Empire). Cecilian of Carthage from Africa. Other supporters included Eusebius of Nicomedia. Many of the assembled fathers²for instance. Paulinus of Tyrus. reflecting the glowing radiance of a purple robe. Achilleus of Larissa (considered the Athanasius of Thessaly)[ ] and Spyridion of Trimythous. Paphnutius of Thebes."[11] As Eusebius described. Eustathius of Antioch. The Eastern bishops formed the great majority. Zphyrius.[ ][ ] "Resplendent in purple and gold. The Latin-speaking provinces sent at least five representatives: Marcus of Calabria from Italia. like some heavenly messenger of God. Melitius of Sebastopolis. Jacob of Nisibis. but respectfully seated the bishops ahead of himself. clothed in raiment which glittered as it were with rays of light. probably in early June. Constantine organized the Council along the lines of the Roman Senate.

The Arian question regarding the relationship between God the Father and Jesus. are the Father and Son one in divine purpose only or also one in being . i.e.

The date of celebration of the Paschal/Easter observation î.

The Meletian schism 4.

The validity of baptism by heretics .

they were almost universally seen as blasphemous. with several adherents. led by Eusebius of Nicomedia. as a form of reconciliation. came as supporters of Arius. In these discussions. some dominant figures were Arius. But when some of the more shocking passages from his writings were read. "Some of the bishops at the council. in the central structure of the imperial palace at Nicaea. most scholars think that the Creed is derived from the baptismal creed of Jerusalem. Today. The majority of the bishops agreed. After being in session for an entire month. scholars thought that the original Nicene Creed was based on this statement of Eusebius."[11] Bishops Theognis of Nicaea and Maris of Chalcedon were among the initial supporters of Arius. The orthodox bishops won approval of every one of their proposals regarding the Creed. as Hans Lietzmann proposed. the council promulgated on June 19 the original Nicene Creed. with preliminary discussions of the Arian question. The status of the lapsed in the persecution under Licinius The council was formally opened May . For some time. Eusebius of Caesarea called to mind the baptismal creed of his own diocese at Caesarea at Palestine. This profession of faith was adopted by all the bishops "but two from .

ca. Arius was slapped in the face by Nicholas of Myra. "substance" ( .[ 6] with each appealing to Scripture to justify their respective positions. According to many accounts. followers of Alexander did not. The Arians believed that they were different and that the Son. Constantine and the condemnation and burning of Arian books. The exact meaning of many of the words used in the debates at Nicaea were still unclear to speakers of other languages. Arians saw these as essentially the same. Alexander of Alexandria (now known as Homoousians). the signatures of these bishops are simply absent from the Creed. Alexander and his followers believed that the Son was of the    as the Father."[1 ] No historical record of their dissent actually exists. 3c   The synod of Nicaea. who would later be canonized and became better known as "Santa Claus". though he may be the most perfect of creations. A third group (now known as Homoiousians) later tried to make a compromise position. debate became so heated that at one point. Greek words like "essence" ( ).[ 7] Much of the debate hinged on the difference between being "born" or "created" and being "begotten".Libya who had been closely associated with Arius from the beginning. saying that the Father and the Son were of    . 8  Main articles: Arianism and Arian controversy The Arian controversy was a Christological dispute that began in Alexandria between the followers of Arius (the 3 ) and the followers of St. co-eternal with him.[ ] For about two months. illustration from a northern Italian compendium of canon law. the two sides argued and debated. was only a creation of God the Father.

  ). "nature" (.

 ). "person" (.


was initially disliked by many bishops because of its associations with Gnostic heretics (who used it in their theology).) bore a variety of meanings drawn from pre-Christian philosophers. The word  . in particular. and because it had been condemned at the 64± 68 Synods of Antioch.   . which could not but entail misunderstandings until they were cleared up.

And also Colossians 1:1: "Firstborn of all creation. and therefore there was a time that He had no existence. Arius believed the Son Jesus was capable of His own free will of right and wrong."[ 8] and was under God the Father.3 3  Arius maintained that the Son of God was a Creature. The Arians appealed to Scripture. quoting verses such as John 14: 8: "the Father is greater than I". Thus. and that "were He in the truest sense a son. said the Arians. and that he was God's First Production."   . made from nothing. therefore the time obviously was when He was not. before all ages. and hence He was a finite being. only the Son was directly created and begotten of God. He must have come after the Father.

!  . and I in thee. and made the Son unequal to the Father. in substance. John 17: 1. 3    Homoousians countered the Arians' argument. like all of his attributes. Homoousians believed that to follow the Arian view destroyed the unity of the Godhead. Thus. art in me. in contravention of the Scriptures ("I and the Father are one". the Father was always a father.    c   The Homoiousians proposed that God and the Son were alike. therefore. Father. always existed with him. that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me". Further on it says "That they all may be one. saying that the Father's fatherhood. This compromise position did not gain much support and eventually the idea was dropped. John 1:î). but not the same. is eternal. as thou. and that the Son.

  c  . Under Constantine's influence[ 9]. basing the declaration in the claim that this was a formulation of traditional Christian belief handed down from the Apostles.   The Council declared that the Father and the Son are of the same substance and are co-eternal. this belief was expressed by the bishops in what would be known thereafter as the Nicene Creed.

In the Council of Nicaea. From earliest times. One of the projects undertaken by the Council was the creation of a Creed. a declaration and summary of the Christian faith. especially for use in Lent and the Easter season. perhaps from the hand of Hosius of Cordova. to include those who professed it. one specific creed was used to define the Church's faith clearly. for example. Some elements were added specifically to counter the Arian point of view. In Rome. various creeds served as a means of identification for Christians. the Apostles' Creed was popular. were added. Several creeds were already in existence. as a means of inclusion and recognition. including Arius.[î] 1.Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (î ) holding the Niceno±Constantinopolitan Creed of î81. Some distinctive elements in the Nicene Creed. and to exclude those who did not. many creeds were acceptable to the members of the council. especially at baptism.

Jesus Christ is described as "God from God. ." proclaiming his divinity. Light from Light. the essence of light was considered to be identical. When all light sources were natural. true God from true God. regardless of its form.

asserting his co-eternalness with God. not made". î. they were saying that Jesus was God. Jesus Christ is said to be "begotten. Basically. and God's son. and confirming it by stating his role in the Creation. not a creation of God.

Bishop Hosius of Cordova. The works of Arius were ordered to be confiscated and consigned to the flames while all persons found possessing them were to be executed." in direct opposition to Arianism. in addition to being excommunicated. the Homoousians (from the Koine Greek word translated as "of same substance" which was condemned at the Council of Antioch in 64± 68). and Athanasius ascribes to him the actual formulation of the creed. the Creed was accepted by the council as an expression of the bishops' common faith and the ancient faith of the whole Church. The Creed was amended to a new version by the First Council of Constantinople in î81. or   . and Secundus refused to adhere to the creed. accepting the entire creed. After a month of discussion. Thus. The Emperor carried out his earlier statement: everybody who refused to endorse the Creed would be exiled. Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognis of Nice also agreed. At the time of the council. and Secundus of Ptolemais. and were thus exiled to Illyria. there were only two left: Theonas of Marmarica in Libya. Theonas. he was the confidant of the emperor in all Church matters. . Eusebius of Caesarea ascribes the term  . to Constantine who. The initial number of bishops supporting Arius was small. Similarly. He is said to be "from the substance of the Father. Hosius stands at the head of the lists of bishops. Maris of Chalcedon. who initially supported Arianism. may well have helped bring the council to consensus. one of the firm Homoousians. The text of this profession of faith is preserved in a letter of Eusebius to his congregation. Then followed immediately the canons of the council. as proposed by Eusebius. Great leaders such as Eustathius of Antioch. the original Nicene Creed ended with these words. on this particular point. Eusebius of Caesarea adhered to the decisions of the council. and elsewhere. "of the  substance" (of the Father). on June 19.[9] Nevertheless. except for the certain statements. were in the minority. Arius.  . and Marcellus of Ancyra all adhered to the Homoousian position. and one which was incompatible with the beliefs of Arians. the council promulgated one which was unambiguous in the aspects touching upon the points of contention between these two positions. Alexander of Alexandria. In spite of his sympathy for Arius. Athanasius. Of the third article only the words "and in the Holy Spirit" were left. instead of a baptismal creed acceptable to both the homoousian and Arian parties. may have chosen to exercise his authority. Although the most vocal of anti-Arians. in Athanasius. the controversy continued in various parts of the empire. agreed to the whole creed.

" c  .

# c Table of dates of Easter 1±   (In Gregorian dates) 3 c 3 c %  # #  $ "  .

 "  "    .


 &''( April 8 April 1 April 1 April 1 April 8 .

 March î1 April 1 April 1 April 8 March î1 &'(/ March 1 March 4 April 1 April 8 April  &'&' April 8 April 1 April 1 April 19 April 9 The feast of Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread. Christians relied on the Jewish community. and that in former times the 14th of Nisan had never preceded the equinox. setting Easter within this independently computed.[îî] The controversy between those who argued for independent computations and those who argued for continued reliance on the Jewish calendar was formally resolved by the Council. As early as Pope Sixtus I. even if the Jewish computations were in error from a Christian point of view. choosing a month whose 14th day fell before the spring equinox. as the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus occurred at the time of those observances. March 1 March î March î April 7 April  &''/ April 9 April 1 April 1 April 19 April 9 &'(' March î April 4 April 4 April 4 March î &'(( April 18 April 4 April 4 April 4 April 19 &'(& April 6 April 8 April 8 April 1 April 7 &'() March 7 March î1 March î1 May  March 6 &'(* April 1 April  April  April  April 1 &'(+ April 4 April  April  April 1 April 4 &'(.[î1] Christians. April 1î April 16 April 16 April î April 1î &''- April April 8 April 8 April 8 April î &''. which endorsed the independent procedure that had been in use for some time at Rome and Alexandria. To determine which lunar month was to be designated as Nisan. should abandon the custom of relying on Jewish informants and instead do their own computations to determine which month should be styled Nisan. some Christians had set Easter to a Sunday in the lunar month of Nisan. Easter was henceforward to be a Sunday in a lunar month chosen according to Christian criteria²in effect. Christian Nisan.&''& March 8 March î1 March î1 May  March 8 &'') April 16 April  April  April 7 April 17 &''* April  April 11 April 11 April 11 April 6 &''+ March  March 7 March 7 May 1 April 4 &''. these thinkers argued.[î ] Others felt that the customary practice of reliance on the Jewish calendar should continue. They justified this break with tradition by arguing that it was in fact the contemporary Jewish calendar that had broken with tradition by ignoring the equinox. which would always locate the festival after the equinox. a . They argued that contemporary Jews were identifying the wrong lunar month as the month of Nisan. March î March 7 March 7 May 1 April î &'(- April 11 April 16 April 16 April 16 April 11 &'(. By the later îrd century some Christians began to express dissatisfaction with what they took to be the disorderly state of the Jewish calendar.

the Council did not decree that Easter must fall on Sunday. being among the worst enemies of Athanasius. This was already the practice almost everywhere. a process that took centuries and generated a number of controversies. it was decided. Melitius retained his episcopal title. the ordinations performed by Meletius being therefore regarded as invalid. the claim that Easter must always follow Nisan 1 in the Hebrew calendar.) In particular. the Meletians joined the Arians and caused more dissension than ever. he was forbidden to go into the environs of the town or to enter another diocese for the purpose of ordaining its subjects. but the ecclesiastics ordained by him were to receive again the Laying on of hands. (See also Computus and Reform of the date of Easter. were in vain. now commonly called "Passover") in the Hebrew calendar.[î9] In the event of the death of a non-Meletian bishop or ecclesiastic. the Council had separated the Easter computation from all dependence. These two rules.[î7] Nor did the Council decree that Easter must never coincide with Nisan 1 (the first Day of Unleavened Bread. Meletius. provided he was worthy and the popular election were ratified by Alexander. was another important matter that came before the Council of Nicaea. the accumulation of errors in the Julian solar and lunar calendars had made it the de-facto state of affairs that Julian Easter always followed Hebrew Nisan 1. The "Zonaras proviso". however. was not formulated until after some centuries. By that time. should remain in his own city of Lycopolis in Egypt. The Meletians ultimately died out around the middle of the fifth century. As to Meletius himself.[î8] Ñ  c   Main article: Meletius of Lycopolis The suppression of the Meletian schism. Clergy ordained by Meletius were ordered to yield precedence to those ordained by Alexander. episcopal rights and prerogatives were taken from him.[î] and tracts[î6] written against the protopaschite practice in the later 4th century. these were worked out in practice.   . but without exercising authority or the power to ordain new clergy. the vacant see might be given to a Meletian. By endorsing the move to independent computations. That they did not all immediately do so is revealed by the existence of sermons. were the only rules for Easter explicitly laid down by the Council. These mild measures. Those who argued for continued reliance on the Jewish calendar (called "protopaschites" by later historians) were urged to come around to the majority position.[î4] canons. on the Jewish calendar. and they were not to do anything without the consent of Bishop Alexander. No details for the computation were specified.Christian Nisan²not in the month of Nisan as defined by Jews. an early breakaway sect. independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity. positive or negative.

called  . provision for mild procedure against the lapsed during the persecution under Licinius 1±16. prohibition of self-castration .c The council promulgated twenty new church laws. (though the exact number is subject to debate[4]). exceptional authority acknowledged for the patriarchs of Alexandria and Rome (the Pope). recognition of the honorary rights of the see of Jerusalem 8. an early sect 9±14. ordination of a bishop in the presence of at least three provincial bishops and confirmation by the Metropolitan bishop . precedence of bishops and presbyters before deacons in receiving the Eucharist (Holy Communion) . provision for two provincial synods to be held annually 6. prohibition of the presence in the house of a cleric of a younger woman who might bring him under suspicion (the so called       ) 4. provision for agreement with the Novatianists. establishment of a minimum term for catechumen (persons studying for baptism) î. unchanging rules of discipline. The twenty as listed in the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers are as follows:[41] 1. for their respective regions 7. prohibition of the removal of priests 17. prohibition of usury among the clergy 18. that is.

he wanted the Church to live in harmony and peace.[4 ] On July . prohibition of kneeling during the liturgy on Sundays and during the Pentecost (the fifty days after Easter). 19. In his farewell address. he announced the accomplished unity of practice by the whole Church in the date of the celebration of Christian Passover (now called Easter). as it still is among the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholics. ". Standing was the normative posture for prayer at this time. in conclusion. î . declaration of the invalidity of baptism by Paulian heretics . In a circular letter. Constantine informed the audience how averse he was to dogmatic controversy. the fathers of the council celebrated the Emperor's twentieth anniversary.


c .

and consequently. and using the power of the state to give the Council's orders effect. Basil over the Nicene Creed. Arianism continued to spread and to cause division in the Church during the remainder of the fourth century. and "with his passing the first round in the battle after the Council of Nicaea was ended. Valens could not resolve the outstanding ecclesiastical issues. and unsuccessfully confronted St. the Emperor played a role.  c The long-term effects of the Council of Nicaea were significant. Eusebius of Nicomedia. after finally receiving baptism from Arian Bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia. was deposed by the First Synod of Tyre in îî and Marcellus of Ancyra followed him in îî6. Arians and Meletians soon regained nearly all of the rights they had lost. an Arian bishop and cousin to Constantine I. by calling together the bishops under his authority. used his influence at court to sway Constantine's favor from the orthodox Nicene bishops to the Arians. Athanasius. Also for the first time. In the short-term. For the first time. Constantine himself was succeeded by two Arian Emperors in the Eastern Empire: his son.[4î] Pagan powers within the Empire sought to maintain and at times re-establish paganism into the seat of the Emperor (see Arbogast and Julian the Apostate). Arius himself returned to Constantinople to be readmitted into the Church. however. Eustathius of Antioch was deposed and exiled in îî. but died shortly before he could be received. Constantius II and Valens. representatives of many of the bishops of the Church convened to agree on a doctrinal statement. the council did not completely solve the problems it was convened to discuss and a period of conflict and upheaval continued for some time. who had succeeded Alexander as Bishop of Alexandria."[44]   c. Constantine died the next year. Almost immediately.

Old Catholics. Lutherans   First Council of Nicaea cc  cc First Council of Ephesus . Assyrian Church of the East. search For the church council of Constantinople in î9.    From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. 9th century Byzantine manuscript illumination of I Constantinople ÿ     . Eastern 3cc  Orthodox. Oriental Orthodox. Anglicans. 879-88 First Council of Constantinople   î81 Roman Catholics. see First Council of Constantinople (î6).

Meletius of Antioch.  Emperor Theodosius I Timothy of Alexandria.   Gregory Nazianzus. and Nectarius of Constantinople 3 c 1 (no representation of Western Church) c  .

Apollinarism. Holy  c  Spirit. seven canons (three    disputed) Chronological list of Ecumenical councils The   c . Sabellianism. successor to Meletius c   Nicene Creed of î81. Arianism.

the Eastern Orthodox. the îrd person of the Trinity. Athanasius continued to be a vigorous defender of Nicene Christianity against Arianism. This being the first Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople. it became a topic of debate. Even during numerous exiles. Up until about î6. but soon resigned from the position a few months later. By the end of the 4th century. because the Council of Nicaea had not clarified the divinity of the Holy Spirit.  c  Timothy of Alexandria. However. the Oriental Orthodox. Gregory Nazianzus. it was called by Theodosius I in î81[1][ ] which confirmed the Nicene Creed and dealt with other matters such as Arian controversy. This council also developed a statement of faith which included the language of Nicaea. It expanded the third article of the creed dealing with the Holy Spirit." Antiquity Online) . the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius "issued a decree that the doctrine of the Trinity was to be the official state religion and that all subjects shall adhere to it" (See "Constantine. It is called the Nicene Creed of î81 and was a commentary on the original Nicene formula.    is recognised as the c "cc c by the Assyrian Church of the East. With the Father and the Son he is worshipped and glorified". The Cappadocian Fathers also took up the torch. The council took place in the church of Hagia Irene from May to July î81. Athanasius then famously said "Athanasius against the world". the Roman Catholics. and a number of other Western Christian groups. as well as some other changes. but expanded the discussion on the Holy Spirit to combat the heresy of the Pneumatomachi. Gregory Nazianzus was appointed Archbishop of Constantinople. and Archbishop Nectarius of Constantinople successively presided. He granted amnesty to the Arian leaders and exiled Athanasius because of Eusebius of Nicomedia. and Nectarius was then put in his place. By î 7. Emperor Constantine I had begun to regret the decisions that had been made at the Nicene Council. The council affirmed the original Nicene creed of faith as true and an accurate explanation of Scripture. Who proceeds from the Father. the nd person of the Trinity. The Macedonians denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit. This was also known as Pneumatomachianism. Meletius of Antioch. 0c  The Council of Nicaea did not end the Arian controversy which it had been called to clarify. This Council's decision regarding the Holy Spirit also gave official endorsement to the concept of the Trinity. The statement of proceeding from the Father is seen as significant because it established that the Holy Spirit must be of the same being (ousia) as God the Father. the Giver of Life. the Old Catholics. the first Christian emperor. theological debates mainly dealt with the Divinity of Jesus. their Trinitarian discourse was influential in the council at Constantinople. About the Holy Spirit the article of faith said he is "the Lord.

Part of a series on  c "cc c  1 3 2   Nicaea I3    4 Ephesus3 Chalcedon "Ñ3   Constantinople II Constantinople III Nicaea II Constantinople IV  Ñ3   Lateran I3 Lateran II3 Lateran III Lateran IV3 Lyon I3 Lyon II 1 Ñ3   Vienne3 Constance3 Florence .Seven canons. The first canon[4] is an important dogmatic condemnation of all shades of Arianism. the Roman Catholic Church accepts only the first four[î]. four of these doctrinal canons and three disciplinary canons. are attributed to the Council and accepted by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Oriental Orthodox Churches. The second canon[] renews the Nicene legislation imposing upon the bishops the observance of diocesan and patriarchal limits. also of Macedonianism and Apollinarianism.

" similar to how they today view the Bishop of Constantinople. î8 . However. the Roman legates[8] asserted the place of the bishop of Rome's honor over the bishop of Constantinople's. (. Roman supremacy over the whole world was formally claimed by the new Latin patriarch. and is in regard to a º of the Western bishops. but the primacy. Rome protested the diminished honor to be afforded the bishops of Antioch and Alexandria. thus sometimes this council is called the unecumenical council. perhaps that of Pope Damasus I. Baronius maintained the non-authenticity of the third canon. Peter. "the first among equals. however. 3. in 1 1 at the Fourth Lateran Council[9]. as the site of the first Church. Throughout the next several centuries. The status of these Eastern patriarchs would be brought up again by the Papal Legates at the Council of Chalcedon. The sixth canon[1î] might belong to the year î8 as well and was passed at the Quinisext Council as #9 and limits the ability to accuse bishops of wrongdoing. and by the time of the Great Schism the Roman Catholic Church based its claim to supremacy on the succession of St. declared that this canon had never been submitted to Rome and that their lessened honor was a violation of the Nicene order. The Roman correctores of Gratian[1]. it was affirmed as ecumenical at the Council of Chalcedon in 41. After the Great Schism (14). while some medieval Greeks maintained that it did not declare supremacy of the Bishop of Rome. When the First Council of Constantinople was approved. retained its place of honor. The fifth canon[1 ] might have been passed the next year. c   Lateran V3 Trent (/ &' c  Vatican I3 Vatican II  c    v‡d‡e The famous third canon reads: The Bishop of Constantinople. as Bishop of Constantinople. Pope Damasus I was not invited (or declined to attend). the Cynic philosopher and rival of Gregory of Nazianzus. shall have the prerogative of honour after the Bishop of Rome because Constantinople is New Rome. At the Fourth Council of Constantinople (869). the Western Church asserted that the Bishop of Rome had supreme authority. Jerusalem. The seventh canon[14] regards procedures for receiving certain heretics into the church. and was notable in that it demoted the patriarchs of Antioch and Alexandria. Pope Leo the Great[7]. just fifty years old. insert the words: "canon hic ex iis est quos apostolica Romana sedes a principio et longo post tempore non recipit.[6] This canon was a first step in the rising importance of the new imperial capital." The fourth canon[11] declares invalid the consecration of Maximus of Constantinople.


it led to Christology. The   c. which would be the topic of the Council of Ephesus of 4î1 and the Council of Chalcedon of 41.This council condemned Arianism which began to die out with more condemnations at a council of Aquileia by Ambrose of Milan in î81. The 1 individuals at the council are commemorated in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on February 17. With the discussion of Trinitarian doctrine now developed and well under agreement to orthodox and biblical understanding.

Nestorius answered. His enemy. largely revolved around his rejection of the long-used title º  ("Mother of God") for the Virgin Mary. The Virgin Mary was to be called Theotokos because she bore and gave birth to God as a man. a descendant of the Church of the East. held in 4î1 at the Church of Mary in Ephesus. Cyril argued that Nestorianism split Jesus in half and denied that he was both human and divine. thereafter often known as the Nestorian Church.   Contention over Nestorius' teachings. with a rational soul and body. the Eastern Orthodox. had brought him into conflict with other church leaders. the Assyrian Church of the East. Nestorius himself retired to a monastery. appealed to Pope Celestine I. Greek for the "birth giver of God". Nestorianism. still rejects the findings of the Council. Nestorius' doctrine. Nestorius' dispute with Cyril had led the latter to seek validation from Pope Celestine I. who authorized Cyril to request that Nestorius recant his position or face excommunication. Patriarch of Alexandria. because the human soul was based on the archetype of the Logos. Nestorianism emphasized the dual natures of Christ. the Council also condemned Caelestius and Pelagianism. which he developed during his studies at the School of Antioch. Before the summons arrived. the mother of Jesus gave birth to the incarnate Christ. It is believed to have been the Third Ecumenical Council by the Oriental Orthodox. Nestorius himself had requested the council. the Roman Catholics. not two separate people: complete God and complete man. a platform to argue their opposing views. Approximately  bishops were present. since man is by definition a sinner since the Fall". charging Nestorius with heresy. To solve that he taught that Mary."   was the third ecumenical council of the early Orthodox Catholic Church. and his teachings were officially anathematized. Cyril of Alexandria. which emphasized the disunity between Christ's human and divine natures. however. The council was called amid a dispute over the teachings of Nestorius. The Logos occupied the part of the human soul (the part of man that was stained by the Fall). being part man. Nestorius convinced the Emperor Theodosius II to hold a general council. Mary should be called  . The Council created severe tensions between Cyril and Theodosius. known as the Church of the East. The council's rejection of Nestorius precipitated the Nestorian Schism. in which a number of churches broke with the Orthodox Church and became what was later known as the Church of the East. always asserting his orthodoxy. hoping that he would be vindicated and Cyril condemned. but in the end his teachings were condemned as heresy. The Pope agreed and gave Cyril his authority to serve a notice to Nestorius to recant his views or else be excommunicated. only to become polluted by the Fall. Nestorius pleaded with Roman Emperor Theodosius II to call a council in which all grievances could be aired. at the urging of its president. There they affiliated with the local Christian community. Cyril of Alexandria. . the Council denounced Nestorius' teaching as erroneous and decreed that Jesus was one person. On top of the dealings with Nestorius. But wouldn't the absence of a human soul make Jesus less human? No. This precipitated the Nestorian Schism. while a number of his supporters relocated to Persia. not be partially a sinner as well. The proceedings were conducted in a heated atmosphere of confrontation and recriminations. not the divine Logos who existed before Mary and indeed before time itself. he was decisively outplayed by Cyril and removed from his see. In modern times. In the end. Greek for the "birth giver of Christ" and not Theotokos. Patriarch of Constantinople. in which churches supportive of Nestorius were severed from the rest of Christendom. Consequently. hoping to prove his orthodoxy. Although the Nestorian bishops had not yet arrived at the council. and a number of other Western Christian groups. Jesus was "more" human for having the Logos and not "less". This was essentially a Christological controversy. most notably Cyril. Patriarch Nestorius tried to answer a question considered unsolved: "How can Jesus Christ. Asia Minor. It is still rejected by the heirs to the Nestorian movement in the Assyrian Church of the East.

In addition to its condemnation of Nestorianism. the rift would open again during the debates leading up to the Council of Chalcedon. condemned Cyril for heresy and declared him deposed. or as added to and modified by the First Council of Constantinople in î81. or to write.  c   Cyril of Alexandria Cyril's Council of Ephesus declared it "unlawful for any man to bring forward. accepted the decisions of Cyril's council. they assembled their own Council. it also condemned Pelagianism.[1] It did not specify whether it meant the Nicene Creed as adopted by the First Council of Nicaea in î . after additional clarifications. However.Major christological schisms and related early councils When John of Antioch and the other pro-Nestorius bishops finally reached Ephesus. The events created a major schism between the followers of the different versions of the council. Again. The pro-John factions acquiesced in the condemnation of Nestorius and. the emperor concurred but eventually changed his mind again. or to compose a different (ù Ȟ) Faith as a rival to that established by the holy Fathers assembled with the Holy Ghost in Nicæa".[ ] Eight canons[î] were passed: O. which was only mended by difficult negotiations about a union between the pro-Cyril and pro-John factions.

Canon 1- condemned Nestorius and Caelestius and their followers as heretics O.

Canon 6 decreed deposition from clerical office or excommunication for those who did not accept the Council's decrees O.

in particular an exposition by the priest Charisius. Canon 7 condemned any departure from the creed established by the First Council of Nicaea. O.

the Canons of the Fathers be transgressed". so that no bishop was to "assume control of any province which has not heretofore. from the very beginning.[4] The c. been under his own hand or that of his predecessors . Canon 8 condemned interference by the Bishop in affairs of the Church in Cyprus and decreed generally...

and stated that Christ has two natures in one person. on the Asian side of the Bosporus. Anatolius. to set aside the 449 Second Council of Ephesus. c was a church council held in 41 from 8 October to 1 November 41 at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor). the second person of the Holy Trinity. The Council of Chalcedon repudiated the idea that Jesus had only one nature. better known as the "Robber Council". The Council of Chalcedon was convened by Flavian's successor. In the famous 8th canon passed by the council. at Pope Leo I's urging. The Chalcedonian Creed describes the "full humanity and full divinity" of Jesus. the bishops sought to raise the See of Constantinople (New Rome) in . The council also issued 7 disciplinary canons governing church administration and authority.

claiming that Constantinople enjoyed honor and authority similar to that of the See of (older) Rome. the Eastern Orthodox. Most Protestants also consider the concept of the Trinity as defined by these councils to be orthodox doctrine to which they adhere. The Council is considered by the Roman Catholics. with those who refused to accept its teaching. As such. However. it is recognized as infallible in its dogmatic definitions by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches (then one church). except the 8th. Pope Leo's legate opposed the canon but in 4î. This council is the last council that is recognised by the Anglican Communion.  cc  !c . the Old Catholics. now known as Oriental Orthodoxy. and various other Western Christian groups to have been the  "cc c . being accused of monophysitism. the Council resulted in a major schism. Leo confirmed all the canons.stature. The Oriental Orthodox churches reject the "monophysite" label and instead describe themselves as miaphysite.

on April 1 . Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia. The two settled their differences under the mediation of the Bishop of Beroea. the two theologians were condemned throughout the East. and rejected the Arian contention that Jesus was a created being. but this situation would later provide the material for the Second Council of Constantinople some hundred years later. "consubstantial" with the Father. He claimed to be a faithful follower of Cyril's teaching.    In î . Cyril had taught that "There is only one . which was declared orthodox in the Union of 4î . However. 4îî. there remained a conflict between Patriarchs John of Antioch and Cyril of Alexandria. an aged monk from Constantinople named Eutyches began teaching a subtle variation on the traditional Christology in an attempt (as he described in a letter to Pope Leo I in 448) to stop a new outbreak of Nestorianism. Theodoret of Cyrrhus assented to this formula as well. By the intervention of Archbishop Proclus of Constantinople. the first ecumenical council (First Council of Nicaea) determined that Jesus Christ was God. After the Council of Ephesus had condemned Nestorianism. Acacius. while John claimed that Cyril held to the Apollinarian heresy. apparently putting a rest to Nestorianism forever within the Roman Empire. were at this time translated into Syriac. " c c   About two years after Cyril of Alexandria's death in 444. Cyril claimed that John remained Nestorian in outlook. This was reaffirmed at the First Council of Constantinople (î81) and the Council of Ephesus (4î1). the works of two deceased Antiochean theologians. In the following year.

since it is the Incarnation. of God the Word.  ." Cyril had apparently understood the Greek word .

  to mean approximately what the Latin word .

many understood Eutyches to be advocating Docetism.where Arius had denied the consubstantial divinity of Jesus.  (person) means. while most Greek theologians would have interpreted that word to mean   (nature). Cyril's orthodoxy was not called into question. Eutyches seemed to be denying his human nature. a sort of reversal of Arianism -. since the Union of 4îî had explicitly spoken of two . Thus.

the Emperor Theodosius II and the Patriarch of Alexandria. Leo provided his legates. now known as 15 . one who died en route. confessed that Christ had two natures. his side of the controversy tended not to enter into arguments with their opponents." This appeared to some to be incompatible with Leo's definition of two natures hypostatically joined. However. Dioscorus then held his own synod which reinstated Eutyches. during a local synod in Constantinople. Leo's letter. The emperor invited Pope Leo I to preside.   in this context. a committee of bishops . due to the high regard in which Eutyches was held (second only to the Patriarch of Constantinople in the East). Dioscorus. the Council would determine (with the exception of 1î Egyptian bishops) that this was an issue of wording and not of doctrine.[1] He declined to attend on account of the invasion of Italy by Attila the Hun. However. Leo I wrote that Eutyches' error seemed to be more from a lack of skill on the matters than from malice. Nonetheless. However. and not rather by a coming together in a union by nature. Eusebius demanded that Eutyches be removed from office. Further. Eutyches was denounced as a heretic by the Bishop Eusebius of Dorylaeum. In November 447. In particular. rejected this decision ostensibly because Eutyches had repented and confessed his orthodoxy. The competing claims between the Patriarchs of Constantinople and Alexandria led the emperor to call a council which was held in Ephesus in 449. He finally relented and Eutyches was condemned as a heretic by the synod. Patriarch Flavian of Constantinople preferred not to press the matter on account of Eutyches' great popularity. let him be anathema. his teaching spread rapidly throughout the east. he agreed to send four legates to represent him.[ ] Although it could be reconciled with Cyril's Formula of Reunion. with a letter explaining Rome's position in the controversy. joining them only by a conjunction of dignity or authority or power. it was not compatible in its wording with Cyril's Twelve Anathemas. and was not of or from two natures. the third anathema reads: "If anyone divides in the one Christ the hypostases after the union. which prevented the misunderstanding from being uncovered.

[î] Î1 cÎ. supported this.appointed to study the orthodoxy of the Tome using Cyril's letters (which included the twelve anathemas) as their criteria unanimously determined it to be orthodox. and the Council. with few exceptions.

Flavian was mortally wounded. Dioscorus then moved to depose Flavian and Eusebius of Dorylaeum on the grounds that they taught the Word had been made flesh and not just assumed flesh from the Virgin and that Christ had two natures. Domnus of Antioch. the two natures had merged to form a single nature after the incarnation. but was ignored.   led by the patrician Anatolius 3 c Approx. Roman Legate Hilary."    On August 8. When Flavian and Hilary objected. î7 the judgments issued at the Second Council of Ephesus in 449. Eastern 3cc  Orthodox. Roman legate Hilary repeatedly called for the reading of Leo's Tome. they all did. Fearing the mob. Irenaeus of Tyre (a close personal friend of Nestorius). 111 voted to rehabilitate Eutyches. and Theodoret. c    Council of Chalcedon   41 A. Roman Catholics. Dioscorus then placed Eusebius of Dorylaeum under arrest and demanded the assembled bishops approve his actions. The decisions of this council now threatened schism between the East and the West. Dioscorus began the council by banning all members of the November 447 synod which had deposed Eutyches. Old Catholics. Throughout these proceedings. He then introduced Eutyches who publicly professed that while Christ had two natures before the incarnation.[] managed to escape from Constantinople and brought news of the Council to Leo who immediately dubbed it a "synod of robbers" ² Latrocinium ² and refused to accept its pronouncements. Of the 1î assembled bishops. who as pope dedicated an oratory in the Lateran Basilica in thanks for his life. 449 the Second Council of Ephesus began its first session with Dioscorus presiding by command of the emperor.D. Dioscorus then pressed his advantage by having Cyril of Alexandria's Twelve Anathemas posthumously declared orthodox[4] with the intent of condemning any confession other than one nature in Christ. the alleged offences of Bishop c  . Dioscorus called for a pro-monophysite mob to enter the church and assault Flavian as he clung to the altar. The papal legates refused to attend the second session at which several more orthodox bishops were deposed. Lutherans   First Council of Ephesus cc  cc Second Council of Constantinople  Emperor Marcian A board of government officials and senators. Anglicans. including Ibas of Edessa.

 Dioscorus of Alexandria. many disputes involving particular bishops and sees c   Chalcedonian Creed. 8 canons    Chronological list of Ecumenical councils . the definition of the  c  Godhead and manhood of Christ.

î. Bishops Pachasinus of Lilybaeum and Julian of Cos and two priests Boniface and Basil represented the western church at the council. but this move caused such an uproar among the council fathers. inconvertible [natures]. Leo had pressed for it to take place in Italy. The second day of the council ended with shouts from the bishops. the Council decided to adjourn and appoint a special committee to investigate the orthodoxy of Leo's Tome. saying that. Cyril's Twelve Chapters were to be used as the orthodox standard.[6] Nonetheless due to such concerns. As a result. and indeed the text has not survived to the present. Leo and Cyril teach the same thing.[7] The council continued with Dioscorus' trial. vol. however. Marcian responded by exiling Dioscorus. determining that what he said was compatible with the teaching of Cyril. inseparable [natures]. the emperor's commissioners decided that a creed would indeed be necessary and presented a text to the fathers. during the reading of Leo's Tome. and that the doctrine had been laid out clearly in Leo's Tome. Liverpool . This time. This is the faith of the Apostles. Marcian had the bishops deposed by Dioscorus returned to their dioceses and had the body of Flavian brought to the capital to be buried honorably. he was condemned. All of the bishops were then asked to sign their assent to the Tome. and was given five days to carefully study the matter. The bishops relented and added a clause. Marcian wished to bring proceedings to a speedy end. judging it by the standard of Cyril's Twelve Chapters. 41." However. A number of other bishops also entered statements to the effect that they believed that Leo's Tome was not in contradiction with the teaching of Cyril as well. All this changed dramatically with the emperor's death and the elevation of Marcian. all the while appointing bishops in agreement with Dioscorus. but Emperor Marcian instead called for it to convene at Nicaea. This committee was headed by Anatolius. . The Council of Chalcedon condemned the work of the Robber Council and professed the doctrine of the Incarnation presented in Leo's Tome. but a group of thirteen Egyptians refused. Attendance at this council was very high. Patriarch of Constantinople. 19î-6). Paschasinus threatened to return to Rome to reassemble the council in Italy. an orthodox Christian. This is what we all of us believe." As a result. felt that no new creed was necessary. three passages were challenged as being potentially Nestorian. but by an underwhelming amount (more than half the bishops present for the previous sessions did not attend his condemnation). Marcian announced his intention to hold a new council. but he refused to appear before the assembly. and their orthodoxy was defended by using the writings of Cyril. he was moved to the nave of the church. to the imperial throne. The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon. As a result. though he was given a vote in the proceedings. Hunnish invasions forced it to move at the last moment to Chalcedon.[ ] They were also hesitant to write a new creed as the Council of Ephesus had forbidden writing down any "new faith" other than the Nicene faith. that Theodoret also sat in the nave. The emperor asked Leo to preside over the council.The situation continued to deteriorate. Paschasinus further ordered the reinstatement of Theodoret and that he be given a seat. saying that if a clause were not added to the creed supporting Leo's doctrine. "It is Peter who says this through Leo. The committee unanimously decided in favor of the orthodoxy of Leo. No consensus was reached. in Christ there are two natures united. where the council opened on October 8. and all of his decrees were declared null. the bishops would have to relocate. To resolve the simmering tensions. saying that they would assent to "the traditional faith. with Leo demanding the convocation of a new council and Emperor Theodosius II refusing to budge. with about î7 bishops (or presbyters representing bishops) attending (see Price and Gaddis. but Leo again chose to send legates in his place. which began with a trial of Dioscorus. Paschasinus refused to give Dioscorus (who had excommunicated Leo leading up to the council) a seat at the council. according to the decision of Leo. and asked the council to make a pronouncement on the doctrine of the Incarnation before continuing the trial. The council fathers. Marcian agreed. as some of the bishops present raised concerns about their compatibility.


following the holy Fathers. the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in manhood. one and the same Christ.             . of a reasonable [rational] soul and body. indivisibly. for us and for our salvation. ù . ùȤ ı . all with one consent. inseparably. and consubstantial with us according to the Manhood. c Main article: Chalcedonian Creed The Confession of Chalcedon provides a clear statement on the human and divine nature of Christ:[8] We. without sin. born of the Virgin Mary. only begotten. the Mother of God. unchangeably. teach people to confess one and the same Son. then. begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead. Son. consubstantial [co-essential] with the Father according to the Godhead. ùįȚȚ . in all things like unto us. and in these latter days. (ùȞ įȪȠ ijȪııȚȞ ùıȣȖȤȪ. to be acknowledged in two natures. our Lord Jesus Christ. according to the Manhood. inconfusedly. truly God and truly man. Lord.

  ) the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union. and concurring in one Person (. but rather the property of each nature being preserved.


) and one Subsistence ( .

and only begotten.  ). not parted or divided into two persons. . the Lord Jesus Christ. but one and the same Son. as the prophets from the beginning [have declared] concerning Him. and the Lord Jesus Christ Himself has taught us. God the Word. and the Creed of the holy Fathers has handed down to us.

this goes against the teaching of Cyril from the previous council stating that it is incorrect to speak of Christ as existing in two natures after the union.   The work of the council was completed by a series of 7 disciplinary canons:[9] 1.[     ] The reasoning adopted by the Eastern Orthodox Church is that further clarification of Cyril's position was required.Interestingly enough.

. specific councils were clarified by Quinisext Council canon . States that all canons of previous councils shall remain in force.

î. Forbids simony (paying for ecclesiastic office).

Prohibits bishops from engaging in business. 4.

. with the right to permit or forbid the foundation of new monasteries. Gives authority to bishops over the monks in their dioceses.

6. States that travelling bishops are subject to canon law.

Forbids the clergy from changing dioceses. 7.

Forbids the clergy from serving in the military. 8.

9. Places the poorhouses under the jurisdiction of the bishop.

Limits the ability to accuse a bishop of wrong doing. 1.

11. Prevents clergy belonging to multiple churches.

Regards letters of travel for the poor. 1 .

1î. Prohibits provinces from being divided for the purposes of creating another church.

Prohibits clergy from officiating where they are unknown without a letter of recommendation from their bishop. 14.

Regards wives and children of cantors and lectors. 1.

Requires a deaconess to be at least 4. 16.

Forbids monks and nuns from marrying on pain of excommunication. 17.

Forbids rural parishes from changing bishops. 18.

Forbids conspiracy against bishops. 19.

Requires bishops to conduct a synod twice a year. .

Lists exemptions for those who have been driven to another city. 1.

. States an accuser of a bishop shall be suspect before the bishop.

î. Forbids seizing the goods of a dead bishop.

Allows the expulsion of outsiders who cause trouble in Constantinople. 4.

. Asserts that monasteries are permanent.

6. Requires a new bishop to be ordained within î months of election.

7. Requires cathedrals to have a steward from among the clergy to monitor church business.

Forbids carrying off women under pretense of marriage (eloping). Canon 8 grants equal privileges (  .

were issued in both languages. were written in Greek. The assembled bishops informed the pope that a copy of all the "Acta" would be transmitted to him. which grants the Egyptians time to consider their rejection of Leo's º. others. 4î. and protested it afterwards. to make a collection of all the Acts and translate them into Latin. Eventually nearly all of them were translated into both languages. then at Constantinople. is an extract from the minutes of the fourth session. which states that an unworthy bishop cannot be demoted but can be removed.[1] In all likelihood an official record of the proceedings was made either during the council itself or shortly afterwards. the imperial letters. canons 9 and î are attributed to the council: canon 9.  ) to Constantinople as of Rome because Constantinople is the New Rome as renewed by canon î6 of the Quinisext Council.g. and was not ratified by Pope Leo in Rome. others.     . chiefly the minutes of the sessions. in March. According to some ancient Greek collections. the papal letters. Most of the documents. e. again. is an extract from the minutes of the 19th session. e. canon î.g. Pope Leo commissioned Julian of Cos. The papal legates were not present for the vote on this canon. were written in Latin.

the See of Constantinople was yet of no ecclesiastical prominence but its proximity to the Imperial court. At the time. The Council of Constantinople in î81 modified the situation somewhat by placing Constantinople second in honor. above Alexandria . followed by the Sees of Alexandria and Antioch.[11][1 ] The Council of Nicea in î  had noted the primacy of the See of Rome.    The Council of Chalcedon also elevated the See of Constantinople to a position "second in eminence and power to the Bishop of Rome". gave rise to its importance.

all Christians East and West addressed the papacy as the See of Peter or the Apostolic See rather than the See of the Imperial Capital because it was commonly understood that Rome's precedence comes from Peter rather than its association with Imperial authority. but the Council of Chalcedon confirmed in Canon XXVIII: And the One Hundred and Fifty most religious Bishops.[1î] In making their case. The Eastern position could be characterized as being political in nature. Rome filed a protest against the reduction of honor given to Antioch and Alexandria.´[14] The framework for allocating ecclesiastical authority advocated by the council fathers mirrored the allocation of imperial authority in the later period of the Roman Empire. this status was challenged by the bishops of Alexandria. actuated by the same consideration. because Constantinople is New Rome". However. justly judging that the city which is honoured with the Sovereignty and the Senate and enjoys equal privileges with the old imperial Rome. ³moved by the same purposes´ the fathers ³apportioned equal prerogatives to the most holy see of new Rome´ because ³the city which is honored by the imperial power and senate and enjoying privileges equaling older imperial Rome should also be elevated to her level in ecclesiastical affairs and take second place after her. In the early th century. shall have the prerogative of honor after the bishop of Rome. the council fathers argued that tradition had accorded "honor" to the see of older Rome because it was formerly the imperial city. In practice. stating in Canon III. that ""the bishop of Constantinople.. gave equal privileges (ùı  ıȕù) to the most holy throne of New Rome. growing concerns that withholding Rome's approval would be interpreted as a rejection of the entire council. and rank next after her.  2c .. should in ecclesiastical matters also be magnified as she is.and Antioch. in 4î he confirmed the council¶s canons with a protest against the 8th. as opposed to a doctrinal view. Accordingly. After the passage of the Canon 8.

 cc The near-immediate result of the council was a major schism. saying that the acceptance of two . The bishops that were uneasy with the language of Pope Leo's Tome repudiated the council.

 was tantamount to Nestorianism. Agreement on doctrine has been declared between Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches. for instance[      ] . advocated miaphysitism and had dominated the Council of Ephesus.[1] Churches that rejected Chalcedon in favor of Ephesus broke off from the rest of the Church in a schism. the Patriarch of Alexandria. Dioscorus. although communion between these families of churches has not been restored. . Recent years have brought about a degree of rapprochement between Chalcedonian Christians and the Oriental Orthodox. These churches compose Oriental Orthodoxy. with the Church of Alexandria as their spiritual leader.