From Stone to Steel
Credits
Written by: Aaron Stimson
Editor: David K. Hurd & Kle Hall
Cover Art: Allan Pollack
Interior Art: Weapons & Armor Jim Branch, Vignettes Fred Rawles
Graphic Design: Lawrence Whalen Jr.
Production: David K. Hurd & Lawrence Whalen Jr.

Table of Contents

Introduction 3
Sticks and Stones 5
Chariots of Bronze 35
Iron and Empire 61
Rome 82
The Far East 117
A Dark Age, A Golden Age 186
Pagentry, Platemail, and Pistols 225
Myth and Magic 272
Materials 291
Appendix 304
Master Tables 313
Index 338
© 2003 MonkeyGod Enterprises LP. For information concerning
what constitutes Product Identity and Open Gaming Content refer to the License page.

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Introduction

elcome. You hold in your hands the product of hundreds point for Players and DMs alike, allowing them new inspirations
W of years of research, based on thousands of years of test-
ing, application, refinement, and innovation. From the dawn of
and insights into the craft of war, and, in turn, the craft of peace.

mankind to the modern age, human existence has been a testa-
ment to the struggle for survival and the will to overcome obsta-
cles. Though this book is far too small to dedicate to the whole
Why From Stone to Steel?
of the human experience, it will focus on one aspect of that expe- o role-playing game on the market can afford to be
rience. It will attempt to chronicle the development of arms and
armor over the span of human existence, from the time of Prehis-
N exhaustive in one area to the exclusion of another. Pub-
lishers and writers need to choose carefully which elements of
toric Man to the Renaissance Period. We will try to encompass a work are unnecessary, or extraneous. In most fantasy role-
the diversity of weapons and armor across the globe and through playing games the authors seek to make each element unique
civilizations, and make their development, significance, and use and indispensable. If two spells do the same thing, with only
clear and available. And we will attempt to allow you insight minor differences, why maintain them as two different spells.
into the art of warfare, from its most primal to its most elegant. If a snee and a stiletto do relatively similar damage, why dupli-
cate the listing? Thus daggers are often grouped into one
This book should be considered a supplemental source book for
group, given a uniform set of statistics, and a basic cost. This
any D20 product. It provides new material for use in any cam-
is a useful and important to the RPG writer, and prevents the
paign world or setting that is written within the limits of the D20
game from becoming awkward and unwieldy.
product line, and is completely compatible with the Dungeons and
Dragons Players Handbook. It should provide you with valuable There is no such limitation on supplemental material. By its
source material, ideas, and applications, to make your game very nature, supplemental material can be as extensive as it
worlds more real, or merely to spice them with interesting cultural chooses to be. DMs, in the end, can decide how much of the
or historical accents. Moreover, this book should be a jumping supplemental material they wish to use, and how much they wish

3

From Stone to Steel
to leave alone. of the Renaissance period, from the lion skin to the full plate mail
suit, all weapons and armor will be written and measured by the
This, in turn, allows us to add realism and depth to our game
same scales, and balanced equally.
worlds.
In short, even if it never happened historically, if you want to
One of the best ways to make a game world really come alive is do it, you can.
to give it history. We often attempt to envision new and fantastic
worlds, far different from our own, where people can do what
we only dream of, and where the enemies they face are equally What Is This Book?
impressive and detailed. But we always tend to base our fan-
rom Stone to Steel is a historical record of the evolution of
tasies on something we’ve read, something we’ve heard, some-
thing we’ve experienced. This is because those familiar F arms and armor over time. It draws from many exhaustive
works, examining tactics, materials, developments, social stim-
elements in our fantasy experience give our players common
points of understanding, common frames of reference, land- uli, even dead end concepts, and works to express their impact
marks to guide ourselves in an unfamiliar realm. Those who on the art of warfare and the cultures that used them. This book
experiment with historical gaming or pseudo-historical gaming may not necessarily take you through every battle of Rome, but
often find the experience entrancing. The depth of material it will talk about the changes that Rome brought to war, the for-
available from actual history is immense, and the variations of mation of the Legionnaires, the tactics and innovations they
our own world are often stranger than any fantasy we can indi- used, and the impact that Rome had on later society. It will also
vidually imagine. It is our hope that while looking through this explore the unique armaments of minor cultures, like the shark
book you will discover some facet of history, some period of tooth weaponry and armors of certain Pacific Islander cultures,
time, some exotic weapon that you had no idea existed, or per- or the hunting weapons of Australian Aboriginal people.
haps just never viewed in the light we present. From Stone to Steel contains rules that can make weapons and
Because history, especially shared history, has a depth that can armor more realistic. It also contains new rules additions to
make your two-dimensional fantasy world into a fully fleshed, diversify combat, and introduces subtle new concepts to spice it
multi-dimensional experience. up. You will find new skill concentrations for existing skills and
new knowledge skills. And there will also be new feats to learn,
One of the reasons we drape this tapestry of arms and armor on and new prestige and NPC classes available. In the Fantasy
the frame of history is to show the rationale of why a specific Appendix, you will also find new guidelines for enchantment,
weapon or armor is used, why a material is used, or why it took construction materials, spells, and new artifacts and magical
a certain form. The purpose of this book isn’t to restrict the items.
usage of these items only to the historical settings we describe.
The point of source material is to provide the DM with sources And then, of course, there are the weapons and armors them-
of inspiration, not confine them. As you pause on an illustration selves.
or a specific description in this text, think about other ways to
make use of the same item in your campaign world. Perhaps the
Gnolls in your campaign world are rudimentary savages, hunting How To Use This Book
by simple pack tactics and wielding prehistoric stone weapons.
se this book to deepen your current campaign world. Each
Or maybe the neighboring kingdom survives on slave labor, and
its able-bodied men are in service to the crown for most of their U rule, item, and concept we introduce here becomes a tool
for you to develop your campaign the way you want to. It our
productive lives, like in Sparta. Or perhaps you desire to mix
historical themes and cultures in unexpected ways, maybe hav- intent that any new rules we introduce will not overwhelm the
ing Vikings encounter a well-established Incan empire, or War already elegant mechanism of the D20 system, but instead
Elephants in your Medieval Europe-like world. enhance it. Thus, everything in this book builds on what is dis-
cussed before. Materials, weapons development, tactics, each of
This book will provide you with enough material to do that: And these things are refined over time, and so it is in the book.
more.
This does not mean, however, that you have to include every-
From Stone to Steel should, in fact, provide a benchmark, a viable thing that we give you in your game. Each concept, rule, skill, or
way to allow cross period or genre gaming. What you find within class will be listed independently, so that you can include or
should allow you to simulate war and combat in any fantasy exclude items as you see fit. If the durability system is difficult
realm you can imagine, and give you the tools to merge radically for you, you may still use the fantasy stats of your favorite
different periods. Using all the materials within will allow Baby- weapons with our blessing. If the barbed weapon rules seem too
lonian Soldiers to fight Japanese Samurai, with realistic and fair powerful, you can bypass them and still use the rest of the book.
guidelines to determine such outcomes. Envision a world where This book should be a resource, not a hindrance, and it is written
elegant drow wield rapiers and wheel lock pistols against hordes with that express intent in mind.
of wode-covered dwarven barbarians? We’ll give you rules and
ideas aplenty. From the simple rock to the primitive hand mortars

4

Sticks and Stones

Prehistory 6 Table 1-3: Jaguar Knight 23
Sticks and Stones 7 Meso American Weapons 24
Animal Resources 7 Meso American Armor 26
Further Refinements 8 Islander Developments 26
Technological Advances 9 Polynesian Weapons 27
Shields 11 Polynesian Armor 27
The Pack Mentality 11 African Developments 28
War, Infection, and the Dead 12 European Developments 29
First Aid & Healing 13 Other (Australia, Asia, etc.) 30
Table 1-1: Amputation 13 Aborigines 30
Natural Ingenuity 14 Asia 30
Native American Developments 14 Forces of Change 31
Native American Weapons 14 Leather 31
Native American Armor 17 The Science of Warfare 31
Meso American Developments 19 Table 1-4: Stone Age Weapons 32
The Aztecs 19 Table 1-5: Stone Age Armor 34
Table 1-2: Eagle Knight 21
Other Aztec Orders 23

5

From Stone to Steel
They were there. Just at the edge of its vision. Strange, below a rise. It followed, determined to gore a few, so the rest
indistinct shapes, crouched behind brush or standing in tall would be warned away.
grass. Too long and thin, supported by two spindly legs,
But over the rise it found a steep drop, and the ground it
smelly. Some stood upwind from it, and it tasted strange
charged onto was loose. Its own weight began to push the
scents of animal fat and char. There were also smaller
earth from beneath; it lurched forward, off balance, and
forms, moving restlessly among the taller ones; smell like
down a cliff-face into a ravine.
almost-wolves.
It landed on its side, and felt bone splinter. The pain was
Why were they here? Why did they watch it?
incredible. It labored to breathe. The strange creatures gath-
It resumed its scratching, rubbing its hide against the tree ered on the cliff above, and began to drop large rocks down.
bark, trying to reach the spot on its flank that itched. It Some struck it, stunning it, breaking more bones. Ropes were
paused to strip bark away from the tree with its tusks and lowered down, and a few of the creatures descended them.
trunk, then scratched again. They climbed like baboons, but with less cleverness. When
they reached the ground, they approached, their sticks raised
There was a loud noise behind it. It turned around, to see
like tusks, their pace careful. It watched them, and tried to
more of the frail creatures, yelling and cavorting. Lower
move, only to find that movement made the pain and the
sounds drifted among them, and they began to approach a
breathing worse.
little, coming into view.
The creatures began to make more sounds amongst each other.
Hairy faces and hairy bodies. Skins like antelope, wilde-
The rocks slowed, but the pain did not. More creatures were
beest, even plains lion, hung loose about them. They had
climbing down, now. Some did not carry the big sticks, but
long sticks in their hands, and waved them. Almost-wolves
instead had strange, pointy rocks.
ran around their feet.
It shuddered, and fought the darkness that threatened it.
What did they think they were doing? They couldn’t possi-
But as the first of the creatures approached it, it knew it
bly think they could threaten it.
could do no longer do anything against them.
Something bit it in the flank. It shivered on the impact.
Wood bit through flesh...
Then another, higher up, more to the right. Stings. Pain. It
turned, growing angry. What bit it?
Strange long thin sticks flew at it, some tickling as they
skidded across its rough skin. One tore at the skin of its ear. Prehistory
Pain! It moved forward a little, listening to the sounds of rehistoric Man had a number of substantial disadvantages.
the yelling creatures behind it, looking for why the sticks
were flying, and where from.
P He was not the top of the food chain. Though a pack animal,
he had no natural weapon to hunt with, such as claws or fangs,
nor did he have any major physical defense, like a thick hide or
More of the strange creatures were the culprits, doing some-
protective coloration. Without some form of physical adaptation,
thing that made the small sticks jump far distances at it. A
man needed to focus on what few advantages he did have.
number now bit in its shoulders, but the damage was superfi-
cial, mostly just a little pain. It would show these creatures Man was a pack species. Gregarious and prone to group iden-
why they should not attack it. It lowered its tusks, and began tity, man’s primary strength as a species came from its num-
to walk more purposefully towards them. bers. By banding together, humans could accomplish more than
individuals could, both in dealing with natural obstacles and
The creatures behind it suddenly began to move quickly
with hunting. Like all pack animals, man developed communi-
towards its flank. Something was wrong. These creatures were
cations, and this allowed him to coordinate movements over a
hunting like jackals. And if small sticks were all they had,
distance, which made hunting more efficient, and allowed
they could not hope to hurt it. The almost-wolves snapped at
more elaborate planning possible.
its hind legs. It was being hunted! It trumpeted in warning.
Man, as well, is an innovator. He is curious and imaginative, and
The small sticks still flew, and then a few of the creatures
through trial and error, persistence and drive, man is able to find
stood and hurled larger sticks at it. These bounced off of its
newer and better solutions to problems. If a water source is con-
skin, but now it was quite angry and flustered, and it
trolled by superior predators, man is likely to find better ways to
charged the creatures in front. The creatures began to run
access that water source, whether its finding the source, or find-
away, but one was not quite fast enough, and its tusks slid
ing a way to distract the predators to allow access. Eventually
across its hide, knocking it to the side and away, but not
mankind found ways to deal with those superior predators as
piercing the stolen skin. Still there were more noises from the
well, and improve their place on the food chain, eventually sepa-
creatures, and now it knew they feared it.
rating itself entirely from the natural order.
This was the way it expected things to go. Let the strange
creatures know their place. The frail things disappeared
6

Sticks and Stones

2

1

3

7 5
4

6

Key: 1. Throwing Rock; 2. Long Stick (Quarterstaff); 3. Short Stick (Club); 4. Bone Club; 5.Spike Bone; 6. Long Tusk; 7. Short
Tusk
Sticks and Stones Animal Resources
The first weapons that mankind used were simple. They were Mankind, ever the innovator, was not content to stay with
typically those things closest at hand, things that could be whatever it found. People experimented. Since a portion of
found wherever a person was. Typically this was sticks or man’s diet was meat, the portions of an animal that were inedi-
stones. The best stones were those useable with a single hand, ble were experimented with. Bones of larger prey were particu-
and preferably round ones, which flew best. Sticks were best larly effective as blunt weapons, or for making impaling
slightly flexible, so that they wouldn’t shatter or snap on use, weapons from. Tusks and teeth could be used to create stabbing
and the straighter they were, the more useful, either to throw or or edged weapons. And hides from animals were often tougher
to strike with. Sticks with too many bends were more likely to than human skin, and offered the chance to avoid an indirect
break, or to catch on things. blow. Furs and hides, thus, kept a person warm in the cold, and
safe from danger.
Rock, Throwing
Throwing rocks are generally considered diminutive in size. If Club, Bone
a given stone is larger, the weight is obviously more, and it will When wood is at a premium, bone may be a desirable substi-
do more. A 30 lb. or better stone is suggested when dropping tute. Bone, although also brittle, is slightly more flexible than
from 100 foot high cliffs. wood, thus bone may last a tad longer than wood.

Stick, Long (Quarterstaff) Spike, Bone
The proto spear/staff, a long stick is simply that, long and Bone can be shaped to form a point. The thrusting damage may
wooden. Although it could be thrown, it is not inherently aero- not cause as extensive wounding as a club might, but it has a
dynamic. Due to its length, it is a double weapon. You can fight much better chance of striking something vital thus the
with it as if fighting with two weapons, but if you do you incur improved critical range.
all the normal attack penalties associated with fighting with
two weapons as if you are using a one-handed weapon and a Tusk
light weapon. A creature using a double weapon in one hand, Sometimes tusks need not be carved to form a point. Tusks are
such as a Large creature using a long stick, cannot use it as a a natural goring weapon, both for animals and for people.
double weapon. Shorter tusks may be carried like the bone spike, but do not
require manufacturing. They may also be mounted on armor or
Stick, Short (Club) shields, as per the rules on adding spikes to armor and shields
The short stick is the first club. Usually stouter than a long in the Player’s Handbook. Damage by mounted tusks is 1d4.
stick, it doesn’t encumber the off hand.

7

From Stone to Steel Note that anyone attacking the spikes with a weapon leaves the first knives. Hardened Wood Javelin. People discovered that this than just plain skin. tactics to improve hunting. prone to molding and getting stiff. At some point the trick of fire and usually only covers the torso and upper leg region of the hardening was learned. Hardened Wood Spear 8 . 10. Wood. These became 8 9 11. so as to cut or stab. Skin Armor. meat. some of which still possess the ani. Usually thrown before a charge. javelins may be carried in a Cave paintings and archaeological evidence from many areas long quiver. Flimsy. 14. It can be used in melee. as a point could be used Skin armor is made from cured (but not tanned) animal skins. furs and skins are piece to produce a sharp cutting edge. their protection comes at the expense of a little maneuverability. Furs and Skins. to impale a charging opponent. slightly scorched wood was harder than normal. 12. when held over a fire (but not in body. 13. Wooden Spear. Rocks began to be shaped for their conveying a -4 to all melee rolls. 11. but it Knife. Primitive Wooden This javelin is a wooden weapon with a carved point on either Further Refinements end. Very popular with the barbarian set. Wooden Javelin. Furs and Hides This kind of armor is similar to the skin armor above. or the defensive use of sticks. Some were made sharp. Sticks were given points. all characters are treated as non-proficient. very useful in cold climates. and these were primarily used for cutting up himself open to an attack of opportunity. Rock Knife. 14 Key: 8. and held a point longer. Unfortunately. 13 10 12. Javelin. This knife is really just a rock that has been chipped off a larger mal hair. but since it was not show that prehistoric man developed a variety of weapons and designed for such. This signified a definite step forward. use. These improved the damage when Skin Armor thrown. Rock consists of layers of skins. it is still better it) eventually begins to blacken. 9.

Grass The grass net is made of woven grasses. The spear can be readied against a charge. Stone Axe (flaked stone). with a sharp- ened head. although more difficult to construct. 16a. and does not wear down as quickly as a club would. It will take more abuse before needing to be replaced. these nets were intended to entrap prey. The net’s maximum range is 10 feet. Net. all characters are treated as non-proficient. 16b. and woven with patience. between 4–5 feet in length. primarily). In order to throw it optimally. The Axe (ground stone). If you hit. usually with stones tied along the edges to weight it down and make it more likely to hold its victim. 18a. the bow was either made from the tendons of a strong 18b animal. primitive man began to put different materials and con. Primitive Wooden Hardened Similar in description to the primitive wooden javelin (above). or braided plant material (often strips of bark). and is more durable. Spears got their improve- ment. the target is entangled. but since it was not designed for such. 9 . and there is no penalty for trying to strike a target even up to the net’s maximum range. 18a sion between string and stick could be used to fling arrows over long distances. which made them more penetrating and durable. Although essentially just another club. 18b Stone mace or run. Grass Net. and does not fly as far. Sticks and Stones Spear. Archaeological evidence exists to suggest that certain prehistoric cultures wove nets. Stone mace (based on entangled creature can only move at half speed and cannot charge Iroquois war club). The ten. But the most potent development of prehistoric man would have to be the bow: A supple stick. Javelin. 16b cepts together. As with other javelins. capable of bending. 15 this version has been hardened by fire. also a stone head. Stone a -2 on attack rolls. the stone headed spear was a real improvement. Technological Advances Later. and it may also be used as a double damage weapon if set against a charge. and a -4 penalty on effective Dexterity. This weapon is the premiere weapon of its age. Nets were usually thrown as a precur- sor to closing in on a beast with either spear or club ready to take advantage of the entrapped creature. Primitive Wooden This spear is a weapon. Primitive man began to combine clubs with stone heads and tips 17 to produce axes and maces. the stone axe and mace have a harder head. conveying a -4 to all melee rolls. but strong enough to desire to return to a specific form with a string. it can be used in melee. and launched as a ranged touch attack against the target. 17 Stone Adze. And entangled creature is Key: 15. Made from plant fiber (grasses. however this version has been fire-hardened and is more durable as a result. Primitive Wooden Hardened This spear is similar in description to the primitive wooden spear (above). Unlike the fighting net listed in the player’s handbook. Indeed. 16a Spear. It tends to be slightly thicker than the javelin. it must be gathered together carefully.

-1 to hit. It was useful for breaking earth. Flights Primitive axes were made by lashing wedge shaped vertical The feathers on an arrow. Stone arrowhead. about 4–5 feet in length. Regardless of the cultural method. it must succeed at a Concentration check Both standard primitive bows have similar statistics. with the (DC 15) or be unable to cast the spell. Blunt arrowhead 10 . The spear can be readied against a charge. but this was not necessarily its first purpose. Sticks had superior reach. Adze. Thus the Other cultures did not. Arrows that are made without flights Axe. (note repaired to be used effectively. a proficient user to fold a net and twice that long for a non-pro- ficient one to do so. and affixed to a stout length of wood. Stone lose 10 feet from their range increment. and does not fly as far. the stone mace was more damaging than the plain club. which tends to keep the arrow on course. and is not made for throwing. Arrows themselves varied from small. Primitive bow. and when struck. If an entangled creature Bow. and helped an attempts suffer a -4 penalty on attack roll. One of the advan- tages of the stone mace over a bladed weapon was its tendency to leave the hide intact. the flakes could be used to create arrowheads. 20. or a piercing weapon with a conical. with a sharp- ened head. Primitive (Hunting & Medium) attempts to cast a spell. Some cultures skew these guides. pointed stones to forked sticks. also a full-round action). and were excellent for clothing or dwelling coverings. It takes 2 rounds for arrow fly true. Although riding horses came points. Often those adapted to war had a ‘knee bend’ a curve in the handle that allowed more impact in a strike. 23. while stones could maximize impact and damage. 24. and it may also be used as a double damage weapon when set Key: 19. with the wedge blade hor- izontal. give the arrow a spin. Bone arrowhead. Stone spear head (close-up). After it has been unfolded. At construction or pur. Spear. This is not an aero- dynamic weapon. round impaling point (like a pick). Bone was also a viable alternative. Mace. it must make a normal slivers to rounded spikes. usually with arrow its stability. A grass net can be burst with a the Medium bow would have to be drawn at an angle). and are at an automatic The stone axe is a one handed weapon. Some stone was more size. and a damage threshold of 1. against a charge. it must be much later. 22. the for the kind of physical trauma it could inflict. Equipped with a stone head. and was used for warfare (DC 15) that is a full-round action. Stone 19 The adze was a variation on the axe. The grass net has 4 hit more than for capturing food. results were the same. chase it must be decided as to whether the axe is a slashing weapon with a wide. Once torn. but instead practiced arching the shot. From Stone to Steel grass nets usually had no trailing rope. It tends to be slightly thicker than the javelin. from long The first time a net is thrown in a fight. sharpened sticks to A net is only useful against creatures between Tiny and Large wooden shafts with various heads attached. 21. difference being their range. accurate shots came from arrows with carefully placed flights. Wooden arrowhead. so as to strips of wood bark or animal hide. vertical head. Stone Another variation on the axe was the stone mace. 20 but was equally powerful at cutting flesh. Strength check (DC 20. and is more durable as a result. give an blades or round. any further feathers at the end improved stability in flight. This is a stone headed version of the spear. brittle than others. rather than vertical. was more as a farming implement than as a weapon. both bows are viable for use on horseback. Its use in later times. inclusive. stone axe became superior to either the wooden or bone club so as to gain range. Fletching an arrow with ribbon or ranged touch attack. Stone Head 21 22 23 24 This spear is a weapon. referred to as the flights. The Medium bow was about a The entangled creature can escape with an Escape Artist check foot longer than the hunting bow. Intact hides required less mending.

It is used for stunning creatures or doing The Pack Mentality damage without damaging the hide as much. Although different heads are used in carried in the shield hand because of this. Used in this way the shield is a martial bludgeoning applied to armor. with a x2 critical modifier. Sticks and Stones The arrows listed in the weapons tables are indicative of most frame. If you use a shield as a weapon. and is useful when you want to take a target Primitive man hunted with a large variety of weapons. be diverted. the blunt arrow is purposely made with a bar or flat stone or bone head. treat the shield as a say. unless they are carefully removed. powerful blows or lucky onto the forearm with hide thongs. and has a -1 to damage when it is ers. Hide Shield. especially those lived close to more aggressive predators or to more warlike tribes of humanity. Thus. His use of hides and furs also gave him better defense Shields than he had been born with. Often no items could be strikes may break them. and were usually made of bark or hide stretched taut over a wooden enforced group identity in clan or tribal defense. you lose its AC inflicts 5. weapon. also learned to Man tended to live in clans and tribes. Primitive shields affiliation. and charges could arrows of this period. Some peoples decorated their shields with fear- and they have relatively little structural rating. The wooden arrow does not have the damaging power of the Adjust the damage downward (1d2 and 1d3) for smaller wield- stone or bone headed arrow. and normal During this age shields were either held by hand or strapped maintenance is practiced. different weapons developments allowed man to hunt larger game. Some people. Tactics sprang 25b 25a Key: 25a. though an arrow might normally inflict. Strikes could be deflected with these. usually bound by family extend their defense through shield making. the wooden arrow only light weapon. Note that their damage threshold is low. Bark Shield 11 . damage or not. and the alive or stun a small prey animal like a bird. It is a subdual damage weapon. These close bonds promoted cultural identity. respectively. For purposes of attack penalties. Finally. Even then. Arrows are very some images. sible with shields. 6 points of damage against armor. Bash attacks are pos- each. it is the wood of the arrow that is most vulnerable. and allowed him to be bolder in combat. This may mean the difference between taking armor bonus until your next action. and do 1d3 points of damage for small shields and 1d4 points of damage for large and great shields on Arrows Versus Armor a successful strike. to frighten predators or other tribes. 25b. likely to break.

The primary Wounds are a horrible breeding ground for infection. and it started with dogs. make another were found to be very flexible in how they defined their pack. For they lay. and if it succeeds the infection is Packs tend to target individuals or small groups. to flee: Perhaps a ravine with sheer sides. From Stone to Steel from mutual trust and dependency. determined that the best way of dispensing healing salves was to smear them on the swords of the combatants. Unfortunately. Certain cultures devel. some peoples still live this primal could hunt together and bring down more animals than a single existence. 1 Most of primitive mankind lived this way. started in this age. the victim is cured. and adapted to directions given by 1–25 Septicemia human pack mates. He learned the lay of the flict. When the perma- oped unique refinements or different methods. it will fes- the value of the individual. During the Hundred Years war. They flank wound is indeed infected. the character dies. it can develop into a variety of diseases of the flesh. though started with its usefulness in hunting is considered temporary. and already possessed the needed medicines individuals. the advantage of terrain to control the field of battle. Larger prey was Mankind has always engaged in war. if left Domestication. They react to protect their injured while still maintaining a pattern. As well. As dogs grew to trust and interact with Septicemia is the gradual rotting of flesh. and some. had developed rudimen- tary communications skills. tribal or clan-based lifestyle typical 12 . children were all killed. This allowed the clan or tribe to eat better. still choose the way of their traditions. for the possible additional effects: able with sharing a kill. and modern world. infected (plus 20% per hour untreated). to take advantage of openings. large groups could flank prey. point of constitution loss becomes permanent. and usually might have prevented some conflicts from escalating. each festering wound prevents 1 point of away wantonly. Make a Fortitude roll (DC 20) for any such wound. Many advantage to hunting as a pack is in being able to force an indi. one point a day. or a there was rarely any discrimination as to whom was killed. archaeological site has uncovered evidence of prehistoric con- Man learned to hunt with pack tactics. An animal injured tial for disease to be spread. driving them off of cliffs or into deep water allowed ancient cultures. germs that live on the skin can be dangerous inside the body. so they do not throw themselves ter. Each week that slow rot is left to spread. growing clans and tribes needed more food. instead of healing normally. Thus a character with 15 hit points can only heal back to 14 while possessing a festering wound. when given the option of living in a more man alone. Taboos against touching the dead were common in large prey. vidual or smaller group to divide their attentions. and larger prey was more dangerous. body of water. the taming and inclusion of normally wild ani- untreated. opponents. This could give the Dead humans the advantage against aggressive or powerful crea. Dogs. and lost constitution can be recovered if and keeping watch. hunting in packs. Men of varying ability of prehistoric man. it cannot attack as effectively as cation. In game terms. and was more easily apprehended. and it cannot react as quickly to attack. this kind of generosity towards could distract an animal in order to draw it off of the injured one’s enemies in war is nearly unknown. and If you desire to include more realistic infections. women. It requires a 1d3 day generations of breeding that have resulted in dogs being the incubation period. the Man. due to infection by the humans. party. Co-ordination in combat became essential as This is not to say that war between tribes or clans did not occur. If the hunting group knew it was going to drive an animal over a dangerous obstacle. the others to begin healing. or have large rocks at the top to throw War. also made up the inherent weakness of wound was clean. and more than one desired. He knew where obstacles were. This damage human society. Even today. humans made places for them in camp. Thus. Some cultures nent constitution reaches zero. Worse. Infection. Low population density and small numbers of people land he hunted in. and part of the reason for this was the poten- an otherwise imposing foe to be conquered. and take advan- tage of openings that an individual could not. Man learned how to take Men. They take fought off by the character’s immune system. and began bacteria that usually only set in after death. healing. On the opposite side. field physicians and herbalists tures. If a hunting party member was injured. Assume that any wound has a 5% chance of becoming when its attention can focus on an individual. Wild dogs shared a similar pack structure to man. and often left where advantage of the terrain to do the damage he could not. but there knew where the natural geography made it impossible for prey has been clear evidence that when war came between peoples. and down on the injured animal. even maintained the nomadic. When an and wounds can force this kind of rough and involuntary relo- enemy’s attention is divided. Otherwise. mals in human culture. it would often prepare stakes at the bottom. made life easier. They understand If a wound is infected. if it still could. and on a failure roll percentile and refer below Dogs could accept a non-dog as pack leader. or a cliff face. Fortitude roll. as well. in a fall was slower to flee. An animal in deep water is slowed. after which it begins to progressively reduce most diverse single species on Earth. The role of the dog in the constitution score of the victim. and were comfort.

and is a rapid dis. roll 1d100. let alone walk while dry poultices can last up to three weeks. possible weapon 2. In some cases this can lead to starvation or suffocation. 20 for minor appendages and 25 for major) must be made. Lower Left Arm nearly unbearable. That portion of grenous blood from reaching the heart is by amputating the the body is at a -1 to all tasks in general. Upper Right Arm weapon arm -10% hit points. These react to the impurities of the tetanus infection. On a 5 or spreads each day. Wet poul- -8% hit points. chart if the location of the wound is unknown. possible weapon 3. but multiple applications are not cumulative. cannot stand without tion by +3 for dry poultices and +6 for wet ones. Left Hand depending on the person’s general health. municate these diseases when the person eats. -15% hit points. in order weapon arm to allow nourishment into the body. -5% hit points. except for skills that the body tightly can delay the rolling for d100 minutes. Worse. Upper Right Leg without special aid. infection. and cause the -5% hit points. Roll on the gangrene die in 1d20 hours. This stops the rolls. possible loss of 6. which. due to the inability to affected area. Sticks and Stones 26–50 Gangrene 51–75 Neural Necrosis Gangrene has a 1d6 hour incubation period. and could not be cured until the modern period. corpses and not washing one’s hands afterwards can also com- Pray. Lower Left Leg special aid. 10. cannot stand A canister of salve is usually good for 50 applications. Upper Left Leg Dead bodies left exposed for too long can be hazardous to your without special aid. when smeared on wounds. possible loss of First Aid & Healing 7. barring the presence of a cleric. cannot stand 13. and the person will and thus sensation in the body part is lost. Application of poultices after combat boosts the fortitude check against infec- -8% hit points. -15% hit points. Lower Right Arm ‘remedies’ invariably involved the breaking of the jaw. as cutting out chunks of torso or head flesh is imprac. The DC of the profession check is 15. Left Foot infection. usu- ally in the jaw first. and 12. and manifests ease. The incubation period for Table 1-1: Amputation tetanus is 1d6 days. If the damage was not specified. Neural Necrosis has a 1d3 day incubation period. is unhealable. Poultices may speed and cannot run also be purchased or made prior to an arduous event. a simple success- weapon arm -5% hit points. There is no cure for nerve dam- on limbs. or Assume that it takes a week for this infection to spread to all the amputation is still deadly. Salves can 11. loss of 5ft of base Profession (herbalist) skill can fashion poultices to prevent 9. loss of 5 ft of base ful first aid attempt after a battle prevents all wounds from dis- 8. Amputation usually only works neighboring regions of the body. those with speed and cannot run -5% hit points. Tying off the infected area of sensually assess the effect on the body. roll 1d6 + 1d8 on the following chart to determine location and hit points that will 76–100 Tetanus permanently be lost by amputating: Tetanus occurs when a wound is infected with impurities. and 90% of those who do not contract the disease become car- riers for 1d3 days. lower infected blood has reached the heart. and killed the patient anyway. cannot stand without tices tend to last about a week before needing to be replaced. and mishandling 14. Right Hand jaw muscles to contract uncontrollably. possible loss of 5. -10% hit points. These oily concoctions. let alone walk health. A fortitude save (DC and can be allowed to bleed freely. Wounds so infected tend to turn green after infection. keeping the jaw locked hand shut. let alone walk should be applied to all wounds. as a general numbing of the area of the wound. in a mundane world. Those who come in contact with a carrier 13 . Upper Left Arm Fortunately. Death is of can transmit gastro-enteritis or cholera. Living with tetanus is -7% hit points. Vitals assured in a non-magic using world. as eventually all muscles in the body will weapon arm seize up. Lower Right Leg special aid. into shock. and the impurities hit the bloodstream. Older -7% hit points. as well. let alone walk also be prepared by herbalists. age. If a person with the Heal skill is not available. The reason tetanus effects the jaw first is # Location Result due to deposits of minerals in the muscles of the face. wounds to this portion of the body are unsensed. give a +2 to Fortitude saves vs. The best mundane way to prevent gan. the nerves in the region are dying. Tetanus is progres- hand sive. which are that sometimes the damage of the amputation has sent a body at -4. tical. and its results are muscular rigidity. Note require touch. possible loss of 4. such as lock picking or pocket picking. Bodies in a water system that people drink out Cannot be amputated. including the heart. or promote new infections. Right Foot ease. Fortitude saves vs DC 25 must be made to avoid contracting such a disease. which gradually Every minute after infection has set in. In essence.

and/or fur trim added. hunting was a In fantasy worlds. From Stone to Steel must also make a Fortitude vs DC 25 roll. just in case. 1d3 of which are permanent. often decorated with Developments local animals. attached with a small length of rope to them. before the coming of Europeans. 5 feet in length. The shields. armors. though. Many tribes any infections. were small. In particularly harsh environments. the only culture to have reached substantially beyond additional loss of 1d20 con. having learned the techniques of smelting ease. and symptoms are gold and copper. using stone for point. oped different weapons. tude save vs. so that a harpoon never moved on to metal use or larger cultural organizations. bone. there was no need for using such metals in extreme diarrhea. even in the animal attempted to dive While the weapons above can be found in virtually every cul. bows. 20. Some. with an In fact. magical healing of any stripe also clears out way of life. ture. and devel. or dart could be tracked. In the Far North and North West of America. in general. tribes made due with the The harpoon is a weapon. Bone Dart 14 . Failure indicates a more serious case. als were used for ornamentation only. tassels. spears. indigenous peoples found used in melee. those that follow were unique to their peoples. Native American Weapons the Western Andes. while cure disease will cure any disease. despite the struggles of the animal speared. or the depths of Amazonian jungles. and they will be Con is lost. the victim dies. Stone Harpoon. These points were barbed. at any in these areas developed specialized harpoons. all char- themselves with an abundance of resources. Typical incubation is 1d6 days. This flair and beauty of workmanship spoke of the Native American importance of the items and of the attention that went into them. In these areas. and tactics based on their expe. as they were too pliable. and the infected must make a Forti. even shields were often colorfully decorated. talismans. Most items. important symbols. few civilizations moved out of the Stone Age emblem. like the far north. or ivory. and were sometimes barbed. cramping. life itself was a struggle. Stone effort to obtain. 26 27 Key: 26. and mineral resources required too much Harpoon. sharpened stone head. and dehydration. Things like this became the origin discussed more in the next chapter. resources at hand. These darts usually had points Different cultures adapted to their own environments. or contract the dis. with a barbed. Both Harpoons and Darts would often have animal bladders riences. and this plenty acters are treated as non-proficient. Natural Ingenuity Darts were also in common use. due to an abundance or shortage of resources. But it might be wise to carry poultices or salve. conveying a -4 to all melee made it unnecessary to develop metallurgical skills. and weapons and armor reflected that. but since it was not designed for such. Although rolls. These are intended to strike creatures in the water. Often these have ropes or bladders attached. out of view. and requires both hands free to throw. sometimes with feathers. allowing the harpoon head to grab and hold. for legends of a ‘mummies curse’ or a ‘curse of the dead’. If all the Stone Age in the New World was the Incas. It is used like a javelin. the Copper Age. It can be On the rest of the continent. made of antler. to varying degrees of success. to aid in it is arguable that certain Meso-American tribes had reached recovery. points. 27. or some personal In the Americas. This conveys a weaponry or armor. but is thicker and heavier. and so these met- temporary loss of 1d6 con. This was due to a variety of reasons.

feet in length. they only take damage from being attacked. were more likely to use a dart or harpoon for protection. Such a actually Meso-American in origin. Blowguns usually range from 2–4 feet in length. the Northern native used bows rang- cific to the region. in a small groove in the wooden surface. but its use is almost Darts. which could allow the the atlatl. this common. The poisons were usually spe. and intended for throw. When the thrower wished to Players using Heal (DC 15) can try to expose the barbed cast the harpoon or dart. 30. long tubes sometimes up to 6 feet in length. in a pinch. while also adding slightly little range. since not all tribes were cannibals. unlike other weapons. throws. and could make the weapon soar up to three times its nor- roll fails. silent. The longest bows were not the animal still needed to be eaten. throwers arm was two feet longer! Atlatl are usually held on the arm. Like most native peoples. Blowguns ing. Blowgun & Needle. and a weapon (dart or spear) Ulu is braced on it. these were used to take down larger game. since the meat of ing from 26 to 72 inches in length. but increasing the distance of the throw. Atatl. Cordage Backed bow. North American Indian usually from a covered position. since the Ulu had too little range to be effective in com- Blowgun bat. During warfare. and have stunning striking power. 32. common throughout the Americas. used to cut skins and to prepare meat. North American Indian Longbow. and the item itself is a length weapon can’t be removed without a strength check (DC 15) of wood. and the difficulty of their use. were automatically draw an attack of opportunity. however. and were rarely very strong. flaked from antler bone. Blowguns. usually braced in the hand or along the arm. Attacks with an Ulu. Ulu Dart. like those of an unarmed combatant. Eskimo women to the damage. 29. it should be assumed that the head cannot be mal range. and use it to throw the object. If the Heal throw. 31. with a curve one end. Atlatl Barbs on Weapons Harpoons and Darts were often thrown with main force of arm Barbed weapons have a tendency to lodge. limiting the secondary damage atlatl’s length added to the throwing distance and power of the of a barbed weapon to a single point of damage. Instead. greatly With a handle horizontal to the blade. Bone darts are simple to make. It was as if the exposed. The word atlatl is age is done. The North American Indian’s longbow doesn’t have the range of the later European’s long- 15 . Sticks and Stones 28 29 32 30 31 Key: 28. Using poisoned needles up to 6 inches in length. when the attacker an Eskimo woman's knife. it had good strength. the Ulu was groove helps to anchor the weapon. the weapon should be considered lodged. about two and inflicting the weapon’s damage on the person again. The extra two feet of the barbed portion to be cut off. but many native tribes also used a device called the barbed weapon strikes and greater than half its normal dam- atlatl to extend their throwing range and force. and usually contain little do not take damage from attacking. This A curving half-moon blade. Longbow. the atlatl acts as an extension of the arm. however. due to the strength required to wield them wasn’t always a concern. precious wood. and it was a poor hand weapon. Bone The damage of the blowgun is negligible. Then. and needles are regularly coated with venom. made with bone or ivory heads. they would fit it into the curved end of weapon head through the flesh. Whenever a strength. at which point the strength option remains.

like some Southern Native Ameri. War club. A -2 penalty can be taken to cord bindings was unique to each tribe. They shaped driftwood. In the North these were two rocks. as a flail-like weapon. it must succeed at a Concentration check (DC 15) or Thicker and less elegant than most bows. A bola can be burst with a Strength check (DC 20. Rabbit Stick. 34. but is otherwise very effective. 38. Northern Native Americans. North American Stone 16 . Cordage Backed bird. Slashing weapons are most effective for this purpose (divide the damage threshold of the Bola bola in half). knotwork and binding of the sinew that reinforces the bow so The entangled creature can escape with an Escape Artist check solidly. In 38 35 33a 37 33b 34 36 39 33a. The entangled creature can only move at half speed Each cordage backed bow was different. but the stones themselves could do damage when it. to give it strength The bola is made of rocks bound by cord. 36. these weapons were used primarily to take down bow is not usable while mounted. used bolas to hunt. while some South size. and then. Club. inclusive. preventing wood breakage. 35. also a full-round action). 33b. birds and were flung with the intent that the cord would strike the bird and the rocks would force the cord to bind around the Bow. its unique flair is the be unable to cast the spell. can peoples. they laminated it with whalebone and American version. and a -4 penalty on effective bows in the new world. this the North. Stone Throwing. could find. 37. the bola. Alternately. attempting to cut it apart. The knot pattern of the 25% chance the target is entangled. Lance. and so wasn’t very uniform. 39. cast a spell. they can attack unmatched. From Stone to Steel bow. War club. Up to 6' in length. Dexterity. American Tribes would bind three or more rocks in a bola. Eskimo bows were crafted out of just about any wood they they struck flesh. bringing it to the ground. This should be considered an exotic weapon. and the strength they the attack roll to increase the entangle chance to 50%. It bound the bow with a prodigious amount of sinew. 2 rocks for the North and prevent breakage. Throw as a normal strengthened the wood immeasurably. there is a of the bow. The raw durability of the Cordage Backed bow is (DC 15) that is a full-round action. Tomahawk. Not only were bolas useful for Just because they had little wood. and 3 or 4 for the South American version. primarily because the and cannot charge or run. Bolas are rocks bound by a A bola is only useful against creatures between Tiny and Large cord. If an entangled creature attempts to wood was generally driftwood. Bola. An entan- conferred on the bow made them some of the most powerful gled creature is a -2 on attack rolls. and lengthened the life ranged weapon: If it hits the target (even on the armor). It can be used in melee. Sling & Bullet. doesn’t mean they didn’t use entangling.

Throw- had a visor below the fearsome face. Rabbit Stick The Nomadic Plains Indians Fact/Myth As well. art. were made for throwing. long spear. This caused the stone to do significantly more damage at Capping the Tlingit armor were their renown war helmets. but takes double damage as non-proficient. As with used. thickness. a rock (or bullet) was usually placed then covered over with thick hide. There are always. which covered the lower ing this ammunition without the sling inflicts no damage. and it became popular even before any oral history was maintained. more than any other. This second type sling’s damage is based on its ammunition. It was not until the introduction of the horse in Amer- has good range and is very light. Club. The Hopi tribe called these kinds of weapons Rabbit Indians had permanent residences. but were American weapons were ranged weapons. over the head or to the side. these weapons were sometimes used with charges. However. A number of the Northwestern Native American tribes were quite warlike. this weapon can also be readied against a charge. and used much like later pikes were these were rarely as durable as normal Tomahawks. and for canni- Sling balism. but would not see their peak often highly decorated. The first were helmets in the stylized images of fearsome animals. the North American Stone War clubs. the development of cultural decoration. blowguns. usu. often made from elk or dear hide. these make a good alternative for this reason. Tomahawk Lance. the helmets carved with grimacing and angry faces. In most very nomadic used in melee. were known for their fierce fighting acumen. for taking slaves. but since it was not designed for such. Unlike other weapons. The second were people at different periods of time. Heavier than spears. of course. not all Native normal. Usually thin. Their weight. It is sticks can be carried at one time. all char. Stone Lances were many things made by Native Americans. rounded out the many woods and heavy hide. Tomahawks could be used in close combat. oral tradition and social traditions develop normally. there were two kinds. These were enclosed. mets of hard wood. cultures. North American Stone Many natives in this region used Tomahawks. bone. most Native North Americans used ally made with a sharp. and a longer bar than darts. These did not have the range or penetration weapon while mounted. Stone Throwing Essentially a powerful. it is particularly suited for this task. this slightly curved thrown stick still moving. Even though the intended for throwing. Sticks and Stones but since it was not designed for such. These heavy armors were often painted with an The sling could be swung around. and then the hide was folded over it. exceptions. As of Tomahawks. often with a single knobby end. Since a number of rabbit ica that truly nomadic Plains Indian cultures flourished. and were carved of either wood. Even the nomadic tribes had in the Americas that it did in Australia. various camps that they occupied for months at a time before Not a fearsome weapon. Some Tomahawks did have lances. throwing sticks. The Tlingit people. or ivory. Although some tribes did were used for taking down small game. A strip of by 3/8") were bound vertically together with braided sinew and hide up to 2 feet in length. atlatls. to hold it. many native tribes used throwing sticks as hunting There is a general romantic myth about the nomadic nature of weapons. though. and philosophy. Rods and slats of hard wood (about 1" common weapons of the Native North American. Usually they would depict animals. symbols important to the region and people. and also doubled as smoking pipes. acters are treated as non-proficient. and long hafts a charge. and longbows. sometimes a few inches in in the center. although were headed with stone. and were often used in hunting. the bullet. in particular. often 6' in length. It can be Indian culture was so well developed. Bullets: The sling is a simple weapon used by almost every and had holes to allow the wearer to see out. length. Clubs used by Northern tribes tended to be decorated with local imagery. and the space between the head and 17 . until the coming of Europeans. conveying a -4 to all melee rolls. the vast majority of Plains nents. all characters are treated sling takes no damage from attacking. albeit without the range advantage. in place of a spear. these the Native American Plains Indian. and then one held edge would be released to allow the stone to fly. It can be used at double damage in Americas often had centered. conveying a -4 to all melee but the lack of a permanent home or regular resources retards rolls. that Nomadic Plains to more damaging weapons that encumber quickly. often war-like Native American Armor in position. wedge-like head. or with symbolic designs. owner’s crest. or unarmored oppo- travel with the animals they hunted. as well. did not gain the popularity and fished or hunted for meat. Although Native Americans never used this than regular clubs. The part of the warriors face. the Native Americans with European colonists and later settlers. oval stone heads. The throwing stick. Hel- greater range. Stone axes. and blade shape American equivalent of the horse was hunted to extinction well all contributed to its extended use. Like the northern tribes. War clubs in the Lance has reach advantage. these had a hollow haft. and cultivated food crops Sticks. They wore a unique kind of armor made with hard Slings. from slashing attacks. a time outside the range of this work. as well.

Armor was not as much of a requirement. and so they and so wasn’t as developed as it was in the North West. it surpasses the simple leather armors of Europe. Some tribes also Usually 2 feet in diameter. Buckskin is also easier to repair. Thin. had to make do with non-wood materials for much of their For protection. supple. hemlock and oak bark. long with boiling water. Bone Plate Great amounts of resources made life easier. as armor. Buckskin is a marvel of protective ingenuity. Feathers or fir might be added. but durable. with hide or buckskin and painted with animal or symbolic motifs. From Stone to Steel visor was the viewing area. The armor they wore was fashioned from time before the arrival of Europeans. each with a nearly as good as any European equivalent. simple hides were sufficient for most of the weaponry and armor. embroidered. had little wood. blocked if they strike a slat directly. The helmets. These long bones proved good kind of leather called buckskin. unique decoration. though. although not as comprehen- ashes. and Shield. Tlingit style helmet. Most useful against slashing and bludgeon. whale rib bones (usually in lengths from 6 inces to 3 feet). and took sive as the hardwood armors of their Southern neighbors. were only common in a few tribes who lived in the Northwest. and developed a strung together with sealskin. about three months from start to finish. although piercing weapons can be completely ingly durable. Buckskin ered by thick hide. but Slat Armor Native Americans never used spikes. It required a combination of deflection from enemy weapons. and meant less The Eskimo peoples of the far North wore armor into battle as inter-tribal warfare. made from rods and slats of wood. and ally developed better leatherworking abilities. 40b. natives lived in much more abundant circumstances. braided with sinew and cov. Haida style helmet 18 . Slat armor is very bulky. though. Their environment. as decoration. repairing like cloth rather than 40a 40b Key: 40a. and not very maneuverable armor. Light but surpris- ing weapons. buckskin could be worked easily. combined with hides. These helmets were considered A number of tribes wore this kind of slat armor. well. Small Wooden worn as better protection than mere hides. these shields were usually covered used wood or bone vests. but Plains Indians eventu. In the area of what is now Southern Canada and the United States.

this kind of armor would be popular among fantasy world spell casters. the only armor in its region that boasted reasonable durability. its cuture was bolstered by a variety of religious. A if the Meso American cultures had been left to themselves for a highly decorated Bone Hair Pipe Breast Plate may reduce the few hundred more years. and eventually began to form worn over other armor or alone. with a burgeoning army 5% of the time. Meso American peoples The Bone Hair Pipe Breast Plate was a ceremonial device. It has been argued that order to proclaim their prowess and status to other warriors. Warriors decorated these items with trophies in and an alien. Though it started off as a rela- Awkward and uncomfortable. durability. they found a young ability. and military heritages. divided among rival faiths. armor like this was only worn tively democratic affiliation of tribes. notably the Teotihuacan and Toltecs. often frightening culture. were a bloody culture. Slat Armor. social. Sticks and Stones 41 42 Key: 41. Meso American Developments Breast Plate. who dominated the region when the Europeans arrived. They succeeded numerous other A wood or bone breastplate attached to animal hides. it became more and more when going into war. 42. Although empires. Bone Plate leather. Obviously. wood and hide armor was Empire. and been more of a match for their would likely be enchanted to improve the armor bonus and European conquerors. although it may (optionally) deflect a slashing attack empire forming in Central America. and Wood and Hide Armor split by inter-tribal war. When Europeans came. developed more warlike cultures. they might have developed bronze morale of opponents. feudal and totalitarian as its culture became more and more 19 . In a fantasy setting this item of armor and iron technologies. and any armor bonus of such an enchanted Bone Hair Pipe Breast Plate would be added to any other armor worn. It has no practical defensive large communities. The Aztecs The Aztecs. Bone Hair Pipe Unlike the North American Natives. As an inheritor surpassed by other kinds of armor.

Paladins are not to be found much in Aztec society. But in a fantasy world. Upon the cry of the Jaguar Warriors. Druids. and Wizards would likely find it impos- sible to join unless they were already multi-classed. promotion to these special warrior orders usually involved cap- turing warriors in battle. such as the jaguar. and usually wore real hides or feathers to indicate their affiliation. So it was in battle. The Eagle and Jaguar Knights were the pinnacle of achievement for an Aztec Warrior. From Stone to Steel military centered with promotion often being linked to bravery in battle. But Bards and Barbarians would not have the discipline. but one willing to leave their religious service might well pursue entrance into the Eagle Knights. a character must fulfill all the following criteria. In real life. Eagle Warriors would array at daybreak. leaders of many. in myth. the Eagle Knights were granted more respect than even the Jaguar Knights. Clerics. Eagle Knights are the vanguard warrior of the Aztecs. The Eagle and Jaguar were both warrior-aspected creatures who. the Eagle Warriors would lead the attack at the defenseless city. There existed a number of prestigious military orders in Aztec society that one could be promoted to. eagle. Rogues. Indeed. rather than killing them. Fighters. and Rangers are all likely candidates for the Eagle Knights. and Sorcerers might be offered entrance if they could meet the steep requirements. Alignment: Any Lawful. and even noble warriors competed for invitation to the Order. These orders were named for animals. Helmets. and rose sharply depending on the order a warrior wished to enter. Monks. Since the Aztecs practiced human sacrifice and slavery. and open its defenses. both orders were made up of warriors of great strength and merit. When approaching a city. who fought valiantly for their ruler and people. and they would chant and dance to show their power and fearsome mien. Hit Die: d10 Requirements To qualify to become an Eagle Knight. First to battle. arrow.. the orders of the Eagle and Jaguar Knights might be something far greater Eagle Knights (Prestige Class) Powerful warriors who have already proven their loyalty to the Empire. the stealthy Jaguar Warriors would invade the city. 20 . carved in the shape of the order animal were also worn. the Eagle Warriors made up the King’s Royal Bodyguard. etc. proved their bravery by jumping into the fire after a great hero. The Eagle was granted the aspect of the sun. As night fell. Eligibility started with the capture of at least 4 worthy oppo- nents. while the Jaguar was granted the aspect of the moon.

and 10th. 7th. nents alive. Escape eagle on his shield. Class Skills involving skills or interaction. they gain this feat Giant Eagle. Intimidate (Cha). Heal (Wis). At third level. and Skill Points at Each Level: 2 + Int Modifier requires the Eagle Knight to utter a war cry (in order to draw attention). for that strike. [Stat Ref: The Mystic Eagle is the equivalent of a the minimum requirements for this Feat. Craft (Int). Armor Expertise +1 2nd +2 +3 +0 +0 Heroic Resolve. armors and shields. affected by sunlight. should be considered flaming. presence in battle to confer a +1 morale bonus to all friendly Jump (Str). This may be invoked once per day by a warrior. and carry themselves with noble stature. and his ability to make the most of his armor and/or shield. from the list in the Fighter invoked after sun fall. Exotic Weapon Proficiency (Macahuitl). Note that armor check penalties for armor Eagle Shield: At 8th level the Eagle Knight may animate the heavier than leather apply to the skills Balance. Description of the Player’s Handbook. he may elect to use his Heroic Resolve to fight on to the point of death. The Eagle Knight gets a +1 to any social roll. Jump. Eagle Knights the basis for nomination to the Order of the Eagle Knights. Hide. the light it radiates should be considered sunlight for any crea- tures effected by sunlight. the Eagle Knight is able to improve the way he Sun’s Aura: At 9th level the Eagle Knight’s Sun’s Flame abil- wears and maneuvers in his armor. This can be Special: Besides the requirement of capturing 4 worthy oppo- done only once per day. weapon should be considered flaming. martial weapons. This may be stacked with any other effects that influence morale. giving it form and life. and the Weapon and Armor Proficiency: Eagle Knights are profi. This Mystic Eagle is Artist. and following at 4th. due to the predisposition of others The Eagle Knight’s class skills (and the key ability for each to like the noble warrior. Armor Expertise: Starting at first level. a potential Eagle Warrior must commit an unselfish act of heroism or valor without regard to personal safety. regardless of any subsequent healing. Table 1-2: Eagle Knight Class Base Fort Ref Will Level Attack Bonus Save Save Save Special 1st +1 +2 +0 +0 Improved Critical (Macahuitl). At 6th level the Eagle Warrior can use his skill) are Climb (Str). The bonus conferred by Armor Expertise may invoke the fires of the sun upon his weapon. This effect lasts until the next sunset. light it radiates should be considered sunlight for any creatures cient with all simple weapons. and represents tion of this ability. The tige class. 3rd +3 +3 +1 +1 Eagle Visage (+1 to social) 4th +4 +4 +1 +1 Armor Expertise +2 5th +5 +4 +1 +1 Sun’s Flame 6th +6 +5 +2 +2 Bonus Feat. pendently from the Eagle Knight. Move Silently. If the Attack hit points of an Eagle Knight drop to zero. They are also proficient with light to the Eagle Knight’s levels of Eagle Knight. Note that this ability may be other level. For the dura- increases the armored AC of the Eagle Warrior. and may be directed at any one Improved Critical (Macahuitl): Whether or not they meet foe in view. Bonus Feat: Eagle Knights get to choose a bonus feat every and may be cancelled any time. starting at level 2. The Eagle Knight on each level. This act becomes ble aspect of his Order’s patron. Eagle Visage (Rally) 7th +7 +5 +2 +2 Armor Expertise +3 8th +8 +6 +2 +2 Eagle Shield 9th +9 +6 +3 +3 Sun’s Aura 10th +10 +7 +3 +3 Armor Expertise +4 . an avatar of the Order Patron. boosting his armor bonus ity develops into a more long lasting ability. and Tumble. and the Mac.] The Eagle Knight may sum- mon the Mystic Eagle once a day. Power allows the Eagle Knight to fight past their normal limits. an exotic weapon. Climb. This may be done a number of times equal ahuitl. weapon. Sticks and Stones Basic Attack Bonus: +6 Heroic Resolve: This is a magical ability granted at 2nd level Feats: Cleave. Class Features Sun’s Flame: At 5th level the Eagle Knight gains the ability to All of the following are class features of the Eagle Knight pres- infuse the fire of the sun in a melee weapon strike. It is Eagle Visage: At 3rd and 6th level the Eagle Knight gains the visi- best if there are many witnesses to this act. Swim (Str) units. as listed in the Monster Manual and attacks inde- upon becoming a first level Eagle Knight. tend to look more eagle-like in profile. and thus last up to 24 hours. Pick Pocket.

Intimidate (Cha). Any class is open for admission. Pick Pocket. Alignment: Any Basic Attack Bonus: +6 Feats: Combat Reflexes. Listen (Wis). Search (Int). but they have all the fear they could ever want: And with good reason. Note that armor check penalties for armor heavier than leather apply to the skills Balance. martial weapons. Dodge. Expertise Skills: Hide +5 Special: Besides the requirement of capturing 4 worthy opponents alive. Move Silently (Dex). and Tumble. Climb. Spot (Wis).. and bring with them death. a potential Jaguar Warrior must capture two more enemies of their own level. or above. the Jaguar Warrior is much feared for the fact that they are the unseen danger. Class Skills The Jaguar Knight’s class skills (and the key ability for each skill) are Balance (Dex). Open Lock (Dex). Although not as outright dangerous as the Eagle Knight. Hide. an exotic weapon. Jump (Str). Weapon and Armor Proficiency: Jaguar Knights are pro- ficient with all simple weapons. the Jaguar Knights are the night to the Eagle Knight’s day. and the Macahuitl. Move Silently. Hit Die: d8 Requirements To qualify to become an Jaguar Knight. and Swim (Str) Skill Points at Each Level: 4 + Int Modifier Class Features All of the following are class features of the Jaguar Knight prestige class. a character fulfill all the following criteria. Craft (Int). The ambitious are those to whom the Jaguar Knights may appeal. First inside a city.From Stone to Steel Jaguar Knights Fearsome. as well as those of a crafty bent. Hide (Dex). but the requirements of the Jaguar Knights may be more difficult for those with low intelligence. Jump. the unperceived threat. stealthy warriors. Escape Artist (Dex). Climb (Str). the Jaguar Knights may not have the respect the Eagle Warriors do. Even those who man a city’s walls before an attack know that the Jaguar Warriors can pass under their noses unseen. They are also profi- cient with light armors and shields. feared abductors. 22 . Escape Artist.

Upon fail- regardless of being caught flat footed or struck by an invisible ure. gods… Other Aztec Orders Other Aztec military orders included the Arrow Warriors. any version of Invisibility a number of times a night as they have levels in the Jaguar Knight prestige class. During that time. A Jaguar Knight At 3rd level. as if cast by a caster of the Jaguar Knight’s level. since he drive fear into the hearts of his foes. Failure paralyses the victim for up to 1d6 illuminated only by firelight. At 1st level the visible aspect of his Order’s patron. and it lasts for 1d8x15 min- sufficient to cover his entire body. At 6th level. and force may become invisible when illuminated only by moonlight. The Arrow Warriors were famed Table 1-3: Jaguar Knight Class Base Fort Ref Will Special Level Attack Bonus Save Save Save 1st +0 +0 +2 +0 Uncanny Dodge (AC to Dex). starting at level 2. Skill Expertise (Move Silently) 2nd +1 +0 +3 +0 Jaguar Visage (Fear vs. The Jaguar Knight may Jaguar Knight retains his Dexterity bonus to AC (if any) fix a person with their stare and force a willpower roll. This defense denies rogues the abil- effects his foes. a DC equal to the Jaguar 9th level the Jaguar Knight may opt to become invisible when Knight’s total levels. a most feared hunter. This functions like the spell can react to opponents on opposite sides of himself as easily as he Fear. with the Jaguar. ity to use flank attacks to sneak attack the Jaguar Knight. Owl Knights. A Jaguar Knight may use equal to half the Jaguar Knight’s levels in their prestige class. as if cast by a caster of the Jaguar Knight’s level. the effect is negated. and Coyote Warriors. All versions of Invisibility can only be used as spell. and then again at 4th. As soon as the Jaguar Knight’s level. This may be invoked once per day by a warrior. Sticks and Stones Uncanny Dodge: At 1st level. attacker. the Jaguar Jaguar Visage: At 2nd and 7th level the Jaguar Knight gains the Knights gain uncanny abilities to avoid damage. and 9th Wall of Air: At 8th level the Jaguar Knight gains the spell-like level allows the Jaguar Knight to become invisible in certain ability to create passages through walls as per the Passwall circumstances. At 1st level . These Invisibil. At them to make a Willpower save vs. Invisibility: This is a spell-like ability granted at 3rd. This other level. els higher than the Jaguar Knight can flank him (and thus sneak attack him). At 7th level the Jaguar Warrior can use his presence in battle to At 4th level the Jaguar Warrior can no longer be flanked. the Jaguar Knight may become invisible in shadow may invoke this ability once per day. Sunlight will automatically dispel hours. (He stills loses any Dexterity bonus to AC if immobi. like those of the Jaguar. the in light at night. conveys to himself the limited ability to paralyze a victim with fear. as if cast by a caster of the Jaguar Knight’s level. Jaguar’s Touch: At 10th level the Jaguar Knight’s connection ity abilities are not possible during the daytime. This functions as if cast by a caster of the Jaguar long as the Jaguar Knight is not moving. At third level. This functions as per the spell Bonus Feat: Jaguar Knights get to choose a bonus feat every Knock. Often these victims find that when they can move again. This effect may lized. be used once a day per level of the Jaguar Knight prestige class. This ability may be used a number of times Knight moves. Wind’s Key: At 5th level the Jaguar Knight gains the spell-like ability to open locked doors. as will movement on the part of the Jaguar they have been bound and are scheduled for sacrifice to the Knight. a Jaguar may touch someone. such a person is subjected to the effects of a Cause Fear spell. from the list in the Fighter ability may be used a number of times equal to the Jaguar Description of the Player’s Handbook. Individual) 3rd +2 +1 +3 +1 Invisible in Shadow 4th +3 +1 +4 +1 Uncanny Dodge (no flanking) 5th +3 +1 +4 +1 Wind’s Key 6th +4 +2 +5 +2 Invisible in Moonlight 7th +5 +2 +5 +2 Jaguar Visage (Fearsome Presence) 8th +6 +2 +6 +2 Wall of Air 9th +6 +3 +6 +3 Invisible in Firelight 10th +7 +3 +7 +3 Jaguar’s Touch 23 . the Jaguar Knight utes. Knight’s levels in their prestige class. this spell-like ability. and only can react to a single attacker. The and requires the Jaguar Knight to utter a war cry (in order to draw exception to this defense is that a rogue or assassin at least 4 lev- attention). 6th. Jaguar Knights Jaguar knight is able to react to danger before his senses would tend to look more predatory in profile. and their eyes will glitter normally allow him to even be aware of it.

and extraction of tribute from their neighbors. 46. and ten projecting slots. Owl’s knights Aztecs dominated their region through displays of superior were not concerned with capturing opponents alive. archer. All were hand-carved. Conflict placed flaked blades of obsidian. 45. in turn. the northern Andes Mountains also maintained imperial hege- and slings. javelins. like the North American Stone Lance. obsidian with a very extended head. tioned in the next chapter. and its usage of obsidian spread to any bladed weapon. But some had forked heads. Coyote Warriors were generally only found similarities in religion. atlatl. In those slots were so only rarely had peaceful contact with each other. Forked South American Wooden Lance. 47 44a 44b 43 45 46 Key: 43. Mayan Stone Mace. a persistent specific tribes to maintain their own beliefs and structures. a tribe that serves as mercenaries for the region culturally. A club. men- exclusive. often poorly. 47. Obsidian is a metamorphic would be carried out with spear and blowgun. although some stone. made of wood. The Owl was a symbol of evil and death to the Aztecs. five on either side. 44b. or carved for officers and chieftains. it is both brittle and sharp. the Aztec Empire was rich in sources of obsidian. Mayan Stone Club. knives. darts. Some had one head. and sport all tended to bind among the Chechimecs. which allowed ote in Aztec lands was traditionally a protector. the macahuitl. the tribes of Native Americans lived simply. common warriors. bows. usually plain for rule. were usually retained for last-ditch city defense only. Shared for the pack. Macahuitl. Due to its brittle nature. sacrifice. Meso American Weapons In South America the Incas. Outside of Inca weapon. a spear to its being glass. Tepoztopilli 24 . clubs. but leave each tribe somewhat unique. Due cultures also developed a kind of lance-like weapon. From Stone to Steel for their superiority with the bow. In fact. as listed above. South American Wooden Lance. and so often needed to be replaced. and were much can be much sharper even. often with symbolic forms in the base. but they had one very unique mony along the western edges of the Amazon. an ancient empire ruled that over Aztecs used spears. than steel. the blades often broke. the Aztec Empire. hunter who was willing to delay his own necessities to provide which promoted. lava rock turned to glass by the passage of glaciers. except made of wood. and captained troops of However. diversity and internecine war. it had Those that dwelt in the jungle tended to be more isolated. and its order was a hold over from a lost empire. and admission to their order was secret and This was far different from the Incan form of Empire. The Coy- This promoted a sort of indirect empire rule. 44a. and they military power.

long spear. and the durability of the weapon. is a beginning the weapon degrades as per the rules for stone rough equivalent of an obsidian falchion. the Tepoztopilli rolls when attempting to disarm an opponent (including the roll is a top-heavy staff. South American Wooden (Standard and Tepoztopilli The Tepoztopilli was effectively a large. Aztec Cotton Armor. At the Essentially a powerful. the non-forked variant is particularly suited for this 25 . knife. Thus a dagger of obsidian would do 1d4+2. it destroys one of the 10 obsidian blades. drops to 3S. weapons. pack. since armor is rarely a factor for them… Lance. is special. using spear. lined with Forked) 10 obsidian blades in the same manner as the Macahuitl. as well. however. and javelin to hunt. After all 10 obsidian blades are destroyed. wooly hide to make coats for the cold months. Assassins. Assume that every time weapon takes 2 points of double damage in a charge. Obsidian is particularly vul- durability and degradation. hardness of 3 and wood degradation applies. readied weapons wooden club. and food animal. dation. but it forms dangerously tication of the llama. heavy spear. The Macahuitl. bow. and even with the dominant Incan Empire. do. bola. though. the Macahuitl functions as a multiplier. Sticks and Stones 48 49 Key: 48. Assume that every time weapon experiences degra. Obsidian blades can be replaced nerable to hard armors (stone or metal) and its durability easily (that’s the hallmark of the Macahuitl) but if the wooden drops to 2S vs. than metal. and then damage is applied against the wood for a charge. and used it Obsidian as a herding. After all 10 Note that the +2 to damage is applied before any damage obsidian blades are destroyed. and weight in most items is reduced by . dart. sharp edges with a little coaxing. or sneak attacks. while an obsidian shortsword or sickle would be 1d6+2. Its durability. portion of the Macahuitl is damaged. Obsidian is fragile. and would often use its Obsidian is a volcanic stone turned to glass by glacial action. no matter The Macahuitl is a fearsome and deadly war club that fights what it was. Shield. and the Damage threshold is like a slashing sword. Small Reed In the plains. many but if the wooden portion of the Tepoztopilli is damaged. east of the Andes and south of the Amazon. The Forked South Ameri- damage it destroys one of the 10 obsidian blades along the spear can Wooden Lance gives a +2 bonus on your opposed attack edge. Glass is lighter weapons. They can be used at weapons. This bonus is Macahuitl to damage only. Obsidian blades Although Native Americans never used this weapon while can be replaced easily (that's the hallmark of Aztec weaponry) mounted. Blades made with obsidian these natives were able to establish trade with tribes in far do +2 damage above whatever normal damage they would regions. whole weapon must be replaced. Like all glass.5 to 1lb. for example. Through domes. At the decreased by 2 as well. and then damage is applied against the wood to avoid being disarmed if you fail to disarm your opponent). such as are given with charges. 49. a creature that is adept to mountain travel. the whole weapon must may find obsidian a particularly prized material for murder be replaced. the tribes of natives lived like those of North America. These South Ameri- can natives also tamed and domesticated the llama. the South American beginning the weapon degrades as per the rules for stone Wooden Lances have the reach advantage. stone or armor targets.

and were usually covered with hide. as it was strong and light. on clubs. The Aztec Many islands of the Pacific have people of various Polynesian officers also carried wooden or reed shields. usually work complex. 53. Even some Spanish adopted this armor Islander Developments while in the New World. These were limitation of wood. that is identical to the against a charge. if limited. called Chimali. Shirts of grasses and military orders. decent. spears and the local equivalent of swords. From Stone to Steel task as well. spears and knives the officers were painted with animals (if the officers belonged of bamboo could be made that were much more efficient than to a military order) or symbolic motifs. Those of exception. are used in weapon and and could be worn on the campaign. Shark Tooth Club. and strong. often decorated with honorariums. They often painted their weapons and bodies to identify warmer wet climates. 51. and unlike most wood. Certain islander tribes mounted shark teeth only used in Aztec lands. due to the tight weave. Shark Tooth Arrow. were worn by officers who were members of the edges of shark teeth as weapons in combat. the heat. but these outfits conveyed no further benefit. these weapons can also be readied durable wooden version of the Chimali. dress-like Bamboo can ignore the slashing weapon damage threshold cotton armor. 54b. or arrows. were 53 54a 52 50 51 54b Key: 50. Officers. reeds. save a loin Bamboo is a cylindrical stalked plant that grows best in cloth. Excellent proof against weapons. bamboo is an by the Aztecs. on the other hand. 54a. Aztec Cotton Armor More comfortable than equivalent armors. and not as stifling in Most pacific islanders use bone to varying effect. especially shark’s teeth. Shield. This armor was remarkably resistant to punctur- ing by javelins. Meso American Armor Bamboo Most warriors in any army went into battle naked. capped by feathered crests and capes. Bone from seal. In places were bamboo flourishes. Like spears. Swords. sword-like sticks. however. This kind of armor was armor construction. holds and retains an edge. weapons strategies. these shields were called Chimali While most wood cannot hold an edge for long. usually covered in woven feathers. Shark Tooth Sword. using the superior serrated mal motifs. More elaborate versions. the Cotton Armor of the Aztecs was a marvel that walrus. and so have developed unique. or even whale are used to make weapons and knives with. so as to not be confused in battle. 52. ited resources. lined with shark teeth have also been used. These people have had to make do on islands with lim- decorated with their symbol. Its wood is particularly lightweight which officer they followed. Bamboo Spear 26 . along ani. Maori Whip. even the Spanish appreciated as it was reasonably comfortable. these hard to make but valuable shirts are also dangerous to come in contact with. and even teeth. Small Wooden Shield. Small Reed (Chimali) Usually 2 feet in diameter . Bamboo Knife. There is also a more those of other natural materials.

never the less. cannot help by cry out with pain. but bones of fish were useful. Any handle. and the blade is particularly brit- arrow is naturally considered barbed. They are In all other respects like bone headed arrows. Shark Tooth Mail Shirt. it tends to break off deep in the wound. increasing the chance of infection (25%). Shark Tooth Like the stingray. especially the weapon should be considered barbed. stingray. Basically a switch. Tortoise Breast Plate impractical. Made from saplings. Add one to the DC is an excellent shirt of non-metal armor. made by the Maori tribe. while bamboo made an excellent impaling material. Most of these tribes used crude wooden weapons do so for the offensive value of the weapon. the bamboo A standard club with shark teeth embedded for extra damage. Polynesia. the bamboo versions of these weapons are tougher and more long lasting. Otherwise similar to their stone and wooden cousins. Shark Tooth Otherwise similar to their stone and wooden cousins. the Shark Tooth Mail Shirt requires a Fortitude roll (starting at DC 10). strength bonuses (from either combatant) increase the automatic 27 . Shark Tooth these is to use the following mechanic: Each strike with a whip Exotic and disturbing in appearance. usually with a braided automatic damage against soft armors (cord. so if it has been damaged. Whip. tle. simple lives. deals subdual damage Polynesian Armor only. In the Caribbean there were fewer inhabited islands than in Powerful for their lightweight. light. the shark tooth naturally considered barbed. leather). Two things make this shirt notable. Sticks and Stones 55 56 55. relatively durable. In order to simulate Mail Shirt. Bamboo slashing. Polynesian Weapons Spear. Arrow. and were primarily for Knife. Those who wield shark tooth weaponry. Stingray Spine A stick lined with shark teeth and wielded much like a sabre. but also inflicts a great deal of pain. these kinds of spears can be deadly. as the required a long edge. and spears capped by this kind of head were common. Bamboo Club. Its serrated spine was ideal for hunting and warfare. 56. these an automatic 2d3 damage to an unarmored foe. supple sticks. Any shark tooth or stone knives. they are. this weapon was used in endurance rituals. Maori This whip. versions of these weapons are tougher and more long lasting. Similar mechanics may be Grappling with someone in a Shark Tooth Mail Shirt will inflict used with any endurance combat. and the people who lived on them lived relatively tively weak. and will also do whips are merely long. rela. the victim and not too encumbering. Shark Tooth Spear. for every point of damage done so far. Sword. cloth. though. If this fails.

28 . were also devel- The Maori tribe are noted for use of large tortoise shells in oped and used throughout the continent. This use unnecessary. 58a. The use of their shields. Africa was the place where real tool use began. while also adding slightly to the damage. Aboriginal Fire Shield damage accordingly. as per the rules under metal armor. These breast plates are excellent proof against slashing and bludgeoning weapons. These were fashioned from materials readily available. it rends. greatly increasing the distance of the throw. and held on by hide straps. 61. or bamboo. and useful in deflecting some arrows. Heavier than the shark tooth mail shirt. and must be first to develop most of the general weapons. and it was the shark teeth become lodged in the resulting wound. When conflict within the tribe occurs. designs or intricate and meaningful geometric images. 59. Shields. making breast plates. Large Wooden Shield. Often these shields were decorated with fearsome the spear and shield would resonate throughout history. Shields of hide and/or wood have always been a part of warfare Some would be constructed from wood. Spear Thrower. developed a spear thrower similar to the atlatl. Grass and Wooden Many islander cultures used larger shields. and some of them were quite large. As well. They are only used in serious warfare. Tower Hide Shield. usually throws. Some tribes also removed to allow normal healing. 58b. but groove helps to anchor the spear. bark. Then. by the wearer. when the attacker more durable. Breast Plate. and a spear is often arbitrate through ritual use of their whips. identical to the rabbit stick. Spear Thrower however. in a small groove in the wooden surface. this breastplate was individually crafted. Large Grass Shield. it none-the-less proved more effective than a strong arm. making armor braced on it. Sometimes these shields were deco- that caught fish of the ray family sometimes used ray hide on rated. Stingray Spine Spear. the spear thrower acts as an extension of the arm. Though not quite as effective in magnifying the distance of the thrower. In this case. but most of the time they were left unadorned. in Africa. Cultures length of tower shields. mostly oval in Shield. Tortoise throwing sticks. 60. From Stone to Steel 58b 60 58a 61 57 59 57. If the Shark Tooth Mail Shirt is damaged beyond its structural rat- African Developments ing. Tower shape. The other detail of note involves damage. even rivaling the while other people wove them from wicker or grasses. the Maori Spear Throwers are usually held on the arm.

This made the ax or adze manufactured in this way more Such blades were never longer than 16 inches in length. Improved Stone Axe. the adze was the most popular tool and weapon. antler bone sleeve. its wielder often found himself at the stone through use of a boring tool. and the stone head was affixed to it via an vide cover. as the powerful. The percentage of cover is determined by place. but instead pro. Britain. Toothed Stone Mace 29 . Returning Boomerang. Composite Bow. lengthened for use in Each of these improved stone weapons is a marked advance inter-tribal warfare. was popular. Sticks and Stones Tower Shields do not provide an armor bonus. and they came to dominate in their region of Europe. Kylie. but like all stone implements. 64. a local version of the stone axe. This technique allowed the development of improved versions of the stone axe and adze. head. it can be removed and replaced without requiring In certain northern areas of Europe flint was in good supply. Horn Bow. ment on the field. 63b. These flint swords were fearsome for their potential Axe. Certain Germanic people developed the ability to perforate When a flint sword broke. Celts possessed a 63a 63b 62 66 64 65 62. and bat. In extra fixture time. Made for intertribal warfare. areas where this flint was readily accessible. to allow a wooden handle to be placed in the stone tlefields were littered with the remains of such broken blades. 66. wooden handle. If either the wood or stone portion of the weapon is damaged. Reaching up to 16 inches in length. 65. the flint shortsword was an extension on the idea of cutting weapons. 63a. the Celt was more durable and easier to repair. or Shortsword. Different from the ax used in Spain. the stone. and for manufacture of stone battleaxes. This battleaxe was either double sided. called the Celt. In most of Western Europe. Cut all repair times in half for this weapon. over the previous method of weapon making. longer lengths were manufactured into full-fledged swords. prone to severe breakage. Flint constructed with a splayed blade. In Central and Eastern Europe. Holes could be put through mercy of those who still possessed workable weapons. although geography pre- Celt (Stone Axe) vented further expansion. the Celt is designed to facilitate European Developments repairs. and the Northern areas of Europe. strength. as it could convey more force without the loss of stone became too brittle beyond that measurement. stone bladed and wooden handled. Improved Stone Adze or Stone Battleaxe damage.

The strength of the bond is easily Instead of binding spear heads with sinew. the common non-returning boomerang. Horn This kind of bow does not necessarily possess any advantage does this due to a hook that creates a rotation point on a defen- over the wooden bow. The wood was a compressible Another offshoot was the fighting boomerang. usually in Siberia and shield hand. wax. These sticks were aerodynamic. in certain it could be quite stunning. and perhaps a half inch in thickness while the returning boomerangs are somewhat Much of the rest of Asia. but the liquid plant fiber. which had certain far. historically. As well. The popular and vaunted returning boomerangs most of north Africa. it was surprisingly springy. There is some The Aboriginal Fire Shield is not the most defensive of shields. in turn. From Stone to Steel Other (Australia. actually. and damage to the weapon. Each kind of throwing stick is In Java the horn bow was common. it is culturally used for starting fires while Northern China. Australian Aboriginal people also Resin/Wax/Glue carried the usual variety of stone and wooden weapons. they used resins and wax. These shields doubled as fire apart. but only if the weapon misses. As well. but adhesives can’t be cut. If a horn The non-returning Kylies were generally about 3 feet long. common weapons. The composite bow lasted a sur- anyway. assume the resin. In Asia. Aboriginal Fire sinew to make a durable long range weapon. Thus. when it was. and gave it strength. or Glue can be used as a binder to hold two sep- although coastal tribes favored the barbed spines of stingrays. they made do with that they had. The fighting boomerang has a 25% chance to ignore any AC bonus of a shield or defensive weapon on any given throw. had a cord width of 3 to 4 inches. up until the 18th century. ignore the armor bonus of the shield. and hunters who carried spear and shield could start a quite as useful as a spear. Boomerang. The returning boomerang has the coveted ability to deer. and the two separate materials fall strike. Wax. bone. It Bow. Asian weapons were easily on par with throwing stick. but not a frontal blow. The weaknesses of these materials are was prone to melting under heat. and has seen relatively few modifications. Made from the antlers of unique. As well. has the longest range of this kind of throwing ness over a long period of time. and if you are successful. Roll for this before Java region. Resin. preferably. but it was but it does allow an object (or light weapon) to be carried in the only used in Asia during the Stone Age. Fighting both the draw string and backing. tion from the kylie. though. the Aboriginal peoples had no metallurgical skills in Asia may have used advanced African techniques of and little natural resources. debate as to the exact origin of the composite bow. or equal to that conveyed by sinew or bindings. though used either the traditional smaller. Returning and Kylie A common theme in Australian Aboriginal weaponry is the weapons making. it should be assumed that the resin. They were a side-evolu- composite or horn bow. more points of damage from acid. The sinew helped to shield or weapon held defensively. and Shield. arate materials together. Bone could be softened when stick. on a hunt or march. and bow cracked. with sinew forming Boomerang. but it had to dry for a while to become stiff again. This may be quite critical in a battle. Bow. usually far up the length of the spear pole. which was used for hunting. advantages. and then strung with sinew. The although it required special treatments to maintain that springi- kylie. prisingly long time. which held better. you roll to hit. and flew straight and wooden hunting bow. return after being thrown. their spears were solvents or heat. allowing an attack to bypass it. thin affairs. which had a material. And they did very well. their shields were tall. strips of hide. If heat damage inflicts 2 or more points of often barbed. although it was not used nearly as liberally as it boomerang to swing on the hook pivot. and the separate elements have fallen apart. or glue has failed. The composite bow was made primarily of horn and wood. and hits harder than the rabbit stick. or the composite bow. it could not be salvaged. parts of the world. Thus. Although this was not always successful. but was used more commonly in the sive item. 30 . A long pole is not starters. or glue has failed. The hook was intended to strike a bone acted as a stiffener. the major development was the were not. having more force and distance than the rabbit stick. Composite (Short and Medium) Composite bows mate the mutual strengths of wood. but was more difficult to construct. while the pick like hook on one end. vinegar. useful for guarding a side wax. Asia. to strike the defender was in the cordage backed bow. but recent evidence suggests that artisans In Australia.) Asia Many archaeologists believed Asia to have been very backward Aborigines during the stone age. soaked in water or. when an item takes 2 or fire as quickly as any who use a modern flint and steel. and allow the fighting reinforce the bow. and allowed the string to give more easily. and then straightened. etc.

70. Flint Shortsword. reliably for tools. Celt in Antler Sleeve. Tanned to the first cities and nations. and stiff with age. Appearance is dependant on the animal the hide the advantage of the aggressive and strong. when left in fire for long periods. stone weapons like the stone relatively short hey day. Tanned Leather Armor. although Ger- manic. rubbing them into the Made first by Egyptians. Observing that certain stones. garments. people experi. when the first alloys were made. This was most evi- came from. smelt- keep weapons at pace with armor. 69. these heavy maces were designed to hides to soften them. people began to experiment. and though copper was used. The process of manufacturing leather in this was The first few metals found were pretty. Mace. and mace were far less effective. which appeared to be made explicitly to Forces of Change pierce armor. Shield. This substance. Leather Shield 31 . 68. know as tannic acid. African. but this mace required great strength to use. made the leather both pliable and durable. dent among societies like the Tlingit or Aztecs. Sticks and Stones toothed stone mace. demanded more permanent lodgings and structure. in combat. and Nomadic Middle Eastern tribes also took advantage of these early population centers. 68 67 69 70 67. The presence of larger popula- Tanned Leather Armor is the kind mentioned in the Player’s tions in one area forced man to form social contracts. Egyptians developed a ing. and was not a complete solution. although generally the color is a deep brown. Leather (Small or Large) Heavier than the hide shields. Toothed Stone mented with various oily substances. when spread on hides. Leather was far The Science of Warfare more effective at preventing damage than plain hides and furs. Another innovation that prompted serious changes in warfare was the development of true leather. and As populations were more successful. Siberian. Often these were painted with devices. it would see a With the advent of leather armor. odorous. often to Handbook. Since skins could often become coarse. Eventually it was discovered that certain pierce leather armor and helms. came into its own. The toothed mace design kinds of tree bark contained “tannin” a substance we now became one of the most common variants of mace in history. leather shields were also more Leather durable. but too pliable to use called tanning. for a time. and could be fashioned into more comfortable and effective yielded small amounts of metal. Develop- ments in agriculture and domestication would eventually lead Leather Armor. or culturally important symbols. and innovations were required to this process of subjecting stone to heat to distill metals. Copper and Gold became decorations. they grew.

and longer weapons could be potent various cultures a new theory prompted adventurous men to use when charging on a horse. Improved Stone 2gp 1d6 x3 5 lbs P WS 4/17 Adze. 1d3 x2 1.5 lbs S S 3/3 Short Tusk -. 1d2 x2 15ft .5 lbs S S 3/7 Medium-Size Axe. and as beasts of burden. Per Ammunition x2 50ft . Bambooa 2gp 1d6 x3 20ft 5 lbs P W 4/12 Spear. the more effective it was. Rock -.5 lbs P B 3/5 Spike. Throwing -. horses an end. Primitive Woodena -. along with oxen. Stone 2gp 1d6 x3 5 lbs S or P WS 3/10 Celt 2gp 1d6 x3 3. 1d6 x3 20ft 7 lbs P W 4/14 Spear. animals. Long (Quarterstaff)‡ -. From Stone to Steel As well.5 lbs B B 3/5 Club. Improved Stone 3gp 1d6 x3 5 lbs S SW 4/12 Axe. like the llama regardless of numbers.5 lbs P B 2/2 Sling -. 1d3 19–20/x2 1. Scouts and lightly armored foot troops of the New World. 1d6 x2 2. 1d6/1d6 x2 2.01 lbs B L 2/1 Medium-Size Javelin. Primitive Wooden Hardeneda -. Shark Tooth* 50gp 1d6 x3 5 lbs S BW 3/10 Large Lance. Bamboo 8sp 1d3 19–20/x2 1 lbs S W 4/3 Knife. but in quickly than any footman. Primitive Wooden 6sp 1d4 x2 30ft 2 lbs P W 3/4 Javelin. it made way for an age of Horses. Toothed Stone 6gp 1d8 x2 12 lbs B & P WS 3/24 Stick. Primitive Wooden Hardened 1gp 1d4 x2 30ft 2 lbs P W 4/4 Martial Weapons-Melee Small Axe. Bone -. in the growing science of warfare. North American Stone†a 3gp 1d8 x3 10 lbs P WS 4/20 32 . Stone Heada 1gp 1d8 x3 20ft 8 lbs P WS 3/16 Stick. and Armies. 1d6 x2 3 lb B W 3/8 Large Long Tusk -. Stone 2gp 1d6 x2 6 lbs B WS 3/18 Medium-Size Club. Shark Tooth* 6gp 1d6 x3 4 lbs B BW 3/8 Macahuitl* 45gp 1d8 19–20/x2 6 lbs S/B SW 3/28 Mace. Bronze.5 lbs B S 3/4 Small Dart. 1d6 x3 20ft 7 lbs P W 3/14 Spear.5 lbs S SBW 3/7 Shortsword. Stone Battle 5gp 1d8 x3 7 lbs S SW 3/14 Sword. Bone 2sp 1d3 x2 20ft . Stone 1gp 1d6 x3 5 lbs P WS 3/15 Mace.5 lbs P B 3/5 Ulu 5sp 1d3 x2 1 lbs S B 3/3 Small Adze. it became obvious that had been used for a short time in the late Neolithic age as plow the more maneuverable an army was. 1d6 x2 2 lbs P B 3/4 Spear. Flint 5gp 1d6 19–20/x2 3. Short (Club) -. But a mounted rider could maneuver more became the rule of the day in late Stone Age engagements. At first tamed for their strength. 1d3 19–20/x2 1. Table 1-4: Stone Age Weapons Simple Weapons-Melee Weapons Cost Damage Critical Range Wgt Type M H/HP Tiny Knife. Forked South American Wooden†a 4gp 1d6 x3 10 lbs P W 3/18 Lance. Bone -.5 lbs B W 2/7 Simple Weapons-Ranged Tiny Rock. As the age of sticks and stones came to newly domesticated horses.

Primitive Medium 45gp 1d6 x2 70ft 2 lbs Per arrow W 3/6 Bow.5 lbs S WS 2/8 Medium-Size Bow. Shark Tooth (20) 2gp 3 lbs P WB 1/3 Arrow. Wooden (20) -. Peace Pipe* 4gp 1d6 x2 15ft 2. Returning* 2gp 1d4 x2 10ft 2 lbs B W 2/6 Kylie* 2gp 1d6 x2 20ft 3 lbs B W 3/9 Medium Atlatl* 8sp +1 x3 1 lbs W 2/2 Net.5 lbs P W 1/1 * See the description in the text for special rules. North American Indian 90gp 1d8 x3 90ft 3 lbs Per arrow W 3/9 Exotic Weapons-Melee Small Rabbit Stick 5sp 1d4 x2 20ft 0. Throwing Stone 5sp 1d4 x2 10ft 3 lbs B WS 3/9 Large Bow. South American Wooden†a 3gp 1d6 x3 9 lbs P W 3/18 Tepoztopilli†* 50gp 1d8 19–20/x2 13lbs S W 2/26 Martial Weapons-Ranged Small Tomahawk* 4gp 1d6 x2 15ft 3 lbs S WS 3/9 Tomahawk.5 lbs P B 2/9 Weapons Ranged-Ammunition Arrow. Sticks and Stones Table 1-4: Stone Age Weapons Martial Weapons-Melee Weapons Cost Damage Critical Range Wgt Type M H/HP Large Lance. Maori* 1sp 1d3§ x2 1 lbs S W 2/2 Exotic Weapons-Ranged Tiny Blowgun 1gp 1 x2 20ft 2 lbs P W 4/4 Small Bola. Composite Medium 85gp 1d6 x3 90ft 3 lbs Per arrow WB 3/9 Bow.5 lbs P WB 1/3 Arrow. Northern American* 8sp 1d3 x2 20ft 2 lbs B CS 3/6 Bola. Primitive Hunting 30gp 1d6 x2 60ft 2 lbs Per arrow W 3/6 Bow. Cordage Backed 100gp 1d8 x3 80ft 3. Stone (10) 6cp 1d3 2 lbs B S 2/2 Needles (20) 1gp .5 lbs B WB/S 1/4 Arrow. Stone* 5gp 1d6 x3 20ft 12 lbs P WS 3/22 Longbow. Fighting*# 2gp 1d6 x2 15ft 3. South American* 1gp 1d4 19–20/x2 15ft 3 lbs B CS 3/9 Boomerang.5 lbs B W 3/11 Boomerang. Short Composite 75gp 1d6 x3 70ft 2 lbs Per arrow WB 3/8 Club. Blunt (20) 1gp 3. Bone Head (20) 6sp 2. Grass* 8gp 10ft 8 lbs FC 2/16 Spear Thrower* 1gp +1 x2 2 lbs W 2/4 Spear.5 lbs B W 3/4 Medium-Size Whip. Stone Head (20) 6sp 3 lbs P WS 1/3 Arrow.5 lbs Per arrow WC 3/11 Harpoon. ‡ Double Weapon † Reach Weapon a If you ready an action to set this weapon against a charge you deal double damage. Stingray Spine* aa 15gp 1d6 x3 20ft 4. Horn 20gp 1d6 x3 60ft 2 lbs Per arrow B 3/6 Bow. # Shield bypass weapon § Subdual damage 33 . -1 2 lbs P W 1/2 Bullet.

Great Bark 12gp +3 -3 20% 15lbs W 1/28 Shield. † Hand not free to cast spells. Large Bark 5gp +2 -2 15% 10lbs W 1/18 Shield. Bone Hair Pipe 2gp +0 N/A 0 0% 30ft/20ft . B = Bludgeoning P = Piercing S = Slashing 34 . Large Leather 7gp +2 -2 15% 9lbs L 3/18 Shield. Small Wooden Shield 3gp +1 -1 5% 4lbs W 3/8 Shield. From Stone to Steel Table 1-5: Stone Age Armor Armor Max Dex Armor Check Spell Spd Armor Cost Bonus Bonus Penalty Failure 30'/20' Weight‡ M H/HP Light Armor Aztec Cotton Armor 115gp +2 +5 -2 15% 30ft/20ft 20lbs F 4/42 Breast Plate. Tortoise 30gp +3 +5 -2 20% 30ft/20ft 20lbs B 4/40 Breast Plate. Small Leather 3gp +1 -1 5% 4lbs L 3/8 Shield. See the description. ‡ Armor fitted for small characters weighs half as much. +1 +6 -1 10% 30ft/20ft 8lbs L 1/14 Wood and Hide Armor 10gp +2 +4 -2 20% 30ft/20ft 18lbs WL 3/36 Medium Armor Bone Plate 15gp +3 +4 -3 25% 20ft/15ft 22lbs BL 3/44 Slat Armor 30gp +3 +4 -3 25% 20ft/15ft 25lbs WL 4/50 Shields Shield. Aboriginal Fire 1gp +1 -1 10% 3lbs W 3/6 Shield. Small Hide 1gp +1 -1 5% 3lbs L 1/6 Shield. Shark Tooth# 25gp +3 +4 -1 25% 30ft/20ft 18lbs B 3/34 Skin Armor -. Large Hide 5gp +2 -2 15% 8lbs L 1/16 Shield.5lbs BC 1/1 Buckskin 13gp +2 +6 0 5% 30ft/20ft 8lbs L 3/10 Furs and Hides 8gp +2 +5 -1 15% 30ft/20ft 12lbs L 2/24 Leather Armor. Tanned 10gp +2 +6 0 10% 30ft/20ft 15lbs L 3/32 Mail Shirt. Large Wooden 7gp +2 -2 15% 10lbs W 3/20 Shield. Tower Hide** 22gp * -8 50% 21lbs L 2/42 Shield. Small Reed 8sp +1 -1 5% 2lbs W 1/4 Shield. Tower Wooden** 30gp * -10 50% 45lbs W 3/90 # See the text for special rules. Large Grass 6gp +2 -2 15% 7lbs C 2/14 Shield. * When running in heavy armor you move only triple your speed. ** The tower shields grants you cover. Small Bark 1gp +1 -1 5% 4lbs W 1/8 Shield. not quadruple.

Chariots of Bronze Domestication 36 Mishaps 48 The Riding Skill 38 Table 2-2: Terrain 48 Table 2-1: Riding Modifiers 38 Table 2-3 Terrain Changes 48 Copper and Bronze 38 Table 2-4: Driver Mishap 48 Copper 38 Table 2-5: Breakage 49 Skittishness 38 Charioteer Prestige Class 49 Copper—Arsenic Alloy 38 Table 2-6: Charioteer 50 Bronze 39 New Feats 51 The Fertile Crescent: Sumeria 39 The Far East 52 Sumerian Tactics 40 China 53 Shield Trapping 42 The Divine Mandate 54 Phalanx tactics 43 The Inca 54 Battle Wagons/Onager 44 Europe & The Mediterranean 56 Babylon 44 The Celts 56 North Africa: Egypt 44 The Minoans 56 Forced Innovation: The Hittites 45 The Mycenaens 57 Chariots and Chariot Combat. 47 The End of an Age 58 Iron and the Late Bronze Age 47 Table 2-7: Bronze Age Weapons 59 Hazards 48 Table 2-8: Bronze Age Armor 60 35 .

They were now venturing into the Elamite’s portion of the field. These peoples would someday become the horse- rock shook the chariot. were not commonly bred in Mesopotamian culture bow. the Elamite commander’s wagon. on horses could. watching and enter the melee. and to some degree the practice of horse steadied himself. and sighted the enemy’s just one battle in a month of battles. duk aside. and domestication. and to haul loads too true. causing it to the discomfort and the jarring thud of stones under the stumble and collapse. It was better than he could have hoped. then the ride became smoother. and the other soldiers cheered his Elamites before. and he knew how good arm. The chariot bumped and He’d have five throws before the chariot would swing to one careened. Alerting to the driver. lifted ing into the turn and eyeing the nail-studded wheel rim up his shield to ward off a javelin strike. and Mongols. With a heave he cast the bronze capped javelin into the air. and before the battle was over he would there. and looked about for his Sweat ran along the leather lining of his armor. But perhaps Marduk was watching over the Elamite driver. and their four wheeled wagons weighed them top of its occupants. From Stone to Steel As floorboard rocked. and they did not have the strength bred into later varieties. and Mongolia did people ride horses. This flight went about to improve the stable food supply. but as the soldier cast flashing on his right. the riding of horses was extremely uncommon. and. he noted the warriors in the pilot-less Only in areas like Siberia. focusing on his target. during a summer raid. and drew back suited to desert conditions and privation. rather than a charging ani- advantageous field for battle. mals to be domesticated were dogs. and blessings of Mar- wagon drivers. cultivation. drew his third javelin. As the soldier Thus. the war wagon left its formation. Those five throws had to count. and he’d foes. or the barbarian regions of China wagon rushing to master the onagers and regain control. Huns. the soldier adjusted his stance. and then the guide-bar snapped. arcing grace. The life quickly fled his form. The commander. Already it shield. holding it to guard the thrower from less pleasant temperament than the horse. and he could already see the mal. dispirited and without new com- the mountains and onto a fair footing. It lurched. and the momentum of the chariot and his own throwing arm gave it a strange. He’d fought these He shouted in triumph. how. The wagon. threatening to spill them side. Early horses were not as large as today’s from his chest. but it was nowhere to be found. and rolled partially up onto the form of the wagons of the enemy pulling wide in reaction to the chariot onager. Camels. directed by officers. heaving the horses sharply adjusted his grip on his javelin. These later domestications were brought quiver. But its protection was necessary. and as such was bet- 36 . There religions about the Another javelin cast forced them to duck low. The soldier drew his battleaxe. Magyars. both Bactrian (two humps) and Dromedary (one Archer formations. his arm. he Medes. lean. Likely it was back was growing warm. The ever. going off one wheel briefly. and it was com- they were out of range. This was another turn. Already figures were running towards the wrecked would disgorge their own soldiers. He shrugged. though. the camel was best enemy fire. The soldier turned against the corner. large commu- nities sprang up in static locations. sacrificing mobility for stability. guided. embedding itself. and the javelin struck soil behind A s the Neolithic Stone Age came to a close. An animal with a him put up his shield. The enemy’s onagers couldn’t achieve the speed that vertically for a moment and then collapsed backwards. donkeys. the soldier pulled another javelin from the tle. A fellow warrior beside until later. He cursed his luck but then spotted bound cultures of the Scythians. and he and the three other soldiers would disembark all out. his last javelin. and now they shot toward the plain of war. Riding claim a shield as soon as an enemy dropped one. The others would cover him in the beginning. The first ani- him. cavalry is owed to their cultural lineage. followed afterwards by cat- Frustrated. un. Soon those wagons mands. The soldier eyed the commander. but shortly creatures and their place in society sprang up. for a brief skid put him out of harm’s way. fled their dangerous position. sending it farther than a Domestication mortal arm could normally throw. it did not fly towards the commander. The plain was an suddenly had a burden at yoke. as a large migration. down. where they had made the great turn and wish he wasn’t wearing it. begin in earnest. and inventoried the quiver. and their arrows could pierce mere leather. Without their commander. The soldier chariot driver hauled on the reigns. wheels. hastily put arrow to hump). mon for these people to ride horses as part of their nomadic His fourth cast was sent wide by a sudden lurch. to the left by their nose-rings. noting the danger approaching. They altered course. the Elamites would be fortunate it was that this force had been drawn down out of fighting a losing battle. The wagon tipped rush. hoping his aim was true. and soon the second Elamite driver sprouted a javelin heavy for men to carry. The chariot maintained its grip. and tested range on their chariot. still traveling forward. and the battle would wagon. to see what had happened. and horses. supported by advanced hunting practices. he raised his javelin. It was no mat- the Elamite curved swords were deadly against unarmored ter. he would have many days of campaign to go. well into the Bronze Age period. A brief dip pulled at the pit of his stomach. horses. in the dirt. and he fought The javelin struck the right onager in the neck. and then sighted a second wagon. his javelin cast. Hittites.

Those using a whip gain a +2 bonus on their Made from braided animal hair or woven grasses. and only certain tribes held this practice. In India. No substantial cav- alry was organized around the camel at this time. it is treated as a require extensive training and conditioning of horses for war. and does no damage to a creature with a +3 natural warfare. and donkeys were trained to pull. Made to inflict pain more than actual damage. The ele- phant is an intelligent creature that does not take to captivity willingly. The whip is considered an exotic weapon. the first opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. Camels (Dromedary. a b c d e a. pulling chariots. In damage to any creature wearing armor of at least +1 armor time certain cultures would find use for the horse’s speed in bonus. but that later development would also armor bonus. and they were prima- rily used to aid load hauling and construction. Those peoples who practiced domestication of Ele- phants developed specific social groups who lived with and cared for such domesticated Elephants. b. whips were used as tools in training and controlling wild ani. d. domesticated first in Egypt that would penalties. but horses proved to be 1. If you are tripped during your own trip attempt. may also be used to make trip attacks. It would be quite some time before the first elephants would be used in war. With the development of the wheel. Chariots of Bronze ter as a nomadic animal in the Middle East. This whips were eventually also turned on those treated little better weapon is a shield bypass weapon. with training. and no range would be the donkey. you can drop the whip in order to avoid The Whip being tripped. the only other animal domesticated for work was the elephant. under the archaic name onager. The whip deals subdual damage. it take the battlefield first. Although kept in the hand. e. and so. Because it can wrap around a leg or other limb. Whip the fastest haulers. Horse. Oxen were strongest. Elephant. and deals no lighter loads faster and farther than any other dray animal. Bactrian). horses. Ox. 1 Oxen. c. Donkey 37 . including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail their mals. allowing greater yield than a field tilled by hand. these first disarm attempt. It ranged weapon with a maximum range of 10 feet. these dray animals could also be used to haul large loads. could be made to haul than animals. and so used for heavy loads. This task allowed farmers to plan their crops.

including humans. (nose-rings can be more painful to the horse) . but it assumes that all horses are properly Some ingenious soul. +5 shields within 1 foot (usually between riders). are skittish. rather than a bit ments quickly dulled. and to their general lack of cavalry. the copper age. When wild. the spear. during a long campaign. like lead. Although a copper shield could be quickly holed or a copper The horse hears a loud shout from the rider or a footman sword quickly blunted. required a good deal of food and drink to An extremely loud sound. Copper. they rarely mended worst results of a single experience might be a belly ache. this heat of the horse also has a direct impact on their behavior. was adopted to make armor. horses have copper arsenic isn’t as lethal as pure arsenic. so often the deceptively fragile legs. be cooked or pottery to be dried in a controlled environment. The specific equipment and training stones cooled slower than charcoal. ashes and stones. equipped and have had extensive training. +3 so as to be useful again. when cleaning out one of these ovens. and there -5 The horse is equipped with Blinkers. following The first few metals discovered through smelting were gold. large cats or wolves. Soon smelting required to make a Ride skill check (all penalties cumulative). and bent. Soldiers often had to boil their water and +10 sion occurs within 2 feet. Without blinkers horses can easily become distracted by events near them. early civilizations discovered that placing stones loud sounds. food to make it potable. +7 The horse has been trained for only one rider (is not Copper—Arsenic Alloy familiar with any other rider). even the smaller. silver. less organized ones of +8 The horse is not trained for a rider and is being ridden. Horses. since copper is so easily warped. and even in the wilder Riders failing this roll may note behavior such as aggression environs where the benefit of metal tools was quickly realized. DC Circumstance cooking wear. gong. strength. although it was barely Obviously it is of value to have a well trained horse before more adequate than gold or silver for the task. Blinkers were very important for charioteers S likely developed with the advent of the oven or kiln. Knives. From Stone to Steel The Riding Skill Copper and Bronze One of the first inventions designed to help control a horse was melting. within 1 foot . and versatility. as desensitized by war training. only used when army formations broke down and +5 head (sword. was the mainstay of the field of war. Generally energetic and copper arsenic. For nearly 4000 Table 2-1: Riding Modifiers years. the rider would be ioned into a great variety of shapes and forms. As a molecule. Copper Copper is a soft metal. and that metal could be refash- Were any of these circumstances to occur. or explo. though. towards other horses or animals. axe. The following modifiers should be consid. The practice became very dangerous when the first bronze alloy. The sword was purely a backup There is a shiny object moving within 3 feet of horse’s weapon. rather than the +5 The horse is within a foot of another horse. making it highly desirable in items like armor. horses had to watch for the boiling water. or rearing. and armor were all formed of copper. most the blinder. the art of isolating metallic ore from stone. dented. right. only copper was found in suffi- cient amounts to make good tools from. is only slowly processed out of the of training and preparation for use other than dray work. and would be consumed. Though fast and powerful. All of these factors contributed to the formation of the Bronze Age armies. Experimentation revealed that metal could be ered when making rolls to control non-war trained mounts. Horses are also sensitive to burned hottest. bolting in fear. was rarely any artistry to its manufacture. allowing food to The Player’s Handbook covers Mounted Combat in the Com. could be maintained for long periods of time. horses do not trust animals they are unfamiliar of the bronze alloy would inevitably become suspended in with. since copper imple- The horse is guided by a nose-ring. sword. keep it on its feet. even those not noted that lumps of metal were sometimes found among the trained for combat. and will shy away from them instinctively unless among the wood in a fire helped the heat remain longer. Armies in the field. Thus. In enclosed spaces. going into battle with it. copper was the only metal used for regular tools. Still. sprang up throughout civilized regions. Although wood fires each other in the heat of the moment. of rich brown-gold hue. Of the three. Combatants fully expected to The horse can hear the impact of weapons on armor or blunt their swords into clubs by end of battle. Once broken. bat Chapter. jewelry). could +2 be repaired. found within specific stones. fighting was in close quarters. to prevent horses at the yoke from fighting of heat in an enclosed space for cooking. +5 The horse is within 6 feet of an unfamiliar animal. Small particles high-strung. it could also be beaten out and reforged. having reach. Vari- ous cultures experimented with ways of generating a great deal in the heat of battle. +2 The saddle has no stirrups. other animals. horses are quite cautious and require a great deal But arsenic. by their nature. and copper. During the copper age it appears to have become a common practice for Skittishness a soldier to use their helmets as a boiling or cooking pot. like a horn. +4 The horse is wearing barding it is not trained to use. 38 .

the Bronze Age was the generally rectangular. most ing hook (bill) polearm. patches of copper or bronze. were simplistic. The militia was usually issued weapons and armor. minimalistic. maces. called lugals. As iron protect themselves from other Sumerian Kings. born of a single mother who gave invention of the wheel. selves behind wealthy landowners. way bronze implements. and the priesthood constantly had to reconcile those and tin did not have these properties. They notably arsenic and tin. after the advent many useful crafts came to the forefront of technology. Chariots of Bronze body. Sumerian militiamen of poor cities might also wield farming were made. Often times men among these nomadic groups would hire themselves out as mercenary soldiers to the The Fertile Crescent: Sumeria local city. This generally made it easier to determine order of greedy and controlling. one by one. There is no simple d20 system mechanic for this. Playing to the interests and needs social groups. or hayfork. and each city-state was a sovereign region. But armies of became more commonly used. since one Bronze. This lead to a change in months. javelins. an army made up of male and unexpected plot element or method of assassination. became very hot in it quickly. and eventually united all of Sumeria Sumeria. These plates were were formed during the age of copper. and kept people from producing the neces- accent to arms and armor. he con- formed communities. knives. unlike copper. It may. light bows. These lugals Bronze work dominated metalworking for a great deal of time. the religious leaders of the Sumerian cities became too rated items. ranging from a rich gold to a sil. of Akkad. and the people of Sumeria allied them- command. holds its form longer and more easily. lizations were born: Developments in domestication. A lot of lesser tribes migrated through the region. and the development of the plow) lead to larger non-Sumerian city of Akkad. spears (ini- tionized metalworking. shelter. when the military was the most active. who raised armies to raid each other and exclusive use of bronze or to seek other sources. and grad. circling the shirt and overlapping. riveteted with circular durable. These communities grew into city-states in quered each. the A young man named Sargon. Bronze and these were property of the state. and eventually a curved sword. events with the common people. Armor was only worn in battle. The resulting metal is stronger. What once was a lesser art among tially stone bladed). him into adoption to a fruit merchant. The religious leaders of a Sumerian city-state were called the ters would not be likely to boil water in their helmets. All events were attributed to the actions of malady of the warfare vanished. and they controlled the armed forces of the city-state. copper or bronze equivalents). Other than these. and hierarchy. slings. This was the origin of the standing army. The priesthood controlled and regulated city growth and toms or even die as the result of gradual poisoning. and breakthroughs in farming (seed use. for good or for ill. like the sickle. Leading them against the Sumerian cities. more would also be given a leather cloak. Then he drove his armies westward. this strange the whims of the gods. although they would see rapid development much later tools to inscribe their own weapons or decorate them as they in the medieval period. either nomadic in nature or displaced by environmen- tal disaster or warfare. slowly usurped power from the hands of the Ensi. These tools made weapons fared well enough attention to fine detail. and forged their military aged men into a formidable usually around people who possessed wealth. civilians that had other occupations. but it was likely the first transition culture. Most charac. Commonly this consisted of leather or wooden shields (although richer cities might afford Bronze was the first major alloy to be invented. bronze became more of an civilians were costly. and first time period to foster true Empires. make an interesting These forces were primarily a militia. and it revolu. but generally only officers had custom made or deco. In Sumeria this hierarchy was centered on the church. thresher. however. ual poisoning takes time. Whether it is truly for food. Thus soldiers Each city revered the gods. but most especially arms and armor. ruled by the under his own crown. Bronze of copper or bronze smelting. and began the until tin mines in Assyria and other areas began to give out. and the practice of maintain- ing mercenary troops became common among the aggressive per and bronze ages. were quite bulky. sities that drive civilization. moving from the stone age to the cop- pendent from the local community. battleaxes. offering their service as a full-time sword in exchange umeria is the oldest known civilization. as defensive wear. the priesthood had the burden of interpreting practice of boiling water in helmets was banned. For a time each city in Sumeria was The local shortage of tin forced people to move away from the ruled by its own king. Sumeria is a good model of how early civi. made quickly and without much scythe. This allowed armies to become inde- S the oldest civilization or not is up to debate. In return. especially during the summer and can be worked more decoratively. In time. cities. 39 . a sort of prun- is made by alloying copper and various other compounds. and the temples were the center of on campaign would eventually develop debilitating symp. Soldiers might invest in metal working in battle. Sargon took control of the city found in the region. and eventually they fighting force. and extensive trade for metals and materials not of the middle and lower classes. clubs. Generally things made for the common soldier implements turned to weapons of war. a decoration or minor component. pleased. The later alloy of copper the gods. and lighter in color. When the resources. These groups formed internal hierarchies. and status. and. although eventu- very white. but took up weapons in time of trouble. Ensi. It is worth noting that although minor kingdoms ally they developed the bronze plate shirt. and it accumulates in the vaious organs. rose to prominence in the growing cycles. city life. first rule of kings in Sumeria.

Thus the ruler of Sumeria claimed to rule by gular shield was sometimes bowed. The shaping of the blade of an arrow was unique to its culture. the light war bow is a stout weapon. A few shields were made in a teardrop shape. Bow. Though Akkad would not remain the room for a wide swing with a weapon. Light War Bow. Often a war. carrying a brace of if the user already has this feat. Bronze Headed Arrow. 4. do damage as per the bow. Soldiers would often pack into tight forma. Shields were rarely personalized. Bronze Headed Arrow. round for warriors expecting to fight singly. free to use this bow. a strong draw tions. Copper Headed Arrow. against the generally chaotic rushes of their less organized since the draw is accomplished much sooner and the stance foes. and rectan- guidance. Blank Shot as well). mainly because they were often the prop- erty of the king or army. starting a tradition that would return again and defender. Use of the Battle Wagon was very limited. Well made. The King and or General might also ride a Battle Wagon required is less dramatic. javelins to throw. True chariot Arrow. 6b. using the momentum of the chariot to their advantage. This bonus does not stack with Rapid Shot rior would accompany them on the wagon. Optionally. in order to get a good perspective (although they do not gain the bonus of the pre-requisite Point on the battle and issue new commands quickly. Thus. Arrows. This formation was highly effective make the archer as prominent a target as a larger bow would. The rectan- Sumeria as well. Shields were often permanent mark on the whole region. As with all bows. Sargon and Akkad made a deep and which is best for diverting high body blows. 3. non-Sumerian territories. as always. Bronze Shield. Bronze Tipped Javelin claimed all the land up to the Mediterranean Sea for the Sumer. The advantage of this bow is that it does not impenetrable walls. left blank. both hands must be into combat. due to poor turning radius and low numbers. Copper & Bronze Headed warfare would not be born in Sumeria. or to give better mobil- Sumerian capital for long. and the round shield was often notched to allow again throughout history. Drawn by 4 onagers (domesticated donkeys). Copper Shield. Shields ian Empire. Light War lanx formation. clustering their spears together to form lethal. From Stone to Steel 6a 2 3 5 6b 4 7 8 2. 7. how- ever. those already proficient with these proto-chariots allowed Sumerian commanders to bows may fire this bow as if they had the feat Rapid Shot advance on the field quickly. 6a. and kingdoms would rise up in the ity for the feet. nearly but a short body. or decorated with the city emblem. Sargon was forced to become the spiritual leader of gular for warriors fighting together or in formation. Metal shields of this period were often round or rectangular in Since the people of Sumeria looked to their leaders for spiritual design. Sargon became the first Emperor of Sumeria. Sumerian Tactics Sumeria should be noted as the first civilization to use the pha. 8. to curve slightly around the Divine mandate. but usually was 40 . 5. Copper Bladed Spear.

10. the prun- ing hook is a reach weapon. 13. but they do hold edges decently. Only the Egyptians used toothed maces (as mentioned in the Spears & Javelins prior chapter). Sumer- ian Bronze Axe. Great figures in bronze do not hold points well. the kopesh. and sickle sword are all good and excellent stopping power. although some variance was common. Spears used by the Sumerians. campfire when on campaign. Bronze Pruning Hook 41 . if tripped during the attempt. Pruning Hook The javelin can be used as a melee weapon. meant to durable than stone age arrows. supple. Although slightly more although some were studded with lumps of metal. Clubs were primarily wood. 14. It can Clubs & Maces easily be used to attack foes 10 feet away. legend and history were given spears to denote importance and Capitalizing on this strength. Both used a solid core of hardened wood. Bronze Dagger. Whether possessing metal heads or capped with metal (either copper or bronze). 11. but it was not The pruning hook was primarily used in groves to trim hard to meant to. reach branches. 13 12 11 9 10 14 15 16 9. rather than thrusts. to be thrown farther. Chariots of Bronze similar to the shape of the spear-head. were generally round. both the spear and javelin were examples of the philosophy of the time period. and the and those who traded with them often had forked butts. which were not made of metal. Copper Headed Mace. Copper and culturally and socially associated with warfare. Mace heads of the time for use after battle were the arrow heads. and javelins were often to be found near every focused on chopping and hacking motions. Resembling a spear with a barb on one side. single hand weapons of the time command. 15. make trip attacks and the user. 16. which were used in conjunction with a leather sling to allow the spear would later influence the many curved blades of the near east. Possessing decent throwing range The knives. tlefield. Sumerian battleaxes. and so all characters are treated as non-proficient. mented with durable metal. These Canaanite sword all show the strength of the design. The similarities between the sickle sword. but is a liability Clubs and maces used during this time period were inherently against closer enemies. used much like a spear. these weapons became the mainstay of most Edged Weapons infantry in the Bronze Age. The protruding hook may be used to similar. Copper Knife. Using such a spear with a sling in this manner increases the range increment of the spear by 10 feet. Bronze Sickle Sword. Bronze Headed Mace. often the only thing retrieved give the club more weight and impact. 12. Copper Studded Club. but it saw extensive use in Sumeria on the bat- conveying a -4 to all melee rolls.

Worse. Sumerian Helmet. Bronze Sickle. 18. at a +2 to the shield is trapped. All armor bonuses are lost. Shield Spikes In order to trap a shield. handed. Shield trapping is the process of grap. This does not provoke an attack of opportunity. If they suc- may also be used to trap a shield (see sidebar). usually by pinning it to the make any attacks with their trapping weapon. A pruning hook higher) opposed by the trapper’s Strength check. In order to maintain a shield trap. someone else is usually left to take advantage of this depending on the reach of the weapon). Possessing multiple nent's shield has become trapped. the bearer of the weapon must make a Metal spikes may be added to any shield but the Buckler or melee touch attack. Thresher 42 . make a Strength Tower Shield. Each turn the opponent can attempt to disengage his shield unlike a normal disarm. From Stone to Steel may drop the pruning hook to avoid falling. Bronze Armored Cloak. Since most of the move beyond the appropriate combat range from an oppo- weapons that may be used to perform a shield trap are two nent (5–10 feet in a circle around the trapped opponent. Some weapons possess a hook or feature that is especially use- ful in trapping a shield. opening. the oppo- regardless of the size of the shield. and the shield can- Any person with shield proficiency who has a spiked shield not be used for any special shield maneuvers or attacks while may attempt a disarm maneuver with their shield. If the attack succeeds. 20. 19. a disarm). the victim of a trapped shield can- disarm (including the roll to resist being disarmed if you fail not move without disengaging or dropping the shield. Dis- Shield Trapping engaging is a move-equivalent action. nor may they floor or pulling it out of its proper position. the trapper may not gain any defensive benefit from it. 17 18 19 20 21 22 17. Attempting a shield trap does provoke an attack of opportu- pling a shield and making it impossible for an opponent to nity. If that succeeds. the shield and weapon are no longer locked. and it cannot be used as long spikes on a shield does not confer an advantage in battle. 22. These spikes turn the shield into a martial check opposed by the defender's Strength or Dexterity weapon that deals 1d6 points of piercing damage (x2 crit) (whichever modifier is higher). 21. as it is trapped. and the shield user can again use the armor bonus of the shield. Bone (mandible) Sickle. ceed. Remember than any off hand penal- by making a Dexterity or Strength check (whichever is ties apply. if you have attacked with your regular hand weapon during the same turn. Bronze Plated Shirt.

who are simple. however. but the bronze sewn to its surface. Still. Bronze an improvised thrown weapon if so employed. the soldiers did not have the kind of training and disci- ing tool. might impale themselves against the spears. the hayfork is a two. so the Sickles are short. effective it was. Since the cavalry of The thresher was usually a pole with a length of chain attached the time was Battle Wagons. this along the inner curve. as the chain is the Battle Wagon behind them became a liability in the few not long enough to use in trip attacks. and the force of a pair of charging onagers and from the chaff. Chariots of Bronze 23 24 23. Scythe. Phalanx is a Greek word meaning battle line. mored or unsuspecting foe. the use of the phalanx maneuver at this time shows how pronged forked pole weapon. it’s remarkably their enemy to break the phalanx maneuver and open the Sumer- unsuited to combat. and a dan- gerous array of spearheads preceding it. weighted at the head is too light. Again. with a curved wooden shaft. It is in no way intended for throwing. and can only be used as New Feat: Formation Tactics: [General] You are trained to fight with other soldiers in formation. The spears of the fork) Sumerians were rarely longer than 7–8 feet in length. Not as com. The Sumerians used a basic phalanx tactic and about 8 inches in length. but can be worn Phalanx tactics (stacks) with other forms of armor. and there is no head encounters when someone did charge the battle line with one. leather cloak with bronze disks sewn to it. no longer than 6 feet in length. they tactic fares best against charging foes. Used primarily to harvest grasses. Lastly. it still saw that the shield of the soldier on the left overlapped the shoulder common use throughout the region by many of the Semitic of the soldier on the right. crescent-shaped knives with a sharp edge actual array of spear points was relatively shallow. separating the grain tactic was used. so prehensive as the more protective banded armors. Hayfork Cloak & Shirt. curved blade. and a long. This process created a nearly seamless shield wall. 24. It was Phillip II The bronze plated shirt is a leather vest and skirt with plates of of Macedonia who first perfected the phalanx tactic. especially cavalry. The Sumerian tactic had a few flaws. sharpened only on the inside. even in a time period where it could not see its Usually made of wood capped with metal. Third. ian army up to attack. This is not and forward. Bronze Scythe. stackable. rarely overlapping. of having soldiers stand in formation. 43 . Secondly. overlapping those held by the men behind them. Farm Implements (Sickle. it contributes little armor value. pline required to hold their position for long periods of time. but can cause terrible wounds to an unar. Each soldier held their spears low tribes who lived or traded with the Sumerians. shoulder to shoulder. the hayfork is used best application. Carried Thus an enterprising commander could use the impatience of at the side. a handle for both hands. Thresher. used to beat harvested grain. it is ill suited to combat. a like these are not optimal in a combat situation. The scythe is a long harvest. These plates are usually rectangular. Hay. there was rarely a time when this to the end. one-handed weapons not well suited for combat. Obviously items The bronze armored cloak is an unusual form of armor. and used in large sweeping arcs. Romans mastered it. to manipulate large piles of grain or grass for baling or sorting. Meant to deflect chance blows.

but refined it. Fortunately. This armor bonus stacks with any other a great leader. leading armies to son in front misses. usually fitness to fight. guide-bar and lashings. as the inheritor of Sumeria’s domain. substituting stabil- ity for mobility. If the person in front Hammurabi ascended the throne of Babylon. roll to hit for the person supporting them with Forma- the man alone appears to have been immense. busied itself on studying the nature of the afterlife. and Sumerians helped them to dominate Mesopotamia over other. the civilians of Benefit: Any person with Improved Formation Tactics also con. most armies of this period armor similar to that of the Egyptians. This meant that when an onager died Egypt’s only close neighbors were the various tribes to who lived while drawing the wagon. This bonus is lost the reputation of Babylon as a land where even slaves had rights. and his mind was tion Tactics. and wielded power over the lives of the civilians. the respective countries protested and staged costly rebellions fers a +1 to hit bonus to an ally if both people are threatening the against their own governments’ heavy handedness. the Battle Wagon was a substantial Egypt was surprisingly isolated from most other major cultural move towards mobility on the battlefield. a completely different type of Battle Wagons used a strong guide-bar and yoke. the King of Upper Egypt called together all the men of Battle Wagons often carried 6–10 soldiers on board. but they had a few notable differences: U king were very separate. Battle Wagons/Onager As mentioned before. itary force. dable army. even if both combatants remain in Babylon. the army to move people into strategic positions in the heat of Uniting all of Egypt under his own crown. The presence of strikes. If the per- also distinguished himself on the battlefield. it did not require much of a standing army. lightly armed with copper (later bronze) spears. their major enemy to the south. Babylonian archers favored the Obviously. in Egypt the role of the priesthood and the of the chariot. Battle Wagons could never reach the speeds or hood. studied and worshipped the gods and perform the maneuvers chariots could. This allowed cally advanced people of Lower Egypt. As such. he forged the begin- battle. (Egypt was in a period of Chaos. lon as its center. the onager is a donkey domesticated for North Africa: Egypt use as a draft animal. Already the stage was set for low combatant as well. And just as other major civilizations were waning armor bonuses that person may have. and the Harappans were disappearing). Combined with their didn’t have time to spend on this level of training. One reason same target and are standing in formation (this is especially for this reaction was the presence of prominent temples in the effective with reach weapons). when formation is broken. with Baby- New Feat: Improved Formation Tactics: [Gen. Hammurabi took it upon himself to conquer the majority of Sumeria and to establish his own nation. rather than a empire than that of the earlier Sumerians. Thus Despite its limitations. Sumeria was experiencing serious internecine warfare. Early in it’s history. These Battle Wagons were the precursor nlike Sumeria. the phalanx tactics and chariots. Besides establishing a legal code that bonus to successfully strike the charger as well. on the other hand. Pharaoh himself did maintain a personal guard and policing force. so its military was relatively weak during the Bronze Age. but without any bonus to hit. The lesser tribes. The king controlled the armies. The priest- Battle Wagons are larger. the person in the support position may still victory defending weaker Sumerian cities from ambitious kings. a man named roll to hit for the combatants in front. possessed the their relative positions. another was stack with the aid another combat maneuver. This is because would be referenced and built upon for centuries. the Babylonians fielded a formi- Romans would change that. with four wheels. same technology. and Babylonian soldiers wore banded Tactics can be deadly. The support combatant gain’s a +3 circumstance obviously quite keen. and conquered them. and its use by the centers. This is a free action that does not City of Babylon that were sacked during the raids. lead a campaign against the more technologi- well trained and ready to jump off an into battle. eral] Babylon ruled just as much by cultural influence as it did by mil- You are trained to fight with other soldiers in formation. In the end. Later on. Hammurabi both weapons are in line with the charge in question. engineers. roll to strike. and. its scientists. and the the animal’s body before it could cause trouble. first Kassites. Indeed. ning of the Egyptian Empire. there was no way to quickly release in the Sinai Peninsula or in the wild lands to the west. Assyria was being conquered by the If a line with multiple ranks is bracing against a charge. for a shoulder to shoulder to another person who also possesses this time. when the armies of the Hittites and the Kas- Prerequisites: Formation Tactics sites invaded Babylon and sacked the royal city. Nubian Kingdom of Kush. From Stone to Steel Prerequisites: Shield Proficiency Babylon Benefit: Any person with the Formation Tactics feat standing Babylon was one of the cities in the Sumerian region. gained them renown in the region. cudgels 44 . armies full of soldiers with Improved Formation medium composite bow. and lugals made great strides that feat may confer their armor bonus for the shield upon their fel.

throwing. despite its similarities to the spear. being oval or weapons. large bladed spear). The alone by other major powers. forming small kingdoms. inverted teardrop shaped. Kopesh (a sword based on the sickle. The version listed in the Shields. In what would later become Lebanon. than the sword) could inflict brutal wounds. Personal ornamentation was rarely allowed. and would be forced to innovate. mentioned before. very heavily bladed spear set off center. the Phoeni- cians began to ply the sea developing advanced boats and ships Battleaxe. rise of many dynasties that Egyptians would come into contact the kopesh descends from a religious origin. they were not the more important than personal expression. due to its religious with bronze and bronze helmets into battle. Light leather garments became common among bronze and used on the field. 27a. and were almost never carried except ther up the Nile than Egypt. Egyptian weapons tables reflects the fine manufacture of these special Egyptian shields were typically large and long. 26c. and it was not until many dynasties axe). maces.significance. but they wore little armor. Bronze shields were only ones. They would found colonies all along the Mediterranean. a slightly offset. but its damage made it fearsome. Great Egyptian Shield. But the greatest deter. Canannite Sickle Sword (clubs). The Kingdom of Nubia. resembling a rency. is not made for facing the might of either giant neighbor. Egyptian Bronze Battleaxe. 45 . spawning one side. and sometimes battleaxe. Kopesh Bronze shields. 26a. Bronze Battleaxe. and a kind of throwing club made of after the unification of Egypt that the kopesh was recast in wood or bone. and soldiers and officers wore leather shirts banded was only given to choice elite units at first. knives. with a dipping blade on seeding their culture and religion in various places. since the hot weather made The famous Egyptian Kopesh occupies a very small niche in doing so exhausting. Egyptian Bronze and eventually developing the concepts of commerce and cur- The Egyptian battleaxe is unusual for the period. The kopesh sword was originally used in fer- Early Egyptian weapons included a kind of battleaxe (resembling tility rites. its symbolic form mimicking the common sickle. rather than a com- with more aggressive forces. it’s later civilizations. Bronze Kopesh Sword. Left relatively the design became standardized and mass produced. architecture. and long wooden or bronze Sword. especially in com- bat against lightly armored foes. light composite bows. Used just as much for thrusting as for chopping. they might also bear the device of the powerful king the soldier Forced Innovation: The Hittites served under. and existing in a very fertile valley. existed far- expensive and prized. after the the world of weapons. mon day origin. like the Kris blade of South East Asia. fighting wars. It seems likely that the kopesh the enlisted. A variety of Semitic peoples occupied the Holy weight made it unwieldy. hunting bows. since While Sumeria and Egypt were by far the most advanced civiliza- the stature and prominence of the commanding officer was tions in their region during the Bronze Age. and wielded more like an mainly silver and gold. 27b. kopesh’s heavy chopping blade (making it more akin to the axe Egypt had more inhabitants than most other major regions. and developed a unique culture and during ceremonies or matters of state. 26b. This Lands. although later it saw more widespread use when rent that Egypt possessed was its large population. Chariots of Bronze 25 26a 26b 26c 27a 27b 25. the military version of the The first kopesh swords were made of expensive metals. Often painted blue and gold. It would not be until much later. Bronze Battleaxe.

Trade for these items was light. Egyp- tians refined the design by developing better yokes that allowed for more maneuverability or the addition of up to 4 horses. and broke more easily than bronze. Unlike the Banded After the invasions of the Hittites. throwing and non-throwing. Early Iron Arrowhead. probably due to a lack of tin resources in their origi- nal region. Early Iron Weapons (Sword. Spear) These early iron weapons had little to recommend them as being better than their bronze counterparts. Early Iron Spear. Early Iron the driver. Early Iron Battleaxe. in order to prevent more such mili. this armor did not have effective armor and arms. 34. From Stone to Steel The Hittites were a people from outside of the Middle Eastern region. preferring to loot them and return home. This armor was usually backed by a simple leather shirt. as were the iron headed arrows they used. Banded Bronze was supported by a belted and plated skirt. Restrictive and bulky. The Hittites had two major assets when they finally made war on the major powers in the region: knowledge of horse taming and knowledge of iron smelting. who entered into Anatolia (modern day Turkey) and 28 lived among the similarly named Hatti people. and the Hittite swords were straight. It wouldn’t be until after bronze shortages started that iron craft would become popular. Iron has a tendency towards being brittle. and learned 32a 32b their lessons. a substantial advantage over bronze. 33. It was the knowledge of horse taming that gave the Hittites such a substantial advantage that they could attack and subdue the larger nations of Sumeria and Egypt. Generals in both major nations. and the Hittites became dominant. 32a. lighter and easier to throw than those of their southern 34 opponents. but piled up to four specialized chariot warriors in a chariot. pulled by horses rather than onagers. The spear came in two types. licked their wounds from the various Hittite campaigns. they found Spear. 29. 32b. Egypt developed more Armor listed in the Player’s Handbook. despite the simplifications of certain historical references. while Sumerian states stayed with two horses. as well as 28. and the heat alone could be stifling for a regular or long-term wearer. Early iron was not. themselves rebuffed. The Hittites developed iron smelting as an alternative to bronze working. tary defeats. though. War wagons were discarded in favor of faster. allowing thrusting attacks as well as slashing ones. lighter chariots. Thus early iron implements were not widely adopted. 31. Although still more prone to breakage than bronze spears. However. as iron was a little used metal commodity. turned back by people who had learned to Early Iron Arrowhead use their technology and improve upon it. and is much more likely to break and chip. 30. When the Hittites tried to attack again. Axe. it nonetheless protected very effectively and was seen in use by elite troops in the region. They were actually quite brittle. Both peoples 30 29 intermixed. Early Iron Sword. Shield Spikes 46 . the Hittites used a leaf-bladed throwing spear. chainmail as part of its foundation. and spread 31 throughout the Hatti lands. Egyptians developed a kind of armor formed of overlapping bands of bronze that circled the entire torso and Armor. iron 33 swords could have longer blades than bronze swords. although they were never able to hold these regions. although the novelty prompted some trade. it was effective. For ranged attacks. Bronze Banded Armor.

combined with warhorses who have a movement rate of 60 ft. Chariot Combat. = 60. then the chariot travels as fast as the slowest started. since 95 is faster than the slowest horse the chariot had two axles and was usually quite heavy. Sumerian battle wagon was usually lead by two horses. There can be little surprise that the Egyptian chariot was After the first incursions of the Hittites. and was expensive as a 1. of a driver.5 = 95. If 4 riders jump off. a warrior. The movement rate of the chariot is 45 feet (60 X 2 = 120. with two light warhorses who have a movement rate of 60 ft. and a driver. traveled faster. The total speed of the chariot will chariot or battle wagon significantly reduces their speed. Some iron implements began to be used in the late Bronze Then divide that figure by the number of axles on the vehicle + Age. 120/2 hariots are primarily about maneuverability on the battle- C field. The be 50 feet (50 (for slowest horse) X 4 horses = 200.15 = 45). use the following guidelines: 34a 34b 34a. ore repositories were found and processes to work bronze Example 1: A Sumerian battle wagon. 200 / 2 = 100. 60 . In order to determine the exact speed of the chariot or battle wagon.10 (-5 per 2 riders. although a handful of men did workhorse with another light warhorse (60 movement) the speed occupy the chariot. but it 100 . It was also quite brittle. 120/3 (2 axles + 1) = 40 feet. is carrying a driver the innate superiority of iron equipment. and this lead to more reluc. but dragging a light warhorses (60 movement). movement rate. it chariots. and driver) is lead by a dray workhorse (50 movement) and three These horses may have a movement rate of 60 ft. two wheeled. chariots began to be swift and imposing. an archer. with two horses. no matter what. Chariots of Bronze Each horse can only travel as fast as the slowest horse. and only 3 men in the chariot.). Ultimately. would spell the end and 3 soldiers. but iron was harder to smelt. since the will travel no faster. feet (slowest horse) x 2 horses = 120 feet. Chariots in the bronze age were lead by war-trained light horses. For every two men on a chariot. if they are able to replace the dray weight was significantly less. warrior. since the four horses could share the burden equipped with nail-studded wheels. Even if the archer and warrior leave the chariot. horses. bronze would see a resurgence in popularity as more horse can move. the shortage of tin. and there are a few mechanics that can be used to sim- ulate chariot warfare. with 4 riders) = 30 feet. If the final number is greater than the speed of tance in the region for its use. Even well after the Iron Age the slowest horse. The Babylonian travels at 50. Greek chariot 47 . subtract 5 from the divided result. Multiply Iron and the Late Bronze Age the speed of the slowest horse by the total number of horses. However. 40 . which adds +1 to the die roll of the chariot quite effectively. lead by two light were refined. The Egyptian chariot usually had a team of 4 of the chariot will increase to 60. Egyptian chariot. the movement rate of the chariot will rise to 55 feet! Example 3: An Egyptian chariot with 3 riders (archer.) Chariots and Example 2: A Babylonian chariot has 1 driver and 5 soldiers. 34b. The movement rate of the battle wagon is 30 ft (60 of the age.

hex grid was a moderate maneuver. and a chariot driver should roll once to 2 Skid compensate during non-combat situations. Rocks Moderate If you move into an impassible terrain. fall out. or beaches cause moderate trouble. and causes no inherent difficulty. a driver is bound to fail his Handle Ani- mal skill check at some point. they fall out. while Table 2-2: Terrain on an even number they accelerate. 4 Major Jolt rocky wasteland. If you make a terrain change roll appropriately. or every other turn 3 Jolt during combat situations. chariot. All occupants Chariots have a rigid axle and little suspension at best. for every 20 feet of movement per turn a chariot travels. On a 1 slip two columns to the left. Over 24" Water Impassable On a 4 slip two columns to the right. Roll 1d6. Movinghalf of the movement forward and half of it at a will take 1d6 falling damage. If they fail. forward. Severe trouble requires a to come to a new position. so it is of the chariot must make a Balance check. they a severe maneuver. We’ll forward. diagonal (if using a square or hex grid). What does that failure indicate? Terrain Roll 1d6 and look at the chart below: Terrain has an impact on driving. except using Tumbling). or they turns. On a 3 slip one column to the right. Moderate trouble requires a severe maneuver. All occupants must make a of the movement is at a diagonal and half at a perpendicular is Balance check. which 5 Possible Break requires a skill check every turn. DC 25. Handle Animal roll against DC 25. except for the widest and slowest of soft fall roll (as per Ride rules. ignore the result and just move the Steep slope Moderate full allotment. From Stone to Steel Hazards Slips. DC 20. Three column shifts are a Handle Animal roll against DC 15. Tree Impassable Skid: On a roll of 2 the chariot skids. Turning Jolt: On a roll of 3 the chariot experiences a jolt. as per table prompting of the driver. These are roads. If they fail. grass- lands. and any movement left continues in the same direction. On a 6"–24" Water Severe 2 slip 1 column to the left. A slip is when a vehicle shifts a column to the left or right but still continues Certain situations cause trouble for a chariot driver. Some other specific features 6 Crash require a roll each time encountered: Accelerate/Decelerate: On a roll of 1 the animals ignore the Simply changing terrain also prompts a skill check. Some terrain is easy to travel on. whose flat and featureless ground makes Table 2-4: Driver Mishap charioteering easy. and plains. Treat a skid as an uncon- Shallow water ( up to 6") Moderate trolled slip. and continue in the same direction for 2–3 below: the rest of their current movement. two column divide this trouble into three grades: Minor trouble requires a shifts are a moderate maneuver. since you’re allowing the chariot to skid a bit Handle Animal roll against DC 20. This slip does not require a roll. Mishaps With all of this rolling. and may attempt to make a soft fall roll (as per Ride Table 2-3 Terrain Changes From Æ Road Plains/Grassland Sand Rolling Terrain Rough Terrain Beach To Road X Minor Minor Minor Minor Minor Plains / Grassland Minor X Minor Minor Minor Minor Sand Minor Minor X Minor Moderate Minor Rolling Terrain Minor Minor Minor X Minor Minor Rough Terrain Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate X Moderate Beach Minor Minor Minor Minor Moderate X 48 . In addition. on the other hand. are easier to control. to stay in the chariot. Roll 1d4. On an odd num- ber the animals decelerate the vehicle by 10 feet a turn. and may attempt to make a Turning at all is difficult. A one-column shift slip requires no roll. is a minor maneuver. add one to the DC of any maneuver. If you are at the maximum Light slope Minor speed and you roll an even. A Move (turn) where half possibly going up on one wheel. A move where all of the movement is at a diagonal on a square or Major Jolt: On a roll of 4 the chariot experiences a major jolt. to stay in the no exaggeration that chariots have only one direction. Sand or rolling terrain (such as moorlands) 1 Accelerate/Decelerate cause minor difficulty. the chariot crashes. Rough ground like sparse forest.

let them breath a sigh of relief. most of all. The ones who suc- ceed will be thrown from the crash. as does a fractured hub. Chariots were highly mobile. Charioteers were an elite set of warriors. Each occupant must roll a Reflex save vs. roll tion of traits. or they will take 1d6 falling Charioteer Prestige Class damage. It’s difficult to survive a crash like this unmaimed. Otherwise. A broken axle will force the chariot to grind to a halt (decelerating at 20 feet per turn). The driver must make an unmodified dexterity check vs. and possibly dying from a precarious perch that could throw DC 20. which meant Table 2-5: Breakage that the charioteers had to be ready to fight in the thick of bat- 1 Cracked Guide-bar tle. the charioteer had to have a strange combina- driver succeeds. but also quick to react and of sound tactical reflexes. except using Tumbling). Worse still. or if you are forced into impassable terrain. and will only take 1d6 points of falling damage. Charioteers. or to reinforce weak areas in order to bolster defenses or tip 2 Fractured Hub the favor to the side of the offense. If the them at any time. DC 25 upon a crash. trained to ride one of Possible Break: On a roll of 5 the chariot is in precarious dan. All charioteers had to be knowledgeable in gen- 1d6 and consult the chart below to see what kind: eral animal handling. the most dangerous vehicles of any time. which may or may not continue to cause the person to take damage (DM’s option) and either way must be removed to free the victim. A Lost Wheel brings the chariot to a halt (decelerating at 30 feet per turn). The ones who fail are the truly unlucky ones. Crash: On a roll of a 6 (a bad break). and riders must survive a Major Jolt roll to stay on board. you crash. as often the survival of the 4 Lost Wheel whole relied on the contributions of all individuals. there is a 25% chance that they are trapped under either debris or a fallen horse. or the chariot experiences a major accident. although riders need only make a jolt roll to remain in the vehicle. They take 1d6 points of damage for every 10 feet per turn the chariot was traveling when it crashed. 3 Broken Axle had to think and work well together. Dedicated to fighting ger. 49 . 5 Broken Guide-bar 6 Horse breaks leg A cracked guide-bar makes any maneuver one level harder. Chariots of Bronze rules. The broken guide-bar or death of a horse brings about a crash.

the charioteer may opt to gain a charioteer abil- Hit Die: d8 ity or feat from the following list. oft doomed chariot right into the face of the enemy. From Stone to Steel Teamsters. its requirements must be met before it can be taken. from drivers to archers to throwers to sol. armor check penalties for armor heavier than leather apply to ring. or to jump free when there necessary for him to function on the battlefield. Move ter than average sense of balance helped. Attributes: Dexterity of at least 12. or rocky terrain. and agile archers all made good proficient with light and medium armors and shields. and can ignore any moderate Class Skills terrain change rolls. Search (Int). A bet. Jump. they can pursue any route of advancement they desire. Escape Artist. the skills Balance. Skills: Handle Animal 5 ranks. Use Rope (Dex) make. level afterwards. Intuit Direction (Wis). The charioteer gains an addition +2 to any special maneu- vers requiring a skill check. Balance 6 ranks Advanced Terrain Control: Requires Advanced Chariot Dri- Feats: Iron Will. Exotic Weapon Proficiency (Whip) ving. Balance (Dex). a character must fulfill the gains a +2 to any special maneuvers requiring a Animal Han- following requirements. Handle Animal Advanced Turn Control: Requires Advanced Chariot Dri- (Cha). Hide. inside and out. such as road to grassland/plains or slopes. Skill Points at Each Level: 4 + Int Modifier Brace Javelin: A charioteer has trained to use a javelin as a melee weapon in a pinch. with this skill can attempt the risky maneuver of cutting the lashings from an injured or killed horse. level of balance a person standing in a chariot in motion must The Charioteer Prestige class is somewhat unique in that it does make a Balance skill check as if moving at full their full move- not describe a single path. and Tumble. They are also Table 2-6: Charioteer Class Base Fort Ref Will Level Attack Bonus Save Save Save Special 1st +1 +0 +2 +0 Charioteer’s Balance 2nd +2 +0 +3 +0 Bonus Feature/Feat 3rd +3 +1 +3 +1 Bonus Feature/Feat 4th +4 +1 +4 +1 Bonus Feature/Feat 5th +5 +1 +4 +1 Bonus Feature/Feat 6th +6 +2 +5 +2 Bonus Feature/Feat 7th +7 +2 +5 +2 Bonus Feature/Feat 8th +8 +2 +6 +2 Bonus Feature/Feat 9th +9 +3 +6 +3 Bonus Feature/Feat 10th +10 +3 +7 +3 Bonus Feature/Feat 50 . This distracts the charioteer. Requirements Advanced Chariot Driving: A charioteer with this ability To qualify to become a Charioteer. Without this was no other way to survive. But sometimes even that wasn’t enough. if a person has the skill requirements necessary to becoming a Bonus Ability/Feat: Starting at second level. Spot (Wis). It took a certain amount of guts to ride the bone-jar. The charioteer gains a +3 to any turn maneuver roll they (Dex). The basic structure allows a great deal of customization. see below. to risk your own neck so that the driver or archer next to Akin to sea legs. Tumble (Dex). dling check. If that ability or feat has a pre- requisite. and can ignore minor terrain change rolls. Intimidate (Cha). Note that charioteers. and following each Charioteer. ambitious soldiers. With only a primitive suspension. Ride ving. so all other maneu- with all simple weapons and martial weapons. remain standing. due to extensive training and practice. such as road to sand. the chariot diers. Cut Lashings: Requires Defensive Driving. Climb. The Charioteer’s class skills (and the key ability for each skill) are Animal Empathy (Cha). melee. Jump (Str). but rather a more general path to create ment rate on a precarious surface every turn they wish to a variety of charioteers. Intelligence of at least 12 Advanced Guard: This is a new feat. as did quick reflexes Silently. The charioteer tige class. and was a perilous vehicle. Pick Pocket. the balance of a charioteer in his chariot is you could survive to get you through. Class Features All of the following are class features of the Charioteer pres. in order to prevent a Weapon and Armor Proficiency: Charioteers are proficient major crash. and does not incur the standard -4 unfamiliarity penalty normally incurred from such use. and Charioteer’s Balance: All charioteers are trained to be able to then it took almost suicidal confidence to drive horses into stand on the floorboard of the chariot while it is in full motion. and a sharp mind.

arc and strike with increased threat range. Shield Proficiency 51 . A charioteer with this ability may throw or fire an arrow mum equal to the charioteer’s class level). they may with no regard to prerequisites. A charioteer with this ability may add You have trained to fire from under the cover of other’s shield 1 point of bonus damage for every 10 feet of speed a chariot is traveling to all throws or shots in the forward arc (up to a max. This ability can but not both. ioteer if they have Ride By Attack. all minor risks become moder. per round mum speed of the chariot by 10 while using this maneuver. +3 for a large shield. DC 25 + Skill Focus (Handle Animal): The charioteer has a +2 bonus 1 for every 10 feet of current movement. Success indicates the on all skill checks using the Handle Animal skill. within their throwing or bow range increment in the forward ate risks. and +4 for a great shield. Chariots of Bronze vers during that turn are at -2.) Improved Shield Guard [General] Ride By Attack: The Ride By Attack feat may be taken by a You have trained to guard more than one person with your charioteer with no regard to prerequisites. without shield. the streak- ing shot damage applying to only the first person in line. see below. at 40 feet. Prerequisites: Shield Guard. depend. Likely this second charioteer with this ability throws or fires powerful missiles would only be used when in an enemy chariot. and must make a dexterity check vs. The minimum penalty from firing from under cover is -1. may add +1 Extended Shot: Requires a charioteer first take Mounted to damage rolls for every 10 ft. Crushing Impact: A charioteer with this ability. Mounted Archery: The Charioteer may take Mounted Archery Benefit: : If a person with this feat forgoes any attacks. Thus all maneuvers Streaking Shot: Requires a charioteer first take Mounted should be considered one level higher in risk. weapon in hand. see below. This New Feats ability cannot be used with barbed weapons that lodge or Deflect Missiles [General] through targets of Large size or greater. The tum of the chariot. Normally using the whip in this using this feat can take no other action in a combat round. see below. You have trained to deflect missiles with a large or great shield. based on the type of shield wielded. This reduces the maxi. the charioteer may add Impaling Shot: Requires a charioteer have Streaking Shot. in the forward arc farther. Prerequisites: Point Blank Shot imum bonus equal to the charioteer’s class level). using a bludg- eoning weapon and mounted on a moving chariot. and their attunement with origin. if that roll is successful. when using the streaking shot. the charioteer may add a +4 damage bonus to all shots in the forward arc. but a weapon that normally has a threat on a roll of 19–20 would adds a +2 armor bonus to either the horses or the passengers. However the chariot looses the Spirited Charge: The Spirited Charge may be taken by a char- speed of the horse (either ¼ or ½ of the chariot speed. Alternately. (Example: If the chariot is traveling up). shield Rope Arrows: This is a new feat. A charioteer tinues in the same direction. but can be ing from under the cover of someone else’s shield (rounded used on an extended shot. The damage for this is rolled normally. +2 for a small use their whip to make an attack once a combat round. Sway: Every passenger with Sway may add a +1 bonus to the Chariot driver’s skill roll to perform a risky maneuver or keep Fire from Under Cover: This is a new feat. see below. ever. of movement add +10 to the range. of movement. only be used 1 time per day for every 4 levels of the charioteer. The impaling throw or shot con- Tight Turning: Requires Advanced Turn Control. The driver must have a slashing Shield Guard: This is a new feat. see below. This makes all Archery. wounded or dead animal has been cut free in the nick of time. the chariot under control. Penetrating Shot: Requires a charioteer have both Extended Fire from Under Cover [General] Shot and Streaking Shot. by taking advantage of the momentum of the chariot. This cannot Benefit: A person with this feat may halve the penalty from fir- be combined with the streaking shot damage bonus. A charioteer with this ability may fire at a target simple maneuvers minor risks. due to the momen- Defensive Driving: Requires Advanced Chariot Driving. etc. of movement (up to a maxi- Archery. now have a potential critical on a roll of 17–20. This confers a deflection bonus. that person is hit by the throw or shot as well. threat range by one. A separate to hit roll must be made at -4 to hit. How- their animals. in addition to normal armor bonuses. and may hit any other target in an with this skill is able to halve all DC for turn rolls. Deflect Missiles: This is a new feat. of. manner makes any maneuver a -2 for the combat round. For every 40 ft. This is a full round action. if moving at 80 ft. For example. A +1 to the difficulty of a driver skill roll. and is hard to control. A person sacrificing any driving rolls. For each 40 ft. and the chariot does not crash. This repre- adjacent square provided they are in a direct line from point of sents their superior turning skill. ing on model). People with this Offensive Whip Use: The chariot driver with this skill may feat gain a +1 deflection bonus for a buckler. increase the charioteer can opt to drive defensively. concentrate on deflecting any incoming missiles they are aware Moving Mount/Dismount: This is a new feat.

a large shield confers 25% cover. Benefit: Any person with the Moving Mount/Dismount feat may attempt to mount or dismount a vehicle or riding animal Not long after the rise of Sargon. 52 . however. The areas of the Indus Valley motion. and gold with Sumeria via sea and overland travel to get finely made Sumerian items. skill) to avoid falling damage. and trading precious stones. that. Behind them they left cities had at one time sheltered upwards Normal: Normally this is a highly risky maneuver. From Stone to Steel Benefit: A person with this skill can cover a number of people The Far East equal to their Dexterity bonus at one time. as well. day Afghanistan and the plains people of Northern India. and a great shield confers 50% coverage. This tends to make it hard to discover real infor- Rope Arrows [General] mation on cultures that did not fare so well. reduces the range increment for such an arrow to 10 feet. spice up an adventure. ways to prevent their eventual decline. including weapons and armor. for us to learn about them. copper work. although doing so will provoke an attack of Lost Civilizations opportunity. and will seek out shield confers 10% coverage. they the animal or vehicle in motion. Anyone with shield guard may confer a bonus of par. Suc. Some cultures You have practiced firing arrows that trail a rope line. Or perhaps. lacking strong cultural bonds. Shield Guarding is a move-equivalent action. The Harappans. Lost civilizations give the DM an excellent opportunity to introduce uncommon or out of place items into a campaign. as per Shield Guard. Throughout history. Although some suspect that they may have had a hand in the Note: This may be used to board unfriendly vehicles or ani- mals. separating industrial Prerequisites: Ride 6+ or Handle Animal 6+ and urban districts. the Harappan civ- All these people must be within the same line of fire. It seems likely that some Mediterranean culture was the basis for this mythi- Prerequisites: Point Blank Shot. not counting the armor check penalty. The maximum States. You can revisit the Harappans metropolis. there is no evidence to support shield guard. Existing in a fertile valley. Precise Shot cal land. Note that coverage tently. DC 25 roll. as per the home-grown Atlantis. began to enter the mal. Perhaps characters may become tial coverage on anyone within 5 feet of themselves. cal records. cross the Hindu Kush. and can under fire. Shield Guard [General] Historical lost civilizations can make interesting and unfamil- You are trained to protect others with your shield iar settings for semi-historical campaigns. designing their walled cities before they were built. and the increased aridity drove Maneuver. them from the cities. mal while it is in motion practicing paving of roads with brickwork. or climb the ladders to the cliff Prerequisites: Shield proficiency dwellings of the lost Anasazi. an Indo-European civilization. The Aryans. The per- son with this skill can count themselves as one of the persons A ilization briefly flourished. as though making a fast mount or dismount. left cultural records. as appropriate) at +5 DC (DC 20 as found under the Ride Indic region around the time of the decline of the Harappans. We learn a little at a time about their culture by tokens. which allowed people to have indoor bathrooms. Benefit: A person with this skill has learned to compensate for like the Anasazi of the four corners region of the United the drag a rope attached to an arrow can cause. building methods. Moving Mount/Dismount [General] The Harappans were the first culture to actively practice city You are trained to mount or dismount a vehicle or riding ani- planning. becoming part of both the mountain tribes of modern the armor check penalty. and Normal: A rope creates a lot of drag on an arrow. the victors are the one’s who write the his- tory books. rather than a great deal of histori- range for a rope arrow is the range increment. Improved Shield Guard covers. the Harappans they are qualified to ride (see Prerequisites) while it is in began to experience drought. By the time of the rise of Babylon they cess indicates the character has safely mounted or dismounted had been driven North and. become part of myths or legends. they will become the reason for the sinking of your own can interfere with the attacks of those being shielded. every 10 feet afterwards incurs a -1 to hit. This requires a standard Ride or Handle Animal they inhabited were drying. that Aryans did split during their migra- tion. but history gives us little to go on. Such cultures give you a good Benefit: Charioteers often had to defend their comrades while degree of flexibility in semi-historical campaigns. Thus. Failure requires a soft fall maneuver (using the ride skill or handle ani. with a portion entering the Hindu Kush and settling there. like Atlantis. Someone shield guarding another does not gain the defensive armor bonus of that shield while performing a downfall of the Harappan people. requiring a of forty thousand people. rules of coverage. in the Indus valley. they developed a strong agrarian culture. and even developing a prototype sanitation system. inadver- age. It is know however. and effectively common items we find in those sites. Note that this action is effected by region. A small attached to the unique culture they discover. If the character fails they may eventually merged with the other tribal populations of the take an automatic soft fall.

possibly of Indo-European stock. involving characters like the Three Cultural diers wore various kinds of armor. These characters. or perhaps even independent groups. across the Himalayas. and ended his reign. the Hsia were said to have ruled since Sumerians. the supreme god. respectively) and the Three Sage Kings who money spent on his equipment. to a kind of leather lamellar to a bronze studded leather patch- and fishing. In the end there eventually absorbed into the larger Chinese culture. with perhaps a spear and a knife. The soldiers in the Shang army were divided into three seg- ments. The station of the soldier dictated the amount of Taoist philosophy. T’ang. other than bronze bladed knives and pottery. and it is great deal of otherwise irrational behavior. Genesis. or philosophical movements. that the King ruled. so it seems possible as well as subsequent cultures in the region. the archers. the Harappans or Sumeria. and virtue. ranging from tanned leather Heroes (who taught the Chinese about writing. Chariots of Bronze 35 36 37 35. Archaeological evidence for any culture prior to the 53 . these stories are generally driver. would become justification for a record. though. or the City of Troy. and each wagon contained a written about the Hsia. Like the In the north of China. and its armies benefited from new develop- age tribes of ancient China. that we may eventually find evidence of the Hsia. lowing Shang Dynasty. may not have actually corresponded with individuals as they might have to cultural segments. Still. clarity. however. a man of reputed virtue. 36. left very little this precedent. Sol- mythical in nature. These tribes. like the fol- their influence would eventually shape the formation of religion. trapping. the Shang developed Battle Wagons. hunting. small tribes lived in the wilds of Empire. In Shang before the rise of Sargon. As in Sumeria. once in place. There are a great number of stories China these were lead by horses. government and work suit. and we are still discovering cultures thought mythical. and a soldier armed with a battle-axe. Clubs rounded out the limited much like the long list of ‘begats’ found in the biblical book of armory of a Shang era soldier. ments in bronze working. Bronze Studded Leather Block Armor. establishing the Shang North. and may have had trade with Shang Te. 37. rose up against the decadent China emperor Chieh. but tribes. Recent archaeological evidence suggests that these tribes became established in Chinese culture. and most soldiers were armed ruled with perfect wisdom. tribes. Empire flourished. It was the mandate of had some bronze working ability. agriculture and mercantilism. an archer. and the charioteers. the Shang likely that they were either remnants of the Yang-shao era stone. the infantry. Bronze-Bound Leather Lamellar. Bronze Ge while another portion entered India and conquered the native Shang Dynasty does not confirm the existence of the Hsia. The Aryan culture would dominate for quite a while. During this empire the concept of Divine Mandate China.

a soldier trained with the Two Weapon Fighting feat sometimes prematurely aged. The Inca had a God-Emperor who was believed to be the avatar of nobles could convene religious ceremonies. to marry into the aristocracy. And structure of lamellar armor. When on the march the men were severely ened Shang dynasty. not unlike that in Egypt. on the unsharpened edge. creating blood ties between all Though the nobles lived in luxury. cleaver and a sword. they redefined hard wood and jackets of thick cotton. and fractured China into various smaller policed. with a simpler. as if you were using a one weapon of warfare. where was uncommon in the Shang Dynasty. likely only held by the elite. each warring with each other for resources and power. Bronze horse's head. a tactic that will be kingdoms. and give the whole suite its character. slots with small bends in them. rate from their rulers. and to gather support from the faithful. heavier than regular Sword. curving. and practiced many forms The Inca of divination. and is made up of squares. were empire-builders. chopping blade. rectangular wooden shields. to an almost Byzantine scale. and not allowed to live off the land. and large. describing the overlapping plate macy of the regime. and 2–3 inches long. The Divine Mandate The Shang worshipped their ancestors. simpler than Aztec Cotton the nature of the Divine Mandate. the green verdegris giving the could be quite formidable with this weapon. Most versions had indentations its weight. Lamellar is the precursor to scale this support would be necessary. In a fantasy world. lighter blade. For information on sword Armor. heavy copper maces (similar to the Sumerian 54 . Around the God-Emperor lived an intricate aristocracy of their study of the stars and letters made them seem altogether intermarried tribal leaders from the various tribes the Inca sub- mystic in nature. caves and farmed with bone tools. The men were issued helmets of As the Chou dynasty consolidated their power. and gives the suit a good deal of that was in common use in Asia. and were likely held by weapon in one hand cannot use this weapon as a double weapon. Bronze-Bound Leather religion and secular power was intended to cement the legiti- Lamellae is a Latin word. Ironically. please refer to the Far East chapter. But the cir- were often made after the death of great personages. the Inca took family this elite scholar class. and a plated skirt. almost sepa. When most of the rest of the this actually fostered a great deal of plotting and scheming among world was experiencing the Iron revolution. rather than laced and over. the Fu was not a with fighting with two weapons. And the general populace lived very poorly indeed. somewhat a cross between a its cost. If used Fu. As part of the conquering process. or irregular own. Bronze in this manner. The eventual prede- weapon is an axe on a 4-foot pole. and for kings those sacrifices might be human. the user incurs all the normal penalties associated A light axe. golden brown metal a kind of stately splendour. the commoner still lived in members of the Empire. Sacrifices he Inca. while Sorcerers might come from the gen. The Inca had regimented armies. Men marched in formation. Princes and other powerful T cumstances and methods were completely different. A creature using a double many Fu blades were embellished. the Mongols. From Stone to Steel Lamellar. since there was no official priesthood. or Egypt. layered over each other to fashion a shirt. This disparity probably brought about the and when an army was raised it could number from 200 to 300 next revolution. But this is a story for another time. Again. The bronze studs usually cover the lacing holes. and established the King as Armor. but one of status. prominent men and warriors of state. and Sun. Grain Bronze The bronze in the bronze-bound leather lamellar suit is there to The Grain Sword's form descended from a grain-beating stick keep the entire suit together. Babylon. which were intended for sword breaking. like the Aztecs. a battleaxe and a light staff. greater use in later periods. Shang China still lived in a barely Neolithic culture. the peasants of the aristocracy. During the Shang Dynasty. handed weapon and a light weapon. Just as the Chou came into its armor. lapping. the Horse Head sword was so called because the blade slightly resembled the curve and posture of a Ge. including astrology and throwing bones. Wizards would come from dued. members from the leading families of a people and forced them eral populace. Slings and fire intermediary between heaven and earth. rectangles. thousand men. but cessor of the Horse Head sword would be the Dao. followed by copper war bolas. when the Chou usurped power from the weak. examined in the next chapter. although it would see the squares are sewn edge to edge. it would face attacks from the most feared ‘barbarians’ in square or rectangular shaped plates. shoulder pauldrons. those who learned to read and Manco Capac. This weapon may be wielded as if fighting with two weapons. Studded Leather Block Bronze breaking. giving it longer reach. the first King of the Inca people and God of the write formed almost a scribe class. Sword. which may have had tassels. Most Shang relics of the Horse Head sword have a Longer than its counterparts in Sumeria. Again. it makes up for it with excellent protection for A heavy. Horse Head Bronze studded leather. usually 1–2 inches wide history. usually with sleeves. The grain sword The Leather Block armor is a somewhat simpler design. ostensibly to prevent betrayal. this wide loop hilt. In their place. the mating of hardened spears were the most common weaponry. Their bronze blades were Obviously.

the Spanish had cavalry. macanas (a long war club). and a -4 penalty on effective Dexterity. variety of reasons. in order to isolate potential victims. 40. it is sturdy. and should be considered an exotic weapon. 44. It is 42 39 38 40 43 41 44 38. Bronze Grain Sword 55 . and let loose in a land without immunity. entangle chance to 50%. The Incan Cotton armor was not on the same level of protection onage. it must succeed superior technologies. both If an entangled creature attempts to cast a spell. make drums. Bronze Fu. This bola is made of 3 lumps of copper bound by cord. at a Concentration check (DC 15) or be unable to cast the spell where the Inca did not. in order to impress upon witnesses the fierce nature of superior protection. the Incan Emperor would send trusted Bola. the Inca also used two tactics more Armor. It rain. attack. The Inca frequently murdered important enemies in hor. European dis- eases were unrelated to anything in the New World. But perhaps the most important with a somatic component. weapons the Spanish had were their diseases. covering to cushion the helmet. Copper Incan Handaxe. In the end the Incas literally died out. If successful. Still. there is a 25% chance the target is entan- These tactics were highly effective. heads. Copper Incan Halberd. and llamas were no good for that use. Chariots of Bronze mace). or fashion into cups. They would often take trophies from their ene. or skins. 41. Besides regimental training. Bronze Horse Head Sword. 43. When targeting a tribe for inclusion in the empire. are sick. 42. 39. The Spanish had firearms and steel. War Copper close family members to that tribe. issued a sling. The entangled Why were the Incas conquered? The Inca were conquered for a creature can only move at half speed and cannot charge or run. Incan Cotton Armor. their receptivity and preparedness. the only things they lacked were cavalry. copper axes. As an interesting note. and a kind of impossible to raise an army for defense when all of your men copper halberd. Make a ranged touch to give bribes to key players. to get information on the ter. such as skulls. and use them to decorate. and made them supreme in gled. number of soldiers. Incan Cotton common with later civilizations: calculated cruelty and espi. A -2 penalty can be taken to the attack roll to increase the their region until the coming of the Spanish. In addition. Indeed. An entangled creature is a -2 on attack rolls. all soldiers were the Incan Empire. and the helmet offered rific ways. those diseases ravaged the people of the Incan Empire more than anything else. as the Aztec armor was. Copper War Bola. and most used the sling as an impromptu head mies.

The bronze sword of Europe was a straight bladed weapon. if you have attacked with your regular hand weapon during the same turn. Bronze Sword Minoa were the most powerful ships of their time. ity and burial became important as evidenced by paintings and and a flanged mace head on the back. seemed comfortable using large amounts of metal in their armors. whether to use the axe blade to chop at an enemy. This versatility was unique to the inter-tribal warfare. in order to maximize protection while still keeping a supple suit of armor. 46. and they had good ties with most areas. disarmed if you fail a disarm). and the triremes of 48. you do not drop your weapon. on the island of Crete. and armor of bronze. or the mace sickles. shields. It was used throughout the northern climes. this does not provoke an attack of opportunity. spears. Remember than any off hand 45 penalties apply. Bronze Hand Axe. Leather. Studded Bronze Softer leather armors were reinforced with bronze studs. Incan Copper raised or spiked boss (central metal plate). The Phoeni- 56 . Wealth brought tribes into groups. 46 Their bronze counterparts were common and readily available. perhaps due to their milder climate. swords. naval technology was important. shield. This weapon was often wielded by elite or gerous. Incan Copper trade did not stop. Bronze Celt. 47. armor. The Minoans The Minoans were a polyglot civilization. and deployed these in flanges to bash an enemy. Lamellar. these weapons still competed for more common use in Europe at this time. Europe & The Mediterranean Prerequisites: Shield Proficiency Benefit: Any person with the Shield Disarm who has a The Celts spiked shield may attempt a disarm maneuver with their In mainland Europe. The armor. with a wide base and tapering point. made of many tribes from most civilized regions in the world. and its modular nature allowed it extensive life. with a bronze suite 47 with rectangular plates. From Stone to Steel Handaxe. axes. The wielder shield allowed an experienced soldier to perform a disarming could use it to thrust. If your attacker succeeds in disarming you when you’ve attempted a Shield Disarm. as well as making shield bashes more dan- damaging surfaces. nation. or impale with any of the three tactic with the shield. As an island 45. The Europeans crafted adzes. was of various kinds. usually to protect someone of importance. instead. royal forces. and hered- The Incan handaxe was made with a small half-moon blade. and studded leather. Celtic Weapons Like the Adze and Axe of the stone-age period. at a +2 to disarm (including the roll to resist being tion from stone to bronze. ranging region from banded armor like that of later Egyptians. Metal Lamellars started in Eastern Europe. hack. 48 but. which was used to The Incan halberd consisted of an 8-foot spear with an attached deflect sword blows and protect the hand. the development of weapons. Unlike a normal disarm tures in the region. Bronze The Europeans. New Feat: Shield Disarm [General] You are capable of disarming an opponent using a shield spike. Spiking the boss of a axe blade and a rearward facing copper hook. The wielder could decide carvings. and maneuver. The bronze version of the celt also saw extensive use. European shields sometimes had a Halberd. drop your shield. Though there were no widespread cul. smelting brought with it a rapid transforma. to bronze lamel- lar. Bronze Adze. Thus their appearance was a general mixture of the regional stan- dards.

with peaked cap to bloodline (in a clan and tribal system bloodlines were often divert sword or axe strikes. Like their ships. Minoan Bronze Breastplate. The Mycenaens could be unfavorably typ- holding oil. make peace with their stronger neighbors. complete with leather studded cap. national interests were at stake. daggers. Bronze Lamellar. this culture tended to promote the interests of the Minoan Bronze breastplate armor was not as heavy or protec. Breastplate. individual. and even a kind of bronze longsword that was somewhat make war on particularly wealthy states or to come to the com- impractical but unique for its time. Minoan who received them as gifts. Longsword. Well made. ship as well as its use. it was a durable testament to the mixed). the heroic ideal comes from stories of this Mycenaen period. This armor would be repeated in the Myce. or other liquids) that the Minoans developed a ified by their tendency to prey on their weaker neighbors. although some “equals” were of it in their own architecture and art. clubs. who were known to have by those with the ambition to lead. They were a very kilt. wine. but kings might gather to swords. and is read widely. Many families 52 51 49 50 49. is still easily available today. these blades were often treasured by those ships were not as swift or maneuverable. likely of the snake or bull. slings. 52. mon defense. clan and tribe oriented people. capable armies of Minoa. javelins. The ‘Iliad’. Chariots of Bronze cians may have traveled far and wide. shields. both holy animals. The Mycenaens. The Mycenaens ciful images. We can guess from murals and pictures on amphorae (urns for and a right of kings. unlike many of the larger civilizations of the period. and traded much. also contain a great Able to craft long blades in fine bronze. 51. and each clan and tribe was lead naen culture of the mainland Greeks. but their time. All such kings were consid- highly admired Minoan civilization. They definitely developed held in higher regard than others. The ‘Illiad’ and ‘Oddessy’. Bronze Longsword 57 . Generally clans or tribes spears. maces. short were left to their own governance. Indeed. Well made. unlike the Minoans. as recorded by the bard Homer. any person could hope to become prominent. which weapons that were otherwise impossible for the material and involves the greatest Greek military campaign of the period. 50. and kind of bronze breastplate. but it was more effective than Since kingship often had more to do with actions than with the lamellar armors of Europe. and only saw battle when Minoan weaponry was described as elegant and prized for its workman. Bronze although laced with a great deal of myth. and leg greaves. Minoan weaponry was likely decorated with wavy images or fan. made war a way of life. tive as Mycenaen Bronze armor. and who took many aspects ered equal in Mycenaen society. the Minoans wielded deal of history and cultural information. Bronze Studded Leather. the Mycenaen Greek State was similar to the Scottish Clan structure of the Middle Ages. In a way. If their architecture is any indication. Minoan Bronze Ironically.

and javelins. and the Mycenaens eventually landed on Crete after the 53 54 53. and will no longer be useable after this. of a horse. For lighter infantry they also used linen cuirasses. these suits of destroyed) Mycenaen society flourished for a great period of armor were light and minimally encumbering. Strong. complete with conical helm. it is always at a -2 due to the plating. bows. cal weapon. belts. Mycenaen Bronze wounds. the Bronze Headcovering used by the Greeks The sling bullet. lighting arrows or using torches to set critical items ablaze. and is almost certainly use. Bronze Fire plate. while heroes of the ‘Iliad’. From Stone to Steel throughout Europe often tried to trace their bloodlines back to infantry to move quickly. is the fact that the headcovering also acts as blinkers for the horse. these bullets inflicted painful Breastplate. These were sub- Greece and Troy. of course. from either side of the war between leaving the arms and legs free for movement. was perhaps bronze was too expensive to make available for common use. knives. although there were rarely more than two soldiers in rounds. the pinnacle for armor in its time. and acted as blinkers. Mycenaen Greeks had developed a full bronze breastplate armor. This early armoring would eventually inspire full barding for horses. Arrow. By the sack of Troy. any given chariot. The Bronze Horse Headcovering Greeks were also known for their innovation with the sling: Not a true armor. Mycenaen Bronze Breastplate. 54. Although the battle of Troy depleted the home-front (indeed. this weighty conveys a +1 armor bonus vs. it will sufficiently burn out its fuel in 3 lonian. The Mycenaen chariot was roughly on par with the Baby. destroyed on impact. any strike intended to hit the head object obviously had more impact than a standard sling stone. the Greeks armored their chariot horses weight and unwieldy nature of the combustible material. many heroes of the Cuirass. which may have an impact on any ride skill rolls attempted. and were also known to use fire as a tacti. they employed chariots. Bullet. Linen & Plated Linen sack returned to find their own homes and lands pillaged and Made from many layers of cloth glued together. In addition. stantially less expensive to manufacture. and sometimes bore bronze a bronze head and can be fired unlit. breast. Essentially a slug of bronze. but still provided protection. If lit. these were only used by armies. and greaves. Bronze Sling Made from ingots of bronze. spears. Leather armor was also in common the fire arrow is not capable of flying as far. daggers. Note that with bronze headpieces. They allowed time. And. axes. Mycenae didn’t end with the sack of Troy. This was the heaviest armor of The fire arrow is used like any normal arrow except that it must be its time. as described above. The main point of interest for this method of armoring Mycenaens used swords. lit in order to gain the fire damage. Bronze Plated Linen Cuirass 58 . skirt. Superior to stones. Although the arrow does have which were light but protective. as Mycanean Breastplate armor. yet allowing good flexibility and mobility for its period. this kind of armor was The End of an Age crafted only for men of station and great wealth. shields.

2gp 1d4 19–20/x2 1. Without a dependable source of the Mycenaens were attacked and conquered by the Dorians. Bronze 3gp 1d6 x2 3.2gp 1d6 x3 6 lbs S MBW 4/18 Handaxe.5 lbs S MW 4/17 Sickle. Bronze 4gp 1d6 x3 7 lbs S MW 4/14 Longsword. But that period. Copper Tipped 7sp 1d6 x2 30ft 3 lbs P MW 4/9 Martial Weapons-Melee Small Celt. Bronze Studded 3gp 1d6 x2 6 lbs B MW 4/12 Club. and hard to work. Bronze 13gp 2d4 x4 13 lbs S MW 4/26 Scythe. Bronze Headed 8gp 1d8 x2 14 lbs B MW 4/28 Mace. Bone 1gp 1d4 x2 2 lbs S B 2/6 Sickle.5 lbs S/P MW 4/19 Battleaxe. Bronze 4gp 1d6 x3 5. Bronze Tipped 8sp 1d6 x2 30ft 4 lbs P MW 4/12 Javelin. Copper Studded 2gp 1d6 x2 5 lbs B MW 3/10 Hayforka 2gp 1d8 x2 7 lbs P MW 3/14 Mace. though. Sumerian Copper 6gp 1d8 x3 8 lbs S MW 3/16 Ge. Early Iron 8gp 1d8 x3 8 lbs S MW 4/16 Battleaxe.5 lbs S/B MW 3/17 Medium-Size Battleaxe. Copper Incan 3gp 1d6 x3 5. Bronze 4gp 1d6 x3 5. its first Dark Age. Eventually. expensive. Bronze†*a 3gp 1d8 x3 15 lbs P MW 4/30 Pruning Hook.5 lbs S MW 4/17 Handaxe. who plunged Greece into needed an alternative metal to maintain tools of the war trade. Bronze‡ 8gp 1d8 x3 11 lbs S/B M 4/22 Fu. Bronze 4. nor smooth. especially of tin. tin for forging bronze.4gp 1d4 19–20/x2 1. Copper Headed 6gp 1d8 x2 13 lbs B MW 3/26 Throwing Spear. Copper 2gp 1d6 x2 3. followed by mines in Assyria.5 lbs P M 4/6 Dagger. Bronze 7gp 1d6 19–20/x2 6 lbs P M 4/12 59 . Stone 1gp 1d4 x2 2. Copper 9sp 1d4 x2 1. Egyptian Bronze 7gp 1d8 x3 9. Copper 1. Bronze 1. will be And iron. Bronze 6gp 1d6 x2 3 lbs S M 5/9 Thresher (Proto-Flail) 3gp 1d6 x2 3 lbs B W 3/9 Medium-Size Club. Minoan society in the Mycenaen image. Copper 10gp 2d4 x4 12 lbs S MW 3/24 Simple Weapons-Ranged Medium-Size Javelin. Bronze 1gp 1d4 x2 1. Chariots of Bronze fall of the first Minoan society. metal-hungry and army-laden nations another Greek people from the north. Sumerian Bronze 7gp 1d8 x3 9 lbs S MW 4/18 Battleaxe. one main reason for the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age was a relative material short- Table 2-7: Bronze Age Weapons Simple Weapons-Melee Weapons Cost Damage Critical Range Wgt Type M H/HP Tiny Dagger. Mines in Anatolia began to give out first.5 lbs S M 4/4 Knife. as the next chapter explains.5 lbs S M 3/11 Sickle. Copper†*a 2gp 1d8 x3 14 lbs P MW 3/28 Scythe. and its recovery.5 lbs S S 2/8 Sickle Sword.5 lbs S M 3/4 Small Adze.5 lbs P M 3/6 Knife. As mentioned before. brittle. covered in the next chapter. was the answer. and attempted to re-establish age.5 lbs S M 4/11 Sickle. Early Irona 8sp 1d6 x3 20ft 4 lbs P WM 4/12 Large Pruning Hook. This transition from Bronze to Iron was neither universal. Bronze 12gp 1d8 19–20/x2 6 lbs S M 5/12 Sword.

Kopesh Bronze 8gp 1d6 18–20/x2 6 lbs S M 5/12 Large Halberd. Bronze Studded 23gp +3 +5 -1 15% 30ft/20ft 15lbs LM 4/30 Cuirass. Bronze Fire* (20) 20gp +1/rnd -10ft 3. Early Iron Headed (20) 1gp 3 lbs P WM 1/3 Bullet. Bronze Banded 165gp +5 +1 -5 25% 20ft*/15ft* 36lbs M 5/70 Shields Shield.5gp 1d8 x3 15ft 10 lbs P WM 4/20 Spear.5 lbs P+Fire WM 1/4 Arrow. Bronze Plated Linen 20gp +3 +5 -2 15% 30ft/20ft 25lbs MF 4/50 Medium Armor Breastplate. Early Iron 13gp 1d8 x3 5 lbs P/S M 4/10 Sword. Copper Headed (20) 8sp 3 lbs P WM 1/3 Arrow. Mycenaen Bronze 180gp +5 +3 -4 25% 20ft/15ft 32lbs M 5/64 Lamellar. Linen 14gp +2 +5 0 10% 30ft/20ft 12lbs F 3/24 Cuirass. War Copper* 2gp 1d4 19–20/x2 15ft 3. Bladed Bronze†a 2gp 1d8 x3 15ft 11 lbs P WM 4/22 Spear.5gp 1d8 x3 10 lbs P WM 4/20 Martial Weapons-Ranged Medium-Size Bow. Bronze 30gp +4 +3 -5 25% 20ft/15ft 32lbs M 4/64 Shirt. Braided or Hair#* 6sp 1d2§ x2 10ft 1. Early Iron†a 3. Small Bronze 5gp +1 -1 5% 5. Light War 45gp 1d6 x3 60ft 2 lbs Per arrow WC 4/6 Exotic Weapons-Ranged Tiny Bola. Incan Copper†a 8gp 1d10 x3 16 lbs P/S MW 3/32 Spear.5lbs M 4/14 Shield. Small Copper 4gp +1 -1 5% 5. Bronze-Bound Leather 60gp +3 +4 -2 25% 30ft/20ft 23lbs LM 4/46 Leather. Horse Head 7gp 1d6 18–20/x2 6 lbs Slashing M 4/14 Sword. Bronze Sling (10) 1sp 1d4 5. From Stone to Steel Table 2-7: Bronze Age Weapons Martial Weapons-Melee Weapons Cost Damage Critical Range Wgt Type M H/HP Medium-Size Sword. Great Bronze 32gp +3 -3 25% 22lbs M 3/44 Shield. Large Copper 14gp +2 -2 15% 16lbs M 3/32 Shield.5lbs M 3/14 Extras Cloak. Large Bronze 15gp +2 -2 15% 17lbs M 4/34 Shield. Bronze Plated 18gp +3 +4 -3 20% 20ft/15ft 22lbs M 4/44 Heavy Armor Armor. Bronze Headed (20) 9sp 3 lbs P WM 1/3 Arrow.5 lbs S C 2/5 Weapons Ranged-Ammunition Arrow.5 lbs B CM 2/11 Small Whip. Bronze Armored 5gp +1 +6 -1 5% 5lbs LM 3/10 60 . Bronze Studded Leather Block 22gp +3 +5 -1 15% 30ft/20ft 18lbs LM 3/36 Lamellar. Incan Cotton 9gp +2 +5 -1 5% 30ft/20ft 20lbs F 4/38 Armor.5 lbs B M 4/6 Table 2-8: Bronze Age Armor Armor Max Dex Armor Check Spell Spd Armor Cost Bonus Bonus Penalty Failure 30'/20' Weight‡ M H/HP Light Armor Armor. Great Wooden 18gp +3 -3 25% 13lbs W 3/26 Shield. Minoan Bronze 35gp +4 +2 -3 25% 20ft/15ft 30lbs M 4/60 Breastplate. Bladed Copper†a 1. Grain Bronze 9gp 1d8 18–20/x2 7 lbs Slashing M 4/14 Sword.

Iron and Empire Iron 63 Sparta 70 Rust 63 Athens 71 Faeries 63 Persia 71 Iron 63 The Greek-Persian Wars 72 The Paradox of Steel 63 Marathon 73 Assyria 63 The Second Invasion 73 The Assyrian War Machine 64 Rise of Macedonia 73 Slashing Weapons 64 The March of Alexander 76 Improvised Weapons 64 Customizing your Fighter 76 Chariot Upgrades 64 Morale 77 Psychological Warfare 65 Elephants. 77 The Scythians 67 Sub-Saharan Africa 78 Living off the land 67 Diffusion of Technology 78 The Greeks 68 Table 3-1: Iron Age Weapons 80 Greek Fire 69 Table 3-2: Iron Age Armor 81 Comparison: Sparta and Athens 70 61 .

Men on the walls who fueled them. and his eyelids felt leaden. pierced from belly to spine. The entire Greek line broke into a trot. they would be death-weary before the dippedes bound his wounds he realized how important this day was out. The gods had been with the thundered across the plain of Marathon towards the Greek Greeks on this day. and and run either. Thebans. He loosened the ties with fatigued fingers and let it slip the spirit of Ares among them or the bravery of the Spartans from his body. unsure of when his own end would come. He wondered at how much less work it was to just not try. nothing would stand in the way of the Per- what omen brought a blood-streaked soldier running from a sians marching on Athens. more upon iron blade and hardened wood. Clasping the captain’s hand. but he pushed himself to keep run- weary even to understand what they meant. After a day of battle he had felt dreds upon hundreds. where a large contingent of Spartans. As Phei- out tiring the soldiers. draw another deep breath. Pheidippides Niki. and the horses charged forward of battle. How echoing in his ears again. Spears shattered. their horses. Helmets cut from their wearers. uncertain of failed this day. There was hope. And released what breath he still had. He had to go home. colorful robes and bright painted shields. 62 . He had to tell them. and Corinthi. himself had seen the light of a man’s eyes dimmed by his own blade. each moment as it came. and it was only after Pheidippedes could They had stood and stared at each other from their ranks. But he had tasked impatient. Pheidippides cast his spear at him. and he could not fail. but it how great elation or delirium had taken root. even the warlike Sparta. bracing themselves behind their shields and every wrinkle of his face. There had been much blood. even supported by the allies from the neighboring was as if he could hear the thundering of the cavalry charge cities. wounds bandaged. There was no time to dwell on the fate for breath against a weakness he had never known. and the heads of the skeleton city Within in his heart grew fear. They cried out ning. his Androcles. and choked out “Niki!” Victory. and all able soldiers raised their shields and looked about Androcles. ans prepared. and he could feel every that he would fall asleep if he were to stop. fell to an arrow from one of those horse archers the Per- pumping thighs. His bandages were gods burning and blackening. Then came the Persian about the terrible charge. could they hope to overcome so great a number of Persians? He saw the city ahead. He had been too burning in his muscles. Every step now was pain. but his armor dragged at him with every questioned the bravery of the Spartans. Spears were raised and the line slowed. dippedes as the young soldier staggered the last few paces to With a crack as loud as any bolt of Zeus. Every man’s spear saw ground. He struggled to their own defense. And now they knew. But it was every- Greece fall. The marauders had come. Naxos and Eretria would not clench its cold fingers. and many swords as well. Thebans. Pheidippedes took a sian cavalry impacted against the implacable wall of Greek deep breath. concern etched into flank halted. The news had to be spread. a remnants of the Greek army: A cry weary and proud. He tried to soldiers. The Persians were warriors was quickly answered by trumpets from the ranks calling for retreat. even with Spartan elites among their number. pawing the earth and snorting as if his limbs grow heavy from the exertion. They measured pace meant to advance the line of skirmish with. At the last moments. breath as if it were scouring his lungs with sand. and stood abreast on the field. Before their force the army of Athens seemed so himself with this mission. There was There had been trumpets on the field. It was a call to retreat. as if some. heart pounding in his head. Victory. running on nearly naked. so he could say more: More about agony. He reached out a hand to Phei- readying spears against the charge. and he tumbled to the Blood. He almost feared The blood rushed through his ears. the Thebans and Corinthians did not break must have recognized him. A door in the gate opened. But the breath never came. Tell them everything. about the blood and the spears. Indeed. taking hardly believe what his own eyes had seen. As he neared he heard shouts. impaled the bravery of the Spartans. had avenged Naxos and Eretria. and this time the anger over guard standing on the walls. In his heart of fear he saw all of battlefield more than a day’s march away. and he was forced to fight on. run through. the gate. the charging Per. it small. No one He was near. but whether it was step. see no more Persians to face them that he understood what The challenging clamor of spear on shield from the hoplite the noise was. to Athens. The horses careened towards the right flank. If they and a trumpet sounded. their riders raising longspears. strewn with more bodies that Pheidippedes could from the enemy lines. the soldiers of the right the captain of the wall stepped out. again and again. soaked red. hun. He could was lost from his view. now. And a ragged cheer rose up out of the alliance’s ranks. use. Men raised spears. the Persians were fleeing. arrows. The Persians seemed to come without end. Corinthians. his friend from youth and fellow phratry mem- linen cuirass clinging to his skin and slapping against his ber. on a field soaked in the blood of the Persian invaders. as they count. Somehow. sians prided in. His knees buckled. His head felt strangely hollow. fell closed. His eyes of those who faced the first charge. and the temples of the thing for Pheidippedes to keep moving. Horses and men cried out in pain. From Stone to Steel He ran. Shields and breastplates breached. news would be to his family.

the W old kingdoms and towards those fledgling nations and barbarian tribes that had begun to experiment with iron. but iron had a unique problem with rust. and was much more prone to break- against fey magic. Thus. but can also provide considerable defense the flexibility of bronze. Late bronze-age 63 . Steel. Due to the heat required to make iron pliable. which made repairing iron armor or implements easier. a wounded fey loses any magical abilities warp. initial shaping. that prevented the domina- month. cutting off connec- to permanently grow weaker. more flexible. Iron did not have arrows of the fey. and they began to stockpile it as the mines began to to use copious amounts of charcoal. Toledo steel. or Assyria otherwise immersed in water for at least 15 minutes. it had controlled Akkad when Sargon conquered and united age. Steel occurs when charcoal is folded into iron during the smithing Assyria. Thus. when smiths began to understand the role of char. iron was expensive. while most nations were still using bronze for all metal and while Japanese blades were fearsomely durable and sharp. over to iron weapons more quickly than other nations. erences. Sword Fey creatures are particularly vulnerable to wounds from iron blades could be longer. is not progressive. smiths began to exper- iment with the ratio of charcoal to iron. fail. it will take 1 point of struc- A seen two peaks in power. and could make sharper blades. If an iron item is submersed. but they were well made. although this dam. As a rule of thumb. small amounts of charcoal became part of the iron during its without feeling the pinch of the shortage that other countries felt. becoming the common tongue of the whole The Paradox of Steel region. were ith the decline of Bronze. Assyria was able to shift In later times. It was Assyria’s attacks. They soon discovered Assyria’s bronze weapons and armor weren’t expressly unique. being adulterated. through judicious trade and contact with barbarian tribes more familiar with iron smelting. once iron weapons do double damage and ignore any natural dam- shaped to the desired form. due to its inflexi- grants to the wearers armor class naturally (not including mag- bility. and will require reapplication after submersion or 1 with the Elamites and Babylonians. Note that the original structural tions with Assyria. iron was less likely to bend and age resistance. extremely bronze was on the decline. Also. since points did not blunt as easily. Again. combined with greater demands for flexibility equally. The quality of their craftsmanship was most notable in their increased durability. and the main way to create a hot fire was mined tin. soaked. and harder to decorate. was highly flexible and light. Assyria rose to rectly coating an iron item with oil or wax will reduce this risk strike against the Arameans. There is a 15% chance the iron will begin to rust. another as much as having different processes and different pref- Iron had been discovered and used by the Hittites. ssyria was a relatively small kingdom that had already centile. whichever comes first. it may possess for 1 round per point of damage they sustain. roll per. In addition. when process. power shifted away from the lighter. Cor. never effectively made the transition. and required would not be until the modern age that more advanced alloys more heat to smelt. weapons and armor. bronze may have been prone to verdigris after years of spells and spell-like abilities). though. unlike rotting. Iron and Empire but they held edges longer. although the Aramean lan- guage remained. Called cold iron by such creatures. that iron became a preferable substitute. coal (carbon) in the steel-making process. in turn. exposure. when the Arameans began to popu- rating is still referred to when calculating deterioration. has no special effect against a fey opponent. even from the begin. for example. Assyria was one of the regions that hot fires were required. for every +1 the armor age. Moreover. with a +4 natural bonus would grant a SR of 20 against faean Lastly. It was would be able to take advantage of iron’s rigidity and carbon’s only with the tin shortages. Rust Iron may begin to rust if it is not appropriately dried after sub- mersion or soaking. Iron was brittle. Assur. Thus. Nimrud. even with bronze on the ical bonuses from enchantment) he receives 5 Spell Resistance decline. for example. Rusting causes the item Sumeria. thus iron was expensive and rare. nor was it innately superior to bronze. If rusting iron is not dried properly. along to 1%. all wounds from more practical. Iron variance of the quality of steel throughout the ages and cultures was not so much based on one culture making better steel than was not a new metal. Assyria was able to continue to produce bronze items ning. tion of the region by the Arameans. but tended to deteriorate faster. The first and most obvious advantage of iron was its rigidity. Steel Iron mixes that favored greater amounts of carbon. Faeries Iron held its shape much better than copper or bronze. Though it was centered around the northern cites of Nineveh. Also. and Khorssbad. late Mesopotamia and the Mediterranian coast. tural damage the day after contracting rust. Iron was much harder to find than copper. saw it’s true rise to power in its last age. most notable to the spell-like abilities of the fey (so a suit of iron chainmail of which was Egypt. Iron armor not only protects the wearer from the blades and All of this came with a number of negatives. It armor. and straight bladed swords became weapons. that the mixes that favored iron were heavier and more brittle. Akkad then rose to the forefront. so those nations without iron resources.

A driver with Iron shields. rather than a 4. maces. Iron (short and long) Chariot Upgrades The longspear was developed in the late bronze age in Egypt. development as piercing weapons did in the period. the spear cannot otherwise identical to Babylonian chariots) a smoother ride. piercing weapons were more The Assyrian War Machine effective than their bronze counterparts. there is little question as to why they were warfare would lead to the conquest of all the lands from the effective. the blades to hit the person in question). Caspian to Chaldea. Bronze & Iron Scale mail was an improvement upon lamellar armors. Soldiers wielded shields. the Assyrians paved their roads. Iron against their armor with a straight d20. equipped with scythe blades is automatically attacked by these blades each round they remain within 5 feet. precussor for the kopis. ble edged. They improved the chariot. rams. and generally only used by shock person within 5 feet of the hub side of a chariot wheel troops. and series of great kings came to power. These longspears were often referred to as lances. as they were then dismount the warriors into the resulting chaos. which became standard issue. and their new vision of move them swiftly. Roll Shield. Suits of on their chariots (which they took from the Assyrians). a weapon designed in Egypt. The Assyrians and Persians made developments that add new and adopted by the Assyrians after they first attacked Egypt. studded clubs (including a ver- Improvised Weapons sion of the great club). making the baseboard of pliable leather. Dagger or Knife. The longspear is a reach weapon. so as to absorb some of the shock of travel. allowing more flexible joints. The other third carried long. but later forged suits of iron scale. single location. Spear. The Assyrians usually equipped front ranks with longs- The Assyrians added a leather running board. and can be readied against a charge. trained to fire from horseback and flee Slashing weapons did not see quite the same explosion of retribution from enemy archers. and is better suited to throwing. and gave shorter. had a mili. they even employed siege engines like catapults. They employed two Clubs & Maces kinds of chariot: a light chariot with two horses and three men Clubs saw a brief renaissance during the Assyrian period. Moreover. If the person is hit. Iron Since iron held a better edge. although they could not be properly couched. Instead straight edges (longsword. or he may subtract it (if he does not want wood or leather equipment. Any metal armor were expensive. Additionally. Assyri. shortsword) were more ans used bronze lamellar and bronze scale armor. Scales The Persians experimented with putting iron scythe blades were better articulated. All chariots equipped with this kind of leather running board add a +2 circumstance bonus to any balance rolls made while in the chariot. The scythe was developed first in Babylon. in iron swords) and horses (up to 3000 a year) all year round. since a point can focus a great deal of pressure in a mets. As with the majority of reach weapons. throwing spears to those closer to the traditional wooden one. This gave their chariots (which were rear. but the Assyrians tary corps dedicated to procuring weapons (caches have been spread its use. wrinkles to chariot warfare. there was no other alternative. be used against a foe within 10 feet. rather than the pears. When one considers that the Assyrian army could muster up to fifty thousand men at short notice As Assyria’s strength grew and other nations weakened. daggers. a (total army strength was closer to two hundred thousand). making a lighter version with a wooden handle employed to deliver crack troops where needed. although spears. and a heavier one of solid iron. iron swords. and battleaxes. and the saber. 64 . battering but with a 5 durability. and were expertly trained. The common soldier had to make do with bonus to this roll. From Stone to Steel weapons were virtually identical to their earlier counterparts. difference between a knife and a dagger is that a dagger is dou- ily dominant empire in the region. Assyrians differen- ier four horse chariot which held up to six men. familiarity with horse-riding barbarian tribes lead the Assyrians to employ true cavalry. Scale Mail. and siege towers. often piercing heavy armors. since it was far more efficient for reaping grain found by archaeological digs that have contained 200 tons of than the hand sickle. and a heav. were usually only for officers Advanced Chariot Driving may add his +2 special maneuver and elite soldiers. common. the shamsir. adding hel. and emergency. greaves. and was tiated the mace. resolve damage as if struck by an iron scythe. Two thirds of Assyrian cavalry were Slashing Weapons horse-mounted archers. regardless of size. and boots. but not used on horseback the shem sharru was the descendant of the sickle sword and there. and whose sole purpose was to charge into enemy formations and were carried by a majority of the poorer soldiers. spears. the scimitar. rather than wood. Anatolia to Egypt. Still. Note that the primary Assyria set quite a few precedents as it became the first militar. At first. both weapons were used when. reasonably inexpensive and very effective.

used psychological warfare. although they were also used by various cultures to keep slaves was the pay and privileges that soldiers required. Soldiers were leather whip is treated as a ranged weapon with a maximum encouraged to loot. Those using a whip gain a +2 bonus on their opposed tus and prestige in Assyrian society. Even more than the food. where pain was intended to expiate a sin. Bronze Scale Mail. The scourge was a device intended to torture people. though. A certain portion of attempt. The leather whip can there was general amnesty for soldiers. If you are tripped during your own trip noble families were held to higher standards. rape. but in return the officers had sta- tripped. Iron Headed Arrow Whip (Leather & Bone Scourge) Psychological Warfare The standard whip was made from leather. began the practice of living off the land. including feared and avoided. food to keep that army fed. be used to wrap around a leg or other limb. and no range penalties. 6. who could come from the regular volunteers or from to make trip attacks. The effect of this shift in military attitude was profound. The leather whip Assyrian armies would march through fertile land and take deals subdual damage. 4. This total war mentality created fearsome civilian casualties. ous lengths of cord woven onto a wooden handle. Large Iron Shield. it may also be used Officers. they used fear. and 65 . and plunder during the campaign. The a physical asset or new form of training. Iron Dagger. Either whip is considered an exotic weapon. but officers were revered for their restraint the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail their disarm and prowess. Although kept in the hand. and range of 10 feet. Iron and Empire 3 1 4 2 5 6 7 1. this third Assyrian Empire. attempt. 2. Iron Short Spear. The kings of in line. Chariot wheels with iron scythe blades. the keep anything they were willing to march with. Soldiers were regularly attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. with teeth or pieces of sharp bone bound in the cord. 7. 3. The Assyrian military scourge was first developed in Syria. 5. usually strips of One of the greatest innovations the Assyrians employed wasn’t scrap or skin that was unusable for larger products. instead of stripping food stores bare and was either used in punishment or in religious ceremonies to maintain their army. and it took a great deal of primarily used as tools in training and controlling wild animals. Leather whips were The Assyrians had a sizeable army. you can drop the leather whip in order to avoid being their loot was taxed by the King. and was made from vari. Bronze Longspear. In short. and both whips deal no damage to any what grain and meat animals were available to supplement creature wearing armor of at least +1 armor bonus or creatures their baggage trains. This weapon is a shield bypass weapon. The soldiers were promised the right to with a +3 natural armor bonus.

Iron Studded Club. Iron Knife. militia relatively intact. Iron Sickle. the military leaders began to On the other hand. 9. It was hoped that this displacement would reduce There were definite advantages and drawbacks to this philoso. Also. Sometimes this worked. The Assyrian Empire walked a precarious path. 15. and fact. Light Iron Mace. Iron Scythe. In the tribute. For the tribute was rejected. From Stone to Steel could cripple a city’s survival chances even if the Assyrians pay tribute rather than oppose domination. Scythian Iron Lamellar 66 . 12. 19. Heavy Iron Mace. the populace rarely had and valuables. Without long periods of peace. since many cities eventually opted to 12 8 9 10 18 17 20 20 19 11 16 13 14 15 8. 14. conquered cities were absorbed into the quering another people or nation. 20. they would be left alone. Many cities standing army that expected some kind of personal indulgence opted to present the Assyrian army with tribute when they on a regular basis. While soldiers were on campaign. 10. more than any other. Bone Scourge Whip. the enforcement of the law could not be left demand more and more power. the Empire. 16. Iron Longsword. the chance of revolt. and larger and larger portions of to the army. But with a large were diverted. because of the loss of food supplies. Shem Sharru. it was preferable to leave the local one that would lead them to complete dissolution. 18. as people would be preoccupied with learn- phy. with the military being the central is no surprise the lock and key were invented by the Assyrians. Iron Shortsword. they often forced a sizeable empire. 13. Another advantage was that actual military fatalities were lessened. in conquered cities. since most criminals found that the army was a probably contributed to a general reduction of popular support way to get what they wanted without having to break the law. They would gather great amounts of food move. the Assyrian army was almost always on the knew it was coming. city decreased. Iron Battleaxe. so the militia once more grew to prominence. Sometimes There were other repercussions to this war intensive focus. Either way. When con- ished. Leather Whip. and the cities were sacked and demol- example. the Assyrians practiced forced migration. and soon it came to span the vast majority of the ‘civi- portion of that nation to relocate to a radically different part of lized’ world. and then offer them to the army in hopes that an opportunity to recover from war. 11. 17. the level of crime in the ing to cope in the new region. It all over the empire. focus of the Assyrian Empire. This practice. in order to allow them to enforce the law effectively.

them. the kopis was an excellent weapon for close Scythians used a great deal of gold and animal motifs in their in fighting and for use from horseback. Both the Persians and the horse-riding tribes of the time. again. Bone lamellar was rare. by Assyria. and wider in the front por- sians they adopted the Persian kopis and the bowcase. Chinese design). (the latter of a Scythian tribes living closer to Chinese society. although bone. armor- were unlikely to maintain a camp long enough to develop more ing their horses in leather and bronze plate. be adopted by the Persians. iron scale. a culture that lived along the Caucasus Mountain Range. and every double recurve bow During this period. The craftsmanship of ans. as well. were often inscribed with holy symbols or personal images. Double Recurve The Scythians The double recurve bow must be wielded with two hands. barbarous armor. this Scythian bow made it prized among more ‘civilized’ were active in both regions. Greeks preferred these for their archers. which prompted cities to bring tribute as soon as bravery. but did construct a bronze version of this wheat per soldier. mainly clan Living off the land leaders. bronze scale. as well. Just to carry 3 pounds per sol. and the Assyrian army would march through those them. and 150. traded for these. The Scythians. Besides armor enchantments. The iron version was far more effective. In So the Assyrian army sent out scouts into the lands they were a fantasy world it is very likely that Scythian Priests would invading. This kind of extrav- complex armor smithing techniques. a number of horse-riding cultures came to should be considered the quivalent of a masterwork mighty prominence both in Europe and the Middle East. armor for themselves. but the protection to the horse was substantial. He would need protein. This is the source of the say- by leather. wood. and it only grants a +4 bonus against required calorie intake necessary just to sustain a healthy sol. Bone & Iron Lamellar was slightly easier to construct than most other armors. The warriors tended to wear bone. Armbands dier meant the average field army of 50. or bone. and iron were most common. depending on what was available and advantageous in an area. they heard of the Assyrian army marching on them. Scythians became very rich off of their trade. Greek Bronze keeping up the train of food and supplies usually limited the The Greeks developed an armor of interlocking rings. The Scythians preferred to almost impossible to carry more than a 3 pound ration of trade for Greek suits. and were an excellent example of nations. or Scythian mages would have enchanted were. or iron. so they Barding. they might have had areas to replenish supplies and maintain stocks. This invari. and a bronze ringmail developed by bringing into contact as much of the blade as possible with the the Greeks. They used a double recurve bow. or iron lamellar Knife. Lamellar Armor. Curved weapons are intended to be used in a chopping fashion. which would later foe. Arrow heads could be of any material. and travel. It is an incredibly powerful bow. Chinese Curved armor.” eoning weapons and block slashing weapons. In the climate they marched in. agance would not be embraced by more civilized nations for a and only worn by Scythians. but 67 . This armor tended to diffuse the impact of bludg- ing. Piercing weapons are particularly effec- ing for 10 hours a day. and the Scythians were primarily nomadic. “An army marches on its stomach. The curved knife they carried appears Chinese in origin. Later in Persian history decoration. or fear. but after the rise of the Per- ally possessing we call a pistol grip. enchantments to improve symbiosis between riders and horses ably meant poor harvests and shortages in lands conquered (horses being an important part of Scythian religion). The Scythi- composite longbow (usually at least +2). Iron and Empire usually only worn by those who could afford it. Usu- ferred the spear or iron shortsword. 3 pounds of wheat fell far short of the tive against this armor. bronze. backed distance an army could march. but it Due to the huge size of the Assyrian army. dier. or strength effects. and it was often traded for. The tion of the blade. since many cultures considered it great while. used straight or curved knives. when possible. based on the Shem Sharru.000 pounds of wheat per day. and they likely traded for them with another horse tribe or with iron. The logistics of Ringmail. although they also were known to use leather armor. and.000 had to carry Armbands were culturally significant for the Scythians. bronze. They wore armbands of bronze. Before the Persians they pre- Kopis The kopis was a Persian blade. who determined where the best fields and herds have blessed them. Nations before Assyria usually maintained baggage carts to carry food they would need on the march. Bow. and more than a gallon of water to keep fighting fit. and used shields of leather. Assyria found it was ungainly and poorly made. and the The Scythians used a great variety of materials and equipment. Leather and Bronze Plate The Scythians were also the first to make true barding. it would be replaced by the falcate.

Kopis. would bind bronze plates to it. Thus. 22. These colonies increased the spread of Greek 68 . 24. These extensions to the walls were often built marked or cut to the horse’s proportions and then the armorer into hill sides. The making of barding is an individual affair. occupation. From Stone to Steel 21 25 26 24 22 23 21. Chinese Curved Knife. This be collapsed to prevent the enemy from bypassing the city armor. With walls comes crowding. although Carthage tended to dominate under their domination. These pressures. Although conceivably such armor The bracing itself was made so as to be easily destroyed. A a budding new exuberance about the Greek way of life dark age is any period in a region or culture where technology prompted many cities to establish colonies. Although the Dorians were to establish new colonies in Asia Minor. Horses would first be brought to have the leather ing countryside. One could not and some of these walls were quite complex. Leather and Bronze Plate Barding due to fact that the horse was religiously important in Scythian mobility. and during the following period the power of the cities increased again. wilder places. it was a small cost to them for the benefit it provided. Greece fell into a dark age. Iberia. Colonists were sent and learning regress substantially. the many islands of smelters of iron. as well as With the invasion of the Dorians. Eventually the city-states of Greece threw off the Dorian that Scythians prized so much alive much longer in a battle. the Italic peninsula. they were otherwise much less advanced than the Mediterranian. 25. in order to allow farmers to escape in case of backing of the barding draped over them. and required extensive tunneling and bracing. The leather would be surprise attack. kept the horses walls. 26. and even por- the Mycenaens were. prompting many to move to the cities for protec- tion. could be bound together with chains. Greek Bronze Ringmail. During this time there was very little north Africa. Scythian Armband. 23. the leather provided a if invaders discovered these escape passages. Double Recurve Bow. not only encom- make a ‘standard size’ suit of barding and hope they would fit passing the city proper but extending into the immediate farm- the horse. combined with the skill of a good rider. and for a time the Greek peoples lived tions of Northern Africa. segments could smooth backing to prevent chafing while on a hard ride. And crowding leads to increased The Greeks problems with crime and sanitation. Elaborate walls were erected around many major cities. and bandits and outlaws became rampant in the society.

They were sisted of sulfur. on mobility. Arrow. of course. One of these new metals was lead. On an odd number the talgia trend. Iron Headed Greek fire. and culture. so it was not uncommon developed it in the Classical Age. Revival bronze armors would have their durability this manner. saved for rare sieges or sea warfare. This skirt did not have any backing behind it. but was was developed and experimented with in a few cities. but were probably only worn and against the skirt instead of against the shield bearer. As part of the colonization agree. It is interesting to note that while iron was make it inconsequential. but never intended to snag attacks intended for the legs. axes. much larger than the diameter of the later developed Each city-state was different in organization. Iron Scaled Linen must be lit in order to gain the fire damage. it will sufficiently burn out its fuel in 3 rounds. although they chainmail. Lead bullets were heavy and damaging. the colony cities also manufactured goods for trade in by leather. as per the set on fire rules. Lamellar and +4 armor bonus against them. roll any die. while arrow. Such firebombs would be used like Grenade-like erally used a simple wood hardened javelin in sport or hunting. The rings were usually about 1 to 1½ inches in Greek markets. Its origin is lost to also reasonably durable. or until doused. Scale armor were more common in the Northern cities. damage and destroy. Greek Iron new cities as they wished. If stantially less expensive to manufacture than full scale mail. With the development of smelting. shields. with a leather shield skirt. should the expensive to lose. Leather Shield Skirt instead. to burn boats or buildings. javelins. Only a few cities used breastplate armor leather skirt will sometimes retard an attack just enough to like their forebears. and was often would do 2d6 dice of fire damage a turn for 2 minutes (20 saved for important attacks. lit. and will no even with iron scale work. as sling bullets. although most records state that the Greeks first could easily be recast in simple molds. similar to alchemist's fire but far more virulent. and mostly worthless in weapon use. ungainly and poorly made. Greek suits were made of iron mon. these suits of does have an iron head and can be fired unlit. Iron and Empire thought. backed ment. These were sub. weapons. while the Southern cities favored much lighter armor. and it only grants a away from the legs. Some rings. Longspears. Although the arrow Made from many layers of cloth glued together. but it was slings. A kind of ringmail. It was never employed on a for the poor to raid a battlefield and collect shot to sell back to large scale during this time period. Lead is a very Greek Fire pliable metal. but these suits were not commonplace. fire burn for the full duration.). there was a revival of mounted on Large or Great shields. backed with studded leather.g. Of course. They allowed be at a -2 due to the weight and unwieldy nature of the fire infantry to move quickly. It is entirely likely that. a 5 durability would be 6. Note that the fire arrow is not capable of flying as far as leaving the arms and legs free for movement. etc. The Greeks developed an armor of interlocking rings. depending. A shield with a saw widespread use. These revival armors were better made than the strike was blocked by the skirt instead. There was even a scale version of the The Greeks often hung a leather skirt from the bottom of their linen cuirass. a normal arrow. 69 . Lead shot historians. In a fantasy world. helmets. perhaps mostly being local smiths for a minimal price. Any time a roll exactly bronze smithing at one point. since it was expensive to make and rounds). and greaves. the character will keep burning. Apply all damage older armors they emulated. religion. Lead Sling used in combat after the end of the Dark Age. as were round shields. Leather shield skirts can only be the common metal during this period. This armor tended to diffuse the impact of bludg- tended to use the same kinds of weapons. or to snag low enemy strikes. diameter. and is almost certainly destroyed on impact. Except. daggers. but still provided protection. and allowed people to develop Ringmail. and therefore more reusable. eoning weapons and block slashing weapons. and straight swords were com. As long as used by nobles and those with a great deal of disposable the skirt has any hit points it can continue to block attacks in income. Iron Fire The fire arrow is used like any normal arrow except that it Cuirass. such use would armor were light and minimally encumbering. and The iron-shod javelin was used only in battle. naphtha. they were also easier to longer be useable after this. one might make more aggressive use of Javelin. metals other than iron were discovered. a 4 durability would be 5. intended to deflect arrows are particularly effective against this armor. Piercing weapons shields sported skirts of leather. It should be noted that chariots were never Bullet. increased by one (e. and quicklime. and the styles and armors that equals the number necessary to hit a person wielding a shield were forged with this ‘revival’ bronze indicate a definite nos. bows. Greek fire is a flammable composition believed to have con- having more impact than stones or bronze bullets. perhaps as fire bombs or siege defense (like boiling The Javelin was commonly used in Greece. although they gen- oil).

various cities rose to prominence in Greece. Corinth was the first of this period. families and placed in a communal education system. but the system of government balanced Syssita brethren. as well as a citi- nities until the age of 20. 29. cation they received was harsh. a free Sparta was a warrior state: This cannot be stressed enough. Iron Scaled Linen Cuirass. 32. Sparta was ruled by two kings and 5 ephors. This doesn’t mean that Spartan life was sim. Iron Fire Arrow Comparison: Sparta and Athens work. 30. Inscribed Lead Sling Bullet. and every year Sparta formally declared war on the helots. these people spent their days state was unique. Messina. But helot’s child would be absorbed into Spartan culture. There was often friction ate in their Syssitas and spent much of their lives with their between the two kings. although this was rarely an active war. so women and free non-citizens did most of the other work. but they eventually took on enough power to become society that the men would belong to for the rest of their lives. It is primarily the huge serf period of Greece. and good service in battle could be grounds for Sparta being granted freedom (although not citizenship). Iron Headed Javelin. The edu. As each person is different from the next. In times of war. civil servants. and the citizens of Messina by Athens. Still. at this point. At the age of seven freeborn boys were taken from their role. and it is worth noting just how different two farming and manufacturing for the Spartans. were allowed to live by themselves. but were Men. From Stone to Steel 30 28 27 31 29 32 27. Leather Shield Skirt. and for rigorous military training was not the norm until the Classical some. class of the helots that forced Sparta into its constant military ple. and they lived in these commu. Ephors could be nominated by a king. but they elected by the citizen’s council. 28. somewhat like a club or kings. cities could be. each city. was defeated and annexed by but it was swiftly enough supplanted by Sparta and then both Sparta at the end of the Dark Age. the helots were called upon to supply a tithe of infantry for the Spartan ranks. 31. Syssitas were organizations. were made serfs. Men were forbidden from most forms of 70 . Ephors at one time were the servants of syssita. During different period of the Archaic Age. Greek Iron Ringmail. a neighboring region. Called helots. when they were eligible to join a zen’s council of elders. this was a desirable goal.

These camel riders spooked the Lydian cavalry that lead the tain stature. But the Medes did not to say that many warriors wore no armor. Wherever native kings ture of Athenian life. training. knowing his heavy influence on one’s religion and social standing. where in society one existed. was at first lead by a king. and thus. So an average regiment consisted of 3. he propose the creation of a true democratic state. Although Solon of Athens did Cyrus. and clubs were carried by those who preferred five tiers of an army formation. sponsored by Egypt. consolidating his rule truly moved beyond a representative government. Gobryas. legally split into 10 new tribes. a genos (the singular of genes) alliance of Spartans. The king. and Cilicia. while slingers might wear Assyria was grappling with the Elamite threat and civil wars linen cuirass armor at best. always the opportunist. their native Medes divided up the territories they desired. but it was able to hold out Athens long enough for Babylonian allies to make moves of aggres- Athens. and an consisted of one or more genes. with some defensive with the aristocracy. the council by the citizens) by the archons. although later these tribes were putting together a mounted column of Arabian camel riders. sian king stewed. Athenian soldiers used sword. Cyrus allowed them to remain in power as sort of like a clan or tribe. Combat training stressed a series of simple movements and When a new Median king came to power that was not popular maneuvers intended to favor the spear. was dissatisfied with the were usually only drafted in time of war. Taking his full armies. prompt war. as well. and One of Babylon’s generals. based on one’s wealth. Lydia. regiments (morae). was not done. adding a few individual citizen had a much greater say on the laws and struc. Cyrus the Second and the dissenting aris- training with a sword. An enomotia consisted of 36 fully armed soldiers standing in 12 ranks. Iron and Empire itself. extended family group. zenry. came together to oppose Persian dominance. All men were nominally under duty to the military from the Cyrus. although the in areas like Armenia. but did not yet the election of the polemarch. which caused much alarm in Greece. While daggers. each polemarch served for a year in their office. ally six in a regiment). and now it was being wracked by civil insurrections and aggression from a strength- suggest that his honor guard was mounted. so they were tal cities of Assyria. The military of the Spartans was highly organized. so it Babylon. Elected from among the ranks of the forced to surrender to Cyrus. leaving the rest garb was impossible to wear into battle. was near a number of ble for anyone to be on the council. hoplites. controlled well. if any. a long thrusting spear. Hypargus. spear. The phratry one was born into had a Satraps. Their army did not have the strength of the Median army. Athens never marched through surrounding territories. in practice the richer. and conquered them. ening Babylonian kingdom to its south and an alliance of the The Spartans used shield. sword. was able to field an army of 20. These men had minimal. the Medes and Persians attacked the capi- but the Spartans favored mobility over armor. and Persia took control of the council of archons (a group of nine respected men elected to Median empire. and offered a place of power if he helped Cyrus conquer the Archaic period. and Babylon and the mon wear of Sparta was a coarse woolen cloak. tekostys (2 per lochos). but later sion against the capitol of the Medes. Babylon soon buckled without its military 71 . Cappodocia. and Medes (a horse tribe) and the Persians to its East.456 armed sol- diers. There were slings. The military organization of the Athenians was limited. Though it was theoretically possi. being a Greek kingdom in Asia. At that time. Not that tribes were negated by the phratry system. had his own honor guard. and bows. Still. Suddenly without often the only ones to wear any serious armor. so it is no exaggeration of Mesopotamia to its own devices. made the excellent suggestion of populated by 4 Ionian tribes. and. Lydians. and any given army had a number of these regiments. and there is evidence to A It had reached its final greatness. Archers wore no armor. and Babylonians being a large. A phratry usually This level of aggression worried western powers. during king. Spartans favored cuirasses and good shield use. Cyrus was able to move on quickly. tocracy revolted against Median rule. in times of war a single king would take control was quite capable of mobilizing large portions of the male citi- (often by election) to lead the military. leadership. already existed. and the Per- means unused. the Assyrian empire crumbled. Pen- but this was not true of their tactics. Since the com. and the Persian army was able to take advan- hierarchy. mora (usu- them. axes. Each of these tribes had a cer. and enomotia (2 per pentekostys).000. Athens was Cyrus’s general. turned his eyes on Babylon. though. and so these cities were taken as prominent families held those positions. Athens. But armor was by no share their new power equally with the Persians. on the other hand. lochos (4 lochoi made a mora). but war- riors also wore whatever armor they could afford. age of 20 to 37. that helped to influence tage of the cavalry rout to crush the Lydian empire to dust. Citizens of Athens belonged to a phratry. he agreed. Hoplites might wear heavy armors. but each newly conquered satrapies were well administered. Babylonian holdings in the process. Persia Those who showed the most promise were trained to become bout this time Assyria was going through its death throes. Egyptians. Thus the Medes were replaced by a polemarch. citizen was eligible for any political position. more other Greek city colonies. Thus. and they had an entire regiment of their own. and among those tribes there was another layer of alliance armies. and shield.

and the pommel was split. which were usually brightly colored. the akinakes was primarily a piercing weapon. iron scale. Greek soldiers were not Then Darius moved on the Scythians again. where one soldier bore a large shield. and Cyrus’s son Cambyses. and some of those Aryan tribes settled dents. Cyrus took Ionian cities as well as Macedonia. a northern Greek kingdom. shaped large and great shields. but were swiftly crushed. The Aryan the two powerful states. and he mon. Again. but both Athens and Sparta refused. quered. Persia moved of India. The Persian army favored a combined Cyrus again marched east. raised a new army and marched light padded armor and carried composite longbows. and consolidated the rule of this new Empire. iron lamellar. for example. They bore violin- few surrounding communities. lead by a mercenary Greek general and soldiers. the lands once held by the ancient Harrapans. hailed him as the Lord’s Anointed. Cambyses tried to return. The Persians there were garbed previous to the Persian invasion. and on Greek cities. the Persians trol. Persian soldiers bore straight swords sidered attacking Carthage. ples. advantage of his presence there to return lost idols to their tem. and established a number of mounted troops. Jewish sian rule. made eunuchs while their beautiful daughters were sent to royal With all of the old Assyrian Empire but Egypt under his con. No Greek would ever already had some connection to the new people they con. He transplanted fruit trees to the east of his They carried round large shields. Darius. wore revival bronze plated Egypt. One general con. iron scale. daggers. and its quered the Lybian desert. and sesame and rice to the west. his main cavalry. however. His army. and bronze revival breastplate armor. but his Phoenician allies refused. Tempted by the thought of easy conquest. who finally brought heavily armored driver. also protected by shield bearers. a curved chopping blade called the Kopis. and protect a longspear bearing soldier slightly behind them. while another crossed the Bosporus heavy blade made it very damaging. and with holdings north and east of the previous empire’s demanded surrender of all of Greece to Persia. destroyed their own lands. He also standardized a currency linen cuirasses. and conquered them one by one on the way to later by the Aryans and various Vedic kingdoms. swords. through both military means and subversion of dissi- west into the mountains. and he could not cross the desert safely. mounted on the hubs. groove and double edged blade. silver and gold. in cuirasses of iron. Marching over the mountains. When insurrection threat. Cyrus invaded the Punjab region Following the same pattern as previous conquests. as well as lighter padded armor. but they were unable to ened at home. and clubs. Darius concentrated on administration. harems. Used almost as much as the leaving his generals to expand his territories. Most all on Egypt. even the elites and the Immortals. was able to conquer Egypt. and carried spears. one of Cambyses sons. and their first ranks all bore doms in this period. Cities like Naxos and Eretria were con- split that had occurred long in the past had sent some people quered. but was unable to cross the Jaxartes weaponry formation. which set the stage for the Greek-Persian wars. slings. but there were no large king. and iron plated Usually these kingdoms consisted of one city and perhaps a armor. The Persians still used Chariots. after assassinating his younger brother to carried a short spear to defend with. This 72 . and Cyrus established Gobryas as its new satrap. harassed the Persian armies with horse-borne guerilla warfare. and their wheels had iron scythe blades peace to Persia. Some cities did holdings established. tolerate this on their own soil. but died en route. but a num- being nomads burned their fields. Their handsome men were prophets. The Athenians lead the army at Marathon. axes. Cambyses also con. The Scythians. destroying most of the Persian army in the attempt. wooden tower shields. and establishing laws. to River. Persian chariots were usually driven by a It was Darius. Ornamentation was com- (the strait between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. iron scaled linen cuirasses. based on the Lydian bimetallic currency system using ring mail. and returned to The akinakes is Persian broadsword. in order to legitimize his claim to the Babylonian throne. and marched to intercept the Persian It should be noted that various kingdoms did spring up in India army on the plain of Marathon. Sensing weakness and lack of unity. axes. But Persia made the fatal error of destroying the temples in lands that would later become Persia. kopis. wore robes over aided by Bedouin nomads. and Athens had no equivalent footholds along the northern shore of the Caspian Sea. mounted. the Persians of both cities and enslaving their people. They were. on the other hand. demanding surrender of many Since Babylon was an ancient and revered culture. They did submit. and ber of Greek cities joined the battle. Greek system. He also allowed citizens previously displaced by Assyrian con. linen cuirasses. But dying himself. left a substantial Akinakes army in Scythian territories to continue the fight. send signs of submission. The Greek-Persian Wars quest to return to their homelands. and take their armor. work was in consolidating rule over the Indus Valley and The Greeks. rather than rounded. and the Satrap of Punjab was established. fearful for his own personal safety. but few were very substantial. which gained him a great Several of the Ionian Greek cities in Lydia revolted against Per- deal of support from various conquered peoples. Thus. including Sparta. Cyrus once more turned his eyes east. the majority of the Persian armies were archers. bring them to Greece. while the archers wore prevent rivalry over the throne. long and short spears. and called Akinakes. replete with a blood Persian land. Athens called up its army. Most shield bearers wore heavier armor. able to bring quite Although he led armies against the Scythians. bows. From Stone to Steel support. empire. Besides the it and Nubia (the kingdom of Kush) as well. conquered the Greek cities there.

as well as its army. based on the Persian army. and landed in the southern portion expense of freedom of leg movement. while respond to the rout right away. since the majority of Persian soldiers were The Greeks rebuilt. and then imported Darius. archers. but the Persians. low on supplies. spot. Now on The Greek army was able to mobilize fast enough to control the defensive. Considered only nominally Greek by the southern cities. A tired Persian army of revolts while facing a marauding army in poorly held terri- arrived. is the origin of the modern Marathon cult to change the manner in which the sword was wielded. iron skirt. When backed with leather. and Athens very effective against most attacks. Xerxes. Composite ans ruled the seas. Still the There both sides fought a terrible battle. and they culture was the North African city of Carthage. Thus the second invasion. Launching leather face and neck mask. incidentally. Simple versions were relatively featureless. the charioteer of Greece. footrace. then king of Persia. and he died before a second more expensive suits were shaped to look like a muscular attack was launched. Paired defense was the norm in the destroyed. this armor favored protection at the Persia set sail in 1200 ships. Phoenician cities in Asia. failed. The last battle.8 miles. and was used by military land. the Atheni- Longbow.000 men (half of the total Persian Army). braces and iron shod boots. but who survived a crash or being thrown from their chariot was those 300 soldiers were finally killed. at Mycale. Eventually the alliance of Athens and movement. sinking a substantial portion of the Persian the Light war bow of the Assyrians and certain developments fleet. The Persian army was forced to retreat over- could be. colossal Persian army. including holding the pass of Ther- iot. Thebes. the Persians came upon a fresh army. well independence to all asian Greek city-states. While the Spartans fielded the best army in Greece. and it eventually lost its main commanders in the attempt. Spartans began to parley with North African states of Persia. iron leg an attack with 180. The last stronghold of Phoenician ried the halfspear also carried a great or tower shield. The Persian Charioteer armor was highly restrictive. Instead of finding yet another Greek city hiding tles over the next 50 years. a distance of about 24. plated sleeves. likely to try and strip off the armor as quickly as possible. Usually those who car. to deliver the news of victory. already encumbered by revolts in Egypt. Iron Half Due to the loss of the sea war. at the sacrifice of some pulled together its allies. Though not as powerful as the Scythian bow their holdings. Spear. Persian satrapies. and fled back to Persian controlled lands. The weakened Persian kingship fought a number of bat- they expected. the Iron Cuirass was not idle. cuted his Phoenician captains and crushed the remnants of the front rank troops in the Persian army. although it was not archer or longspearman. It was Athenian forces at sea that crippled The Composite Longbow was developed in Persia. It is said that a soldier named Pheidippides ran from the scene of the battle to Athens. and even that were trained to protect another warrior in battle. and then dropped dead on the Macedonia was a kingdom north of Greece. Iron helmet with iron plated And war they had. Greeks harried the Persians at sea and plotted with dissatisfied already depleted. a number of northern Greek cities would form the core of the Delian League. Cuirass. to find their next target was not what tories. forces up into the 19th century. An Iron Cuirass. Any charioteer mopylae against the entire army with only 300 soldiers. Legend says that he uttered the word Rise of Macedonia “Niki!” which meant victory. nize the independence of all European holdings. it had impressive range. Persia found itself trying to hold down a number the access to the plain of Marathon. Persian army. and the Delian League was established. Their army routed. The Spartans made a number of attempts to stop the armor was so encumbering that they needed help into the char. while the Delian League created an army and declared a cru- Marathon sade to free the Greek cities still under Persian rule. In the intervening time the Greeks were human torso. as well as recog- trained and incensed at the treatment of Naxos and Eretria. in their arms. usually an was conquered by Persia in retaliation. destroyed the bulk of the Persian fleet. and the cities of Sparta. exe- The Iron Half Spear was a short stabbing spear carried by non. too. made to When Persia finally regrouped. and eventually even Athens fell to the Persian forces. but Sparta would never join. and could not walk or run very effectively. In fact. could not hope to hold against the Greeks. Iron and Empire made it less versatile than later swords since it was more diffi. leaving the army without enough support to maintain by the Scythians. it was a tyranny not 73 . Persian Charioteer intentions of Athens and worried about Athenian domination. suspicious of the Armor. This. Persia at first seemed successful. eventually being forced to grant behind its walls. Iron The Second Invasion The Iron Cuirass was developed in Greece. could not to Persia. it found a Greece prepared for protect the charioteer but did allow them freedom of movement war. Sparta stepped up its military training.

From Stone to Steel

34

33
39
35

38

37

36

33. Akinakes; 34. Iron Cuirass; 35. Persian Charioteer Armor; 36. Composite Longbow; 37. Iron Half Spear; 38. Persian Shield;
39. Sarissa
centralized in a single city but over an area of land. When the Scythians. Standard armament for all soldiers were javelins,
Greeks forced Persia to return independence to all of European spears, and swords, either straight edged or the kopis. The
Greece, Macedonia was among those countries no longer armies of Macedonia favored the Greek round shield
beholden to the Persians. As the Delian league and the Spartans
busied themselves with the Persians, the Macedonians concen- Cestrosphendone (kestros)
trated on reforming their armies and improving their cavalry. The Cestrosphendone, or kestros for short, was a small arrow
By the time Phillip the Second came to power in Macedonia, or bolt adapted to be fired from a specialized sling. Adapted
Macedonian Cavalry, called the Companions, was the finest in long after the collapse of the Empire, it was used primarily in
Greece, and it rivaled that of the Persians in skill if not size. A Macedonia, and did not see use in later cultures. It was an odd-
king with a military bent, Phillip focused on reforming the ity, a testament to the Greek fascination with the sling.
infantry. Phillip still honored the place of the elite Hoplite, but
he created a number of new elite soldiers. Phalangites were Double string sling
phalanx troops, well armored and bearing the sarissa, a long- The Double stringed sling was an improvement made to
spear that was the predecessor of the pike. Hypaspists were accommodate the kestros. Able to sling all common kinds of
lighter armored and armed than the Hoplites and Phalangites, sling ammunition, it was only used in Greece, and went out of
and were primarily reserve troops, meant to shore up weakness use with the kestros. The sling takes no damage from attacking,
in a battle line and support weary soldiers. Archers and but takes double damage from slashing attacks.
Slingers were also used in larger numbers in the Macedonian
armies, and the archers favored the double recurve bow of the

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40. Gastrophetes

Falcata separately. If they strike armor, apply each stone’s damage sep-
The Falcata is a descendant of the kopis, with an even heavier arately, since the damage does not stack. If any damage multi-
blade. The Macedonians adopted its use for those soldiers who plier is in order that multiplier only affects the first die roll.
preferred chopping weapons, and the falcate spread from there Every roll after that cannot benefit from a multiplier. If there
all over thier conquered lands. The Yataghan, Kukri, Kora, Fal- are any targets in any 5 foot space adjacent to the primary tar-
chion, and Pata all descend from this weapon. get, and any stones have not struck a target, subtract one from
the number of stones still unaccounted for (in order to account
Gastrophetes for the distance) and roll to hit again, with a -5. If there is a
The gastrophetes was one of the few Greek bow inventions, success, roll a d10 again to determine the number of bullets
and possibly the first crossbow invented in Europe. The gastro- that hit that target. Remember the original number of bullets
phetes literally translates to belly-bow, and it was a huge cross- slung and how many have hit you can’t hit with more bullets
bow that had a wide, concave end. When the gastrophetes than you’ve slung. This process can be repeated for all valid
needed to be reloaded, one merely placed the concave segment targets in a 5 foot radius around the primary target, or until all
against the belly, and grasped the bowstring with both hands, stones have been accounted for.
using the full strength of the upper body to pull the bow into When slinging with tiny ammunition the same process as
place. The gastrophetes had surprising range and draw, and it above is used, except roll with 1d3 to determine the number of
used a composite longbow as its main bow, but it was an stones that strike. Damage for a tiny stone is 1d4. Damage for
unwieldy weapon. The Romans would later adapt the gastro- a tiny lead bullet is 1d6+1.
phetes to a pillar-like stand, and assign two men to load and
Damage for a small stone bullet is 1d6. Damage for a small
fire it, making it a multi-man siege weapon, the predecessor to
lead bullet (the equivalent of a shot put) is 1d8+1. When used
the ballista. The gastrophetes used standard arrows, rather than
with a single bullet or stone, roll standard to hit, rather than to
crossbow quarrels or bolts.
hit against a 5 foot area.

Pole-mounted sling Note that stone ammunition can be heated as per the materials
The Macedonian military devised a pole-mounted sling, which rules, although the weapon will also sustain that heat damage
was used to launch larger stones. A slinger using the pole- as a consequence.
mounted sling could launch up to 10 miniscule stones or bul-
lets, up to 3 tiny stones, or 1 small sized stone of no more than Sarissa
20 lbs weight. The Sarissa is an extremely longspear (16 feet) with a longer
than average spear head. It is an extended reach weapon, and
When slinging miniscule ammunition, the to hit roll is applied
requires 15 feet on a map to be effective. It may be used to attack
to a figure in a 5 foot area. If the roll is unsuccessful, roll as per
an opponent 15 feet away if set in the ground at one's feet. If
missing with a grenade-like weapon. Otherwise roll 1d10. That
held, the 5 foot square behind the wielder may not be occupied
many bullets have struck the target. Roll damage for each one

75

From Stone to Steel
Phillip for peace, proposing that Phillip keep his holdings if he
agreed not to march south. This gave Phillip time to administer
42 the cities he captured and recruit more soldiers. Then he
marched south anyway, and this time no city or alliance could
45 stop him. Twenty years into his reign Phillip had defeated all of
Greece, and accepted the surrender of its major cities. In order
to promote solidarity among his conquered lands, he formed
43 the League of Corinth. It performed much as the Delian League
did, opposing Persia who watched Phillip’s campaign with
much interest. Heartened by Phillips opposition to Persia,
Greece united behind him. Perhaps he would have marched
against Persia soon after his conquest. But he never had the
chance. At a celebration he was poisoned, and he died soon
after, leaving the throne of Macedonia to his son, Alexander.
44 46
Customizing your Fighter
The Fighter has a great degree of variance only rivaled by the
Rogue. In this chapter three very different soldiers all fall under
the Fighter class description. The Scythian horseman is a
mounted bowman/warrior. The Persian Immortal is a heavily
armed and armored archer. The Greek Hoplite is an elite cam-
paign footman. Yet each of these soldiers is a Fighter, each just
pursues a different track. The Scythian Fighter focuses on
mounted feats, and builds up his ride skills. The Persian
41
Immortal focuses on archery feats, and concentrates on skills to
improve their mobility. The Greek Hoplite is a straight Fighter,
focusing on strong attacks and precision. When considering
how best to spend new skill points or feats, consider what kind
of fighter you envision yourself having. Does he fight from
horseback? Does he use a sword or a bow? Does he fight with
finesse or brutal strength. The Fighter may seem to be a very
41. Falcata; 42. Cestrosphendone; 43. Double String Sling; 44. basic class with a very limited scope, but it is actually a tem-
Pole-mounted Sling; 45. Paddle Club; 46. Great Wood Shield plate towards creating any warrior you can imagine.
by an opposed combatant, otherwise the Sarissa is unwieldable.
The Sarissa, when held in both hands, must be able to extend up History records hundreds of times when young kings are
to five feet behind the wielder, and then may only be used handed the reigns of power and fail to perform. It is easy and
against a foe 10 feet away. Any foe within that range may not tempting to sit on the accomplishments of the past, and many
effectively be attacked by a Sarissa. The precursor of the pike, rulers do. But not Alexander: Tutored by Aristotle, sired by a
the Sarissa was used by forward ranks in an army to blunt or stop warrior king, he had lead the cavalry units in Phillip’s final bat-
charges, primarily horse charges. When set against a charge, the tles in Greece, at the ripe age of 18. Now 20 and king, Alexan-
Sarissa does triple damage, rather than double damage, against a der was about to do something no other man would equal in the
charging creature or target. Being a large weapon, it must be span of history.
wielded with two hands. As an alternative method of using the There were a few minor upheavals with the assassination of
weapon, two soldiers may wield the Sarissa together, each using Phillip, but Alexander was swift to crush a minor Theban rebel-
one hand, and therefore allowing each to wield a shield as well. lion and establish his dominance in Greece. Two years into his
This may be done only when setting the Sarissa against a charge kingship he had settled the unrest, and, with an army of 43,000
or when soldiers march in rank. The distance from the rear sol- men and 50 warships he entered Asia. The then king of Persia
dier indicates the reach distance. Darius the Third brought an army to bear quickly, meeting him
in Anatolia, but Alexander proved far more of a tactician than
The March of Alexander Darius expected, and the Persian army was soundly defeated.
Forging his infantry into a varied and capable fighting force, Alexander marched south through Asia Minor and Lebanon,
Phillip turned his gaze southward to test their mettle. His first defeating Persian troops and liberating cities. From time to
campaigns tested his armies and found them wanting, but with time he would stop to found new cities, giving them Greek
refinement the Macedonian force became feared throughout names like Antioch and Thebes, as well as naming some for
Greece. Before a handful of years were out, Athens petitioned himself (Alexandria). Marching into Egypt he again faced Dar-

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Iron and Empire
ius, and defeated him, destroying yet another key part of the lions, plots, and then he married the daughter of a Bactrian
Persian defense. Egypt was only too happy to see Alexander, nobleman in order to secure peace. The same year Alexander
and they embraced him, giving him troops and erecting shrines married Roxanne, he decided to march East once again.
to him. Then Alexander returned to Syria, stopping in temples
Crossing again into the Indus, Alexander pushed into India,
and shrines along the way to worship, declaring that the local
fighting against many of the kingdoms of the Punjab region.
gods were obviously just different faces of the same gods wor-
When he at last came to the edge of the Ganges, his men, long
shipped in his native Greece. Everywhere he went he embraced
afield and disturbed by the alien land they fought in, refused to
those who spoke Greek as his fellows, and soon a cult of
continue, and so Alexander was forced to change course.
Greece sprung up in the liberated lands, united behind the
Instead he and his men built a fleet of ships, and sailed the
credo that any who spoke Greek were equal citizens in Alexan-
Hydaspes south, to conquer the lands of southwest India. In the
der’s Greece. When Darius attacked Alexander for a third time,
battle of Multan Alexander was grievously wounded, and it
his army was already demoralized, and they routed swiftly.
was at this time that he turned west, and decided to cross back
Darius himself fled east, but his own followers captured him
into Persia by a more southerly route. This proved to be devas-
and executed him publicly when Alexander’s armies
tating to his army, which lost half its number traveling through
approached.
Baluchistan.
Elephants; Morale
Elephants were first domesticated in India. Large, intelligent, Morale is a difficult factor to quantify. A highly successful
and prone to fearsome madness in battle, these unpredictable and potent army, the Macedonian forces under Alexander
beasts were highly dangerous and destructive. In some armies were willing to march with him into the face of a much
a contingent of elephants, usually with gold or silver capped larger enemy. But eight years later, with a surfeit of victory, a
tusks, were kept on one flank, and goaded into a stampede by longing for home, and facing a strange and unknown land,
their handlers. Once loose, elephants were just as likely to hurt his same army almost mutinied. Darius the Third experi-
ally as they were to hurt foe, so armies using elephants stayed enced an even worse side of failing morale, when after his
well away from the front they intended to attack with ele- third loss and on the run, his own people killed him in order
phants on. to make peace with Alexander.
Other armies, though, used elephants in a more thoughtful Morale often has nothing to do with simple things like food or
manner. Mounting platforms called howdahs on the backs of comfort, and everything to do with leadership. Since most d20
elephants, they would place half a dozen archers atop the ele- situations that involve armies usually involve the head of those
phant. The elephant’s tough skin could keep it from injury, armies, a good indication of morale comes from comparing
while the archers on its back had an excellent vantage point the leadership skill of each leader. In times when the battle is
to strike at unsuspecting targets. Alexander was so impressed at a critical juncture, it is the leader with the higher leadership
with this use that he brought a contingent of elephant sol- score who tends to prevail. An easy way to simplify this is to
diers back with him, and elephants became an addition to a make an opposed leadership roll between both characters, with
number of his armies. At first the Indian elephant was the the highest score winning the juncture. This still allows
most common found in post-Alexander armies, but the ele- enough variance to let an underdog win from time to time, but
phants of Africa were larger, and they were eventually follows with the ‘heroic’ aspect of d20 role-playing.
adopted as more preferable mounts.
Elephants that are trained to berserk in combat have the When Alexander returned to court he discovered things in dis-
added combat ability of rage. array. Corruption and disloyalty was rampant in his empire,
and he was forced to purge much of the aristocracy he had
Rage (EX): When an elephant that has been trained to trusted while he was away. With war in Greece brewing,
berserk receives damage in combat, it flies into berserk fury Alexander forced most of his officers to take Persian wives, in
in the following round, goring and trampling any creature it order to solidify their attachment to the conquered land and
can see. An enraged elephant gains +4 Strength, +4 Constitu- help him raise Persian soldiers. This caused a mutiny in his
tion, and -2 AC. The creature cannot end its rage voluntarily. army, which he put down mercilessly, but the damage was
done. The army looked on Alexander with fear, for they saw a
Alexander claimed the throne of Persia just six years after
man much changed by his campaigns. He was ruthless and
coming to power in Macedonia. He even adopted Persian dress,
powerful, controlling all the civilized lands he could, and he no
and viewed all later opposition as rebellion against his right-
longer seemed Greek to his primarily Greek army.
eous rule of Persia. He continued to pursue the remnant forces
of Persia throughout the north and east, even crossing the Some records suggest that Alexander may have claimed per-
Hindu Kush into the Indus. Then, having disposed of the last sonal divinity. This was an alien concept to Greece, but quite
resistance, he returned to Susa, which now was the capital of common in the lands Alexander had conquered. There is defi-
his domain. He spent the next three years putting down rebel- nite evidence to suggest he had adopted other eastern ruling

77

From Stone to Steel
methods, and records of his pronouncements used formulaic
language that suggested he believed in his own divinity. To his
Sub-Saharan Africa
mind he had accomplished tasks only heroes of yore did. But In the lands south of the Sahara, metalworking probably started
this period was not to last. much earlier than in other regions, but iron smelting was only
common in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Nigeria. It would not be
Alexander, after suffering the loss of a close friend, returned to until after the first century A.D. that iron working would be
Susa, and grew ill. Whether this was a natural illness or poison common throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
is unknown, but he died at the age of thirty three. His wife,
Roxane, was pregnant at his death, and bore him a son, who The inhospitable climate of much of Africa prevented large-
inherited his kingdom, but his son barely survived long enough scale urbanization. Certain cities, like Timbuktu, were estab-
to claim rule before he was killed. Thus, Alexander’s empire lished as centers of commerce and trade, but the majority of
was left without an heir, and no man even tried to rule his land Sub-Saharan African culture was nomadic. This prevented
alone. In the end three of his greatest generals divided Alexan- extensive development of cultures and armies. Weapons and
der’s empire in portions. Seleucus, general of Alexander’s cav- armor in Africa tended to focus on protection of the individual
alry, took control of all lands east of the Euphrates. Ptolemy, a warrior.
distinguished cavalry officer, took control of Egypt. Antigonus, A few kingdoms of note did spring up before the colonization of
another general, was awarded portions of Asia that are now Africa. Ethiopia would eventually become a powerful Christian
Afghanistan and Iran. Lysimachus, a bodyguard to Alexander, kingdom, opposing Islam but not participating in the Crusades.
was given control of Thracia. And Cassander, a son of one of The Bantu, who were probably once nomadic people from
Alexander’s generals, was given control of the former Macedo- Northern Africa, established a number of kingdoms in the Congo
nia and Greece. Thus was the world divided up. and East African Highlands, and continued to travel south.
But peace was not to reign. Within a few years the only surviv- Wherever they went they imposed their language, but in
ing kings were Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus, and Greece exchange they brought advanced agriculture and iron working,
was once more independent of Macedonia. Ptolemy and Seleu- which improved life in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. Later ages
cus would eventually found dynasties and fight often over con- would see the rise of the kingdom of Ghana as well, although
trol of Palestine and Syria, while Greece would eventually face Ghana would eventually crumble under the onslaught of Islam.
defeat from a growing power to its west: Rome. The spear and club were the most common weapons of Sub-
Saharan Africa. Often the clubs had flat, paddle-like striking
Diffusion of Technology surfaces, and sometimes a knee-bend in the haft. The knee
bend gave strikes extra force. Such clubs were always made of
When lands are conquered, any technological advances are
hard wood, and were differently shaped and manufactured by
usually diffused between the regions. In the Bronze Age the
each tribe. The sickle sword or sickle axe was also common in
conquests of the Hittites brought chariot technology to the
these regions. Often more curved than those of Egypt, these
major powers. In the Iron Age the curved swords of the kopis
sickle weapons were used to cause grievous wounds to limbs,
and falcata were shared between Europe, the Middle East,
being ineffective against armor.
Northern Africa, and India because of the various wars of
conquest that spread them around. As weapons like the fal-
cate dispersed, different cultures adapted them to their own Club, Paddle
uses. In a fantasy world, regardless of what cultures might The Paddle club was a common weapon, south of the Sahara,
normally gravitate towards, this same process occurs. If you usually used where metal was hard to come by. Something of a
want to place an exotic culture near your base culture, it’s hybrid between axe and club, it’s a close in slashing weapon,
only natural that technology will be shared between the two often with a knee-bend in the haft.
groups, even if only because of warfare.
Sword & Axe, African Sickle Style
Africa developed a number of fearsome curved blades, notably
their own unique sickle sword and sickle axe. Both weapons
have a thin haft and crescent blade, with the sickle sword hav-
ing some blade extension down the haft. Neither weapon has a
substantial guard so the most common injuries suffered in war-
fare were to the limbs.

78

Iron and Empire

47
49a

49c

48

49b

47. African Sickle Sword; 48. Sickle Axe; 49a. African Throwing Knife (Zaire); 49b. African Throwing Knife (Central African
Empire); 49c. African Throwing Knife (Sudan)
Knife, African Throwing .African Armor
The most striking weapon of Sub-Saharan Africa was the Warriors in Africa usually wore leather or hide armor, although
throwing knife. Fearsome and fanciful in design, these often certain kingdoms also used a light iron scale shirt with leather
had two or more abruptly jutting curved blades that were use- greaves. Shields were generally large or great, and made of
less for regular striking. Worn into battle in sheathes draped stretched leather (hide) or wood. Metal shields were never
over the neck or on this inside of shields, these were ceremo- used.
nial weapons, and each tribe had an individual way of manu-
facturing their knives. Many of those with curved, hooked Shield, Great Wood
blades were intended to catch onto shields or parrying weapons The great wooden shield is an excellent defensive item, but it
and swing over the obstruction to strike at the warrior behind, can be quite weighty. Often these are decorated with appropri-
like the war boomerang of the Aborigines. These weapons ate devices.
were the primary reason that Sub-Saharan Africa developed leg
greaves to go with all its armor.
The African throwing knife has a variety of shapes, depending
on the region of its origin. Some are Y,ew or K shaped, and
often with hooked or crescent blades. This design actually
makes it more likely that a blade will strike your opponent
when you throw it. The hooks on the African throwing k make
it a Shield Bypass weapon. The hooked blades create a rotation
point on a defensive item, allowing an attack to bypass it.

79

From Stone to Steel
Table 3-1: Iron Age Weapons
Simple Weapons-Melee
Weapons Cost Damage Critical Range Wgt Type M H/HP
Tiny
Dagger, Iron 1.6gp 1d4 19–20/x2 15ft 1.5 lbs P M 6/5
Knife, Chinese Curved 1.8gp 1d4 x3 1.5 lbs S M 6/5
Knife, Iron 1.3gp 1d4 x2 1.5 lbs S M 6/5
Small
Mace, Light Iron 9gp 1d6 x2 6.5 lbs B MW 6/18
Sickle, Iron 4gp 1d6 x2 3.5 lbs S M 6/12
Medium-Size
Club, Iron Studded 4gp 1d6 x2 5 lbs B MW 6/10
Club, Paddle 1gp 1d6 x2 5 lbs B&S M 5/10
Mace, Heavy Iron 10gp 1d8 x2 13 lbs B M 6/26
Spear, Half Irona 9sp 1d6 x3 20ft 4 lbs P WM 4/8
Large
Spear, Short Irona 1.6gp 1d8 x3 20ft 5 lbs P WM 4/10
Simple Weapons-Ranged
Small
Double string sling 2gp As per ammo x2 50ft .1 lbs As per ammo C 2/3
Medium-Size
Gastrophetes* 45gp 1d10 19–20/x2 110ft 13lbs P WB 5/39
Javelin, Iron Headed 9sp 1d6 x2 30ft 4 lbs P WM 6/12
Martial Weapons - Melee
Small
Falcata 13gp 2d3 18–20/x2 10.5 lbs S M 6/32
Kopis 12gp 1d6 18–20/x2 7.5 lbs S M 6/23
Shem Sharru 13gp 1d6 18–20/x2 5 lbs S M 6/15
Shortsword, Iron 9gp 1d6 x3 3.5 lbs P M 6/12
Medium-Size
Akinakes 12gp 1d8 19–20/x2 6 lbs P M 6/12
Battleaxe, Iron 9gp 1d8 x3 8 lbs S M 6/16
Longsword, Iron 13gp 1d8 19–20/x2 5 lbs P M 6/15
Large
Club, Great Iron Studded 4.5gp 1d10 x3 11 lbs B MW 6/22
Sarissa†a 10gp 1d10 x3 13 lbs P WM 4/26
Scythe, Iron 16gp 2d4 x4 13 lbs P&S MW 6/26
Spear, Long Bronze†a 3gp 1d8 x3 9 lbs P WM 4/18
Spear, Long Iron†a 4gp 1d8 x3 10 lbs P WM 4/20
Martial Weapons-Ranged
Large
Bow, Double Recurve* 120gp 1d8 x3 100ft 3 lbs Per arrow W 4/9
Longbow, Composite 100gp 1d8 x3 110ft 3 lbs As per arrow W 4/9
Exotic Weapons-Melee
Small
Axe, Sickle 8gp 1d8 x3 7 lbs S MW 6/21
Cestrosphendone (kestros) 2gp 1d4 x3 10ft 3 lbs P W 4/9

80

* When running in heavy armor you move only triple your speed. Persian# 235gp 6 1 -9 40% 15ft*/10ft* 42lbs M 6/86 Ringmail. African Throwing#* 4gp 1d6 x4 15ft 3 lbs P MW 6/9 Sword. Great Iron 34gp 3 3 -3 25% 30ft/20ft 26lbs M 6/52 Shield. ‡ Double Weapon † Reach Weapon a If you ready an action to set this weapon against a charge you deal double damage. 81 . Bronze 42gp 4 3 -4 25% 20ft/15ft 32lbs M 5/64 Scale Mail. ** The tower shields grants you cover. Iron 180gp 5 3 -3 25% 20ft/15ft 31lbs M 6/62 Lamellar. Lead Sling 1sp 1d4 6 lbs B M 8/6 * See the description in the text for special rules. # Shield bypass weapon § Subdual damage Table 3-2: Iron Age Armor Armor Max Dex Armor Check Spell Spd Armor Cost Bonus Bonus Penalty Failure 30'/20' Weight‡ M H/HP Light Armor Armbands 2gp 1lbs M 6/2 Cuirass. † Hand not free to cast spells. See the description. ‡ Armor fitted for small characters weighs half as much. Bone Scourge#* 8sp 1d2 x2 1. Greek Bronze 185gp 5 1 -6 35% 20ft*/15ft* 37lbs M 5/52 Ringmail. African Sickle 5gp 1d6 x2 4 lbs S MW 6/12 Whip.5 1lbs L 4/2 Medium Armor Cuirass. Bone 33gp 4 3 -4 25% 20ft/15ft 26lbs B 4/52 Lamellar. Iron Headed (20) 1gp 4 lbs P WM 1/4 Bullet. Greek Iron 190gp 5 1 -6 35% 20ft*/15ft* 36lbs M 6/50 Shields Shield. Iron Fire* (20) 22gp 1/rnd -10ft 3. Leather and Bronze Plate 160gp 4 3 -4 30'/35'/40' 64lbs ML 5/128 # See the description in the text for special rules.5 lbs S CB 3/5 Whip. Large Iron 17gp 2 2 -2 15% 30ft/20ft 16lbs M 6/32 Shield. Iron 44gp 4 2 -5 25% 20ft/15ft 31lbs M 6/62 Scale Mail. not quadruple. Iron and Empire Table 3-1: Iron Age Weapons Exotic Weapons-Ranged Weapons Cost Damage Critical Range Wgt Type M H/HP Small Knife. Iron Scaled Linen 50gp 4 4 -3 20% 30ft/20ft 24lbs MF 6/48 Leather Shield Skirt# 5gp +. Small Iron 6gp 1 1 -1 5% 20ft/15ft 6lbs M 6/18 Spd Mount's Gear 40'/50'/60' Medium Barding. Iron 45gp 4 3 -4 25% 20ft/15ft 31lbs M 6/62 Heavy Armor Charioteer Armor.5 lbs P & Fire WM 1/4 Arrow. Leather#* 1gp 1d2§ x2 10ft 2 lbs S L 4/6 Large Pole-mounted sling* 3gp As per ammo x2 60ft 4 lbs B WL 4/13 Weapons Ranged-Ammunition Arrow.

Rome The Roman Monarchy 84 Dog. 89 Gladiator Armor 106 Roman Weapons & Armor 90 Gladiatoral Weapons 108 Sparticus 91 Ben Hur 108 Julius Caesar 92 Table 4-3: Open Faced Helm 108 Table 4-1: Legionairre 94 Gladiator (Prestige Class) 109 Playing a Legionnaire 95 Table 4-4:Gladiator 110 The Germans 96 Army Ascendant 111 German Combined Cavalryman (Prestige Class) 96 Gladiators as PC’s 111 Table 4-2:German Combined Cavalryman 97 Days of Decline 112 The Celts of Britain 98 The Huns 114 Consolidation 99 The Fall of Rome 114 Days of Glory 101 Table 4-5: Weapons 115 Gladiators 101 Table 4-6: Armor 116 82 . War 102 Nascent Republic 85 Auroch 102 The Greek Response 86 Bull 103 The First Punic War 87 Gazelle 103 Trouble With the Gauls 87 Giraffe 104 Hannibal 88 Hippopotamus 104 Hannibal’s Downfall 89 Ostrich 105 The Road to Empire.

sprawled in the garden. and grabbed for his sica and strange and awkward. slightly larger than a plate. slow and lame. “Worse. Somehow He battered at Tacitus’s shield with his own. the sweat. and closed Tacitus in the closet. Glancing up he saw the heavy jaw and gap-toothed grin of the trainer. But his master had not been him. But no one let the relief hit their face. but Tacitus only flinched a little at the sound. his head shield. which he’d lost grip on still ringing from the backhand of the ugly man. The trainer then turned around to eye the other slaves. “Turn around you imbecile. What did the trainer have in wretches! Show me why you deserve to be called Thracian war. to get the to the ground by a powerful shove. even late he realized that he could probably have taken advantage with the floor. try. The power- “Alright. Tacitus staggered to his feet. and he’d been found them tight. He did not relish a maiming. His 83 . I’ve seen plenty of women smiling? Then Tacitus felt pain blossom in his ribs again as the fight better than you. “Ligula will have Egyptian’s sica took him square in the purpling skin. knocking it aside. Like everyone in Ligula’s school. mind? riors in the Arena two weeks from now!” The flagellum Tacitus never wanted to be a gladiator: the stink. which was a good thing. There was no scars and his face cracked in glee. “Select two pieces of focused on Tacitus. though didn’t seem to feel the strike was enough. “Come on. servant.” More than one future gladiator seemed to let out a sigh ful Thracian’s head was shaved bald. because the The moment before his jaw was to be broken. and too Now. and Tacitus already had a him from this life with little pain. Someone who would sever his neck and free shown surprising speed and agility. a cried out. In the dark Tacitus felt the burning spreading through his arms and shoulders. hold them out at your sides. his contempt palpable. Get some water and arms drop at all…” The trainer fingered his flagellum thought- practice on the post. in store for him. “Get in there. In his dark moments he could only hope to have He raised his shield.” As Tacitus turned towards his posts. Tacitus picked Latin was accented with backwoods Greek. his eyes slits. so it was possible the bone was still healthy. training partner he was cuffed again by the trainer.” the trainer said darkly. with your arms out. T not quite sure of what just happened. And Tacitus’s master had sent was bound to his left arm and grasped in its hand. His wooden sica swung wide and high. Raise moving to the posts. that’s it. He didn’t have the strength hours more training. Did that mean he was learning? Tacitus did this. His tion on his training regimen and his gladiators. you dread in the pit of his stomach. worm. unsure of the reason. Thracian growled. “Alright. sizeable bruise on his ribs from the last strike. to a bare closet breathe. If I come back. Tacitus was flung trainer went thoughtfully quiet. No one death.” of the Egyptian’s miss to strike. its intonation himself up off of the ground. He counted himself proud to even have Tacitus looked over at the swarthy skinned Egyptian that faced gone two rounds with the Egyptian. “Don’t disappoint me. Or did that mean that he was just too slow to survive as a glad- “We get house slaves here from time to time. “No. Fight. but effective. heavily weighted in front.” streaked his ribs as his body protested the abuse. rest ready for their meal. But you are the sorriest specimen I’ve towards him in time. raising the flagellum in his other hand. ever seen. “You’re coming with me. Tacitus barely ducked below the swing. weakness allowed in Ligula’s school. tinued to berated him: A burning in the shoulders. not the Egyptian grinned at Tacitus’s hasty defense. Rome acitus’s head spun with the blow and he fell to the ground. aiming to take Tacitus in the jaw.” the when he fell.” Then the trainer gave him a cruel You’ve had some kind of training. while the him into Ligula’s school. This was not lost on the trainer. practicing the eight striking forms. these flimsy pieces of wood seemed heavier than he expected. and that meant dinner would be late. drunk. And you fight like a woman. he wore strips of leather pleased with him. but with shame. trainer commanded. The other trainees battered at the wooden your sica and don’t back away. He had little illusion about what was right held a wooden practice stick. A curious sensation entered Tacitus’s arms as the trainer con- The Egyptian. Why was he with anger. “You’re good. or the courage for it. pieces. Go to the posts and then you’ll have your dinner. making the others look time he managed to keep his feet.” the The Egyptian moved forward aggressively. as he prevented Tacitus from “You’ll be craving my fists if I give you a taste of this. though. A heavy wooden shield. and you’ve let your pointing at the Egyptian. wood. a dangerous move for practice. Tacitus almost didn’t see the shield moving change at the games. I want you with ‘second weeks’ tomorrow. with a pile of wood in the corner. and eyed the Egyptian. but this The Egyptian moved with fluid grace. “Put one in each hand. each one in succession.” the trainer continued. “You!” the trainer said.” smile. it would be two changer of linens and floor cleaner. The Egyptian had an experienced foe. Fooling around iator? with the Master’s mistress or selling his tableware for pocket Still musing. and then brought his sica up. He was a house slave. It didn’t hurt to The trainer lead Tacitus into the compound. If they had. He’d need to rewrap his leather. fully.” Tacitus eyed the wood and picked up the smallest ing to catch Tacitus in the head. Something must have shown in Tacitus’s face. Tacitus’s habit of taking sips from the master’s wrapped around his arms and clenched at the fists to keep wine store made him drunk one night. the cracked.” Tacitus felt The trainer could be heard to back away.” Tacitus burned. The trainer continued. Ligula staked his reputa- and take what’s coming to you like a man!” he shouted. As he threw his shield up for the block. his scalp marred by burn of relief. Tacitus was not cut out for this. “I’m going to leave. Red me flogged if you aren’t ready for the arena in two weeks.

By his mandate every man between 17 and 46 who each founding tribe (the tribes of Ramnes. a number of tribes of Sabine. From Stone to Steel bruise throbbed almost in time with the pounding of his heart. The resulting were equites. The cavalry soldiers Rome. The equites came from the wealthiest families of the army. it expanded its populace as well. though certain truths can be ascer- tribal origin could be king. It is generally believed that one man.. These 3000 soldiers made up a legion. or complete posedly raised in the wild by wolves. killing the king. horsemen. and might often suffer at the hands of those at odds ritory. Rome was a male-dominated society. through strength and ambition. which put them at an as an excommunicated Roman would find no comfort in lands advantage against disorganized attackers. word for father is Patris. The Roman monarchy was not heredi- tribes and founded the city which would take his name. called excommunication by the Latins. not be attacked. The assembly had one power only: they Romulus. raised a large army to challenge Rome. The fact that the Roman term for But success always attracts the eyes of those larger. The Patriarchs could gather in the Senate to advise the king on the views of the people. from both parents. which consisted of all male citizens who could prove Roman heritage the Italic peninsula. Unfortunately. was the second war. although only as transportation. and as it did. in In the beginning Rome was small. divided into units of 100 men. More than just life or death. a Latin king of Rome. The early monarchy of Rome spent much of its The Roman monarchy was absolute. Tities. he could count on 3000 men. the ultimate tool in the conflicts between Rome and the nearby Greek colonies eventu- Roman king’s arsenal was banishment. was worse than death. and it gave every male citizen a region dating back to the Bronze Age. and when a king died the Senate would convene to deter- Legend has it that Romulus was one of twin boys (his brother’s mine who would be next king. In a world regular raids. the Romans practiced war as the Greeks did. should the city of Rome Romans did use chariots. When considering that Athens could call up an army of King Tarquin of Rome. Rome. which meant that a per- ally lead to a treaty by which Rome and the Greeks agreed to not son could no longer enter the lands they called home. Initially. and the 100 is a century. Tullius. Beyond the Senate existed another legislative body. the core institution of Rome. isolated between the Greek colonies. united these various alone chose succession. however. The Patriarchs of Rome. Latin. from which we get the modern word invasion was devastating. In early let his arms fall? Or if he didn’t? Rome the father could do anything to any member of their household. and sup- decide whether or not to grant this king imperium. north. The Latin formed at his eyes. The legion was then citizen.” His voice cracked in the silence. and Etruscan people lived among seven hills in a rural portion of Roman kings avoid extremely harsh decisions. Tacitus wondered? If he mirrored the power of the father of every household. using hoplite soldiers and phalanx ranks. eventually called a census. and every man from 47 to 60 were required by proximity to the Greek colonies of Corinth and Thebes. situated between stronger powers. them off. the assembly. ery to outright murder. And usually disparate tribes are only brought together in one place by people with vision. although the first not to be placed in 20. Rome was in a difficult position. Then the assembly would name was Remus) born to the Trojan warrior Aeneas. But generally social expectation and please return soon. eventually lead to the Roman soldiers being Etruscans of the north.. and Roman society was Patriarchal. the of a Patrician’s wife was the last straw. his rape region at the start. in the Iron Age. Early power. ensuring that no single tribe domi- tained. Ruling with impunity. 84 . Faliscan. The Romans were a truly minor force in their assembly and made light of the Patricians. the king having complete time defending itself against aggressors from all quarters. without question. although the Romans soon grew adept at driving where one’s tribe was extremely important. one of one hundred. Rome expanded its ter- abroad. and the strong Etruscan tribes of the at this innate strike at the family. so as to expand the call up an army. passed a minimum land ownership requirement was available for as well as 300 men who could fight as cavalry. this kind of exile. destroying most of equestrian. and Luceres). which began to flourish voice. The Samnites in the south made any kind of contact with any person in those lands. seeing growing wealth and prosperity in called centurions. and often those views helped bout the time that the Greeks were entering their archaic A period. This land requirement did limit the total number of in battle. and placing a new Etruscan king on the throne of Rome. tary. nor make challenge each other’s borders. as tears internal family relationships tempered that power. the leaders of the clans. Servius with Rome. In the end. This decision meant that people from any tribe and substantiated. the law to stand as the home front militia. legio being a soldiers available. from selling a member into slav- Tacitus could only hope the trainer returned soon. about 1000 from Legio. he ignored the insignificant. had greater power than many other leading families did in total monar- The Roman Monarchy chies. but made certain that every soldier was also a Latin word literally meaning the levy. those that could afford to feed and maintain horses of Rome. When the king had need to order to know the true population of Rome. Because of their military service. Angered and incensed Samnites to the south. There was definitely a small common culture in this nated the kingship exclusively. Little of this story can be power.000 at this same time. The power of the king Which would disappoint him more. the small army of the Romans seems power by the assembly. Tarquin Superbus (Tarquin the Great). “Please.

it. was a merchant state. arrows. the Roman Senate chose to retain the power of Brittany and the British Isles. The Gauls wrought tiny links of bronze chain. or common class. This pattern diffused the force of blows caused an uprising among the plebians. Carthage was one of the first to recog.D. threw them. 85 . and daggers. and training. the wearer made it popular among both the Celts and the lace. influencing trade in all Chainmail & Chainmail Shirt civilized regions. damage it did to the Etruscan tribes was evident. the Romans would craft their chainmal from iron city of Veii was destroyed not long after the capture. eventually fell to the Gauls. while on campaign. and pro. rather than entire plates. Lastly. Later. long established emerging nations today. Eventually months. number to a respectable 1800 men. ing. The office of Tribune turning slashing or piercing attacks away. The Gauls were a Celtic tribe that dominated what is today Instead of reinstating the monarchy after the overthrow of Tar- France. could Nascent Republic not face the vast numbers of the Gauls. already vested armor: chainmail. the Romans drove south. These cities. but their lesson would not be lost vest was done. Chainmail is light allowed common citizens a voice in the Senate. The general defensive ability of chainmail in either form. Viminal. and they were defeated. The Servian Wall would surround the men. who would call up the Legion when there was need. Palatine. the horses of which were Esquiline. Roman armies marched on the Magna Graecia. and often established the office of the Tribune. could be pursued in the Senate. All of and wealthy legionnaires armored in chainmail of bronze or these changes lead to a strong military. the Romans were able to subdue the stronger elements finally defeating and subjugating the Samnites. different people could be elected from a given sub-section Rome had seen the error of depending on their limited levy. Aventine. and allowed Romans to become prosperous quickly. and the interests of the people. Peninsula. and wearing the new chainmail. The military began to be subsi- hold on the Latin League. since only the broken links require replac- allowed a plebian to be elected for offices should they be avail. The army was doubled to 6000 was to build a city wall. including the office of magistrate of the army. some 30. who brought with them a fantastic innovation in such atrocities. and one Rome’s independence from the northern Etruscans. and the equites grew in seven hills of Rome: Capitoline. and disband it when the purpose was finished. and together they forged a stronger dized by the state. which would eventually be integrated into Rome’s popu. preventing more direct damage. Rome’s force. Roman Legions went to meet them at the Allia River. but their anxiety would not defend was founded. They tightened their provided at public expense. n the following years the army of Rome was lead by elected Rome itself was attacked. Not a year after the Republic their northern neighbor. and now well fortified. strong as it was. The A. and establish a firm border with the their borders. and then con- This new trading relationship gave Rome access to foreign nected those links into tightly laced shirts. from its Phoeni- cian heritage. cou- lished a mutual defense league with other Latin tribes in the pled with the fact that chainmail didn’t need to be tailored to region. and the great Republic and medium bows. crafted in bronze was used first by Celts established and built up a navy. Carthage signed a treaty of friendship. thanks to an increased population. the Gauls of Rome was born. Rome Romans. Without a king there could be no more warriors. and saw use well into the first century was able to besiege and capture the Etruscan city of Veii. This extended of the hostile Etruscans. by one the old cities fell. With the Legions expanded. moting trade between both nations. Then they marched on Rome. too. Carthage. when the har. with time and iron. This version. They estab. and even- the practice was to raise the Legion in the winter. and. and gave them control over a fifth of the Italic Samnites. tually their armies withdrew. they were proud and dedicated ruling Rome for itself. Chainmail is fashioned by linking metal rings into particularly the senators. Since the membership of the Legion was by on Rome. and not leave their families destitute. and over a larger area.000 strong. once free from the domination of the Gauls burdened by military service. Caelian. Thus Rome spears. swords. large wooden and leather shields. ensuring a strong Latin cultural dominance. Rome the Romans rose up against their Etruscan oppressors and over. Armed with bronze and iron axes. if not controlling it. but the links until the development of Lorica Hamata. were anxious about the aggression of nize the new Republic of Rome. Although not quite as aggressive as the Celtic tribes of quin Superbus. and with both navy and army and then by Romans. Not long after this an army from Gaul. were able to crush the Etruscans with ease. in the Patricians. and though it held out for 7 long I magistrates. and it brought them into direct conflict with the Much as some modern countries tend to rush to recognize Greek cities of southern Italy. taking all of central Italy. and Quirinal Hills. changed from a monarchy to a republic. and sleeves. Early Senate domination of Rome an interlocking pattern. and theoretically and easy to repair. able. supporting them. The Gauls were not interested in establishing an empire in foreign lands. so that soldiers could still earn a living wage nation than Rome had ever been. so as to make certain that no one person was unduly and their first duty. levy. or shirts with kilts resources. of a tribe. crossed the Appenines and laid siege to the remnant Etruscans.

or. It took only a handful of years for Rome to con. If the leves were threatened they the shield and making it difficult to maneuver. The intent was to remove bend on impact. have come to be known as conquests. Heavy Iron-tipped reformed its tactics. it would become a hindrance. Anyone grabbing the javelin can use it to shield unit had a ranged weapon. Roman soldiers kinds of infantry. and the eventual defeat of the remaining men holding a city. failing this. roll. taking the city. but when a number of northern Italic cities controlled by the Latin fighting the Romans he found himself in an unfamiliar land League. Phyrrus. since the javelin is already embedded in the shield. Since every shield weight.000 defeat of Phyrrus. with a long and weighty shield. Phyrrus’s army invaded northern Italy. by the time Rome was destroyed and so little grain and supplies might be left redirected its forces to meet him. The wood of the Roman heavy javelin was made to ing to embed them in enemy shields. These victories served to weaken often empty. on land and on sea. Veterans were usually in the to its HP. but so much of the wall the forces of Greece so substantially that. and usually resulted in croplands being burned tional wars. On land it had Javelin. The third rank. Conflict would be started by the selves in their opponents. in their opponent’s lightly armed leves troops. Phyrrus’s victories in Roman territories were and cities being indefensible. Since 86 . If a heavy could drop behind the lines of the more heavily armored main javelin hits an enemy shield (by any means. I and a Greek general. came at a tremendous loss of life and against people who were used to fighting less conven- on both sides. Phyrric victories. raised an army and marched on Rome. Rome grew in strength. A city would be taken. one heavily armored. Such victories. though. Phyrrus’s force was no longer that it cost him more to take the city than he would gain from able to face them on the battlefield. the other lightly cast their javelins with the hope that they would embed them- armored but maneuverable. the javelin should be considered embedded. and lose as many men in his own army Greek Cities. who would be forced to drop their back. and besieged Phyrrus is one of those people whom history remembers not for their successes but for their failures. Phyrrus was a dedi- cated. adding to the weight of spear lodged in their shield. without needing to roll the melee touch as extensively in Roman formations. The result was a complete sacking it. From Stone to Steel 1a 1b 1a. including being troops. where by armies were composed of two the properties of wood: it’s tendency to warp. who would cast their javelins. where the success cost as solidate its hold on Southern Italy. Or he might take on a defensive force of 5. and capable general in Macedonia. loyal. who’s ranks would cast heavier javelins and then retire deflected by the Feat Deflect Missiles). and turn its eyes to larger much or more than the failure. Chainmail Shirt. His victories. If it did enough damage to embed itself into an enemy shields or fight at a disadvantage. hop- shields. and does any damage to allow the next rank to throw. 1b. Chainmail detail The Greek Response Phyrric Victories n Greece there was concern about fall of the Magna Graecia. to make it difficult and undesirable to throw the defense of the enemy. archers and slingers were not used trap the shield bearer. abandoning ancient phalanx tactics in Rome’s heavy javelins were crafted to take advantage of one of favor of a new system. mainly because it was likely they would be the rank weight of the embedded heavy javelin should be added to the casting javelins last when the battle was engaged.

both hooks on stop them at the Po River. Iberia. although it was the Romans who adapted it most effec. or to be used to shield 2 3 2. once distracted by this ropes and hooks on poles. people who lived along the coast if what today is Albania. Indeed this peace would last for all of Persia. naries in Sardinia and Corsica lead a revolt and requested the ian. some of their ambassadors. during which mercenaries.C. and they eventually laid Alps eventually secured the northern border of Rome. however. Naval tactics of the time. until this time. which involved control over Sicily more violence. Iron-tipped Heavy Javelin. This started the First Punic war. and securing its new borders. Then Rome would develop a sizeable navy. Rome would establish a puppet regime in order to prevent Though the First Punic war. Merce- siege to Sicily. pirating and facing pirates. they faced an increase in pirate raids by Illyrians. Persia. boarding. This allowed it to be thrown. After the end of the First Punic war. and may have provided spent centuries at sea. shipboard archers. freedoms over the previous trade agreement and access to the peninsula of modern day Spain. against land forces. although the weapon the shield rather than hold onto it. invasion. Though the First Punic war would end Rome opted to declare war on the Illyrians after the murder of after a naval battle in the Aegates Sea. only granting Rome extended trading approached Rome and asked for a treaty of friendship. The name. in the year 235 B. only confers +1 bonus to disarm. The Romans agreed to come The trident. trident. Through ing order in the Latin League. and took control of the two islands swiftly. the main trading hub of the Western Mediterran. Iron Headed and establish a foothold in Iberia. The Greek and Persian wars had led to a number of Although the Gauls were at first successful. been Sicily. a city in Iberia. The people of Segundo. Carthage hoped to control where Rome could trade. trading. and an island controlled by Carthage after the fall of the support of Rome. in exchange for access was a multipurpose weapon. They had financial incentives to sweeten the pot. and portions of southern Italy. Rome focussed on restor- gering a second treaty between the two empires. But few border skirmishes with the Gauls who inhabited the lower the Romans did not honor this treaty. trapping a blade or pole open to having their shield trapped. meaning three to Segundo’s ports and trade. tively to sea warfare. Indeed. had. ships and taking their rich cargo for themselves. was fought largely on land. Rome was more than pleased to support the Greek states. There is also a strong likelihood that Carthage may have given the Illyrians Not that Carthage was by any means a pushover. The trident was one such develop. and All of these experiences made them superior at naval conflict. It seems likely that the increase in it started a cycle of harassment and conflict that would cost a Roman trade. acting as mercenaries for pow- the Illyrians with ships from time to time. Rome declared universal peace for the inherited from those used during the wars between Greece and first time in its history. Rome the javelin may change their encumbrance. the Romans would developments in the way of grappling devices. Illyria would surrender. Trident. navy in times of peace. Disarming was also possible. and Egypt. they began to be Rome from outright dominating the war. However. 3. coupled with the Roman tendency to ignore the great many lives on both sides before Carthage would eventu. barbed. were before the war. lead to the Illyrians harassing merchant ally fall to Rome. with Rome as the victor. With the signing of the Ebro River treaty. it was the prowess of the Carthaginian fleets that prevented As Rome’s sphere of influence grew. involved ramming. The First Punic War Trouble With the Gauls At sea Rome began to actively vie with Carthage for trade trig. Rome found a way to limit that influence. was apt. a Greek invention used more actively by Rome. and leaves them trap. the treaty that approached by foreign powers interested in forging an alliance was signed after the first Punic War secured borders as they with the growing state. as all three teeth of the trident were traditionally become the basis for the Second Punic war. Iron Headed Trident 87 . This treaty would eventually teeth. ment. many foes opted to drop between two tines and drawing it away. and forced five years before the Gauls would again threaten Rome. Unable to hold out ers like Greece. considered in Carthage’s influence. to the aid of Segundo should it need it. A treaty.

Usu. they could ian military. it should be noted that good role-playing should prevented Hannibal’s armies from being able to proceed or reward those who find a way to avoid unnecessary pain and escape. armor. went to Antiochus.000 and take 10. 88 . An Audible Glamour spell combined with a Dancing Lights spell could easily create the One night Hannibal had little choice but to camp in a narrow impression of many men. and were met by half of the Roman army at Telemon. The steer is a fine example of anticipating your foe’s expectations third army Hannibal took. Hannibal was entrusted with leadership positions pling the remaining forces and driving them out of the region. was a powerful king. deep into the Gaul held Alpine up support for a Carthaginian war against Iberia. and had a keen mind for tactics. proper planning and deception can mean the difference between life Hannibal was a man always considering the possible reactions and death. to a Greek mercenary by name of Her- ally the combat is quickly upon the players. heading towards defile. determine what an enemy group is composed of. and brothers were all officers in the Carthagin- that as long as the Gauls controlled northern Italy. He favored non-conventional forces. Emboldened by their brief success against Rome. and land access to the region of Illyrium. from cavalry to elephants to infantry to to the former stronghold of the Etruscans. region. and he found what little resistance he something it fears. bearing torches. The Romans lost 6. Quintus Fabius Max- imus. is remembered even to this day in jokes and sayings about Hannibal crossing the Alps with Elephants. Hannibal’s deception with the torches on the other he set to defend Carthage’s new holdings in Iberia. may only retreat if they feel out. during Hannibal rested and the next year raised three armies in the this period there was little concern about the method of gain. which kept his entire army penned in.000 men in only flaw was in being born in Carthage. and well have found the lightly defended Carthage an appealing Rome would declare the region of Cisalpine Gaul to be a new target. and opposing Rome. and all of Rome shud- diers. Hannibal was able to quickly dominate all of Iberia Deception in Combat short of Segundo. or torn to completely decimated with inconsequential losses to Hanni- pieces. dered in fear of his name. setting up an ambush that gain XP. which allowed limited access in either direction. he faced army after hastily raised army. He units. of his foes. In short he was one enough for a reserve army stationed in Sardinia to make land. then. and with Hannibal it was the same. where the Romans engaged in a delaying action long tics in battle to maximize on opportunities. Or so they thought. but managed to kill 40. Trained in all attack again at any time. his reputation as fight only as long as they think they can win. and support. negotiations. From Stone to Steel But the Gauls were not finished. but secure many soldiers.000 soldiers supported by 20. As he marched south.000 more as Hannibal was born into a military family. This allowed them access to northern ports like When he felt he had enough men. The Gauls attempted to resist. in direct vio- Although later concepts of honor in combat would develop. and could actively switch tac- southern Alps.000 horses and chariot annibal was a general of great cunning and bravery. to defend Carthage. Despite the tremendous victory. province. It was Hannibal who Over the next four years. on the other hand. within the army in his early twenties. the battle. the then leader of the Senate in Rome. and drummed with highly mobile forces. Rome would strike again and again. message to Rome. His army was thing to just keep from being chopped. which was most found mob tactics to be less potent than the tactics of the important because if Egypt did not support the war. This great army of the Gauls struck out at Rome from the H lead his men well. conquering cities and dislodging por. This feat was no It is not often in an rpg that combat can be anticipated. If faced by being undefeatable grew. He had suffering. in the hopes of crip. The Romans resolved to strike deep in manner of warfare. father. and bringing war to the tribes and peoples settled in this region. But if there is an opportunity to study a situation and bal’s army. however. Hannibal took his army into Milan and Genoa. burned. their crossing of the Southern Alps and taking advantage of them. his way to the hills surrounding Rome. and with his support Hannibal was able to tions of the Celtic armies. With his conquests complete. or if given the proper bait. and it’s every. numbered or outmatched. joking matter. animals can ran into unchallenging. he attacked and took Segundo. lation of the Ebro River treaty. Iberia. the Romans realized uncles. Indeed it took him little time to fight often be drawn away from whatever they are guarding. Sol. Hannibal was intelligent. they might Romans. Antiochus region of Northern Italy. first among the Goths and then throughout Europe. His fall and flank the Celtic force. the Ptolemic King of Egypt. entering through the Carthaginian city of Nova Carthage. a greater army would be formed num- Hannibal bering 150. His grandfather. Eventually they would surrender the region. of those rare and ingenious men who seemed born to war. in an attack that would send a serious ‘All’s fair in love and war’ is a common saying today. took an army and Despite the tendency to look at combat as another way to invaded the hills around the defile. The ing victory. cules who held the pass that Hannibal crossed. as if in need of food. and For example: Animals set to guard something usually will routed them routinely. prisoners. but the soldiers. scouts gather cattle from the nearby hills. When passing through the newly held northern province of Rome. One he sent with his brother.

and fled in secret to Syria. influ- 89 . Publius Scipio took advantage of his victory over was distracted while Hannibal invaded. The Illyrians and their supposed puppet government did not play to Rome’s tune as had been antici- but he had the plotters put to death. and this third and last Punic war ended with the destruction of Carthage. It’s culture. retreat. Antiochus. which might explain understandably unwilling to accept this. Hannibal took as much Perseus. The brother and defeated it. The army of Publius Scipio defeated the Carthaginians. Rome Nevertheless. Also. and shortly after driving the Romans out he Rome. ple were outraged at his abdication and theft of property. escaping the ambush without losing a single life. Indeed. and they confiscated what property he had left behind. The cattle began to wander around. In a decade all of Macedonia. When Rome sent an envoy to Carthage after the war. and the annexation of much of Over the years. would not be an hon- Hannibal was efficient in his role as monarch. and hand him over. however. heap more and more suspicion and hatred upon Hannibal him- many times the size of Hannibal’s. taking no commander would ever be successful. Thus. In Carthage. all of Hannibal come home. His war Hellenization had taken him much farther than Iberia. and Hannibal’s Downfall killed himself. but the puppet king fled to Macedonia. and returned home. returning bor. was much greater. the plains behind. This conquest would be short lived. and forced Carthage to sign a treaty. Rome. The Romans were so afraid self. rather than be killed by any other hand. Carthage capitulated. bers of Greek philosophers for encouraging thought and movements that did not support Rome’s policies. and Asia king. feeling it was no longer needed. By now Rome attack Rome. armies. When. Hannibal received a missive from the leadership in Carthage: They wanted him home. Hannibal took poison. A number of Numidian tribesmen who The Road to Empire. nearly 300 miles in two nights and a day. This war ian Campaign. and give him over to Rome. He would secure the support of kings and send was the dominant force in the Mediterranian. and giving Iberia to Rome. Now mere miles from Rome. had been with his army in Zama attempted to capture him dur- hen Hannibal first attacked Rome. defeated Illyria. Rome periodically exiled large num- the orders of his nation. taking all of Greece. Worse. Of course. to hostages were held in Rome. demanding Macedonia. These property and money as he could. but paranoid of orable ally. This lead to a war of three nations. Hannibal with and conquer many Greek regions of Asia Minor and the would never again have a chance to attack Rome. so perhaps Somehow. returned. Antiochus. and more pressing to Carthage was the army of Publius Scipio. lead by relatives or foreign generals. therefore. until Rome forced Carthage to recall him from military service in exchange for Regardless. at last. ing in the Romans declaring war on Macedonia. and Hanni- bal was forced to retreat across harsh desert. He would end his life fleeing from country to country. and were used as pawns to live under the protection of the Ptolemies. which had been the After conquering Macedonia and Greece. razed his Carthage would again attack Rome. threaten Greece. Rome That night he had his men tie torches to the horns of the cattle. It was a time when removed his support. and declared him an outlaw. result- ders to where they had originally been before Hannibal’s Iber. and eventually Hannibal assumed it was to protest his being given the post of Rome would emerge the victor. Roman general who had been empowered to take an army to favoring more Greek columns and flares. Hannibal was not only able to evade their plot. Rome went only region they had agreed to go to war in. seek- of the invading force that they never saw Hannibal lead the ing asylum and avoiding plots to capture him. steal his wealth. and seeming as though a vast army. Architecture changed. eventually driv- ing the Romans out. intending to hand him over to the Romans as a peace offering. in a battle at Zama. campaign in Africa against the Romans. pated. so as to continue with his war. and set their navy against that of Rome. through a period called the Hellenization. and actually made it easier for the Romans to interact Despite defeating every general sent against him. Italy was defeated on his home turf. Later conflicts by the son of Phillip the Fifth. against the Romans with the Ptolemic Empire. and Carthage was in fear of being Hellenization lead to the toga being the common dress of invaded. his peo. he expected Carthage to concede to supposed Minor as well. and many Greek Northern Africa. when Greece attempted to revolt again. But even a great number of Greek philosophers. as a reward for his however. but by now Rome’s reach house to the ground. This army had faced the army of Hannibal’s myths and gods were added to the Roman pantheon. and then raised an army in Hadrumetum. the Romans were triumphant in their war with the return of prisoners of war. to attack Rome. and. and each attack would the hills. he felt he could no longer hide from his persecutors. they elected Hannibal to kingship. Hannibal would attempt again and again to Northern Africa as a new province of Rome. the man who had bested every general of Rome in all of the Hellenization was not to Rome’s benefit. W little lucky. invaded. as Phillip the Fifth would campaign and gain support service. would lead to the Romans taking hostages. a Greek culture were imported to Rome. But and set them alight. he may have been a ing the retreat. which would negate any gains made in Iberia or Italy. and he continued to some of Rome’s inability to defend against Hannibal. Greek thought. Roman demands. but as soon as the prisoners were Greece was conquered. the king they put in power declared war on Rome. Hannibal was would occupy half of the Roman army. The Romans soundly Hannibal. He bowed to Middle East.

a large shield. sought to rule as dictators. usually and making it difficult to maneuver. Pugio. Many. and Assyria before it. forces. If a pilum hits an enemy made of new wood. Light & Heavy especially. removing much of the property require. and does any damage to its HP. iron. became the main fighting force. Roman Weapons & Armor failing this. once insignificant. so did the ambition of those who were who would be armed with a small shield and weapons. Like the heavy javelin. Soldiers would now the shaft was made of wood. 5a. most com- force could oppose the Romans. Also. including being deflected by the Feat spanish sword. most became popular. had notably the pugio. Other varieties of heavy pilum should be added to the shield weight. Scutum 90 . since wars made them worshipped in Rome. a become for all intents and purposes. while the others would contain regular troops. in their opponent’s shields. seeing in it their hope for the tenth of a legion. thin piercing head of the javelin was well-crafted ments. but no given its reins. Rome had become a superpower. fell to the consuls to govern. or. Armor would often consist of chainmail. engi- neers. but Legions. Although the continued they could often retreat quickly to avoid casualties. Gladius. The pilum was a spear. 6. The weight of the embedded a heavier version of this sword. spend their whole lives in the military. The first cohort was usually elite Persia. however one of the pins by which the head was bound to and allowing for career military terms. and nations like Pergamum monly of wood. reformed the military. the shield (by any means. a short two-edged stabbing sword called the Deflect Missiles). These last were often scouts or light reserve troops. 8. Their could also be called upon to harry heavier armored foes. often consuls dictated policies and laws to the Senate and the Senate would enact them. Military matters. existence of the Senate convinced the people of Rome that it was still a Republic. Spear use became particu- would become a hindrance. and a scutum. From Stone to Steel enced by the Hellenization after the invasion of Greece. and could expect to be resulting in the head becoming loose and severely impacting its paid well and to have social influence when they left it. 7. Pilum. it Military tactics developed as well. The long. This pin was quite easy to break. 5b. which was intended to be broken. and the consuls Rome’s pilums were the ultimate end of their javelin strategy. one eventually opted to join Rome. did. and various lighter fighting forces. Anyone 4 6 5a 8 5b 7 4. and its military forces. Roman soldiers cast their pilums with the hope that they would embed themselves in their opponents. flight-worthiness. adding to the weight of the shield larly key to Roman armies. elected to govern Rome’s armor. the pilum gladius hispanicum was made common issue. Spatha. The cavalry used should be considered embedded. the Spatha. Pilum. and each future. although often lined with iron. The cohort. Gladius Scabard. in fact. No single heavy iron helmet. shortswords would be used by non-military people. if it did enough damage to embed itself into an enemy shield. cohort would be specialized. including the velites. Power grew in Rome. world spanning. much like Macedonia. Many consuls. forcing the state to pay for the armament of the soldiers.

they carried it out faster than they could be and others through the advanced guard feat. there were periodic slave in a sheath in the armpit. rather torial rings. often serving specific generals and consuls during times of civil war. rial tendencies would focus on conquering provinces. the former gladiators hap- Provinces pened upon a caravan of carts carrying gladiatorial weapons. did. Dictators would claim The blades of Rome were generally simple. Spartacus set about conquering provincial system was finally discarded. and collect the appropriate Then they made their way to Mount Vesuvius. The modern adjective provin. dence would eventually lead them into an indefensible posi- tion. the state of the military presaged the state of than piercing. but with that soldier base reduced by the grant of already embedded in the shield. Unlike a flat gladiators conspired to revolt and escape. synonymous with the Roman military. Then. only a touch longer than a dirk. and today forces would continue to be successful. due to the head being loose. his army 91 . When their plot was shield. They chose establish a provincial governor to overlook the running of captains for themselves. While fleeing from their captivity. making it possible for Rome to grow as large as it were eventually attacked by a Roman general with 3. When he was captured. he was forced shift changed the nature of how soldiers were called to service. and Roman Empire. and any ing his army such a sense of righteous cause that he could no national loyalties secondarily. Spartacus’s success against Roman forces began to became embedded in the European mindset. One such revolt was the revolt of a gladiator than zero. direct the armies. either though armed con. and Spartacus was one of the three. a progenitor of the longsword. The pugio actually everywhere. With this army. though. Should a pilum recruiters. and it was not attract new followers. near the coast not far from Sicily. he was forced into slavery. These recruiters should be considered broken. a volcano that tribute. revolts. His army urged him to flict or peaceful negotiations. Before. the wooden pin empire drumming up interest in the military. would become players in the games of politics. having grown familiar with Rome. despite being chal- Medieval period and the Renaissance. Because of this many foes citizenship. Gladius. longer stop the southern march if he wanted to. As Rome conquered and subdued a region. defeating yet another general and giv- people thinking about their province loyalties first. pinned sidered lesser members of Rome were granted citizenship. In the midst of wars of conquest and society wars lesser blade. and escaped from their slavery. Spatha & Pugio Civil wars were becoming common. This province system did not go away after the fall of yet they were able to repulse him. Provinces could be traded back and boring Thracia. cheated by the ship masters he negotiated with. to retreat. the levy of armies grew dependant on roving opted to drop the shield rather than hold onto it. so as named Spartacus. to make their attacks more deadly. Rome grabbing the pilum can use it to shield trap the shield bearer. used primarily for slashing rather militant society. Even in the High the whole of northern Italy. which was too heavily defended. who would travel through the take a point of damage or more when thrown. and soon his army numbered in the tens until late in the 19th century and early 20th century that the of thousands. The Gladius was the mainstay of the process went back and forth in the last days of the republic. called conquistadores. While he was able to fend off his pursuers. it would often They fell on this convoy and armed themselves. usually by subduing the ruling city of the province. But he opted to stay. Scutum and he opted to join a gladiatorial troupe. Spartacus was a former soldier who had deserted and become a brigand. Conditions in the troupe were so brutal that the left side of the centurion’s body during battle. and succeeded. hoping to make a new base there. having forth between sovereign nations. This Provincial system became the backbone of the was thought to be extinct. As Rome was a Spatha was a heavier sword. and he did. This lead to most common march south. This eagle adorning the hilt. the scutum cannot be used to protect both the wielder discovered. They Empire. Though his cial comes from this seemingly limited mindset. Slavery was common in Rome. and was often used by assassins. powers that had impe- lenged by Roman forces. He was forced to march around Rome. sometimes worn (the common term for civil wars). the Province. This down by an army supported by the Roman navy. non-citizen groups were expected to provide a levy to without needing to roll the melee touch roll. The Pugio was a the nation. sometimes with an Rome. He attempted to negotiate for Spartacus transport to Sicily. but the minimum damage is one. This weapon was easily enough hid. which protected the to hard labor. and the pilum is an automatic -2 would gain significant political power as Rome grew. The would plague the Empire that would follow. and thereby At this point Spartacus had the opportunity to escape to neigh- claiming the region. from private homes to entertainment in the gladia- does 1d6-1 damage. rather than be forced The Roman Scutum was a curved shield. and eventually ended up in southern Italy. grown overconfident from his victories. Assassins often coated the pugio with poison. but was During this period a great many tribes that had once been con. attrition and overconfi- means short sighted or unsophisticated. and made camp in the caldera. and slaves were used den there.000 men. and consuls would raise armies to drive them out. and freedom. and to hit with. since the javelin is the legion. stopped. The concept of provinces as areas of power the terrain.

and form a Helvetian Empire there. out of preference. and those numbers servient to Rome. When the Helvetti had begun their march. Crassus. So Julius Cae- sar marched 5 legions into Provence. Gaius Julius Caesar was a man of high station. they marched on Gaul. After forming an unofficial alliance people of Gaul were glad to have been aided by Rome. and they Where such practices were common. and his words began to catch notice in Over that winter the many tribes of Gaul gathered in secret and neighboring tribes. The was largely self-ruling. over an agreement. even facing invasions by the Cimbri and Teuton peoples. and full right to deal with Gaul as he wished. excellent propaganda for Rome. last for more than a few days. Grasping at bound to fulfill his boasts. Tribes Rome. Julius Caesar was able to Hostage Taking become a full Consul. who had done the same. I conquered. released. Not that the should one break an agreement. They briefly fought. in the province of Asia Minor. Rome But politics of the region made any alliance between Gaullic would likely sell their loved one’s into slavery. often staying in a Roman city and being given many of the rights of citizens. with their and killed. contrary to modern day myth. somewhat in the interest of soon as an agreement was concluded the hostages would be forming new alliances with certain tribes and driving off Ger. they num- Illyricum and Gaul. Spartacus’s revolt was the only gladiator revolt to neighbors. and com- poor station. and set them up to inter- Julius Caesar cept the marching Helvetti. If a tribe mans. Then. vici” which translates to “I came. If It started with the Helvetti. and sealed them with arranged and asked if he could help them to rid their lands of Germans. Through this alliance. that tribe’s hostages were Gaul could not defend themselves. and they set fire to their villages and one last hope. to show displeasure. a people who lived in more rugged these guests of Rome were ever returned. However. they they allowed the Roman Legions to winter in their lands. Celtic tribes common to Central and Western Europe. Since a few tribes were close to Rome and the Roman military to become Emperor. Gaul. died As it turned out. it had little impact on Rome’s attitude toward glad- through the Roman controlled province of Provence. which iatorial sport. nor did he move his way up through the ranks of mence the attack. Having close ties to the Consul Pompey. formed a triumvirate of power. but other than being mentioned One of the routes to Gaul for the Helvetti involved traveling in histories. marriages with his daughters. they were often territory that would today be the western part of Switzerland. usually involving traveling through one Julius Caesar was not the first Roman general to campaign in tribe’s land or forming a temporary alliance to fight an enemy. but not part of a province of Rome. This was mander in the battle. talking about the wonders of The Helvetti had a rather prominent leader. they covertly Julius Caesar. The Gaul were one of many likely to be killed. Illyricum. decimate the Helvetti. This was really all Julius Caesar could have hoped for. they petitioned for Rome’s support. Orgetorix. their total I saw. but the Helvetti felt honor besieging army. or tortured at the least. Rome was not about to allow them to do. and with Pompey and another prominent Senator. His first who distinguished himself during one of the Mithradatic wars year as Consul of Gaul saw him invade. Through both birth had treaties with Rome. was not born of arranged to march through a neighboring tribe’s land. Spartacus attempted to defeat the enemy com. Rome to conquer them. but he was surrounded by Roman soldiers done to give them no inclination to return. It was there he uttered the now and force most of the hostile people of Gaul to give him legendary phrase “veni. given half even accounts of hostages returning to live in Roman territo- a chance. was a province of great income. Orgetorix. seeing as the Helvetti supplemented their stores by living off the land. he made deals with been keeping. which gave him access to the legions of The practice of taking hostages is age old. In the past Roman Generals had fought in Gaul. Orgetorix was ries. one of those people who couldn’t help but boast in front of prominent people. and burned the rest. and honored. vidi. hostages. and things would return to the status quo. As Gaul had initiated in ages past. but since the Helvetti didn’t see any use fighting the Romans. their hostages were treated as guests of Rome. From Stone to Steel became confident that they could defeat the whole of the before he could begin his conquest. the Germans had invaded Gaul a number of 92 . There are claimed that the Helvetti could conquer all of Gaul. And Julius would often offer hostages to each other as a pledge of faith Caesar did. They sent ambassadors in secret to Julius Caesar. and marriage. took all the food they could carry. as was the more common tendency of rulers in the Late Republic. When they expressed interest in sharing voted to inform Rome of a little embarrassing secret they had with the Helvetti in the conquering of Gaul. Rome was more than often found themselves at odds with the more barbaric Ger. manic invasions that struck from time to time. unfortunately. Such sport will be discussed later in this chapter. aimed at dominating all of Rome. while Gaul included all people of the tribe. them to form a unified army. some. If a tribe tribes rare. The hostages were required to be family members of impor- what in retribution for the many attacks against Rome that tant people in a tribe. long conquered and now sub- bered only one hundred and ten thousand. and it was this disunity that made it possible for became a friend of Rome. that had given Rome hostages broke an agreement. from children to elders. to their deaths. and they charged. who Roman life and bringing Roman ways to their tribes. numbers were about three hundred and sixty thousand. happy to take hostages in exchange for agreements. people you didn’t want to see dead. When Julius Caesar was able to get himself named Proconsul of they were forced to return to their destroyed homes.

and then advanced on the Germans. like building trenches. bridges. honed by battle and expected to be ready to die for their leader at any time. attacked all the neighboring tribes and forced them to agree to steep tribute. Whenever they encamped. for example. in order to strengthen their hold on Gaul. sentries. and scutum. While still in training they would be whipped with the flagellum if they showed fear. and traps. and have scouts. Their speed at such engineering feats was legendary. to build a bridge across the Rhine in a single day. This was after marching many leagues each day. This deep discipline alone could be intimidating to witness. they were expected to face any force imaginable. And though they were foot troops. when. gladius. and they were masters at dele- gating tasks to cohorts and accomplishing them in record time. primarily because the German warriors were strong and brutal on the whole. They were able. seeing the prowess of the Romans. while the Roman Legionares were a highly disciplined force. legionnaires were trained to work together. He split his forces to hold a highly defensi- ble area. Again. Roman Legionnaire (Prestige Class) Roman Legionnaires were a highly disciplined fighting force. Although there were brief negotiations. and when the Germans crossed the Rhine river and entered Gaul they promptly took many hostages from the tribe who invited them in. after being invited in to help one tribe wage war on another. the Roman Legionnaires were a force to be reckoned with. Rome years previously. hoped the Romans could rid them of the German invaders. and driven by the knowledge that they fought for the greatest nation on Earth. and eventually the battle was joined near the Rhine river. Julius Caesar could not have hoped for a more advanta- geous opportunity. fortifications. at the end of a hard day’s forced march they could assemble a highly defensible fortification. To many less civilized people it was as if the Romans could do 93 . to build military fortifications and equipment. The Germans had been only too happy to agree. But their train- ing was not simply in sword or shield craft alone. trained not only in combat with pilum. on any frontier. Legionnaires were trained to be brave in the face of danger. and win. and cook fires ready shortly afterward. and given arduous tasks if they shirked their duties. The Gauls. and to perform delicate military maneuvers while in formation. but also advanced warfare tactics. they would build a wall 12 feet high. Besides mental and physical training. as Gaul had by far more fruitful croplands. where Julius Caesar had learned that the invading German tribe was inviting other tribes from Germany to cross. The battles were fierce. armored in the most protective armor that still allowed them freedom. nothing came of these. and surround it with a trench 18 feet deep. complete with trenches and palisades in a matter of an hour or two. The Roman soldiers worked with precision. A drilling period of up to three months could be required before a potential legionnaire was allowed to carry bear a gladius and scutum into battle. on and off the battlefield. Trained in the finest military traditions of Europe.

such as allowing atonement for a paladin training. Legionnaires are considered to be part of the skill) are Climb (Str). and their time is not wholly their own while they are Intimidate (Cha). such as Attributes: Strength. unfit or incapable of completing the demanding any spiritual benefit. rogue. This encompasses the methods of con- Requirements struction of seige engines such as catapults. unless they were already lawfully aligned. lawfully aligned upon completion of their initial training as a legionnaire. to name a few. and false blinds (items to hide things from view). Swim (Str) any time after their first level. This alignment change is due to training and strict quistadore. or Expert (Engineer)). but one cannot leave the military service sible to join at the first level. and Wisdom bridges or city walls. Military Engineering is a knowledge skill involving construc- tion and manufacture of military defenses or offensive seige devices. the Legionnaires are a and continue to gain levels in the Legionnaire Prestige Class. citizens of the Empire. and will not confer be sent away. Handle Animal (Cha). Profession (Dex).Improved Critical (Pilum). if a fantasy life. ranger. and will to finish the who would not be eligible for it. or the impassioned words of a con- alignment. and many opted to remain a legionnaire for Special: Must be a citizen of Rome (or equivalent. battlefield traps. Dexterity. Constitution. although it may Legions by their reputation. an interest in civil service. tow- Hit Die: d10 ers. Must ethically be able to wield any weapon the Legion- ranks of the military hierarchy. were drawn to join the conveys no direct advantage or disadvantage. Mili- tary Engineering can be used to create short-term bridges or patch city walls that have been broken. army. grueling training often found that the life of a Legionnaire was worth the danger. Knowledge (Military Engineer- legionnaires. and certain levels have Class Skills unique requirements beyond experience value in order to gain The Legionnaire’s class skills (and the key ability for each the next level. and these feats of discipline did Alignment: Any Lawful Alignment. a character must fulfill the seige towers or ramps. Table 4-1: Legionairre Class Base Fort Ref Will Level Attack Bonus Save Save Save Special 1st +1 +2 +0 +2 Formation Tactics 2nd +2 +3 +0 +3 Improved Formation Tactics 3rd +3 +3 +1 +3 Weapon Focus (Pilum) 4th +4 +4 +1 +4 Requirements: Minimum Dexterity of 12. However. necessary to construct certain civil improvements. This includes such things as trenches. and any possibility of gaining another Skill: Knowledge (Military Engineering) level in this prestige class is eliminated. Iron Will 8th +8 +6 +2 +6 Advanced Maneuvers 9th +9 +6 +3 +6 Requirements: Minimum Dexterity of 13. limitation on weapons use). palisades. Craft (Dex). Many had no previous experience. This The Legionnaire Prestige class is unusual in that it is quite pos- class is not exclusive. and some would enforcement. Minimum Strength of 12. But those with the strength. This Young men. semi-restricted prestige class. the cause problems with any action that requires a non-lawful hope for a steady income. Improved Penetration 7th +7 +5 +2 +5 Second Wind. Spot (Wis). wooden stakes. Must be willing to go wherever ordered and serve without question while a legionnaire. From Stone to Steel anything they set their will to. From time to time it is following requirements. Jump (Str). All Legionnaires become more to spread their reputation than many feats of arms. Although regular Engineering skill is must all be 11 or more. wits. and To qualify to become a Legionnaire. but if they do so. Improved Critical (Gladius) 10th +10 +7 +3 +7 Heroic Demeanor 94 . Minimum Knowledge (Military Engeneering) of 6. best for long-term construction of these types of items. Deflect Missiles 5th +5 +4 +1 +4 Point Blank Shot 6th +6 +5 +2 +5 Requirements: Minimum Con of 12. These grizzled veterans may or may not rise through the world). Many opt to raise a few levels in other classes while serving as a legionnaire (such as fighter. but is not a spiritual change. they may never return to the legions. A Legionnaire may choose to leave the military at ing) (Int). but to them the military life was naire is trained with (cannot be a pacifist or have a religious paramount. ballistae.

Formation Tactics: As per the Feat mentioned in the Chariots Playing a Legionnaire chapter. fear affects to Weapon and Armor Proficiency: Legionnaires are proficient all allies within 20 feet. and Tumble. Note that points or lower. A legionnaire may ignore the den flurries of combat or pantomimed negotiations with first 2 points of any fatigue modifier. or fall unconscious. weapon or shield. Such characters would experienced at using his armor and maneuverability to his work as a more intimate group. Veteran legionnaires can continue to with all simple weapons and martial weapons. • Perhaps the characters are part of a cohort assigned to hunt Advanced Maneuvers: The Legionnaire has become more down exotic animals for the Arena. They are also fight past all safe limits. they reach this limit he will drop dead. Dart. Class Features Heroic Demeanor: Truly dedicated veteran legionnaires are an All of the following are class features of the Legionnaire pres. battle cry up to five times a day. Climb. but normally spends their time apart. he may opt to fight on. Dacian Falx 95 . They may rally troops with a tige class. Pick Pocket. and. Jump. If you are not using the option materials rules. ture adventures or campaigns: ness rating of an item is reduced by 2 for any attempt to damage • Consider one-shot military adventures. Dart. If such a legionnaire is reduced to 0 hit proficient with light and medium armors and shields. Throwing Axe variation. Also assume that the hard. make his attacks more devastating to armor. The Legionaire Still. 10a. Otherwise he the skills Balance. Throwing Axe variation. and soldiers advancing through an this with Precise Shot. The difficulty of playing a member of the military is that their Improved Formation Tactics: As per the Feat mentioned in life is not their own. auxilliaries. He must then make a armor check penalties for armor heavier than leather apply to Fortitude Save vs. These can be intense. 10b. He gains a +1 armor bonus while wearing Roman exotic cultures. Often it’s easier to play something periph- the Chariots chapter. 12. and only loses 5 feet of movement if medium sized or 3 feet if small sized for medium armor. Move may continue to fight until his hit points reach -10 or below. with sud- and continue to fight effectively. Hide. Heavy Hides. depending on the fantasy level of your 10a 9 10b 12 11a 11b 11c 9. replace play scouts. people who speak only a smattering of Latin. like an auxilliary. where the players an item. unknown region (like Germany or Britain) and coming into Second Wind: The Legionnaire can push through exhaustion contact with new cultures. inspiration to their compatriots. interact with numerous advantage. Here are a few suggestions as to how to struc- opponents armor. the chance to play an elite member of the military may be receives a +2 competance bonus to any attempt to break an a perk for some. who might from time to time come into Improved Penetration: The Legionnaire has learned how to contact with the Legions. Rome Skill Points at Each Level: 4 + Int Modifier armor. Throwing Axe variation. Escape Artist. eral. 11a. 11c. giving a +2 vs. If Silently. DC 15. 11b.

heavier hide armor. preferring soft or boiled leather. to turn aside weapons readied were able to perform incredible feats of speed. ready to fight. City Hide Armor in the Player’s Handbook. Like a Roman police drama. Bronze & Iron nent guard force. depending on the fantasy level of your world. German Combined Cavalryman (Prestige German cavalry were not trained to fight on horseback well. Class) They didn’t carry many weapons that were useful on horse. is best simulated by adding falling damage to the dart damage total when there is a significant height difference. calf. The discipline of their training made them the recog- Caesar would hire German mercenaries to use this tactic nized experts at Cavalry Warfare at their time. Much later. cover where they are. and they did not practice charge maneuvers. Prepared. they took world or merely lost in the wilds of Eastern Europe. they might be transported to a fantasy Since objects that fall farther do more damage. German Combined Cavalrymen alongside a man on horseback. and mobile. single edged curved sword. a fantasy Rome might face any number of threats. They wore little sidered lodged. This they survive and what they encounter would be up to you. like the later zweihander. there is potential for adventure. a long. Again. which meant that Ger. cold climates. alry resistance that could equal that of an infantry line. they were far more comfortable in creatures. Bronze & Iron Throwing axes were used extensively by the Germanic tribes. The class below against an Iberian attack on Gaul. treated. and as long as there is the Legion. perhaps throw a spear. This armor should be considered the equivalent of the a city against attack or policing a newly captured city. Any defensive maneuver or stance taken with a Falx training throughout most of Europe by now. Throwing Axe. and the Iberians. throwing axes. charging up to against charges. To qualify to become a Combined Cavalryman. since the Falx has no guard and nowhere near as orderly as the Romans. as per the rules for barbed weapons. which was common defense. Darts were used by both the Germanic tribes and the Gauls. but they were will add one less point of AC. and still be ready alry stopped. Falx. Dart. German cavalry was swift. avoid armed defenses. they were usually stiff and bulky. these hides could be up to three inches thick. and often must fulfill the following requirements. and to make a fighting line wherever the cav. maces. using the Player’s Handbook. Thus German cavalry would advance rapidly. every Combined Caval- back. From Stone to Steel world. an enemy line as swiftly as a horse could run. tage of height. although they also car. Hit Die: d10 Hides. throw- The Germans ing axes that do more than half its base damage should be con- The Germans were fierce. Although not barbed. a character tanned. most German leaves the swordsman very exposed. Sometimes lined with fawn. to extend their range and potential damage. or kid skin Base Attack Bonus: +4 inside for comfort. who is used for all Combined Cavalrymen. or fire Men unafraid to rush into the face of danger took the difficult arrows. An added perk might be bonus pay for rare fur was left on these hides. off who would ride and who would run. usually as a precursor to a charge. to fight. spend plenty of time trying to defeat and capture superior protection when compared to other leather items. and can be considered as protective as winter • City duty might be appropriate for Legionnaires garrisoning clothing. and then the cavalry soldiers would drop to the ground training to become Combined Cavalrymen. and were best used from the advan- the rest of a legion. Heavy The heavy hides worn by many Germanic tribes are more Requirements sophisticated than the hides of the stone age. but poor for They generally used the phallanx formation. If the German cavalry was forced to flee. Forced to fend for themselves and dis. The one tactic that made the Germans most feared was their combined cavalry. warriors would probably be generated as barbarians. Julius itself. or hides and furs. Indeed. A small num- long and guardless wooden handle. the ryman was a powerful and swift fighter in his own right. it was a fearsome blade. but their speed becomes an asset unto man cavalry attacks were hard to counter. If creatures alive. intrigue can be as gritty as you desire. Rather. German warriors generally carried long swords and axes (descended from celts). metal armor. the The Combined Cavalryman is not as heavily armored as a nor- man on foot could prevent swift pursuit. darts. mal German soldier. and characters inter- ested in staying at the city might become part of a perma. and spears. strong. More than just horsemen or footmen. Dacian The Dacian Falx was a long curved. Those with the skill and enemies would be facing a double strong line of infantry to fight when others fell back were the only ones to survive. but were 96 . How advantage of cliffs and high walls to increase their impact. as they often switched favored regular cavalry charges were unable to adjust to a cav. • One final idea is to take a small group and isolate them from They were easy to make. javelin. and they trained infantry to run Trained to ride and run hard. one-edged blade with a ried clubs. Two handed and wielded ber carried the dacian falx. were layered.

Escape Artist. Jump (Str). Ride (Dex). the throwing axe. Running Evasively: The German Combined Cavalryman is able to run and retain half of their Dexterity bonus to their AC. They are also proficient with light armor and shields. This involves a practiced running maneuver that maintains their forward momentum while moving them from side to side to avoid running in a straight line. Run Special: Must be at least Medium Sized. and Tumble. Climb. Class Skills The Cavalryman’s class skills (and the key ability for each skill) are Animal Empathy (Cha). Balance (Dex). Faster Movement I 2nd +2 +1 +1 +0 Point Blank Shot 3rd +3 +2 +2 +1 Running Evasively 4th +4 +2 +2 +1 Mounted Combat 5th +5 +3 +3 +1 Faster Movement II 6th +6 +3 +3 +2 Mounted Archery 7th +7 +4 +4 +2 Mobility 8th +8 +4 +4 +2 Spring Attack 9th +9 +5 +5 +3 Shot on the Run 10th +10 +5 +5 +3 Fleet Footed 97 . Dodge. Move Silently. Jump. or double that time at 10 feet faster. Pick Pocket. rounded up. Hide. Note that armor check penalties for armor heavier than leather apply to the skills Balance. Minimum Dexterity 13 Skills: Ride 6 ranks Feats: Endurance. Tumble (Dex) Skill Points at Each Level: 4 + Int Modifier Class Features All of the following are class features of the Combined Cavalryman prestige class. the longsword. and shortbow. Faster Movement II: The German Combined Cavalryman has practiced charging and is now able to move at 20 feet faster than their normal movement rate for a number of rounds equal to their class level plus Cha bonus. Intimidate (Cha). Rome Attributes: Minimum Strength 13. Table 4-2:German Combined Cavalryman Class Base Fort Ref Will Level Attack Bonus Save Save Save Special 1st +1 +1 +1 +0 Quick Mount / Dismount. Weapon and Armor Proficiency: Combined Cav- alryman are proficient with all simple weapons and the follow- ing weapons: the Dacian Falx. Faster Movement I: The German Combined Cavalryman has practiced charging and can move 10 feet faster than their nor- mal movement rate for a number of rounds equal to their class level plus Cha bonus.

When he found often they went into battle unarmored. generally. hoping other legions would mobilize charge away swiftly. ute and hostages than face Roman soldiers in their element. but find where the largest number of Celts lived. fighting at a great disadvantage. Satisfied. Wode. The boats of Gaul were better mount. and then drop off the set fire to the thatched roofs of the camp buildings. After a long pitched battle. Thus he could make better turns. reducing the difficulty level of any maneu- ter his troops in Gaul. and sail The British were actually quite successful at holding the away. trolling the horses directly from their backs. baggage. they struck their and holding two men. trusting the gods to protect them. Rome was only able to could be transplanted to any other city on the coast. weather. at time. would independently. wield. and move Caesar intended to make all of Gaul another province for between terrains with less risk of a crash. The Celts of Britain Hands on Chariot Driving The eager British Celtic driver was often likely to leave the Eventually Rome would drive the Germans back across the chariot and mount the horses themselves to perform more Rhine. and Rome took the in force. directly calm and direct his animals. Celtic warriors field. climbing the guide pole to the horses. Some of his men ing longswords. Julius Caesar returned to Gaul. as became habit by now among the Celtic peoples. and then was forced to the Romans forced a number of tribes to build them several return to Gaul to winter. Covered in wode. so that he could leap back in and Romans fought valiantly. Eventually hold a beachhead for two months. Since the legions were sent to winter with their Celtic opponents. which to come to their aid. The wode-covered natives the discipline of the Roman soldiers lead them to victory. the battle. This tactic allowed a British chariot driver 98 . and occasionally chainmail. and for their hearts of his opponents. since he was con- Rome. Wode was a chalk-like blue dye applied to the skin of a Celtic But in his absence a conspiracy of Gallic tribes had hatched a warrior before battle. darts. while others he set as scouts to they might wear leather armor. and supplies to the ground. protection. and sent his troops to Wode winter. From Stone to Steel Fleet Footed: The German Combined Cavalryman can use his to make more dangerous turns easier. and chalk. and allowed him to more entire Dexterity bonus for their AC while running. effectively attack them at sea. and sailed for Britain. forcing them into a defensive position. and could spring out of them at any with much of Gaul unable to face Rome in the field or. low affair. often with their hair glued the British Celts surrendered. Julius Caesar built a tactics took a terrible toll on the Roman troops. The next year Julius Caesar returned boats like those of Gaulish construction. If successful. which caused a great many of the ships the Romans had crossed the channel in to be destroyed or damaged while at The Celts of Britain were by no means unknown to Romans. now. Meant to create an intimidating appear- plan to revolt while the Roman Legions were wintering. anchor. The Gauls often hired British mercenaries. Still. knew their forests well. and then could flee sea. as did the fleet of ships. and fear auras on warriors. daggers. it often startled the Roman soldiers who were unfamiliar they were least prepared. In order to do When a number of tribes banded together to harass Rome by this. But he found that battle to the sea. to break the British under his heel. spears. so Rome could not gained the maneuvering benefits mentioned above. when ance. the driver had to leave the chariot as per a quick dis- sea. catching them by surprise and strength. and controlling the horses directly. Still. Sometimes he appointed to repair the ships. making the taking of a city worthless. the driver suited to the harsher waters of the Atlantic. since those people Romans off. and that Julius ver by one. Celtic chariots had a low railing. and even invade Germany briefly. Julius Caesar was not a man to give up. allowed Brittish chariot drivers to perform daring and danger- ous feats. The driver might also drop off his chariot to help in the buildings. rather than facing Rome in the into spikes with a chalk and urine solution. save perhaps for a their encampment along the river Thames. As soon as they were The British chariot was a light. rather than in Provence. and burnt chariot. But by now the people of Gaul directly allowed a chariot driver to make more dangerous were becoming worried about Julius Caesar’s tendency to win- maneuvers safely. and. they were almost successful. Julius Caesar felt confident enough to do something no faster than a heavily armored enemy could chase them. The warrior camp with heated clay sling bullets and heated javelins. These one else in Rome’s history had ever done. a them. pulled by two horses sure they had the Roman soldiers in one place. Although difficult. They were right. or bows. often during the setting up of camp. they could load everyone up onto boats. with +5 to any DC roll. in order to scare them risky maneuvers. and enemies would rather present trib- chariot driving. mounting the horses into signing treaties with Rome. where only Britain was difficult to conquer. And if a coastal city of Gaul were attacked. These would throw spears until he was out. but he kept near it. By now Caesar’s reputation alone could put fear in the were renowned for their fearsome battle cries. to swell their ranks. he took the battle to shield. The Celtic warriors of Britain were wild men. a warrior and a driver. a number of tribes gathered and attacked the be a great manner for Druids to convey enchantments of legion under Cicero’s command. in a fantasy setting. Still. blue powdery material.

though dispersed. It was an effective tactic. their metal hooks ready to catch a passing hoof and break the leg it was attached to in a single. or units of from local forests. cavalry tactics. and grass. In the Eastern Empire. Fre. He used his forces for ing. As history progressed. or to create flaming trenches. with every device ready to repel attackers. but there ease of manufacture and ability to hold heat ance leader. leaves. Vercingetorix. and on those spikes were placed hooks of Rome became more and more dependant on her Auxiliary iron. and crossed. and to assert once not develop the fire arrow. But the leader of the rebellion went into hid. and built himself a fearsome fortifica- conquistadores would speak to friendly tribes and convince tion in a matter of days. sickening snap. order to camouflage them. tended to make wooden spikes. and a later skirmish with Caesar dispersed the Rome. rather than infantry. he raised his own army. indefensible plain into a highly defensible bat- tlefield. lead Caesar to retire early. replete with parapets and battlements. walls of stakes. more his control over all of Gaul. and if the water was stagnant they could be covered over with dirt and debris to make them look like solid ground. Instead. filled with side the Roman forces. 13 Spurs sat close to the ground. First he started with a 20 foot deep them to send war-worthy men to aid the Romans in their trench. It is not easy. Seeing this Finally an auxiliary was able to sneak through Gaullic lines as a method of securing his power over all of Gaul. Traps of War Trenches. Rome Bullet. Caesar knew he couldn’t face the practice also spilled over into regions where the Legions cities defenses without great loss of life. which. and he hunted the leader of the previous year’s rebellion. When a Legion moved into an unconquered area. opposed this. and the army. had he been facing any other power but Rome. lightning raids. as horses were often unable to stop in time to avoid the danger. 400 feet from that he built two more trenches 14 feet activities. one of their nearly the whole distance. could field. Pit traps could be covered with leaves and branches and filled with stakes. open plain near the city. This increased the number of men the Romans deep. like the combined cavarly of Germany. which were always in short supply in Roman ranks. laying waste to quent use of clay bullets lead to slings becoming brittle and German troops and eventually capturing and killing the resist- breaking. clay bullets might not Gaul. Another legion was forced to march sar insisted that this also apply to Provence and the whole of the 25 miles to the besieged position that night. Again. and could be used to make fire on 13. in forces to fight battles and protect frontiers. Julius Cae- and get message to Caesar. made from wood region. seem like a good idea. Moats could be made by diverting water. In the next year Rome issued a new decree that all Italian Consolidation youths were required to apply for military service. was not destroyed. Clay Sling The next year Caesar embarked to put an end to resistance in Crafted of mud and dried until hard. And these weren’t the only traps used. they cre- ated it. to realize that a shovel is as much a tool of 99 . He also dug These forces were called auxiliaries. erected a bridge across the Rhine. and opted to focus on rebelling forces. Greek Fire would even- tually be remembered. The archers. over time. while walls prevented foes from reaching you. which prevented charges. but they had one advantage: they could a Gallic chief who was hiding in Germany. and refused to pay tribute to Cicero’s forces. So he camped in the operated. Trenches required filling and crossing. It became the practice for Roman conquistadores to drum up Caesar pursued the raiders and discovered the high-walled city interest in the Roman military throughout the provinces. pallisades… If the Romans didn’t have a favorable environment to fight from. The pits were also filled with twigs. and allowed them to recruit units unique to the Behind that was built a 12 foot high wall. 5 feet deep. and made it Gaul. spurs. the second filled with water diverted from a local river. Clay Sling Bullets water. in the heat of the moment. and trampled clay. along with favorable tributes from the Ger- for a long time made them effective to use for a people who did manic people. Setting stakes made it possible to prevent charges. This they were using as their base. and were trained along a trench around the whole fortification. This dislodged those besieging kings. 3 foot deep pits were filled with a single spike them more disciplined and effective. This. and would have suc- Auxiliaries ceeded. and for breaking up Rome’s access to crucial food supplies. hard to see. Caesar be easily heated and made to keep that heat a long time. walls he laid with jutting spikes to prevent scaling. In a limited time Caesar trans- formed an open. Although many tribes hastened to agree.

Wall of Stakes. Julius Caesar’s ambitions paid off. If one is as subdued. be pursued by large forces or jealous and vengeful enemies. and can be defend itself. Parthian Iron Scale and Chain Mail. The next two years would see minor rebellions. Especially in higher level campaigns. making but was defeated in battle at Pharsalus. and were slaughtered. Caesar. and raised a large force of auxiliaries. leaving Gauls out at last. they had little choice but to agree to become a prepared. but how many people province of Rome. called spurs. he invaded the ground before it soft. trouble at home made this great general unpop- But it was the final tactic that drove Vercingetorix to attack. and when Caesar declared all of the region of Gaul erected quickly by organized and skilled people. but the Romans’ preparation. Trenches. 15b. legions. often killing or maiming the rider as well. Palisade. they found Combined Cavalry and Gallic and British Warriors. As their charge faltered. 14b. 18. snares. one can evade a ward spell. Some of the trenches they did manage to fill. Taking German When the Gaullic forces finally came upon the wall. Caesar marched on the capitol itself. trip wires attached to cooking sup. Caltrop. From Stone to Steel war as a sword. Caesar entered 14c 14b 17 14a 15b 15a 16 18 14a. watered it the night before. constant forceful presence soon made it impossible for Gaul to plies. 15a. ular. and closed its gates. With the dissolution of the First Tri- umvirate. but the iron passed by the Senate. and Pompey used a war with the of Vercingetorix. the loyal tribes where he was later killed. and they rode against the Roman fortifica. Pompey himself attempted to oppose Caesar’s return. trenches. 17. Spurs set in ground. caught on the legs of charging horses he disband his armies. They were at tent. walls all make a campsite safer. Spur. and fled to Egypt. The appearance of reinforcements drew the Parthians (Persians) to take two of Caesar’s legions. 14c. them nearly useless. His informal alliance was endangered as Pompey grew Rome entreated certain loyal tribes to approach. in response. as if in support less and less trusting of him. Light Iron Lance 100 . Caesar barely enough to maintain Gaul with. binding Caesar to Gaul and demanding hook traps. and so their ladders sank in. Then a law was tions. 16. expect trip wires? Unfortunately. took his two and broke them. since the Romans had heavily Rome. where heroes may the mercy of the Romans. traps. Setting up camp isn’t just about putting up a entered the city behind them.

as mentioned before. every citizen be given a minimum amount of resources to sur- vive. and many of them lived of events had no power over secular spectacles. and Octavian (the Second Lance. running speed is triple the listed movement. slaughtering of prey. the Emperor would have complete power. of the marketplace. which would immediately be ratified by the Senate. doing a natural triple damage with a spir- members would find themselves constantly trying to maintain ited charge. Their ulation. When wearing iron scale and chain mail. regard than his obedience to the Senate. Caesar had himself elected as dictator of Rome. Octavian returned to Rome with accolades. or. and the poorest citizen still ate better than many training focused them on one of two styles: fighting animals or non-citizens in other parts of the world. and bore a shield Germans. In the morning there was the Venatones. in schools. He eventually defeated them in Iberia. fighting people. traditionally have the same schedule. which we today call the Coliseum. in turn. became the model for heavy Roman cavalry. ther armors and weapons were taken from surrendered Octavian took the title of Augustus. learn from a Parthian how to fight the cunning tiger. Gladiatorial bouts were eventually held in quered and prided themselves at their victories. and eventu- law. and expected that everything As they developed. and tensions between Mark Antony when enemy forces were in disarray. Light Iron Triumvirate). Rome as a hero. Bestiarii gladiators trained with conquered tribesmen. not quadruple. which required that were popularly attended whenever they were held. he rode a heavy warhorse. senators and Finally the horse and lance came together. Originally held in an empty portion Romans measured themselves against the people they had con. who joined a gladiatorial school Days of Glory and were brutally trained under the close attentions of a Lanista. and Octavian was able to meet the forces of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at Actium. learning their methods of hunting. effect. between those who wanted to establish a dic. The Senate. bear. On one side was Mark Antony. and was crowned Emperor of Gladiators Rome. A Bestiarii might also Armored with iron lamellar armor or chain and scale armors. where prisoners would learn to fight with them in personal combat. Perhaps as many as a million people lived day. and he ruled Rome for 3 years. Lepidus. Then came executions at And the city of Rome had grown. and announced that his victory would return O enemies and sent to various gladiatorial schools. The busied itself with the pacification of Britain. a spear into the hollow just below the eye. on the other Brutus and Cassius. and the regularly strict Roman schedule in the city of Rome during this time. Lancers were usually called to charge only forced to leave the alliance. Looking more like a republicans. but very hot. tatorship and those who wanted to preserve the republic. Eventually Lepidus would be would be deadly. easily twice the diameter of the hold the Munera. This welfare subsidy helped to maintain a large city pop. Rome to the republic. stalking. Thracians. sided with Octavian. Then the afternoon would wall was built around the city. the light iron lance made heavy cavalry less potent against the Second Triumvirate. While the army nearly every province. During Flavian’s rule a new lunchtime. seeing dictator- attacks to have time to set a spear against a charge. and in a naval battle he defeated them. The republicans would find themselves less and spear than a lance. his writings about his campaigns being popular allowing the cavalry units to kill unprotected defenders quickly among the populace and his fame as a general held in higher and make holes in enemy lines. Germany. and Technology was adapted to Roman use as they discovered it. Bestiarii generally carried mixed armaments. slaves. training to thrust Parthians. This treachery would lead injure. Gladiators were criminals. ship as inevitable. this heavy armor made the cataphracti extremely hard to was later assassinated by the Senate. A Bestiarii might train with a Moorish or The cataphract. granted the Emperor the right to propose any death of prominent citizens with blood sacrifices. Scale and Chain Iron dictating policies to the Senate. but ity. a heavily armored cavalry unit used by the Numidian hunter to learn how to kill elephants. as a sort of intermission. and the Triumvirate charges devastating. the citizens of Rome began to lose sight of just how Amphitheater. The lance added a new wrinkle to cavalry charges. due to its restrictions on regular mobil- Republican forces. and the name of his great uncle Caesar. This can only be seen as a compromise The practice of gladiatorial combat was first introduced at the to ensure that the Senate would retain prominence. and greatest of these galleries of blood and battle was the Flavian Parthia. and campaigning against Used only on horseback. Gladiators were trained. to a 14 year war. momentous and tenuous the Roman Empire was. the gladiatorial combat that would cap the early Servian Wall. (rarely) citizens who vol- unteered to give up their rights. so the games off of the Roman equivalent of welfare. Mail. either a spear 101 . as a way to commemorate the Senate. The to fight and die in the arenas. any given day at the Games (Ludi) came to would be the same in all lands conquered by Rome. Seats were cheap. Naturally critical damage with such a charge popular control of their regions. combat with animals. too worried about other and Octavian would lead to a split. But the beginning of the First Punic War. or Dacians might teach the gladiator how to fight the and lance. often in a circus or amphitheater. In ally developed into a pastime to occupy the masses. barded in scale. For a time it would seem the Empire’s reign was supreme. The common Roman rarely left his home city.

aided by war dogs. parades of strange and animal’s jaw. which requires at least 4 points of damage. Cha 4 Attacks: 1 bite +4 melee Skills: Listen +8. a bite attack. Dex 13. bulls. Large shaggy beasts with great horns 17. Will +0 creatures were driven to edge of extinction due to their popu- Abilities: Str 17. Con 16. Spot +5. great cats./5 ft. doing an these exotic animals became a far more popular pastime. Will +1 AC: 15 (+1 Dex. Combat A war dog is a vicious. Spot +5 Damage: bite 1d6+4 Feat: Spirited Charge Face/Reach: 5 ft. A large Skills: *War dogs receive a +4 racial bonus to Wilderness Lore number of wild animals would be released into the arena. Feats: Trip Climate/Terrain: Any land Organization: Solitary. Int 2. Those not listed are detailed on Initiative: +0 the following pages. Organization: Solitary. Hunters would capture and sell exotic animals to Roman buyers who would ship them back to Rome for the Venatones. it may opt to lock its jaw. Auroch popotami. rhinoceroses. opportunistic killer. It prefers to charge into battle. Bestiarii. bears. and sometimes wore leather cuirasses. Speed: 40 ft AC: 13 (-1 Size. 102 . and so the slaughter of to hang from the wound after it has locked its jaw. The exotic animals to entertain the crowds. and it Large Animal was a great chaotic melee. But the people of Rome war dog may opt to release at any time. From Stone to Steel or a shield and gladius. The War Dog may opt soon became jaded with such sights. Hit Dice: 2d8+6 (15 hp) Special Attacks: Stampede Initiative: +1 (Dex) Special Qualities: Scent Speed: 40 ft Saves: Fort +7. and may only be broken by breaking the The Venatones first started as menageries. Locking Jaw (Ex): If a War Dog does maximum damage with Bestiarii were trained to fight both together and alone. +4 natural) Dog. Related to the bison and the modern cow. Con larity in the Venatones. hip. and all manner of exotic but less dangerous creatures like gazelles. Herd (6–30) Special Attacks: Challenge Rating: 3 Locking Jaw Treasure: None Special Qualities: Alignment: Always Neutral Scent Advancement: 6–7 HD (Large) Saves: Fort +5. Many of these creatures can be found Hit Dice: 6d8+18 (45 hp) in the MM Appendix 1: Animals. The phrase “Cry havoc. +4 natural) Abilities: Str 18. Swim +5. War Attacks: Gore +8 melee Damage: Gore 2d6+6 Medium Size Animal Face/Reach: 5 ft. were tasked with the slaughter. This is the equivalent of an improved grab. The modern mastiff descends from this breed of dog. Int 2. and let slip the dogs of war” references these animals. Dex 10. Cha 10 Skills: Listen +5. Wis 11. elephants. War Pack (3–10 War dogs (1d8+2)) Challenge Rating: Treasure: None Alignment: Always Neutral Advancement: 3–4 HD (Medium) War Dogs were bred by the Romans to fight along-side them in battle. additional 1d6 damage per round. but will back away from a foe that has demonstrated the ability to kill with ease./5 ft. by 5 Climate/Terrain: Temperate Plains ft. and ostriches would swarm the ring. these impressive Ref +5. by 10 ft. giraffes. trained to fight aggressively against men. and the checks when tracking by scent. Ref +4. Aurochs. Wis 11.

Bulls prefer to gore enemies on each five aurochs in the herd. Rage Feat: Run Special Qualities: Scent Climate/Terrain: Warm Plain Saves: Fort +7. Stampede (Ex): A frightened herd of Aurochs flees as a group in Combat a random direction (but always away from the perceived source Bulls are very territorial and protective of their cows. They literally run over anything of size Large or smaller that gets in their way. Cha 4 (10–100) Skills: Listen +8. +3 Dex. +4 natural) Saves: Fort +0. Int 1. Aurochs prefer to gore enemies used in mythical re-enactments as well. Will +1 Attacks: Gore +6 melee Abilities: Str 7. antagonist. and will often make charging runs towards any halves the damage. these creatures were popu- are very territorial and protective of their cows. Skills: Listen +9. although the bulls The smaller cousins of the Auroch. They literally run over anything of size Large or arena bulls were often whipped. Rome that could cause fearsome damage. A successful Reflex save (DC 16) their horns. +2 nat- ural) Attacks: Gore -1 melee Damage: Gore 1d6-2 Face/Reach: 5 ft. 4–5 HD (Large) 103 . Unlike the more even- on their horns. Dex 17. antagonist. Herd Abilities: Str 18. In the arena lar substitutes for the larger beast in the Venatones. Spot +5 Challenge Rating: 1/4 Feats: Spirited Charge Treasure: None Climate/Terrain: Temperate Plains Alignment: Always Neutral Organization: Solitary. Herd (1 bull and 5–15 cows) Advancement: 2–3 HD (Medium–size). Bull Rage (Ex): A bull that takes damage in combat flies into a berserk rage the following round. and -2 AC. The creature cannot end its rage voluntarily. Stampede (Ex): A frightened herd will flee as a group in a ran- dom direction (but always away from the perceived source of danger). Cha 6 Face/Reach: 5 ft. Con 10. dealing 1d12 points of damage for each five bison in the herd. dealing 1d12 points of damage for drive them into a state of anger. Powerful Aurochs were often whipped. Will +1 Organization: Solitary. Treat cows as listed above except cows do not have the Rage Attack. In the of danger). or burned in order to and with strong significance in Greek myth. Con 16. Bulls can fly into a rage when provoked. Initiative: +0 Special Attacks: None Speed: 40 ft Special Qualities: Scent./5 ft. twisting and lunging madly Large Animal in an attempt to gore its enemy until either it or its opponent is Hit Dice: 4d8+12 (30 hp) dead. they were often drive them into a state of anger. by 10 ft. or burned in order to smaller that gets in their way. and will often make charging runs towards any tempered Aurochs. Low-light vision AC: 13 (-1 Size. +4 Constitution./5 ft. Int 2. prodded. Ref +4. Gazelle Small Animal Hit Dice: 1d8 (5 hp) Initiative: +3 (Dex) Speed: 50 ft AC: 16 (+1 size. by 5 ft. Dex 10. Wis 11. Wis Damage: Gore 1d8+6 12. It gains +4 Strength. Spot +8 Special Attacks: Stampede. Mated Pair. these lords of the plains Challenge Rating: 3 were finally hunted to extinction some time in the 17th century. prodded. Treasure: None Alignment: Always Neutral Combat Advancement: 6–7 HD (Large) An Auroch is a normally passive creature. A successful Reflex save (DC 16) halves the damage. Ref +5.

by 15 ft. Con 19. Should the gazelle be surrounded. and only kick with These majestic creatures of the plains spend the majority of hind legs. all listen checks. Hippopotamus Giraffe Huge (Tall) Animal Hit Dice: 4d8+16 (34 hp) Initiative: +2 Dex Speed: 40 ft AC: 13 (–2 size. Wis 10. Cha 8 Skills: Listen +8. by 10 ft. Dex 14. Scent Saves: Fort +12. these animals are not very combat worthy. Ref +2. Listen +3. the gazelle is a gorgeous creature. Ref +6. Herd (3–18) horn. Giraffes pre- Keen Hearing (EX): This racial ability grants gazelles a +4 to fer to run from danger. +3 natural) Attacks: Kicks +7 melee (females) or Gore +7 melee (males) Damage: Kicks 1d6+4. Other than their rearward gore with its horns. Spot +5 Climate/Terrain: Warm Plains Huge Animal Hit Dice: 9d8+54 (95 hp) Initiative: +0 Dex Speed: 15 ft. spare of form and with a graceful curving Organization: Solitary. Int 1. but not an effective Challenge Rating: 2 fighter. Dex 11. Will +2 Abilities: Str 25. Swim +17 Climate/Terrain: Warm Plains Organization: Solitary. +4 natural) Attacks: Bite +11/+6 melee Damage: Bite 1d10+10 Face/Reach: 10 ft./10 ft. Scent Saves: Fort +5. Int 1. Swim 20ft AC: 12 (-2 Size. Cha 6 Skills: Hide -5. it will attempt to their time grazing among the trees. Spot +3. Wis 14. Con 22. and kick at enemies in pursuit. but only if flight is not possible. Pair. Special Attacks: None Special Qualities: Low-light vision. +2 Dex. Treasure: None Alignment: Always Neutral Combat Advancement: 5–6 HD (Large) Gazelles prefer to flee. Special Attacks: None Special Qualities: Low-light vision./10 ft. From Stone to Steel Lithe and elegant. Herd (2–12) Challenge Rating: 5 Treasure: None Alignment: Always Neutral Advancement: 10–12HD (Huge) 104 . rather than fight. gore 1d8+4 Face/Reach: 5 ft. Will +3 Abilities: Str 22. kicks.

would take to the Arena. and since most crimes in Rome were capitol crimes. a Game Master may consider allowing Organization: Solitary. Hippos are both aggressive and territo. they survived their method of execution. kick +0 melee nents who do not make attacks of opportunity against the bird Damage: Bite 1d8+4. Oppo- Attacks: Bite +5 melee. Ref +5. Large flightless birds. kick 1d6+4 can attempt a Reflex save (DC 15) to halve the damage. to fight and possibly die for the entertainment of the masses. Special Attacks: Trample. something more painful and gruesome would be thought up for them. Rome Massive and lumbering. which Treasure: None would include all normal animals faced in the arena Alignment: Always Neutral Advancement: None Man-eaters Carnivorous animals trained for the arena were actively trained to be man-eaters. or force them to free wild beasts that would subsequently tear them apart. absurdity to Romans. This best simulates the special- Feat: Run ized training bestiarii went through to become elite animal Climate/Terrain: Warm Plains fighters. Hide +2. Gladiators were trained to increase strength and endurance. On certain rare occasions they might have prisoners fight each other. Dex 15. and will often stop to devour a kill before attacking another human. but like so many other animals it often met its death in the Arena. and white plumage. Practicing with wooden items many times heavier than the weapons they would wield in the ring. the executions were tasked to go quickly. Wis 10. Initiative: +2 (Dex) Speed: 50 ft Trample (Ex): A Ostrich can trample Medium-size or smaller AC: 14 -1 size. rial. There was no such con- cept of “no cruel or unusual punishment” in Rome. cruel and unusual was considered an exceptional deterrent./10 ft. and to learn all methods of fighting with the weapons they might use. The noontime executions were nowhere near as fair. Bestiarii as Rangers Special Qualities: Low-light vision Although certainly not the standard image of the Ranger. +3 natural) creatures for 1d4+4 points of automatic slam damage. But there was no freedom for someone slated to die. nipping (for Hit Dice: 3d8+9 (23 hp) negligible damage) and kicking (for very effective damage). Optionally. armed in a variety of antiquated and ceremonial armors. somehow. as they have learned to fear man (although some overcome that fear). Indeed. black. If. Hippos prefer to work as little as possible. tutored by their Lanista and his many trainers. Ostrich Combat Large Animal If threatened. Cha 8 Ranger class. The afternoon Munera was the main event of the day for many. the Saves: Fort +4. Trained Gladiators. Face/Reach: 5 ft. The ostrich was an land and in water. At home on and bears brown. by 5 ft. the ostrich can reach a height of 7 feet. Spot +6 commonly faced in combat. Flock (3–12) the favored foe to be a specific subgroup of animals. though. And the training they went through was difficult. Will +1 Bestiarii are best generated as having at least one level in the Abilities: Str 18. Their lessons also involved liberal use of the leather whip. 105 . Ostriches can be quite aggressive. with a favored foe as one of the creatures most Skills: Listen +2. Animals that have learned to be man- eaters are rarely driven off by loud noises or fire. +2 Dex. but generally gives warning before an attack. Most animals in nature prefer not to eat the flesh of man. Int 2. Most executions were either ad bestium (by animal) or ad flammas (by flames). or even something as large as arena animals. Con 16. such as Challenge Rating: 2 big cats.

The ple. Mymillones (or nent’s feet while his opponent drove a sword blade through Galli). and then placed back in to they gave up. but machi.. where dwarves or women teams would fight together. and the losing gladiator would be spared. Flagellum & Scourge. not aggressive enough or appeared to be afraid. and a Being slated to fight the Emperor meant death. the gladiator was Gladiators sometimes specialized in a specific kind of fighting. this was a quick and relatively pain. no greaves. The Retiarii. Generally they were held between two it (up to 3 minutes total). although it is not necessary to swing at most people to whom a branding iron is to be applied. manica. a gladius. a there is no question that the opponents did not fight back. and then applied. with fearsome results. and both whips deal no damage to any creature wearing armor of at least +1 armor bonus or creatures with a +3 natural armor bonus. Sometimes there would be ‘freak’ matches. Flagellum. The most common types were to be ordered to die. as well as quick and easy Usually such a victim is restrained in some fashion. he could expect or learned a few different types. rather than a large one. flagellum. The practice of women entering the gladiatorial together and forced to fight. horseback. and was made from various lengths of cord woven onto a wooden handle. If. with the growing influence of Christianity. Then it was his duty to kneel at his oppo. There was even musical accompaniment. galea (an elaborate helmet). 21. Sometimes events were not so straightforward. Branding Iron 106 . The Flagellum deals subdual damage. greaves. wore no armor Slowly. to human skin. brazier. for example. 20. however. and some were true uniques. Metal 19 The scourge. some with helms with no eye holes. No weapon would be raised against him. and was either used in punishment or in religious ceremonies where pain was intended to expiate wrong doing. and would be fought until one opponent signaled fire pit. but had respecting gladiator would flinch from his approach. some using bow and arrow. or construct a lake to hold naumachie. Thracians. the games would come to an end. Branding Iron 21 The Branding Iron was a long metal rod or wand that was heated glowing red. and. in order to make it more painful. The flagellum was simpler than the scourge. was first developed in Syria. It was used on gladiators or to flog disobedient soldiers. And rarely the emperor himself might enter the arena. Sometimes they would flood the arena ing this. ators were expected to fight bravely and well. Often these are drawn directly from a combatants. A Hoplo- emperor’s reigns the Emperor himself fought in the arena. and Dimachaeri. and no self. Other kinds of gladiators their neck. or naval battles. did exist. and the fruits of the arena are still with us today. and the access to the best medicine money could buy. 19. as mentioned before. a scaled leather arm covering for the sword arm. The damage listed is for a person swinging to injure with the branding iron. Either whip is considered an exotic weapon. In Rome pieces of sharp metal were bound in the cord. Or two gladiators would be tied might fight. The heated end does 1 point of heat damage per round applied. Also. or branding irons. Secutores carried a great shield. Gladiatorial bouts were not lasts 1 minute for every 10 it was left in whatever was heating explicitly to the death. a missus would be allowed. The scourge 20 eventually became the standard for self-mortification among certain extreme Christian sects. Retiarii. If done right. a whip of three cords with knots at the end. Samnites or Hoplomachi. or smith’s forge. Gladi. Under a few Each type of fighting style had its own equipment. pure and sim. The scourge was a device intended to torture people. But if a gladiator lost and was judged Gladiator Armor to have fought with valor. Secutores. heated end is merely pressed against their flesh. a wide leather belt. on the other hand. Metal Scourge. fighting with individual styles. if necessary. until a law was passed prevent- plants and enact myths. face death without fear. preserve their effectiveness. periodically. From Stone to Steel scourge. bore an oblong large shield. But it would take hundreds of years. and to promote long gashes. Sometimes they would bring in arena actually grew over time. and the heat Except in the rarest of cases. some riding on chariot or less death.

The Thracian gladiators favored the sica (a scimitar. Greave. either leg. Half armor bonuses are treated in the following manner: deter- similar to that of the Roman soldier. 27. Girdle. Galerus. 29. descended after donning the Manica. instead. Leather Arm Wrappings. although armor is to the foe. as per the chart below. The Dimachaeri opted for mined by weight. Thus a as the Myrmillones were also refered to as Gaullic gladiators). and optionally a greave on mine the AC without the fraction of the full point. so that they wouldn’t outright flee each other in combat. item of armor that conveys the half armor bonus. total the fish-shaped helm. Gladiator armor does not confer any extra armor bonus to a complete set of armor. The armor damage is not factored. carrying a curved blade (likely a falx. and the values given above for partial pieces of armor 107 . used in conjunction with regular sets of armor. roll one die. as this would If the number rolled is the minimum required to successfully unnecessarily prolong battles. 24. Sica other than a galerus (a kind of armored shoulder piece). seeing number of items above worn and subtract it from 8. Galea. 30. and carried a net and trident. and leather arm wrappings. point of gladiator armor was to give them a slight chance to avoid Note: The gladiator armor listed in this section should never be damage. Girdle. consider the hit a miss. Open Faced Helm. Rome 28 23 24 25 22 27 29 30 26 22. a small shield (round or items of armor = 4). capitalizing on mobility and range. Armor check penalty and speed are deter- square).4 from the sickle sword and kopis). Hoplomachi would have a maximum dexterity bonus of +4. Manica. 25. and a light helm. On an odd roll. two swords. Partial Armor The Myrmillones went the opposite extreme. 26. Gladiators never wore breastplates. Galea. On an even roll the damage is done might be used for unique one-off combats. favoring manica on both arms. complete with a In order to determine the maximum dexterity bonus. Roll to hit. 23. 28. the damage is done to the usually made from the items mentioned below. as normal. A great variety of weapons injure the foe. and Greave (8 . Retiarii Net. If Gladiator armor was not intended to protect them much.

If you hit. but kept weight restrictions to a minimum. a scimitar-like blade excellent for chopping and Table 4-3: Open Faced Helm slashing. The entangled strikes at the sword arm. which does not convey a separate armor bonus when used as part of a suit of armor. If an entangled creature attempts to to protect the upper arm. attempts suffer a -4 penalty on attack roll. The Manica was a scaled leather sleeve only worn on the the target is entangled. Identical to the net in the Player’s Handbook. Anyone who wore the Retiarii to manipulate and control his foes. confering a -1 to any perception roll while it was on. Weight Armor Check Penalty Movement 1–12 lbs 0 30ft/15ft Cestus & Spiked Cestus 13–18 lbs -1 30ft/15ft The Cestus was an adaptation of the Greek boxer’s leather 19–24 lbs -2 30ft/15ft wrappings. launched as a ranged touch attack against the target. some- one other than the owner of a gladiator. Here it is given separate statistics only to illustrate its effect as Sica a part of gladiator armor. it must be gathered together carefully. if an opposed Strength Check is succeeded. or the head of a times slightly barbed. Thus it could deflect a low strike. with a few plates intended length of the rope (10 feet). also a full-round action). although not likely to have been used in a without causing a scrape. Retiarii domly. They were heavy. any further was meant to catch and deflect blows away from the waistline. If you are using Gladiatoral Weapons the optional durability rules. in a cir- The first time a net is thrown in a fight. An entangled creature is a -2 on attack sword arm. it must be repaired to be used crest. made from boiled leather and intended to block rolls. common to the Dimachaeri. The Sica was a weapon finding more and more use in the Easter Empire. determine which piece of armor is damaged ran. were wheels with spikes on the hubcaps. or be unable to cast the spell. Gladiatorial armor would never be purchased by any. It ranged touch attack. Ben Hur The popular movie Ben Hur had a segment with a chariot Leather Arm Wrappings race in the circus. The plain Cestus was a 108 . Made of leather. The net’s maximum range is 10 feet. It takes 2 rounds for a proficient user to fold a net and twice that long for a non-pro- Greave ficient one to do so. and made it difficult for a gladiator to effectively. and a -4 penalty on effective Dexterity. coin-like pattern. it must succeed at a Concentration check (DC 15) blow. The Galea was a heavy helmet. and armor damage is indicated by the effect die. although not intended to actually Roman chariot race. and there is no penalty for trying to Manica strike a target even up to the net’s maximum range. and escaped slave. DMs are encouraged to Open Faced Helm determine the effect. with lead weights bound in the weave. It could potentially be used to block a cast a spell. if any. this net was intended to be a means for gladiatorial school (hence the high price). but tough creature can only move at half speed and cannot charge or run. The Girdle was a thick leather belt with metal plating. Once torn. After it has been unfolded. The entangled creature can escape with an Escape Artist check Galea (DC 20) that is a full-round action. with a varying and a hardness of 3. enough to catch and block a few direct strikes. inclusive. which wound around the center of the fist quite a 25+ lbs -3 20ft/15ft few times to make blows more solid. version of the Legionaire’s helmet. A net is only useful against creatures between Tiny and Large Girdle size. it also has a guide rope. Usually gladiators only wore a greave on the leg that was intended to be ‘forward’ when entering combat. sometimes referred to as bezainted. In order to the above armor outside of the arena likely be considered an throw it optimally. closed faced. it must make a normal cular. meant to deflect a glancing blow Thracian in origin. It was relatively flexible. and soldiers would be called to capture them. This development was only minimally protective. A grass net can be burst with a Strength check (DC see. Net. hubcaps are treated the same as the Persian scythe blades mentioned in the previous chapter. but the Retiarii hoped to never have to counter a blow. Galerus can be used to limit the movement of the entangled foe by the The Galerus was a metal shoulder pad. For all intents and purposes these spiked withstand many attacks. 25. these might have on chariot The Open Faced Helm mentioned here was actually a modified races. From Stone to Steel are purely to construct gladiator armor only. where one of the opponents had chariot Leather Arm Wrappings. which. This net has 12 hit points.

There was glory to be found. After that each level gained as a gladiator untarily joined the ranks of the gladiators as 30–50% of all should be considered a level gained as their specialty. the spikes and nails to the glove. but for one requires the selection of a weapon combination. Thracians. They were practiced in all strike 1d4 subdual damage. Dimachaerie. They were Dimachaeri. armaments. Rome 33 31 32 31. they had better make their Gladiator (Prestige Class) match exciting and memorable. Myrmillones. Anyone could be trained. Men inured to death. has been found in cer. as many pieces as they desire. desired. but gladiators Hoplomachae. Some. And they were trained to fight strike 1d3 subdual damage. In the end the crowd would see a long pro- have been an interesting alternative to standard gladiatorial cession of Hoplomachi. either gladiators. making it a weapon that inflicted whips and brands enforced some level of learning. thus making a medium sized creatures unarmed They were taught to be fearless. Mymillone. identical weapons. and added Whether or not this training was completely successful. and improved unarmed strikes by one dam. the gladiators had to be able to perform for the crowd as recorded in any documents. 32. Iron Double-Headed Axe leather wrapping. they were not super soldiers or wronged innocents. weren’t quite deserving of immediate death. though were not pleased to for their lives. Creating a unique class often those who had been arrested for various crimes. Heavier armored gladiators are 109 . People who lived a hair’s breadth from death. By the time the Colle- designate a kind of fighting style at the beginning of joining the seum was built. and the small creatures unarmed aspects of their specialty class. Secutor. Secutores. However. of course. a two handed weapon. and skilled at their individ- shield. they must But this image is not entirely accurate. expected to die in combat. Cestus. If the gladiator wanted to earn at least a missus. estimates put the number of free men who vol- ranks of gladiators. keep Cestus combat so non-lethal in the arena. and unique fighters. one two handed weapon. Iron Double Headed Battle Criminals. although the weak were as indicated in the Player’s Handbook. age level. and gladiators had to be. Retiarii. Gladiators have a certain mystique today that they may or may not deserve. Slaves. And yet 1d4 normal damage. Spiked Cestus. and worse. slaves. Requirements: Any character can become a gladiator. Axe. there are records of Senator’s wives who entered gladiator troops and learned to fight in the arena. were also reviled as criminals. as well. Life as a Gladiator was harsh. or a weapon and a Although they were popular. 33. although not quite a Great Axe class. The unique class then selects from the gladiator armor ual specialty. It is. Retiari. perhaps to earn glory and freedom in the arena. and thrill seekers found their way into this The Double Headed Battleaxe. either two reason or another. surely. Thracian. competing to live. Trained in one specific fighting tain Thracian excavations. although its use in war is not style. Hit Die: d12 Elite single combat warriors. or their own unique class. and not fear death on each other’s weapons. A weapon like this would likely well as themselves.

From Stone to Steel

harder to hit, but less mobile. Lightly armored gladiators have
the advantage of moving faster and being less encumbered. If
you choose the wrong combination, you’re likely to end up in a
gladiator’s grave, so think about what advantages you would
need.
Should a gladiator wish to take up a new combat style, they
should start back at first level with the new style.
Thus a gladiator could be a 3rd level Retiari and a
1st level Dimachaeri. Combat advantages do not
stack between different specializations.
Note that all gladiators are considered slaves, and
must live in their gladiator troops. If a gladiator
earns their freedom they may opt to return to the
arena to fight, but may live as a free man (or as a
citizen, if they were citizens previously).

Class Skills
The Gladiator’s class skills (and the key ability for each
skill) are Balance (Dex), Climb (Str), Intimidate (Cha),
Jump (Str), Perform (Cha), Tumble (Dex)
Skill Points at Each Level: 2 + Int Modifier

Class Features
All of the following are class features of the Charioteer pres-
tige class.
Weapon and Armor Proficiency: Gladiators are proficient
with all simple weapons and their specific class weapons only.
They are also proficient with their gladiator specialty armor
and shields. Note that armor check penalties for certain armor
combinations apply to the skills Balance, Climb, Escape Artist,
Hide, Jump, Move Silently, Pick Pocket, and Tumble.
: Gladiators train extensively with their specialty weapon, and
may be considered focused with that weapon. Retiarii focus on
the trident, for example. If a unique gladiator carried two dif-
ferent weapons, he may choose one to be his primary weapon.

Table 4-4:Gladiator
Class Base Fort Ref Will
Level Attack Bonus Save Save Save Special
1st +1 +0 +2 +0 Weapon Focus (Primary Weapon)
2nd +2 +0 +3 +0 Combat Advantage
3rd +3 +1 +3 +1 Reputation
4th +4 +1 +4 +1 Combat Advantage
5th +5 +1 +4 +1 Preferred Opponent
6th +6 +2 +5 +2 Combat Advantage
7th +7 +2 +5 +2 Reputation
8th +8 +2 +6 +2 Combat Advantage
9th +9 +3 +6 +3 Preferred Opponent
10th +10 +3 +7 +3 Combat Advantage

110

Rome

Combat Advantage: Starting at second level, and following
every two levels afterwards, the gladiator gains a +1 bonus to Gladiators as PC’s
one of the following: AC, To hit, or Damage. This bonus is It is very likely PC’s may be interested in playing gladiators.
only conferred while the gladiator is wearing his specialty Usually this is before they realize how limiting this can be. If
armor and carrying his specialty weapon. This bonus shows his PC’s really want to play a gladiator character, construct them
intimate knowledge of his equipment and its use. He must with the Prestige Class rules, and proceed. Usually games are
choose which of the three the bonus applies to when he gains only held every couple of months, so there may not seem like
the level, and he may not alter his choice later. Thus, a myrmil- a lot of opportunity for gaining experience. Some Lanistae
lone may opt to gain a +1 to hit for his second level Advantage. took their gladiators on tour through different provinces, so
Later, at fourth level, he may opt to take a +1 to his AC, but he one method to give them more exposure would be to put
cannot alter his second level selection. Should a gladiator lose them in a mobile gladiatorial troop. You may wish to increase
a portion of his armor during combat or a weapon, he loses any XP gains for gladiatorial bouts, if you feel they are coming
bonuses gained through this class ability. too slowly to have an impact on play. If a character rises to
10th level, it is likely they’ve already won their freedom. If
Reputation: The Gladiator has had enough success to gain a
they desire to continue rising in ranks as a gladiator, they
reputation. At third level this doubles the purse he gains from
may either select a new style and advance from level 1, or
any wins. At seventh level he may add his specialty levels of
continue to allow them to rise, as per the progression indi-
gladiator to any intimidate roll he attempts.
cated by the tables, and give them another Combat Advan-
Preferred Opponent: At fifth and ninth level the gladiator must tage every even level. In addition, new gains in reputation
select a specific type of gladiatorial style. The gladiator has might give more money or preferential treatment, and per-
become skilled at fighting this kind of gladiator, and gains a +1 haps the gladiator could gain yet another preferred opponent.
bonus to hit and damage rolls against this kind of gladiator.

Army Ascendant
ith the Emperor holding ultimate power, the military
W saw greater and greater power during this period. New
developments also made them the most efficient army in most

35 36
34

34. Lorica Segmentata; 35. Lorica Squamata; 36. Lorica Hamata

111

From Stone to Steel
of their known world. Three new kinds of infantry armor were Clibanariii, wore scale and plate mail, an incredibly dense and
adapted. protective armor that made an individual Clibanari like a living
tank. Most cavalry of this period carried lances, although the
unarmored troops also carried iron javelins, pilum, or light war
Lorica Segmentata, Lorica Squamata & Lorica
bows, as well as caltrops, primarily for use against cavalry.
Hamata Prohibitively heavy, and dangerously unwieldy, those clibanarii
Lorica Segmentata was a plated metal breastplate, the first true
who wore these into battle were called oven men, due to the
plate armor, which still allowed arms and legs free for move-
heat that would build up while riding in this armor. Later plate
ment and maneuver. Lorica Squamata was a very dense scale
armor developments would prove superior to this design,
mail, each scale being perhaps ½ inch to 2 inches in length.
which never saw use with foot troops.
Held together like scale and lamellar, Lorica Squamata was a
flexible dense armor that was in many ways superior to Scale.
Days of Decline
Lorica Hamata was a denser chainmail, under which a subar-
malis would be worn. The Subarmalis (under armor, literally) The army became a vehicle to power in the Empire. Although it
was a padded undershirt. still focused on putting down rebellion and expanding the power
of the Empire, it also began to play the game of Imperial politics
The various forms of Lorica armor were used commonly dur- as well. Consuls and Proconsuls would engage in civil war to gain
ing the second century A.D., although eventually Lorica Seg- power, and more than one Emperor was deposed by a military
mentata became too complex and expensive to manufacture, leader. Indeed, in the second century AD, the Empire of Rome
and armies relied more and more heavily on Squamata and experienced 50 years of anarchy, where up to 30 generals were
Hamata armor. Since, by this time, the army provided soldiers declared to be Emperors by individual army garrisons. Empire did
with their armor at public expense, the better kinds of armor not bring stability to Rome. It brought weakness, increased fac-
were worn by soldiers with higher rank. Thus, the bulk of sol- tionalism, and ultimately destruction.
diers wore Hamata, while cohort leaders and standard bearers
were more likely to wear squamata, and officers would wear Rome had grown too much. Diocletian, an emperor of the late
the Segmentata. second century, realized that no one man could rule the
Empire. Increased barbarian attacks made it clear that insurrec-
tions in the east could not wait to be discovered by the west
Mail, Scale and Plate before they could be dealt with. Thus Diocletian established
As the cavalry developed the cataphracti became the only cav-
the Tetrarchy. Four men were given the power that the Emperor
alry units in Rome’s army to wear armor. Later the cataphracti
previously wielded. Two co-Emperors ruled over portions of
were reduced to chainmail while another type of unit, the
Rome, one in the East, another in the West. In addition, two
Consuls were established to control the army, each one region,
who could operate independent from the Emperor, and move to
deal with insurrection or attacks as they arose.
37 38 The army began to change roles, from a conquering force to a
peacekeeping force. The army no longer journeyed beyond the
borders of Rome, but repulsed invaders and fought against rev-
olutionary forces. And the numbers were never enough. Inva-
sions by various Gothic tribes, the Vandals, the Huns, as well
as rebellions in Gaul, Parthia, and Thracia left the Roman
forces weak. Thus another law was passed that made all free
people of Rome, regardless of Province, citizens. This allowed
Rome to recruit larger numbers of citizens into the legion, and
they could also offer citizenship to neighboring tribes in
exchange for recruiting them into the army. Many Germanic
tribes readily accepted this offer, and since the Germans were
generally larger, stronger, and more imposing than the Romans,
they soon became the backbone of the Roman Army.
Constantine, one Emperor of the East, made changes that would
lead to a great alteration of Europe. Constantine embraced Chris-
tianity. Christians had be previously persecuted by Rome,
blamed for many crimes (including the burning of Rome during
37. Scale and Plate Mail; 38. Steel Plated Leather
Nero’s reign) and general weakness. Constantine’s mother,
though, converted to Christianity, and it seems likely his notable
tolerance was mainly due to her influence. After campaigning

112

Rome
against Western Rome, which was floundering in miss manage- Despite Constantine’s efforts to strengthen the West, Western
ment, Constantine put an end to certain elite units in Rome, and Rome would not hold. The Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Franks, and
remodeled both armies to stress cavalry and recruit auxiliaries Vandals generally favored iron plated leather armor, large
for infantry. Later Constantine would declare tolerance of Chris- shields, longswords, long lances, and throwing axes. Like
tianity, and then he would declare Christianity the religion of Rome they favored cavalry, and fought relentlessly. At various
Rome. Although Constantine did not convert to Christianity times the Goths would fight Rome together or ally with Rome
himself until he was on his deathbed, the grant of freedom to against the other. Periodically Rome would be forced to pay
worship legitimized Christianity, and they began to proselytize tribute to Gothic tribes after particularly bad losses, although
actively. Since most religions of the period were not so actively the Goths were not so interested in taking land.
seeking members, Christianity appealed to many as a vibrant
religion, and their membership increased rapidly. Christianity’s Leather, Steel Plated
focus on the importance of human life and peace caused a gen- Light, flexible, and with the leather covering the steel plates on
eral decline in interest in the infantry, which made the Romans both inside and out, this armor still left the Gothic warriors free
more and more dependant on the Germans. to move around, although not quite with the flexibility of scale.
In order to encourage more German immigration, Rome The weight, though, made this option seem more appealing to
offered Germany land in Gaul. The Germans, who had always the Gothic forces.
had interest in the fertile lands of Gaul, accepted this offer
eagerly. Thus Rome itself precipitated the collapse of mainland Longsword, Early Steel
gaullic society, which fell under wave after wave of Germanic Potent, more prone to bending but also more flexible than the
immigrants. Eventually the Franks would become the dominant iron version, this longsword represents some of the early
tribe in Gaul, and it would be the Franks, rather than the Gallic advances in steel alloys. The addition of carbon to the iron mix
people, who would determine the future of that region. made these longswords lighter, without sacrificing blade

41

456
40

39

44

42

43

39. Early Steel Longsword; 40. Early Steel Throwing Axe; 41. Hunnic Horse Bow; 42. Sheaf Arrow; 43. Flight Arrow; 44. Hunnic
Early Steel Saber; 45. Lariat
113

From Stone to Steel
strength or damage. Favored by all the Germanic tribes, this Saber, Hunnic Early Steel
became the basis for the modern longsword. The prototype of the later slavic saber, this saber was slightly
shorter and more curved, but effective at slashing strikes.
Throwing Axe, Early Steel Intended to be used mostly from horseback, it often had embel-
Throwing axes were used exclusively by the Germanic tribes, lishment, as Hunnic warriors would inscribe victories, family
usually as a precursor to a charge. Although not barbed, throw- marks, and decoration of their sword blades in their spare time.
ing axes that do more than half base damage should be consid- A rare number of these sported golden hilts, often made from
ered lodged, as per the rules for barbed weapons. The version the many gold tributes the Huns extracted from Rome.
above was an early steel variant, lighter and more flexible than
its precursor. Lariat
Effectively a rope used for combat purposes, the lariat was
The Huns generally 20 feet, although it could be longer. Used to lasso rid-
The Huns were a tribe from the east, having crossed Siberia, ers and pull them from their mounts, the lariat is an exotic
the Urals, and Eastern Europe. They were likely related to the weapon, whose maximum range is its length. If you hit, the tar-
Mongols, and wore light leather and leather lamellar armor, get is entangled. An entangled creature is a -2 on attack rolls,
and favored a variety of armaments. They carried a unique kind and a -4 penalty on effective Dexterity. The entangled creature
of horse bow, light lances, spears, lariats, curved sabers, stone can only move at half speed and cannot charge or run. If an
axes, and leather whips. They also carried three kinds of opposed Strength Check is succeeded, can be used to limit the
arrows, based on range. Short Range Arrows were made with movement of the entangled foe by the length of the rope. If the
lozenge shaped armor piercing heads. Medium Range Arrows opposed Strength Roll is succeeds by 3 or more, you can opt to
were the equivalent of normal arrows. Their long range arrows pull the victim from his horse, inflicting falling damage. If an
were thin and extremely long, meant to fly far and to prevent entangled creature attempts to cast a spell, it must succeed at a
lighter forces from closing quickly. The Huns preferred to keep Concentration check (DC 15) or be unable to cast the spell. The
their enemies in bow range, and to flee to a safe distance if strength of a mount can be added to any opposed strength roll
closed with. They also used light chariots, like the Celts. The if the rope is attached to the pommel.
Huns, like the Goths, extracted a heavy tribute from Rome, and The entangled creature can escape with an Escape Artist check
almost sacked the city of Rome before accepting a tribute, sup- (DC 20) that is a full-round action. This rope has 3 hit points,
posedly, of a thousand pounds of gold. The leader of the Huns, and a hardness of 1. The rope’s length is shortened by 1d6 feet
Atilla, was both respected and feared by the Romans, and he every time this occurs, but it can be used effectively until it is
would hold much of Rome hostage, entreating with Popes and only 6 feet long. A rope can be burst with a Strength check (DC
Emperors, until assassinated by an ill-chosen wife. 25, also a full-round action).
A rope is only useful against creatures between Tiny and Large
Bow, Hunnic Horse size, inclusive.
The Hunnic bow is a relative of the Mongol bow, and is useable
from horseback. Made to fire while the horse is in full motion, The Fall of Rome
its lowered grip is intended to make it easier to fire on either side
of the rider. The Huns used various kinds of ammunition, includ- The final blow to Imperial Rome would not come from an out-
ing short range sheaf arrows and long range flight arrows. side invader, but from the very Germans who became the back-
bone of Rome’s army. More and more Rome relied on allies to
defend itself, and in the end the last Emperor of Rome, Romulus
Arrow, Sheaf Augustus, was deposed by his own soldiers and allies, who
Sheaf arrows are heavier and have an iron head intended to established a German Monarchy in Ravenna to administer what
pierce armor. This gives the sheaf arrow a +1 to hit bonus remained of Western Rome. Eastern Rome would try to recover
against anyone wearing any kind of armor (the armor is less what it could of the West, but the Germans allowed Eastern
effective at protecting the wearer). In addition, if the arrow Rome little success, and the Eastern Empire, based in Constan-
does do damage to the armor, that damage is at a +1, due to its tinople, would eventually survive independently as the Empire
added effectiveness against armor. of Byzantium. The Roman era ended in the hands of the Ger-
mans, left much of Europe unprotected, dominated by various
Arrow, Flight Germanic tribes, and in its own Dark Age.
The Flight arrow is intended to fly farther, and is lighter and
thinner than a standard arrow, but is more fragile and less dam-
aging, doing 1 less point of damage, to a minimum of 1.

114

Rome
Table 4-5: Roman Weapons
Simple Weapons-Melee
Weapons Cost Damage Critical Range Wgt Type M H/HP
Tiny
Cestus* 6sp x2 2.5 lbs B L 3/8
Cestus, Spiked* 1.2gp 1d4 x2 3 lbs P LM 4/9
Pugio* 1gp 1d6-1 x2 3 lbs P M 6/9
Small
Branding Iron* 6sp 1d3+1 x2 1.5 lbs B M 3/5
Simple Weapons-Ranged
Small
Dart, Bronze 3sp 1d4 x2 20ft 1.5 lbs P MW 5/5
Dart, Iron 4sp 1d4 x2 20ft 1.5 lbs P MW 6/5
Medium-Size
Javelin, Iron-tipped Heavy 1gp 2d3 x2 30ft 4 lbs P MW 6/12
Pilum, Heavy* 7gp 1d8 x3 30ft 7 lbs P WM 4/19
Pilum, Light* 5gp 1d6 x3 30ft 5 lbs P WM 4/13
Martial Weapons-Melee
Small
Axe, Throwing Bronze 6gp 1d6 x2 10ft 4.5 lbs S MW 5/14
Axe, Throwing Early Steel 7.5gp 1d6 x2 10ft 4 lbs S MW 7/12
Axe, Throwing Iron 7gp 1d6 x2 10ft 4.5 lbs S MW 6/14
Gladius 9gp 1d6 19–20/x2 4 lbs P M 6/10
Lance, Light Iron†a 5gp 1d6 x3 5.5 lbs P M 6/12
Medium-Size
Longsword, Early Steel 14gp 1d8 19–20/x2 4 lbs S M 7/8
Saber, Hunnic Early Steel 12gp 1d6 18–20/x2 3 lbs S M 7/6
Sica 13gp 1d6 18–20/x2 5 lbs S M 6/10
Spatha 12gp 1d8 19–20/x2 5 lbs S M 6/10
Trident, Iron Headeda 13gp 1d8 x2 10ft 6 lbs P M 6/12
Large
Axe, Iron Double Headed Battle 16gp 1d10 x3 15 lbs S M 6/30
Falx, Dacian* 25gp 1d12 19–20/x2 9 lbs S MW 6/18
Martial Weapons-Ranged
Medium-Size
Bow, Hunnic Horse 85gp 1d6 x3 100ft 3 lbs Per arrow W 5/9
Exotic Weapons-Melee
Small
Flagellum* 8gp 1d2§ x2 1.5 lbs S C 3/5
Scourge, Metal* 1gp 1d4 x2 2 lbs S CM 3/6
Exotic Weapons-Ranged
Medium-Size
Lariat* 4sp 20ft 4 lbs S C 2/8
Net, Retiarii* 20gp 10ft 10 lbs L 3/12
Weapons Ranged-Ammunition
Arrow, Sheaf 2gp -10ft 3.5 lbs P WM 2/4
Arrow, Flight 2gp -1 +10ft 2.5 lbs P WM 2/3
Bullet, Clay Sling 3cp 1d3 -- -- 3.5 lbs B S 2/4

* See the description in the text for special rules.
‡ Double Weapon
† Reach Weapon
a If you ready an action to set this weapon against a charge you deal double damage.
# Shield bypass weapon
§ Subdual damage
115

From Stone to Steel
Table 4-6: Roman Armor
Armor Max Dex Armor Check Spell Spd
Armor Cost Bonus Bonus Penalty Failure 30'/20' Weight‡ M H/HP
Light Armor
Chainmail Shirt, Bronze 80gp +4 +4 -2 20% 30ft/20ft 27lbs M 5/54
Chainmail Shirt, Iron 90gp +4 +4 -2 20% 30ft/20ft 26lbs M 6/52
Medium Armor
Chainmail, Bronze 130gp +5 +2 -5 30% 20ft/15ft 42lbs M 5/84
Chainmail, Iron 140gp +5 +2 -5 30% 20ft/15ft 41lbs M 6/82
Hides, Heavy 35gp +3 +4 -3 20% 20ft/15ft 25lbs L 5/50
Leather, Steel Plated 85gp +4 +2 -4 25% 20ft/15ft 26lbs L 7/52
Heavy Armor
Lorica Hamata 170gp +5 +2 -5 30% 20ft*/15ft* 41lbs M 6/82
Lorica Segmentata 185gp +5 +3 -4 30% 20ft*/15ft* 39lbs M 6/78
Lorica Squamata 180gp +5 +3 -5 30% 20ft*/15ft* 41lbs M 6/82
Mail, Iron Scale and Chain 190gp +6 +0 -7 35% 20ft*/15ft* 39lbs M 6/78
Mail, Scale and Plate 465gp +7 +0 -8 40% 20ft*/15ft* 51lbs M 6/102
Shields
Scutum 18gp +2 -2 15% 15lbs MW 6/30
Gladiator Armor
Galea# 60gp +1 0% 10lbs M 6/20
Galerus# 45gp +1 15% 7lbs M 6/14
Girdle# 30gp +1 0% 9lbs LM 5/18
Greave# 20gp +0.5 0% 3lbs M 6/6
Leather Arm Wrappings# 10gp +0.5 15% 3lbs L 4/6
Manica# 25gp +1 20% 6lbs L 5/18
Open Faced Helm# 35gp +1 0% 6lbs M 6/12

# See the description in the text for special rules.
* When running in heavy armor you move only triple your speed, not quadruple.
** The tower shields grants you cover. See the description.
† Hand not free to cast spells.
‡ Armor fitted for small characters weighs half as much.

116

The Far East Ancient China 119 Elite Mongol Horsemen (Prestige Class) 153 Combat Maneuver: Sword Breaking 121 The Successors 154 The Warring States Period 122 The Ming Dynasty 154 Qin Rule & the Steel Era 124 Guang Hu Adventurer (Prestige Class) 155 India 126 Creating your Guang Hu School 157 Alternate Hides 126 Developments in Armor & Weapons 157 The Spread of Buddhism 127 Indian Contributions 158 The Han Dynasty 128 The Moghuls 161 Han Expansion 130 European Colonialism 161 Tibet 130 Other Notables 161 The Red Eyebrows 131 Nepal 161 The Turks 132 Okinawa 162 The Chin Dynasty 132 Malaysia & Indonesia 162 The Gupta Empire 132 Weapons Used in Kuanto and Pentjak 163 The Fall of the Guptas 133 Tribal and Civil weapons 164 A Brief Flourishing 133 Japan 166 The Wudan Movement 135 Outside Influences 167 Improvised Weapon Training 143 The Samurai System 167 The Tang Period 144 Ninja 171 Conquest 145 Ninja (Prestige Class) 173 The Persians 148 The Edo Shogunate 174 Not Weapons 148 New Perform Subskills: 175 The End of an Era 148 Samurai (Prestige Class) 176 The Great Ride 149 Table 5-5: Far East Weapons 178 Guns and Reliability 151 Table 5-6: Far East Armor 184 117 .

They must be practiced in all did not understand. It almost center of the assemblage. and the painful process of stretching. and turned to survey the whole assemblage. Wu Zhengde now understood how the abbot was con- “What?” Wu Zhengde stammered. without describing gazing into his very soul. and the larger monk man. Ta Mo had come to the real pride he bore for his sacred works. lect the meditations. The words still floated in his mind. and held it together almost impossibly hard. Selecting a larger monk. even. this will change. Wu Zhengde moved closer.” Ta Mo answered. Then came the arduous process of leav. Ta Mo strode forward.” Wu Zhengde saw the smirks in the circle. but the abbot hand like this. He monk’s torso. and edge of reforested land. That had been months Wu Zhengde was stunned speechless. when you throw your fist. From Stone to Steel “The abbot has admitted Ta Mo!” “I see. and months ago. but he tried.” controversy in the temple. “No. Eyes like his could cut through flesh. Wu Zhengde knew instinctively that this man was . Ta Mo: the trouble- maker. blinking his watery eyes. Ta Mo had come from lands south. father. “Strike him. “and here. Father Wu?” a few moments it came back to him. Wu Zhengde tried to recall Ta Mo’s true smiled.” Wu Zhengde struggled to remember who Ta Mo was. habits. into the main temple proper. Father Wu. and Wu Zhengde edged his way into moment every muscle seemed to contribute to the punch.” Wu Zhengde exhorted the novice. They burned with inten- thoughts. “Now. He threw a feeble punch. But Monks sent to gather sup. and steeled his hand. “Now. speak with the Emperor. You put no energy into that. When he was Wu Zhengde fal- Word from the capitol was that Ta Mo and the Emperor ter. cent in your traditions. “and here. speechless monks.” “Wu Zhengde. Bodhidharma? It sounded right. The abbot was concerned that Ta Mo would try and stir up Through discipline you will find meaning. hurt. soul. “What explain. as he did in the Emperor’s Court. Master. and convict the and clinging to a doctrine of self. about the transcription of texts. But Ta Mo persisted. He pushed with one fluid motion. and Ta Mo had been asked to leave the Imperial City. were empty when he made his way out of copy room and Wu Zhengde’s second punch was no better than the first. from the home of “I am a copyist. “What were you transcribing?” disagreed on the merit of transcribing the sacred texts.” Wu Zhengde answered..” Ta Mo nodded.” Ta Mo showed a fist. and then the abbot said to let “What is your name. You have become compla- ing sacred texts. and barely struck the larger “Easy for you to say. and doing his best to show name. talking with Ta Mo again. After “What do you do here. I copy the sacred texts. Come quickly. clouding his His eyes were dark and piercing. tried to relax his hand. clenching his hand even as facets of life. sity.. 118 . “So the monks of Shaolin do not even practice Wu Zhengde looked up and blinked the water from his eyes. clamped in his cramped hands. him in.” Wu Zhengde the great Buddha.. looking at the passive. clinging to doctrines. The Ta Mo took a hold of Wu Zhengde’s hand. Wu Zhengde aren’t merely for the eyes. push from here. built on the I see here is a monastery clinging to observances.” Ta Mo’s hand curled the aged monk’s into a was nowhere to be seen. and took Wu Zhengde by the hand. but it took massaging it to get the fingers to unclamp.clinging to views. center. “The abbot was up on the wall. Do not tell me you are afraid you will hurt “Ta Mo came back?” Wu Zhengde asked.” a muscle on the leg... even to neg- When Ta Mo had first come. with a wide frame and raven hair stood with his back to Wu Zhengde. A short Wu Zhengde struck his fellow monk. Eyes that could bore through stone.” Ta Mo indicated a muscle on the shoulder. The brush stood stiff as a tree. and their work was mainly in copy. “Is that all?” Ta Mo asked. and perceiving every fault and the full understanding of clinging to rules and observances error.” Ta Mo asked of Wu Zhengde.” “Yes.. Why he “On the nature of clinging. and he’s asked to see all the monks. he continued. Someone was speaking loudly in the fist. The halls your fist.all I see is complacency. While I am here. What meditations are you currently working Ta Mo let go. They spoke for a long time..” plies came back telling tales of Ta Mo living in the area. without honoring them. and they seemed to make the air crackle with Ta Mo’s energy.. “Hold your In the courtyard the monks were assembled. He returned every day for a week. had come to plague this temple was beyond Wu Zhengde to “Fitting. strike your fellow monk.. and for a on?” The voice paused. him. the abbot turned him away. so he could see the speaker. The teachings of Buddhism on the back. the meditations?” His eyes finally landed on Wu Zhengde.. and it makes you weak. the gathered monks. rules. addressing the gathered. having taken up residence in a cave.” a muscle “. vinced to let him in. Ta Mo drew them both into the then he appeared to leave. Focus your energy into ing his chair. They were a relatively new temple.

and the chariot copying. hile Greece was still mired in its dark age. collective gasp of surprise. The Far East stumbled backwards and landed on his seat. The Zhou practiced strong intermarriage as a form The others. Chinese Knife. and much discipline to learn. 2a. “Thank you.” rulership among the leaders they established. you will understand the probably came from an area similar to where the Hittites origi- true nature of the teachings of the Buddha. and the temple nated. I was the mainstay of the Chinese armies. Jian. did likewise. More. much like the Shang before them. as if on cue. Ge (closeup).” of Feudalism. Bowing. Qiang variation. than you expect manned by the aristocracy.” Then he turned to the assemblage. Thus a duke might have the approval of the King. 4c. ushered out by the rise in power some weakening of Zhou rule. Father. his piercing gaze striking each and every one of the attending. and less iot warfare. he spoke.” Ta Mo gazed around the gathering. were considered to be of such great benevolence and wis- begin a new regimen tomorrow morning. The Zhou instituted what is often referred to as a Chinese Feudal system. “Welcome to Shaolin of creating bonds of loyalty. but this does not entirely fit the Zhou form Temple. and lead to W Dynasty came to a close. Bronze Jian. exercises. which were lead and will expect much of you. 2b. but his chosen heir might lose the kingdom to another upon inheritance. 2a 2b 1a 4a 4b 4c 1b 3 1a. Ge. But if you persevere. There was a of the Zhou. You all have much dom that hundreds of years later they would be held up as to learn of being a true monk. Ta Mo. Qiang variation 119 . “We will Wu. The Zhou practiced char- There will be meditations. and they might have had some relation to the Hittites and of Shaolin will stand as a center of true wisdom for all of Scythians. particularly that of the first two kings. Bronze Qiang. a frontier tribe lead by a charismatic chieftain. The European Feudal system was typified by granting of Wu Zhengde still felt the warmth in his hand from the fiefdoms to members of aristocracy in order to decentralize gov- punch he threw. 1b. the Shang This alteration angered more ‘Chinese’ subjects. Never rule. paragons of virtue and righteous rulers. China. 3. Evidence suggests that the Zhou of yourself. Records make it clear that the Zhou were not considered Chinese by the people who wrote about them. probably. and required frequent ratification of Temple. “Welcome to Shaolin ernance of a nation. but the Zhou changed the inheritance to the eldest son. Words are only as important as their practice. During the period of the Shang the oldest surviving brother of the former ruler inherited Ancient China lands. but the fame of their early Ta Mo smiled at Wu Zhengde. 4b. King Wen and King doubt your chi. 4a. a strict diet.

rather than straight. 5b. and was the predecessor of the Fang their armies. and armies were so large as to make Chinese knives were generally curved. especially if does. Fu variation. as iron armor Chinese Knife was expensive and heavy. common usage of iron armor impractical. We cannot be certain how extensive ironwork was Straight swords in China were usually double edged. A thin. The Chinese knife was an often- The Ge made the translation into iron during this period. especially for the commoners. Mace Staff. Fu variation. although straight examples can be found. and most neighboring peoples would possess them. Fu (axe). the Ge is close to being a dagger-bladed axe or pick. Staves of various compo. Carried as often as the Dao. mace. the wielder owned the sword and had money to spend on such Jian (straight sword). since the action of drawing Ge them also helps to ready them. And Qiang. mainly frequently decorated at the hilt. swords would follow this mold. Double Mace 120 . experimentation was loose and rare. 10. Dao (saber or appearances. Leather armor and Leather Lamellar were the main forms of armor used by the military well into the 700’s CE. 7. and were during the early or ‘Western’ period of Zhou rule. Fu. Qiang (spear). Oftentimes the hilts and pom- because iron does not persist through the ages as well as bronze mels would be made of brass or plated with gold. traded item. 5c. the Jian would see use curved blade). Short Staff. Iron Grain Sword. dagger-like blade attached near the top of a stick 2 to 4 feet in an easy way for modern day archaeologists to track Chinese length. Ge was the primary weapon of the Chinese military. 6. Dao. From Stone to Steel While the Shang relied on bronze and stone technology to arm the Jian. the Zhou began to experiment with iron. The influence among other ancient peoples. throughout Chinese history. The Zhou used both bronze and iron versions of the Ge. and arrow. 9. followed by 5a 5c 7 5b 6 8 9 10 5a. knife. Curved blades are gen- erally easier to unsheathe quickly. This iron and the Halberd. and there was often more wrought ironwork and iron in decorations than there were on the Jian battlefield. Dao. and most straight double-edged sitions were common weapons. 8.

and could be fired both A sword break maneuver may normally be attempted in either accurately and far. and their size allows them to be carried Chinese military. and the sword breaking item gains an automatic the mainstay of any Chinese army. prompting an attack of opportunity. dangerous. and a personal guard usually bearing roll. during the course of combat. China had a love affair with the mace. The Dou- the unsharpened edge. usually two or three feet in length. set against a charge or style. Similar in form to certain both a mace and a brutal punching weapon. Short Staff and Mace Staff Short staves. and you have caught the attackers blade. crossbow that the west never had. far more acceptable in polite society if their design was aestheti- cally pleasing. or would be two handed. Archers who use the thumb ring may Certain items may be specified as being capable of performing ignore the first point of fatigue they accrue. The second mace threshers. 121 . and the length allowed the mace’s impact to be scimitar or falchion. A good rule of thumb is that if the weapon has 6 or more inches of blade length. and just about anyone who might need a the same thickness as the Jian. Roll damage as normal length of a hatchet. the defensive ted away. Otherwise all tive at breaking swords and certain bladed non-sword effects of fatigue apply. and were one-handed weapons little self protection. rarely used. which ble Mace was an exotic weapon. Simple. but effective as were intended for sword breaking. etc. the crossbow was the appendix). Essentially a metal club. the thumb ring is an item common to Combat Maneuver: Sword Breaking archers of this period. can be used during a grapple or close for the Grain Sword given at the end of this chapter are for the combat. you need not make the standard Fu opposed strike checks. Bronze Age and the sword in the medieval period. may now attempt a sword break as a free maneuver. usually en-mass. easy to use. like the spear was in the +3 to any strikes to break. as a light weapon. Weapons were passive break attempt. Some Fu were about the Strike to Break as if you succeeded. and requiring an active manner or a passive one. but the early Dao improved slightly. The Fu was prima. Dao from this ancient period were generally by aristocrats. weapons. tise reductions. a bound handle in the center usually with a heavier blade. slots with small bends in them. current practices of the spearhead being ringed with strategy has paid off. A player attempting to passively use the The Qiang was used much like the spears of most other Bronze sword break maneuver must elect to fight using a defensive and Iron Age empires. without ing that this practice may have started during this time. Such items are particularly effec- affects their performance while firing a bow. and artwork covering the blades. your opponent Although tassels from weapons from this age have long ago rot. this is a two to three foot An offshoot of the Dao. Archer’s Thumb Ring Not really a weapon. Some versions had indentations on of the staff. Often the check to see if the break roll succeeds. for both weapons (using the sword breaking weapon's damage rily a bodyguard’s weapon. break bonus for sword breaking weapons does not apply to a elegant forms. The Far East Qiang A passive sword break is less work for the weapon bearer. rather than your opponent's weapon damage roll). nobles. If. the weapon can be damaged by a sword break also invented. either Fighting Defensively or through elective Exper- leading a formation to prevent attacks and injure the unwary. composed entirely of bronze or iron. should strike your weapon on the strike chart. Crossbows could be given to anyone. (see the durability rules in battle in China. their weight gives them The Dao. is a rather generic sword used in the extra strength for blows. is less likely to occur. the Grain sword took a number of forms. were uncommon weapons used during Dao this period. Use of this weapon permits the sword-breaking maneuver. but The Qiang is a long fighting spear. or curved saber. The stats head. An active sword break is little practice. and the blade is less than 6 inches It was during the late Western Zhou period that the crossbow was in width. Grain Sword with the sword-breaking indentations. then Fu would often accompany nobles and aristocrats. not intended for throwing. Later developments of the Dao would look more like a one end. usually a loop of bone used to aid in the draw and firing of a bow. Note that the strike to workmanship of these Fu was incredible. although this only sword breaking maneuvers. A variant of this staff bore a mace head on only. tassels can be seen in diagrams and paintings of the day. it is this pattern that gives them their name. Since your opponent has played into your gambit. and another mace head below the handle. suggest. but simply proceed with the rules for The Fu was not a military weapon. was merely a curved version of the straight sword. with family symbols. the crossbow fundamentally changed the style of performed as per Striking to Break. sickle be made with more durable iron. including untrained commoners. At first machined with bronze parts. As we will see in later periods. This can include weapons like the naginata. while others were longer. it would later maneuver. staff with a mace head at one end. Double Mace Grain Sword A strange hybrid of the Mace Staff.

The mounted Ronds were Lungchan weapons. leaders taking on the title of King (which previously had been The Ronds and the Di enjoyed raiding northern territories. Indian Buddhist Monks tary prowess was highly celebrated among the Aristocrats. but it is difficult to determine parts. and members of Wushu movement. to allow the among the peasantry). and help him restore his rule. this was Ou Yezi’s ultimate version of the themselves rulers of whatever lands they could conquer. Zhou as Campaign Setting Chu. but not swiftly enough to stop a Rond smith. Thus a transition to infantry style Qin) continued this internecine war. just about the time until the king was old enough to rule. the during the beginning of the tradition. however they might be members discipline. perhaps. which would see there will be an abundance of small kingdoms. Sword. But the Zhou had trouble state would have the advantage over the others. In the with the Duke of Zhou. and by social events that would change bow to be held drawn and fired when needed. This lead to State from the nomadic horse tribes that lived in the Northern Steppes. and kept them in places of honor. Zhao. stewards. although they Zhou king. scholars. of the ancestor worship cults. only effective when a craftsmanship and design. During this period a master armies began to occur. and physical develop. Hann. unifying most of the major war. the Seven Star Sword was named China held allegiance to the Zhou in word only. War was fought from the seven streams that pass through the valley. Wei and Qin) all had unique cultural The Zhou period is an excellent early period to consider run- identities. thus making many Shi apolitical. and the seven states (reformed the beleaguered Zhou found that mountainous terrain was not Qi under the power of Tian. Owners of a seven star sword took pride in their Period. They would be learning to manipulate the five elements in their static and 122 . so that pressing a trigger released the exactly how much of what we have today is what was practiced thring for the shooter. Wei. into more civilized lands. His heir was a young boy so a regency was required would eventually become part of the Wudan movement. then moved farther east. enough in the Warring States period. and The Warring States period started about 100 years before every soldier carried one. and new warlords came to power. and this second aristocratic class. time there were 170 states in the Zhou kingdom. the king’s brother. At one Seven star swords often sported tassels. the Aristocracy had previously manned the Emperor. and Autumn period or the Warring States period means that lated. in order to make sure that when the dust settled one lords and regions under the Zhou king. The capitol of Zhou was that Rome was consolidating power in the Italic Peninsula. personal power. This destruction of a major The Warring States Period State lead to a power vacuum. Instead they were usually kept in place or shuf. bringing back the for- army. so as to pre- vent another assassination of this kind. themselves. Monks may be from the south. Yan. and the other states finally offi- The Zhou spread their influence by marriage and diplomacy cially ignored the Zhou rulers and focused on warring among across much of Northern China. and press his claim to the states of the Aristocracy. majority of the states believed the matter was important. and were designed. and used only for the Zhou emperor). the throne? Fighter types will likely be members of the flourishing Shi. when the state of Qi was destroyed by a the Tian clan. and the bureaucracy. or Martial Methods during this gods. stressing perfection in the martial arts. The Wushu traditions would develop throughout history. Choosing some time in the Spring in the region. named for their region. These seven states (Qi. From Stone to Steel Light Crossbow modified by religion. Governors. controlling the fluctuating forces shaping reality. declaring straight edged sword. A light between regions. Chu. or if it is late fled to new areas. During Jian. chronicled in a history called the Spring and Autumn generations. by social class (as the methods practiced The first crossbow was likely a bow set on a wooden stock. As the feudal wars between these nations esca. crossbow swiftly became the staple of the Chinese military. the Shi were often not replaced when a new their constant drive will be to perfect their martial form. and in that raid they killed the weapons would see intermittent military use. Do the heroes wish to support the ineffectual As mentioned before. However. Zhao. and they often vied with each other for the most power ning a Chinese campaign. this lead to a reduction in the population of the mer glory and beneficent rulership of that bygone era? Or will Aristocracy. became prominent. Clerics are likely not dedicated to began to practice the Wushu. standing as regent end the state of Qin finally took prominence. The first recorded the focus of martial training. China entered the Warring States period. Ou Yezi is reputed to have begun development of the raid into the heart of Zhou territory. and would be the core of the Wudan movement. each vying for immense change in the practice of warfare in China. Other families were recruited to help maintain the they gather behind another ruler. Alexander would rise to power in Macedonia. Yan. The Martial Arts we know today crossbows of the Zhou period were made with bronze or iron come from this Wushu tradition. throws. the Zhou rule was nominal at best. and the many regions of Made in the Lungchan region. and good for chariot warfare. Seven Star The Zhou never recovered their power. and it set the standard for straight edged swords for many this time. Made to fire metal darts or Quarrels. hand-to-hand fighting. with among aristocracy were very different than those practiced an indentation for the thumb or a finger at one end. Magic Users are likely Daoist ment. The Wushu traditions involved weapons practice. martial refuge only of the desperate. Hann. but over time war reduced this number to only seven. since religion during this period was considered the period. Since mili. and willing to hire heroes to help them estab- lish dominance. they out to proselytize China. Hindus. A number of these able to strike at the Zhou capitol. state took power.

although most societies of this period believed they if they were using a one-handed weapon and a light weapon. 15. and a spearhead on the other. and the focus of warfare shifted from chariots to quite practical for the battlefield. This is a double weapon. 13. Tiger Fork 123 . Iron Monk’s Spade. Light Crossbow Quarrels. This hook grants a +1 bonus on sharpened. These weapons were not raised. Iron Pudao in major states. The monk’s spade is a shovel adapted to bat- has a small hooked protuberance on the back of the blade that is tle. and it lead to consolidation of penalty to their to hit rolls for that round. This change in emphasis ally pass through the same square or hex of a Pudao wielder dur- occurred after the failures by Zhou and State forces against the ing the combat turn. strength in the states. The Far East dynamic states. Kwandao. and the edge is intended to facilitate disarms. Iron This double weapon bears a rounded chopping blade on one end This weapon. The wide handle allows easy shifting of stances. whose midpoint meets the staff. At the other end of the staff is a curved crescent the user’s opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an blade. which would not have the secondary spearhead. and of the peasant class. along with the Monk’s Cudgel. the Bisento. The shovel blade is flat. If used as a double weapon. Should an numbers as high as 600. Good attention oped in Japan. Monk's Spade. the wielder incurs all penalties associated fail their disarm attempt. with armies during the Warring State Period reaching them in tight formation. Light Crossbow. to detail could make this highly compelling. since wielders could not use infantry. 17. was developed for of a pole. Monk's Cudgel. rather than curved. Pudao.000 men.. Seven Star Sword. due to the required maneuvers. most Chinese of the variant of the Kwandao. A were at the height of their development. The Bisento is not a dual weapon. Kwandao. The Kwandao’s blade monastery defense. The falling numbers of the Aristocracy also promoted reforms Sword. opponent. would eventually be devel- time believed the golden age had already past. 16. the wielder 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 11. This change allowed large armies to be the chopping blade can be quite brutal. 12. the Pudao wielder incurs a -2 circumstance Di and Rond horse tribes. including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they and if used this way. This period is unique among ancient settings incurs all penalties associated with fighting with two weapons as since. 14. 18. taking the defense of the populace from being This two handed chopping sword’s grip is nearly the same length a responsibility of the Aristocracy and making it the obligation as the blade.

The Tiger Fork can be set against a charge. subo. certain cultural groups and occupations retained their manufacture. A version of the Monk’s Cudgel. the Ge charge. Tamo. this weapon gave the aggressive Li Kwei. true steel making. Monk’s long nor as tall as the modern version. Usually rily to stave off tribes like the Ronds and Uighur. which is not often the case throughout history. and the peasants found that the trident was an apt hunt. From Stone to Steel with fighting with two weapons as if they were using a one. was later developed in Japan and was otherwise identical designing the characteristic style of axe that would bear his in statistics to the Monk’s Cudgel. This excellent dual 19 weapon makes a nasty surprise for those who do not expect the deception. A variant of would not last into the steel era. and Europe would take ages to match this feat. called the Tet. Many one handed weapons were paired during the Wushu movement. A Wushu defensive walls.Double Axes defender a chance to mercilessly pound invaders from atop Li Kwei was a hero who favored using twin axes. Usually held over the head and swung in wide arcs. but rather that it was often possible for someone not in the military to purchase and use armor. name for more than two and a half millennia. The Fang’s blade is L shaped. Most notable is that the Qin dynasty was responsible for the First 19. The side tines of the Tiger Fork Steel Fang are curved slightly outward. The stronger metal. made from exotic materials such as paper. however. making it a double weapon. It was established prima- This weapon is a mace head on the end of a long staff. mace designed to help defend monasteries. Chinese heroes. 124 . bat. Built upon the base of a mountain range handed weapon and a light weapon. the Monks cudgel is a two handed ing frequent raids. This is not to say that most peasants owned or wore armor. and unusual animal hides. An excellent hidden weapon. was started during this period. you incur all like blade pointing outwards from the haft and the other end penalties associated with fighting with two weapons as if you thrusting up from the end of the haft. dual weapons should likely be more common. gave Chinese forces the most effective weaponry of their period. a superior design that was more effec- weapon. Though none of these armors saw extensive use in the military. as a thrusting weapon. Quarrel. Tiger Fork. separating certain portions of Northern China and Asia from the bulk of more civilized China. Li Kwei also dabbled in smithing. capped with metal at both ends. There was also experimentation with 20 alternate forms of armor. First. 20. and if used as a double weapon. ern China. flexible yet durable. But during Qin rule a number of interesting changes in military 21 practice took place. Qin Rule & the Steel Era 22 The Qin rule was relatively short in comparison to most dynas- ties. 21. Steel. ing weapon. and might well be as useful for a wizard or sorcerer as for a fighter. with one dagger- against a charge. Steel Fang. the Tamo appears to be a wooden stick only slightly longer than a foot. the Ge was. Thus the Fang could be like were using a one-handed weapon and a light weapon. The Fang took the place of the the Tiger Fork incorporates a spearhead onto the other end of the Ge during the Qin period. in fitting with the cultural climate. adherent and martial artist. only to be toppled by the Han dynasty. This variant cannot be set tive as a weapon. cord. 22. The Fang would see regular use Tamo. Iron and heroes practiced to become masters of two-weapon com- The Tiger Fork is a trident developed specifically to hunt tigers. When needed. which would lead to empowerment of the general populace. who were mak- measuring 4 feet in length. the first Great Wall was neither as Cudgel. as a chopping piercing weapon. since the Tamo might well pass for a wand after a brief inspection. If you are considering playing a Chinese Setting or with Tigers were a constant threat in the forests of southern and west. so as to better catch an unexpected Unlike many of the other common weapons of china. since its multiple tines gave a wielder a better chance of catching a tiger in mid-pounce. and also like a spear. Iron until the halberd replaced it. the Tamo user can reveal that the stick is in fact two daggers sheathed together. Great Wall of China. using forced air and advanced smithing techniques. Chu Ko Nu. They lasted 14 years.

corded armor was during a combat round. and mercenaries. Rhino Hide Armor To compound this. If properly cured. and dried. Quarrels were loaded into the Chu Ko Nu. and. corded armor was never used by the military. could be fired as swiftly as the weapon’s controller could lift and drop the handle. and glued in many layers. the Great Wall. Eventually this kind of matic loading mechanism controlled by a wooden handle at the armor would be adapted by the Koreans and would become the base of the box. Chinese Pirate Another alternate armor was constructed out of Rhinoceros hide. wall. Hide Armor. with a ing process failed. paper armor was much could invade the inner layers of the armor that the leatherwork- 125 . Rot heavier grain. and an auto. the to hit penalty was negated. could be very practical to box over the loading mechanism of the crossbow. was arduous. replace after repeated use in combat. too. consider how paper reacts to contact with was a very effective armor. Paper armor was extremely technology unique to China. and the cord must be wound and braced. wrapped in a for guards at city walls. if bulky. a -2 to hit modi. Unless the Chu Ko Nu is rewound to give the armor strength. Fully paper as a defense. Corded Armor. 24. per turn. or other stable surface. and fortifications. and template for Jigap. Rhino Paper Armor. This process it could be prepared and left ready for an attack. and was fier must be added for each shot. Rhino Hide Armor Chu Ko Nu like the linen cuirass of the Greeks. Paper armor seems like an impossible concept. which gained strength from The Chu Ko Nu was a fascinating development of crossbow laminating multiple layers together. If a character may normally only make a single attack Due to the expense that metal armor could be. since laborious pattern into the form of a suit of armor. The Chu Ko Nu can fire 2 shots more commonly seen on conscripts. The Far East 24 25 23 23. and rot set in before it was complete. Though the range and accuracy of the Chu Ko Corded Armor Nu left something to be desired. China. and it seems doubly strange to consider pirates using thick. and the drying process required exact conditions. they can still take the second shot at their often the only alternative for those without wealth who desired Ranged Combat Bonus -5. Thicker. But Rhino hide is very water. better than no armor at all. Used primarily in Southern braced on a rock. the cur- light. How could This process. The Chu Ko Nu’s ammunition box more protection than leather would afford. 25% of the time a suit of Rhino Hide Armor was made. monks. when can take months to complete. it became the favored weapon Corded armor is composed of corded rope fiber. Chinese Paper Armor. 25. The Chu Ko Nu sported a wooden light and. can hold up to 6 quarrels at a time. fragile paper we use in the modern era. and required great attention to something made of paper be protective enough to justify its use? detail. But the paper of this period was not the thin. tanned.

If using the optional developed. and then he targeted Seleucus Nicator. reduce the maximum and current Structural Rating although in time this knowledge would be exchanged along the by 1 each week. as well as cattle. But opened up a strong interest in silk. although smaller versions. two main sword developments of India. throwing sticks. Although it did not immedi- with movement enchantments or tiger armor with offensive ately have an effect on the military arts. or materials rules. istan. Changdragupta made Katar war against the strongest Kingdom (the Nandas) left in power The Katar is a Hindu weapon based on an entirely different after Alexander’s invasion in hopes of toppling the Alexander. maces. become the source of a great deal of conflict. battle after battle against Changdragupta’s forces. In a fantasy make inroads among the populations in western China. a kind of sickle. and cultural exchange. The Turks were an Alternate Hides agglomeration of Turkish Central Asian tribes. these alternate hides and leather armors might well be allowing more regular communication with India. like merce throughout the region. iron lamellar and small and large shields. From Stone to Steel ing process couldn’t treat. and if it does. daggers. the Hora is India. until he was forced to surrender all of the territory he had been given gover- Veecharoval nance over. the Silk Road would enchantments. rather than the inside. were known to exist. The handle of the Katar is composed friendly regime. battle of Bronze or Iron. tridents. not unlike the situation in Medieval Germany. found among western tribes. Generally the Katar was the Empire. invasion of foreign ideas. called punch- vision and leadership made him an implacable foe. fequently in ryan army also used War Elephants as platforms and as chaotic the middle of combat. a The Hora is a hand weapon used in much the same way as strictly Hindu weapon that is noted to be the oldest weapon in knuckledusters are today. and thus allow- particularly prone to certain enchantments. these would have a subtle influence on the axes. iron lamellar. although they practiced a great deal of com- endorse one kind of animal for the majority of its hides. China. saw the potential for Empire in India. like so many other kinds of swords. than the standard studded leather. and trade and contact with the West. Chang. which often left cities to determine their own administration. studded leather. long spears. using swords like the kopis and akinakes. and the Maurya Empire wooden haft. leather had to come from China saw an incredible influx of wealth. and besides the animals already mentioned. A version of this armor was made for horses and elephants as barding. so that a jagged. The Mau- would often be armor that fell off of the combatant. sharp-edged portion proj- 126 . This viceroy of the Indic holdings of Alexander’s Empire. Seleucus lost ing daggers. roll secretly to determine if a given suit has rot. premise than most daggers. Made from animal horn. allows the user to grasp the handle in their fist. The Veecharoval descends from the Changdragupta united most of Northern India during his reign. The result from a hard wood. bows. A form of barding was even armor and promoted tearing and wear. This peace offering was sealed with the marriage of although it most resembles a curved sword set off from its Seleucus’s daughter to Changdragupta. Since the stud is larger. the Veecharoval is an ancient Indian weapon only was born. In India. Before this time India was ruled by limited sovereign states. and thrust with already flagging in health and trying to stabilize his unwieldy the Katar blade as if punching. where Hindu society they established exclusive caravan routes through the region. prohibited the killing of cows. leather armor. and this allowed Turkish and Central Asian tribes to begin to that leather sometimes came even from elephants. often referred to as a sickle axe. when active movements stressed the juggernauts of random violence. another source. and would eventually separate the at this time it is assumed that the handle would have been crafted heavy outer layer from the pliable inner leather layer. it fter the coming of Alexander a prominent king. Cavalry was not as widely used. or horses. which was only made in leather in the Far East could often be taken from tigers. could lend Seleucus little aid. made of leather. Hora Among those armaments would undoubtedly be the katar. Made Macedonia. Often a culture would ered barbarian tribes. and deer. as well as world. just for Elephants. javelins. studded leather and bezainted leather. but clutched in the hand. Silk Road. Since the stud is ring-shaped. Bezainted Leather Bezainted Leather armor is leather with ring-shaped studs. also has a better chance of halting thrusts and impaling weapons A dragupta Maurya. and Changdragupta’s length of a short sword. Another important development during the Qin dynasty was the establishment of the Silk Road by the Turks. As trade with Rome and Europe Bison for the Native Americans. but the sharpened His armies bore the benefits of their contact with Persia and edge is on the outside of the curve. including much of modern day Afghanistan and Pak- A curved slashing weapon. bezainted leather is more effective than regular India studded leather at turning blades. such as deer armor ing Buddhism more access to China. commonly consid- Leather need not be from a cow. the then of two bars with a horizontal pair of handles between them. No examples of these weapons survive to the present. or Cattle for Europe. bezainted leather. sickle. goats. and the blade from bronze or iron. the Turks saw an opportunity for making great wealth. Alexander.

Punching with Asoka was responsible for a blood bath. A great many laws were enacted to help enforce proper behavior and living. cover the majority of the animal. Leather. due to the large num. A per- Changdragupta’s son Asoka completed his father’s empire and son making an attack with a Hora automatically does normal brought all of India under one rule. but for the next few hundred years Northern India would be conquered by various powers. with Bud- Elephant Barding was common in India. Bezainted Leather Horse Barding. Stud. so as to prising number of interesting combat developments. 28. The Far East ects from the front of the fist. from Bactrian Greeks to Parthians (Persians) to long gone cultures like the Shakas and 26a 27a 27b 26b 29 28 26a. the rest of his reign was shaped by this conversion. the Hora is a The Spread of Buddhism weapon used in the same manner that a person punches. 27a. Should a person armed with the Hora have the the general size of Indian armies). considering unarmed strike. But in his greatest conquest. and multiple men In the end the Maurya line lost the power to hold onto conquered might be needed to prepare an elephant for metal armor. but the precedent of a pan-Indian Empire had been scavengers were know to saw off portions of armor and melt set. and Elephant Barding learning and religion were encouraged and exported. 29. as well as North into China. like any normal 100. The weight of even a leather suit of Elephant Barding was oppressive. Bezainted Leather. Later powers would again rule over this land of deep faith them down for the gilt or iron in their weave. Buddhism’s spread would have ded Leather. Asia. Hora 127 . damage. Katar. Veecharoval. where more than the Hora still promotes an attack of opportunity. and even Iron Lamellar armor a marked effect on much of the region. plus one. doms again. and more than that were taken Advanced Unarmed Strike Feat. dhist Missionaries traveling throughout Burma and South East bers of elephants used in most Indian militaries. The Mauryan Empire fractured and broke up into king- elephant had particularly rich armor and was killed in battle.000 people died in battle (which was extreme. 27b. So stricken was Asoka that he embraced Buddhism. and would lead to a sur- were made to be draped over the back of an elephant. they can use the Hora without prisoner. Katar. Like the Katar. 26b. If an lords. and culture. and attracting an attack of opportunity. Bezainted Leather Armor. rather than subdual damage.

Chinese The Chinese Halberd is relatively easy to recognize. The whip also entered the civil arena. The Uighor and certain Turks were a constant threat that gave the military incredible prominence in China. and for a 30a period of time there was civil war. as military lead- ers finally withdrew their support from the Emperor. Often tassels would be attached to the halberd. the majority population of Chinese would consider themselves Han. A metal tipped whip proved most useful in warfare. 128 . Halberd. unlike region. Western India would take the greatest impact of these Lance. Han rule experimented with adopting philosophical and spiritual movements in China. and the Chinese began to experiment with whips. the Quin dynasty came to an end. but only when using it to trip other horses or pull riders from their mounts. came into power. but eventually the royal house of Han. Slowly the Chinese military began to adopt cavalry. and pommels. They would remain in power (except for a brief period of usurpation lasting from 9-24 AD) from the end of the second century B. Usually these lances were carried These various cultural groups would eventually introduce chain. Chinese invasions. the spear was not optimally set. various Elephant barding Kushians. so that the Chinese Hal- berd could be used for thrusting or chopping. and could be set against a charge.D. mail to India. the Chinese Halberd may be used to trap a shield and perform trip maneuvers. reforming the bureaucracy and army. Like all halberds. inherited from the Tur- lead to a great trade of ideas with those nations west of India.C. a sign of the indelible impact the Han rule had on society. due to the nature of the blade. In the meantime. but for now Hindu culture retreated to the Deccan without a guard or brace. From Stone to Steel The Han Dynasty s India was experiencing the full flush of the Mauryan A dynasty. The use of lances was also adopted from the raiding tribes. 30. By the end of the Qin period. so as to use the horse to brace the charge. lances of the Late Medieval period. bits. kic tribes of Central Asia. heavy spear. China began to develop halberds to counter charges. which would persist in various forms and lengths through Chinese history. Usually the blade of a Chinese halberd is crescent shaped. and experimentation eventually lead to the multi- 30c segment chain. The pole itself often had a spearhead. The last remaining general assassinated the final Qin Emperor. although it would take many centuries for cavalry troops to become a standard. A number of warlords attempted to claim the throne. and both bolts and arrows for Chi- nese bowmen were commonly poisoned. not to be confused with the Hann state of the Warring States Period. Chinese lances often sported tassels around the spearhead. across the saddle. chariot warfare was all but aban- 30b doned. often because of the lack of stirrups. Still. using better machined parts. the Han had to face raids and opposition from horse-bound tribes that lived in mountainous regions. Still. The crossbow was also redesigned. and chaos seemed to reign in the North. and creating a strong national identity in China. to the early part of the second cen- tury A. to distract opponents. After the Han period. and the multicultural exposure of this region would The Chinese lance is a long. with two metal extensions holding it to the pole.

Those using may use the Weapon Finess feat to apply the character’s Dexter. it may also be used to make including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail their trip attacks. If you are tripped during your own trip attempt. Chinese Halberd. Steel Barbed Chinese ity modifier instead of the Strength modifier to attack rolls with The Steel Barbed Chinese Whip was a leather whip with a single a whip. 35. and does not have the armor penalties it may also be used to make trip attacks. The last chain segment usually as a ranged weapon with a maximum range of 10 feet. The segmented chain range penalties. A segmented chain has reach. unlike other reach to remain standing. you can also use it against an adjacent foe. and then a variable The whip deals no damage to any creature wearing armor of at number of segments. 36. and does no damage to a creature with a ing of a 3 to 4 inch steel bar linked on either end to a similar +3 natural armor bonus. Steel Barbed Chinese Whip. often sharpened. Although kept in the hand. Those using a whip gain a +2 bonus on their weapons. The Far East 33 31 34 32 36a 36b 35 36c 31. usually from 6 to 9. Modern Chinese. Segmented Chain. you disarm attempt. Segmented ties of the whip still made it difficult to damage an armored foe. can wrap around a leg or other limb. This barb made any damage normal damage. This whip is considered an exotic weapon. you can drop the whip strike opponents 10 feet away with it but. Chain. and no ended in a blunt flat tip. 32. 33. Because it opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. although the armor penal. If an opponent attempts common to most whips. Generally these chains had a wooden handle. does normal damage. Crossbow. fearsome barb at the end. Because it can wrap around a leg or other limb. each segment consist- least +1 armor bonus. Chinese Lance. You can to trip you during your own trip attempt. Whistling Arrow Whip. this weapon gain a +2 bonus on their opposed attack roll when 129 . rather than subdual damage. You can drop the chain in order to avoid being tripped. 34. it is treated length of bar with chain loops. This weapon is a shield bypass weapon.

Han emperors sought to extend the borders of China. including During the Han period the mechanisms of the Light and Heavy Japan’s main islands. and their cultural fusion would later result in alter- of machines parts and better range. If you are using Tibet the optional equipment damage system. nally a Tibetan one. and imperial Chi- surface. Whistling arrows were often used during developed them. Han Bow and Crossbow. (as compared to. such as Formosa. reasoning that by conquering more territory there would be less land for their enemies to attack from. although most horse-bound An improvement on the original paper armor. as had the and is better than normal wooden bladed weapons. so as to make it new head does not have to be crafted for a new whistling arrow. Chu Ko Nu. Crossbows. and the use of such bows around signals for advance or retreat were linked to a whistling arrow Tibet is the only strong evidence that the Tibetans may have with a specific tone. weapons. and accounts of the time period. martial styles. You can use the and shrines in Vietnam. say. and most of designed with a cavity that catches air while in flight and lets out their neighbors tended to use the Tibetan form of this bow. the time of be obeyed by every man who could hear him. draw- ings. China a loud whistling sound. Made with thick paper and layered until it had the tensile strength of corrugated cardboard. tories as the land of Wa. Qin before them. rather than one. Sometimes preset development is indeterminate. Many of these islands. Found in a general proximity of two hundred miles from ancient nam. Korean Jigap is troops still preferred the regular bow to the crossbow. From Stone to Steel attempting to disarm an opponent. The Crossbow was the back. bow. developments of China would be carried on in Buddhist temples mented Chain is considered an exotic weapon. or whether this invention was origi- The Whistling Arrow may well be of Hunnic origin. usually Stone Crossbows were improved substantially. the Whistling Arrow was used for multi. and Tibetan horsemen were the scourge of the southern they can still take the second shot at their Ranged Combat Bonus mountains. the pellet bow. since it could put a high volume of quarrels in the air at one time. as well. landed by the direction the sound came from. Korean culture adopted the paper armor of key difference between a regular bow or crossbow and a pellet China and developed a more resistant form. The Seg. Any wooden object coated in Lacquer has its hardness increased by one. still used during this day and age. wielding compound bows. and new enemies began to improved version is also more difficult to damage. finally came into contact with the southern portion may normally only make a single attack during a combat round. ations of religion. and is no Han Expansion longer subject to wood rot. Another bow development that seems to have started or whistling arrow during maneuvers or during battle expected to centered around Tibet was the hinged bow. Unless the surface. Officers who fired a line. and became ubiquitous in stories. Again. and a variety of Persian and Indian weapons. improving both paper more resistant to water damage. Whistling when this was developed. reasonable alternative for non-military personnel. like pirates. harder and more resistant to the elements. pellet weapons are generally used for sport hunting. there is a 50% Material: Lacquer chance that the whistling arrowhead is still salvageable. Although the Whistling Arrow may often be broken after firing. Effective and relatively the amount of Quarrels it could hold and the accuracy of the easy to make. which would equivalent is that there are two drawstrings. Modern Chinese Light and Heavy Indonesia. curved sabers. to give hunters an idea as to where a kill raled spear and an exorcist’s knife. Jigap. or other stable border settlements could be very profitable. you should note that this China’s enemies also made advances. and Xiongnu found that attacks on Improved Chu Ko Nu is braced on a rock. the Philippines. The Improved Chu Ko Nu’s ammunition box can hold up to lamellars. Jigap often imitated by neighboring states. allowing easier repair Age societies. Turks. The Tartars. These crossbows were Armor. but the Tibetans used it widely. The cultural exchange. a -1 to hit modifier must be added for each shot. If a character Tibet. and histories. Small islands in the South China Sea would also see settlement. would later develop a sport crossbow along the same conceptual ple purposes in the Chinese military. During this time certain coastal tribes in Korea would begin instead of the Strength modifier on attack rolls with a Segmented settling Japan. It is unclear exactly Arrow. of China. Pellet holdings eventually extended into Korea and as far south as Viet. Improved Jigap armor also included a treatment process that made the The Chu Ko Nu was improved during this time. which was likely used only for hunting. Lacquered wood can hold an edge. Although it still was not as accurate as a regular cross. and 130 . it was still favored for defensive use. The Wushu and later martial arts from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. The nese often paid tribute rather than fight costly and pointless wars. An arrow. further diversifying the eastern martial Weapon Finesse feat to use a character’s Dexterity modifier arts. wall. including the roll to keep be passed down to modern day. had other native peoples. so that a Lacquer is a way to coat and seal wood. metal armors) Jigap was a weapon. The 8 quarrels at a time. Other unique weapons of Tibet included a spi- recreational hunting. Tibetans also had an interesting variant of the bow. which would eventually be recorded in early his- Chain. and Okinawa. bone of the Han Armies. Improved Chu Ko Nu can fire 2 shots per turn. and the cultural influence of that Chinese rule would allow Tangut. Indian -5. This weapon is a shield bypass weapon.

rather than normal dam. This ostensibly protected the power of the blade. 37 42 43 39 41a 41b 38 40 37. Hinged at the grip. attacking skills. 38. 40. Tangut Armguards. and eventually became so rampant as a lance in a pinch. so as which rests the clay hunting pellet. as though it were a not regularly used in the Far East. The pellet is a bludgeoning to allow the demon to flee the body. The Dung. 41. and could be carried unobtru. Usually a catch helped to guards might make excellent vessels for enchantments improv- keep the hinged bow straight during the draw. should weapon that inflicts subdual damage. or items that made excellent bow material but were not long Armguards. horsemanship. Usually Wang Mang’s dynasty was short-lived however. Pellet Crossbow. Tangut enough to be a full bow. heavy thrusting spear. In a fantasy setting. intended for exorcisms. The Phurbu is a unique dagger. but lead to families campaigning against tern made the weapon stronger. The Red Eyebrows In the first part of the Han dynasty there was a tendency to The Dung reserve high stations in the Imperial Bureaucracy for members of A spear with an ornate spiraled handle and a long double-edged prominent houses. magical item with the ghost touch ability. used bows. or weapon damage. Hinged Bow. the victim gains Bow. inside of a patient believed to be afflicted by an evil spirit or demon. Silk Padded Armor 131 . 50% chance that any metal damage breaks the hinge and makes the bow useless until the hinge is replaced. leather more compact than a normal bow. 43. Short and Long Hinged an automatic extra will save to resist the possession. The spiral pat. it also temporarily age. aristocracy and the shi. these bows were far The Tangut warriors often sported ornate armguards. as the sling was gains the ability to affect the insubstantial. however there is a ing aim. This is the Far East’s response to the sling. called the Hsing. 39. Phurbu. Hinged bows were often constructed from old. as a peasant army rose up to oppose him. The Far East between them a small leather pouch is suspended. that a former Empress was able to engineer a coup and place her nephew in power. this weapon was used to let blood from rupted by a civil revolt. this weapon be blessed as per the cleric spell. 42. Wang Mang briefly broke the Han dynasty Phurbu and attempted to establish his own dynasty. the Dung is a strong. armbands often plated with iron in intricate patterns. and the dung could also be used each other for key offices. as it was inter- used by Tangut shamans. These arm- sively before being set up for firing. Should a person use a Phurbu to draw blood from a possessed victim. Jigap.

Chan- Xiongnu were in the midst of an internal split. Silk the other forces became minor powers in their own right. and the standard sleeping with armor penalties. the Jurchen of Korea. and armed with iron sabers. Silk is an retaining power in the lands they occupied. eventually subsuming the Rond and Di. Cao Cao of the Wei tary force and reinstate the Han Dynasty. lead by a cabal of civil leaders called The common weapons of the Gupta armies included influences the Yellow Turbans. they eventually moved west. as reconciliation eventually lead the Xiongnu Gupta’s to their greatest power. due to intermar- strictive enough to be worn while sleeping without incurring the riages from decades past. light. The first was a thicker bladed chopping sword. for their tendency to paint the top half The Chin Dynasty of their head read. W is a notable example of an empire that gained prominence from marriage and politics more than the sword. and China was left in a shambles. This kind of tion of their army left them defenseless when the Huns. similar to the 132 . and he. But the Chin awarded to graduates of China’s extensive and impressive exam- dynasty would fail for the Emperor’s first act. and Ch’iang. As the second Han Dynasty began to flourish. and many of quered the Wu. and internal insurgency by a grow. The was forced to go to war with the whole of the Turkestan. Other families retained control of what military units they could afford to maintain. which was welcomed nation would bring together an alliance Chinese elite infantry back by popular consent. worn in layers and reinforced with silk. which forced His grandson. the Huns conquered half the normal rate. Roman Empire was fading. happy to have border barbarians chieftain’s daughter. but it would be his marriage to a prominent Chinese Empire. and the other foes of China. ally. and statuettes and draw- set the stage for a drama that would be commemorated in the ings show two directions the curved Persian sword was develop- historical fiction story The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Not to say the the Xiongnu were adept horsemen who evaded the slower Chi- nese armies and made it difficult for Chinese border colonies to sword was unnecessary. invaded China. either Padded Armor in China came from the common clothing of the selling their weapons and armor to the enemies of the state or people. he attempted to dissolve it. Instead. This agreement later would which dominated much of Southern India that would bring the prove ill advised. but the claim never took hold. accepted. seeing an advantage. brought armies to bear on other northern Indian King- The Han. which was to dis- ination system. pledged financial support of the doms. the Gupta Empire leather. gained power during the first Han Dynastic period. a newly padded armor was far superior to the padded armor of Europe. In addition. This mighty The lessons of the brief usurpation of Wang Mang lead to a force would conquer the Shu. although certain populist leaders were with horsemen and horse archers from neighboring tribes like unhappy with the way their revolution was hijacked by the Han. the Chin. and would create a number of fascinating offshoots. and the most powerful military family elevated the major offices of the Chinese Imperial Government were their leader as scion of a new Dynasty. the a mercantile family that purchased their way into power. which conceivably allowed people from any solve that same formidable army that put him in power. and The Gupta Empire subjugating other Turkish tribes. Horsebound. due to the excellent ventilation of this the Chin dynasty nine years after it assumed control. which members dra Gupta I was the first leader of the Gupta nation. This Turkic tribes of Central Asia. wearing hile many empires take power in war. and their combined forces con- reform of the bureaucratic placement procedures. this revolt broke the power of the Hsing mili- For sixty years the nations of Wei. ing number of overtaxed peasants severely weakened the Han This melding of Chinese and Indian influences would greatly state. ing. The Turks The Xiongnu. Armed with better weapons than and wearers of this padded armor take fatigue from exertion at the Turkic tribes and virtually unopposed. a member of the Satavahana kingdom. tried to claim being descendants of the Han. it would eventually be most destabilized by regions. The Chin’s dissolu- extremely strong material. The Huns armor. From Stone to Steel Called the Red Eyebrows. Wu-huan. trade increased the spread of Buddhism and Indian philosophy. closer faction. Huns never established a Dynasty. and durable. various Guptas had to strengthen trade with their eastern neighbors. This revolution. and eventually a civil war erupted. a turko-mongolian people from whom it is sus- pected the Huns descended. combined with the from the invaders and barbarian tribes as well as traditional Indian untimely death of an Emperor who had yet to name a successor weapons. The Chinese. of the tribes comprising the Xiongnu in a furor over succession. turmoil in China cut down on trade. in Chinese territory to invite in their former enemies. would campaign this southern faction to petition for settlement and entry into the against the Chakras. and Road. Eventually. and China But the Gupta dynasty came to power at an importune time. the Tibetans. The kopis was being adapted. Shu. indeed. Or actu- walk in life to enter government service. nomadic. another popular revolution. and some of Padded Armor. While the Han could and did defeat and drive out invaders shape the weapons development and philosophies of these from all quarters. and lariats. The Gupta family appears to have been prosper. and Wu would fight to tary. who would also bear his name. formed tribe. Silken Padded Armor is the only armor light and unre. the Xiongnu. guard their weak territory. composite bows. Xiongpei. eventually conquering the whole of the Ganges Valley. The Xiongnu fought fiercely. and with it the trade along the Silk This war was costly and brutal. It took little for a Han family member to raise a token mili- reunite the Chinese Empire.

and this curve made the blade easier to loosely affiliated that when they conquered the Gupta Empire. with various experiments but the club widens to nearly eight to twelve inches at the spheri- involving the curve of the blade. Khond A Brief Flourishing A variety of axes became common in Indian warfare at this time. Chandra Gupta I’s son. as the hot climate made maintenance an issue. aging weapon. Iron Indian (Ahir) Gadha Heavy of blade. mobility that any shield trapping action requires still leaves the Ankus wielder open to danger. and a hook curving out from the base of the concepts. that developed an entirely new purpose. The scimitar is based on the concept crafted of iron. which shows a great deal of later Persian influence. and the name comes more from the region they invaded maneuvers. A large bladed only with officers. was an amalgam of various devel- Payatt. and a reverse of the curve. The story is of epic stick used to control elephants. As chainmail became more common a into various kingdoms. The power of this story has lead to many computer games wielder had a weapon in that hand. this weapon generally bore a tassel on the as rust and heat could cripple a soldier as easily as any blade. Written by Luo Guanzhong during the Ankus Ming Dynasty. and the lack of China. the Hunas were so the length of the blade. it allowed the shield the human drama and the character of the three main charac. often fought amongst each other. and this left Northern India open to inva- thrusting tip was added. Using the Ankus to shield based on this novel. less than two feet in length. usually focus- the royal family destroyed. were heavy blades. but written as fiction to bring out shield trap. but usually had a bifurcated or split beginning of the Tulwar. with the intent being to let the blade do most of the work. and was used by the primitive Naga people of this Finally the horse and lance were becoming common features in region for tribal defense. It is said that the oldest versions of the Gadha were and the weight of the blade. although The Naga War axe was used primarily in Assam. opposite end. and the average wood. To these two weapons was added the Kri. an alliance of tribes from the Kritantic region struck south and struck down the Gupta reign. cal head. sion and subjugation by the Persians. The Tulwars of this returned with their loot to the mountains they came from. took from a neighboring tribe as the sign of the Axe. and generally associated in the south Kingdoms were established in wealthier regions. usually crescent shaped. The Far East scimitar. traditional rounded head. Indeed. this book details the struggle between three The Ankus is a descendant of the elephant goad. With period. Romance of the Three Kingdoms Romance of the Three Kingdoms is perhaps the most popular published book in Asia. and 133 . The Fall of the Guptas Eventually the Hunas. The curve of the Tulwar usually came midway down from than from any cultural relation. both from Persian and Turkic influence. Naga War Right to Kingship. Kritant. if the Ankus ters. the Gupta Empire devolved again ing on slashing attacks. attempting to reassert Empire. almost spherical head. opments across most of southern Asia. although later versions were crafted of hard- that a heavy blade gives a blow more impact. with modern English translations totally 1500 pages. a wide bladed battleaxe that Samudra Gupta. The Bullova are actu- and these fought games of politics amongst each other while ally a number of varieties of axe. the Gadha is a heavy but dam- combatant merely tried to get good momentum behind a blade. Chainmail began to see use in India. The scimitar. and proximity with other friendly combatants. The Ankus is a short For those interested in playing a low or no magic China setting thrusting spear. the point (or lack of a point). some of which are available outside of trap still provokes an attack of opportunity. axe on a long pole. eventually become synonymous with Arabian and Islamic cul- which is used in an uniquely Indian martial arts called Kalari ture. deeply steeped in the spear head. Scimitar. The Khond axes came from the second was a thinning of the blade. Axe. Older version of this axe had a more Indian Armies. with a sharp thrust- there can be no better source for heroic adventure ideas and ing head at the point. as mentioned before. but more modern Naga War Axes have inverted triangular heads. an improvement that came with steel. however. sometimes sporting hand guards. The scimitar variants of this period. The gahda. were not yet truly pointed. and since the Ankus was light. Bullova. while to be seen on the coin of the period. The thinner bladed than the Kritant. and supported slicing strikes while in close they did not even attempt to establish domain in India. with a thick chopping head. the Hunas were of no The Tulwar is a thin curved blade. the scimitar would The Gadha is a great club with a rounded. trapper to make an attack with the opposite hand. Despite the Tulwar. draw and ready. like the Halab. which made it less likely to lodge in a wound. good for slicing and defensive relation. sharp generals for control over all of China. like the Ahir. head. China had entered a period of disunity. tant axe. at the base. This backwards curving hook was used primarily to historical events of the time. Early Iron (Halab) similarity of their names with the Huns. with a slight curve near the tip. is about three inches in diameter. This work is historical fiction. The Ankus was a later adaptation length. with royalty among the Kritantic peoples. With a length of 3 to 4 feet. In the north warlords The Kritant. was a wide-bladed axe. the same region as the Bullova. a small.

established the Tsui dynasty. With insolvency rampant. 46e–46f Khond axe varieties. certain revelations. as well as they were a cult of murderers who traveled throughout India. As short-lived as the Qin. The Cult of Kali thrived in various forms throughout this period. Iron Indian Scimitar. building the Great Canal and erecting much of what is today’s passing themselves off as regular travelers and waylaying Great Wall. 49. The hatchet was also a favored weapon. the Cult of Kali was established to fight Rather than consolidating control and establishing effective lines against so called ‘demons’ that masqueraded as men among of taxation. and corruption and assassinations confidence and was unwary. often worn as a belt to barian encroachment. 45. From Stone to Steel 44 45 49 50 51 46a 46c 46e 47 46b 46d 46f 48 44. and was primarily built to build up support of the demon race. Still. Long-Handle Nine Ring Sword opposing the Northern States. Long Bar Flail. the Tsui although records first mention them in the 600’s. asphyxiating their target. Chinese Broadsword. 46a–46d Bullova Axe varieties. 47. Early Iron Tulwar. 51. 50. killing those who were considered barbarian aggression. they would be murderer would ended what the peasants could not. used to dismember corpses or to take down particu- larly resistant foes. 48. The Great Wall was never an effective deterrent of individuals in large groups. Their favored method of murder was stran- among the southern states and the shi. usually using a strangle cord. Naga War Axe. although during the colonial period no Thuggee ever attacked a British citizen. Based on attempted to do too much on an almost non-existent budget. slip the cord over their victim’s head and then draw it tight. the Tsui Emperor spent money on battles with the the ‘true chosen people of Kali’. Jurchen. who had taken the whole of Korea back. 134 . and eventually a Northern warlord won through and There is no record of when the Cult of Kali was founded. the populace disguise its purpose. As soon as the victim was lulled into false revolted against the Tsui. Ankus. who were afraid of bar- gulation. in the forge of war steel is Cult of Kali tempered. Also known as the Thuggees.

and Strength. Trickery. where a great variety of weapons were developed and included in schools of fighting. and their hunched figures and weak frames were ‘sword’ is another three feet long. and their use was often limited. Kali is a death goddess. the Shaolin more exotic weapons practiced. you can drop the long The story of the Shaolin is a story of cross-cultural influence. and makes the weapon more ver- more temples would be established. passed the expertise and skill of all aspects of the military or martial tradition. Shimin. An exagger- popular. This heavy weapon can be deemed incapable of performing the traditional Buddhist med- used to perform the sword break maneuver. hostage. Li Shimin. be the Strangle Cord and Hatchet. so that they might perform may strike targets ten feet away. whose dancing is said to hasten the end of the world. Kali’s domains would likely be Evil. but was denied access to the temple because the The Chinese broadsword is the steel inheritor of the seven star abbot distrusted Bodhidharma’s intentions. When Bodhidharma was admitted it quickly became obvious Sword. usually through a low. but this version was not quite as common on the battle- would develop in other regions of China. as his series of nine rings in the back of the blade. While fighting remnant forces of Tsui loyalists. was defeated and taken mon weapons like sword. the emperor to be of the Tang. ritualistic Also sometimes referred to as the trident halberd. Bodhidharma came across the Shaolin temple. A reach weapon strengthen the bodies of the monks. The Monk class of 135 . Besides the com- he Tang Dynasty replaced the Tsui. Chinese (Nine Ring Broadsword) for entrance. and petitioned Broadsword. although not without T difficulty. Bearing the same heavy chopping blade. traveled to China bypass weapon. and styles of Gongfu satile. In addition to steel versions of the records note that as many as 113 monks were sent. Though they Lungchan weapons. and of this broadsword. a short chain. Li Shimin later took the throne and granted the Shaolin monks land and more religious freedoms than Buddhists had Flail. this weapon is a long range bludgeoning weapon. Long bar ever seen in China to date. Halberd. has a the monks of the temple came and asked him to enter. but not targets within that range. It is said that after 9 eliminated the hoop pommel and improved its balance. and her favored weapons would Shaolin Monks. axe. may of these weapons developed from common tools or as variations on already exis- tant weapons of the period. This allows the wielder some leeway in Gongfu. The This is actually a pole-arm version of the nine-ring broadsword. Still. in order to broadsword. This weapon is a shield Bodhidharma. known as the nine-ring broadsword. called Kung Fu in the West) became more haft. The long bar flail can be used to make trip attacks. and they turn undead rather Today we think of the martial arts as hand-to-hand combat in a than rebuke them. this is a hal- hand combat techniques that stressed body awareness and berd with the traditional Chinese halberd blade on both sides avoidance of conflict. Legend says that sword legacy. and is considered a reach weapon. Goddess The Wudan movement in China was a second flourishing of the of Blood and Cemeteries. robbing their Mistress of her due. and would eventually spawn the Wudan movement. This fighting style became known as (not ends) of the pole. the following weapons were among the faced nearly 5000 men in mountainous terrain. going to a nearby cave and lighter steel manufacture and changes in weapon weighting meditating while staring at the cave wall. which direction to attack from. A variant years Bodhidharma’s gaze bored through the cave wall. like the original itations. bar flail in order to avoid being tripped. and as the popularity of Shaolin practices increased. and these rings may discipline and dedication was no longer questioned. ground-sweeping attack. The martial arts fighting styles of the The long bar flail (or di sow gee) consists of a four to five foot Shaolin (Gongfu. Long-Handle Nine Ring that the monks of the Shaolin temple were in poor shape. The fledgling Tang dynasty appealed to the Shaolin Wudan weapons were more about fighting style than about war- monks of the region to send support. Bodhidharma instituted exercise rituals. The Far East In a fantasy setting. their duties more ably. a Buddhist Priest from India. and the blade of the holy texts. and another foot of wooden pole. although common military monks defeated the remnant Tsui forces and recovered Li weapons were also part of this movement. ation of the common grain flail. bulk of the Shaolin monk’s time was spent transcribing the The pole is generally 6 feet in length. the Player’s Handbook is loosely based on these historical Death. It is up to the GM to determine what group ritualistic manner. but in this time period martial arts encom- of people the fantasy Kali cult might target as ‘demons’. her clerics oppose the undead as Wushu movement. the Bodhidharma undertook a trial. and these exercises included early box- ing forms. to talk with him about the Emperor’s translation of Buddhist texts. or spear. If you Shaolin are tripped during your own trip attempt. On his return trip. although some without these weapons. last- The Wudan Movement ing for nearly 600 years. Legend says that the fare. any Middle Imperial Chinese setting would feel empty Shaolin sent 13 monks to rescue Li Shimin. be used to perform a sword break maneuver. The Wudan period was a watershed time. Double Eventually these exercises became true martial arts. a refinement and emphasis on martial artistry. to meet with the Emperor.

61. and using the cane’s crook as its handle. Moonteeth Shovel. or the sword could be drawn and Usually crafted from Bamboo. was used by Ninja. Both spearheads are often tasseled. you incur all penalties associ. Indeed. This kind of cane could be Flute used as a bludgeoning weapon. its ability to play music normally. The wooden cane. Chinese Hammers. 54. being made of steel. Fan. text. You can use the Weapon Finesse feat to apply a particular dance-like manner. Best used against multiple combatants. for allies. and is identical to the than a weapon. sometimes made of rattan. more potent as a weapon. and if used as a double weapon. at character’s Dexterity modifier instead of the Strength modifier others like staff work. was considerably harder and ated with fighting with two weapons as if you were using a one. The sword cane could not be used to effectively a weapon second. 55a. a sword sheathed in the cane’s wooden body. but was solid and useful as a club or a tripping weapon. cane. Sword Cane. 56. since the rearward head may cause trouble Wushu movement. The flute is an exotic weapon. 55b. at times looking like fencing. the flute is an instrument first and used as a sword. 53. whenever the flute takes damage it loses Sword Cane. Double Headed Spear. Canes headed spear is not quite as practical in the battlefield as its sin. A Japanese variant of this weapon. on attack rolls with a Cane. as it could easily be passed as a normal not confer any extra penalty or benefit. The double-headed spear is essentially a staff with a spearhead at either end. Wooden Cane. Golden Coin Shovel. From Stone to Steel field. a significant indicator that the 54 56 52 53 57 58 59 60 61 55a 55b 52. Snake Spear 136 . You can a shield and perform trip maneuvers. Flute. 59. The third kind of cane was actually a handed weapon and a light weapon. sword cane. 60. use the Weapon Finesse feat to apply a character’s Dexterity modifier instead of the Strength modifier on attack rolls with a Spear. and its use in the Wudan movement is more as an art form the Shinobi Zue. 58. The Steel cane. Like all halberds. Three kinds of canes were popular in the Wudan period of the gle headed variant. and is used in a trip an opponent. This is a double weapon. although this does was the most common. 57. the Double Halberd may be used to trap flute was never really intended to be a serious weapon. Double Headed flute. Double Halberd. The flute was never used in a military con. the double. Chay Yang Longsword.

due to its size and shape. to keep them using a one-handed weapon and a light weapon. Snake Fans were an ornamental item carried by magistrates and mem. modifier instead of the Strength modifier on attack rolls with a and fancy versions of this weapon have gilding on the blade. A long staff with a coin-like circular blade Wheel is a weapon that stresses speed and flexibility. and use of swift slashes to inflict A Malaysian variant of this weapon was the Hak. and a spearhead on the other. the Wind and Fire from a common tool. This spear often sports a tassel fighting style involved careful deflection of strikes by catching behind the head. A single Tiger- Not a hammer in the European sense. 137 . light weapon. The fan could even be thrown. The Far East Fans Spear. the Moonteeth shovel is a double including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail their weapon with a wide. and generally never saw exposure during wars. The adaptation of the fan into a more artistic appearing longspear. A variant of this weapon has a seven wavy blades jutting from the ring at regular intervals. Chay Yang identical in stats and usage. A variant of the Kwandao. A variant of the Fan developed in Japan movies and weapon-oriented action films. does not have the spearhead. training and dedication to use effectively. including the roll to plated in bronze. The Tigerhead Hook sword can slash with either Hammer. If Golden Mellon. but it can also be used on foes within 10 feet. Hook sword is exclusively a martial weapon. This weapon is a shield bypass weapon. curved head. The wide blade allows the ties associated with fighting with two weapons as if you were wielder to control an opponent’s maneuvering. you incur all penalties associated with fighting with two Because it can wrap around a leg or other limb. Essentially a very using a pair of Tigerhead Hook swords. you incur all penal- the haft. Golden Coin flanges at three places on the wheel. the Chinese hammer was often used in pairs. developed to dis- arm opponents. A considerably heavier sported a tassel. heavy javelin head attached to more than 10 feet of rope. If you are tripped during your own trip weapon. Moonteeth opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. the Chinese Hammer was head Hook sword grants a +2 bonus on the user’s opposed attack a large solid round weight on the end of a short pole. and was used in the same manner. Often roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. You can use the constantly in the desirable range of the weapon. The curved blade grants lit- the Wudan period required that the fan be made of wood and lac. weapon. the impressive weight of the weapons requires higher than aver- age strength to counteract the weight of the weapon. Wind and Fire This is an exotic hand weapon. attempt. you can drop the weapon in order to avoid being tripped. and both wooden and iron versions of the reversed hook at the end and a halberd-bladed hilt. and considered to provoke an attack of opportunity. and a spearhead on the Meteor Hammer other. Those using this weapon gain a +2 bonus on their Shovel. Wheel. the Chinese Hammer was referred to as a keep from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. including the roll to keep from being dis. Rope a double weapon. the Tigerhead Gunsen were developed. Chay’s Longsword has a small recessed area on the back The only rope double weapon of the Wudan period. which never wounds. The Meteor hammer is armed if they fail their disarm attempt. the snake spear is essentially bers of the nobility and aristocrats. the Meteor of the blade that is intended to allow disarms. although the wounds caused by it tend to be wider quered. the disarm attempt is not heavy mace. and a central stabilizing The Golden Coin Shovel is another weapon ostensibly adapted guard over the corded handle. called the Long Full Moon Blade. iron version of the fan was introduced later. Also sometimes referred to as the Flying Dart. A sword with a was called the Gunsen. The fan than the actual blade width. If used as a double weapon. and is swung in a slashing use the Weapon Finesse feat to apply a character’s Dexterity motion at enemies. Weapon Finesse feat to apply a character’s Dexterity modifier ble weapon. Chinese the blade or the guard. You can use the Weapon Finesse feat to apply a Sword. thick. Used in pairs. statistically. the rope javelin is a short. Yet another adapted shovel. The Meteor Hammer is an exotic weapon that requires disarm an opponent. If used as a dou. in order to make it hard enough to carry an edge. crescent shaped head on one end of disarm attempt. this double weapon bears a rounded chopping blade on one end of a pole. A variant of this weapon. it may also be weapons as if you were using a one-handed weapon and a light used to make trip attacks. Tigerhead Hook character’s Dexterity modifier instead of the Strength modifier on This sword is a popular flavor weapon for Chinese-themed attack rolls with a Fan. but is otherwise Longsword. If used as a double a reach weapon. it is used like a pole arm. and is not considered Javelin. the enemy weapon at an angle. and is often used in pairs. A tassel is often mounted behind the blade. This notch grants a Hammer is 14 feet of rope with a heavy steel weight on either +1 bonus on the user’s opposed attack roll when attempting to end. a circular blade with flame-like Shovel. tle benefit. You can at one end. A spear with a wavy. you incur all penalties associated with fighting with instead of the Strength modifier on attack rolls with a Meteor two weapons as if you were using a one-handed weapon and a Hammer. but was otherwise identical. Wind and Fire Wheel.

and no range penal. Feat. these are used to stab an opponent. 63. One Emi Piercer may be used per hand. Javelin Rope. it is treated as a ranged this weapon gain a +2 bonus on their opposed attack roll when weapon with a maximum range of 10 feet. This be used to make trip attacks. the Flying weight is a squat. Those using this weapon gain a +2 bonus on their Emi Piercers opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. 67. Iron Rings. Because it can wrap around a leg or other limb. 71. you tum. can wrap around a leg or other limb. 68a. This makes any unarmed attack a normal impaling attack. Meteor Hammer. it may also from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. Those using the rope. Iron Claw. Wolf's Teeth Staff Usually the wielder swings the javelin head to build up momen. and then son armed with Emi Piercers have the Advanced Unarmed Strike throws it at its target while maintaining a hold on the rope. If you are tripped during your own trip attempt. Although kept in the hand. you can drop the weapon in order to avoid being tripped. Attacking with Emi Piercers provokes an attack of conical weight attached to more than 10 feet of rope. including the roll to keep ties. disarm attempt. attempting to disarm an opponent. and then throws it at its target while maintaining a hold on can drop the weapon in order to avoid being tripped. it is treated as a ranged weapon with of opportunity. they can use the Emi Piercers without attracting an attack Although kept in the hand. 66. If you are tripped during your own weapon is a shield bypass weapon. 69. trip attempt. since a maximum range of 10 feet. 65. Tigerhead Hook Sword. From Stone to Steel 63 67 71 70 69 62 68a 64 68b 65 66 62. 70. trip attacks. This weapon was originally Flying Weight invented for underwater combat. Emi Piercers. Iron Balls. Heaven and Earth Blade. Should a per- wielder swings the weight to build up momentum. used to augment a hand attack. and no range penalties. including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail their Basically a one foot steel pin attached to the finger by a ring. Because it they must be grasped in the fist to be used appropriately. 64. Emi Piercers are finger weapons. 68b. impractical. Usually the opportunity. Wind and Fire Wheel. Flying Weight. just like any other unarmed weapon. it may also be used to make 138 . where larger weapons might be Similar to the Rope Javelin above.

Used to fight opponents coming from front The Chain Sword is a pair of short. these This exotic weapon is a two handed blade staff with halberd weapons are excellent at deflecting attacks and performing dan- blades over the grips. although strong throwers may use them more effectively. Sun and Moon Spear armors. and grants a +2 bonus on the user’s opposed attack roll when Staff. The hook of the weapon allows shield trapping. and generally used in pairs. the Sun and Moon spear has heavier chopping blades and three ‘rays coming Chain Sword from the hand guard. this is a double weapon. Iron balls are simply what blocking device. much character’s Dexterity modifier instead of the Strength modifier like a stone. If used as being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. blades seem to be an experiment in creating an offensive weapon that is truly offensive. The Far East Balls or Rings. to aggravate their wounds. these items are intended to distract more than weapon is the Double Snake Ring sword. giving a +1 bonus on the user’s opposed training and great dexterity to use effectively. Sometimes the nails of the Iron Claw would attacks. A variant of this weapon is the Butterfly apply a character’s Dexterity modifier instead of the Strength wing sword. Mandarin Coin attack rolls with a Mandarin Coin Blade. which has heavier chopping blades instead of the modifier on attack rolls with a Deer Antler Knife. attempt is not considered an attack of opportunity. thrusting heads. Wielded arm an opponent using a sword. spiked head. the disarm attempt does not provoke an with two weapons as if you were using a one-handed weapon attack of opportunity. Deer Antler This exotic hand weapon consists of two opposing crescent Blade. If using a pair of Sun and Moon Spear Sword. emphasize a single pair of blades. Used like the used in pairs. The Iron Claw serrated handle guard. Nine Teeth The Iron Claw is a mace-like weapon shaped in the form of a A weapon looking like nothing more than a combat poker with a hand with sharp nails outstretched as if to scratch. The round coin. Heavy. including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail instead of the Strength modifier to attack rolls with a Chain their disarm attempt. A variant of this sling. has identical stats. A variant of cially potent against soft armors. You can use the Weapon Finesse feat to apply a they sound like. A variant of replaces the serrated guard with a halberd blade guard. which indicated by the dice when damaging soft armors. this weapon can be used to stab opponents on either bonus on the user’s opposed attack roll when attempting to dis- side of the wielder and slash at opponents in front. Used in pairs. these change tactics with. Teeth Hook can be used in pairs. These are thrown. This weapon is a shield bypass weapon. which has wavy injure. If using a pair of a double weapon. this weapon is easy to change tactics with. Used to fight Razor. with two thrusting heads on either side of the handle. with one blade bearing the grip. and if using in pairs the disarm erable strength to wield for long. The rays on the round portion of the blade act as Nunchaku. but is otherwise the same weapon statistically. the Chain Sword is an exotic weapon that requires traps for sword blades. you incur all penalties associated with fighting Deer Antler Knives. this weapon is easy to Also called rooster knives or Mandarin Duck razors. A curious exotic hand weapon. double-edged swords without or back. Knife. Iron Claw Hook. The Nine not unlike a huge mace. The head of the mace is espe. Variants often sickle blades. the Mandarin Coin Blade con- sists of a round protective blade and halberd-blade guard. and inflicts twice the damage the Nine Teeth hook is the Double Hook Lain Sword. it required consid. Metal rings. including the roll to keep from somewhat like a quarterstaff. Iron like portion of the blade is not sharpened. and generally quillions attached at the hilt by a length of chain. balls of solid metal. which bears no spikes and resembles otherwise identical in stats and use. Heaven and Earth blades. A weapon similar to the Mandarin Coin Blade. Nearly every angle of these weapons has 139 . Blades. although a slinger could conceivably use them in a on attack rolls with a Mandarin Coin Blade. also crafted of steel. were a variant throwing weapon. Heavy and unwieldy. causing little damage but useful for distraction value. nothing more than a metal football on the end of a pole. You can use the Weapon Finesse feat to and a light weapon. but is the Wolf’s Teeth Staff. while the butt end of the weapon and the point can make be poisoned. impaling strikes. With a slightly curved sickle-like blade on gerous slashing attacks. You can use the Weapon Finesse feat to apply a charac- ter’s Dexterity modifier instead of the Strength modifier on Blade. Yuen Yang opponents coming from front or back. A single Deer Antler Knife grants a +2 either end. including the roll to keep The Wolf’s Teeth Staff is a polearm with a large. You may use the attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent using a Weapon Finesse feat to apply a character’s Dexterity modifier sword. and could inflict both bludgeoning and The blade and serrated guard can be used to make slashing scratching strikes. but does not inflict the extra damage to soft Blade. was used as a mace. and acts primarily as a Although actually crafted from steel. the disarm attempt does not provoke an attack of oppor- tunity. this weapon never saw battlefield use. Wolf’s Teeth attempting to disarm an opponent. from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt.

swift. this weapon is often used to train a user for stabbed with spearheads. The Hard Whip can duplicate that rides along the length of the arm. 78. these exotic A slashing pole weapon that can be used as a double weapon. Generally used in pairs. these swords make excellent paired weapons. 80. Sword. these weapons bands spaced periodically along the haft. those untrained usu- the opposite side of the guard. Ying Yang Dagger Whip. Sun and Moon Spear Blade. ally use it as a single weapon. you Light. Unicorn Horn weapon and the other as a staff weapon. Chain Sword. Mandarin Coin Blade. and a larger chicken claw extension juts out to connect Blade. behind the elbow. 73. Essentially a very well can be used as either slashing weapons or stabbing weapons. with a spearhead forward most sword and staff maneuvers. Since the weapon dam- A short sword with a bladed hilt and a slight jutting quillion on age decreases if used as a double weapon. and is likely to be found in and a split spike called a ‘chicken claw’ ending blade that tucks many training centers. The main haft of the weapon is a blade more difficult to control weapons. 76. weapons. 75. guards. this weapon is often used in pairs. Compact and maneuverable. weapons confer a +1 bonus to the armor class when used this item has a chopping sword like blade and two halberd hand together by someone proficient in their use. If used as a double weapon. 77. Unicorn Horn Sword. The actual handle is attached along the side of the haft. From Stone to Steel 72 77 81 73 75 76 79 78 74 80 72. 74. Hard These weapons actually resemble axes with a spearhead at the The hard whip is actually a mace. a hard handle with metal end of the handle. and incur all penalties associated with fighting with two weapons as are similar enough to regular swords to be considered martial if you were using a one-handed weapon and a light weapon. Yuen Yang Razor. Horse Chopping Blade. 81. and 140 . Nine Teeth Hook. Ying Yang Dagger Sword an active slashing surface. and foes in front or back can be balanced metal club. Horse Chopping the handle to the blade. 79. The weapon can be used as a standard pole weapon. Hard Whip. or can be held at the hand guards to use one end as a slashing Sword. Deer Antler Knife.

Adapted from a kind of fishing spear. Flail. kind of hand axe. Tian-chi Fay Short Knife. this weapon is a spiritual trip opponents. or ward and the other facing backward. usually with a spearhead on the other end. heavy iron weight at the end. nent. Tian-chi Fay Short. it may also be used to attempt shield trapping. weapon is a shield bypass weapon. The Dian weapon. Nine Teeth Rake. and they grant a +2 bonus on the used to make trip attacks. and consisted of a Sabu four foot long pole with another foot and a half of chain. If you are tripped during your own trip user’s opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an oppo. including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail Those using this weapon gain a +2 bonus on their opposed attack their disarm attempt. but performing the same functions. The Far East are often used in pairs. 84. but difficult to master. and a A polearm with a central tine and two side tines. This weapon is slashing and stabbing attacks. Executioner Sword 141 . this roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. Great The great flail was used by Shaolin monks. you can drop the chain in order to avoid being tripped. these weapons are a A kind of polearm with a heavy chopping blade and hoop base. 85. larger. more traditional appearing. Pin Fu is a variant form of this weapon. 87. the side tines can be Because it can wrap around a leg or other limb. one facing for. 86. Sabu. The Tian-chi Fay Short can be used as a intend to use each weapon before an attack. Used to unhorse cavalrymen. 90. Great Flail. Since the damage is different for the a wavy blade jutting from between the blades. including the roll to was a weapon that was traded with other nations like Korea and keep from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. Swallow Trident Long Knife. cousin of the Sai. Yeung Guen Long Knife. 88. this weapon was feared. Golden Coin Long Knife. Golden Coin Long Looking like a short-hafted double halberd. although not for an impaling attack. and this weapon gains its name from the coin design etched into the 89 86 82 83 84 85 87 88 90 82. This Okinawa. a user should declare how they often used in pairs. and as a chopping axe-like also be thrown. 89. 83. attempt. Used for thrusting attacks. Chinese Throwing Darts. These weapons may thrusting or stabbing weapon.

flat blade usually in an arrow shape. 94. A decent thrusting weapon. Combat Shield less damage. From Stone to Steel Knife. unlike many Wudan weapons it is a design more prac. Sword. Usually used in conjunction with another weapon. 92. Like halberds. A peasant or monk’s weapon. Effective as both a thrusting and chopping weapon. its use is primarily defensive. because of the exaggerated quillions. 93. If used as a double weapon. Chinese Throwing The Chinese throwing dart is a small. 142 . a two tined fork used keep from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. and it still 91 92 resembles its forebear enough that few people expect an attack from it. this may be set against a charge. this item does reasonable damage. you incur all penalties associated with fighting with two weapons as if you were using a one-handed weapon and a light weapon. despite its small size. although they did Horse Hair Tassel Whip. reliable item common among peasants. Rake. this weapon is almost impossible to conceal. but conveys a +1 armor bonus if used defensively by a person with the Two Weapon Fighting feat. Swallow Trident Long pole arm with a spearhead and chopping blade. Darts. this weapon resembles a thick. Fong Ting tical for the battlefield. Two Teeth Fork. This weapon An elaborate knife. Nine Teeth The Nine Teeth Rake evolved from the common rake. Full Moon. including the roll to This weapon developed from the hayfork. sturdy. Two Teeth roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. Lance. Similar to the Naginata. and those using this weapon gain a +2 bonus on their opposed attack Fork. Fong Ting Lance. Grasped between fingers. Those who are not concerned about the element of surprise often put tassels just below the rack. the executioner sword was originally used only for executions. Yeung Guen Long Another pole arm referred to as a knife. used to trap a shield and perform trip maneuvers. although. or as a two-handed Knife. this is a double weapon. Thinner variants like the Tan-Kiev were 91. A lance with a halberd blade below the thrusting head. with wavy. although at a -2 to hit penalty for each extra dart being thrown. The quillions are particularly useful for disarm attempts. This allows a nine teeth rake wielder to make a surprise attack if he does not otherwise appear to be dangerous. 95. which can cause fearsome gouges in an 94 opponent. only the first dart should be considered a sneak attack. blade. also common and conveyed the same benefit. Executioner (Tan-Kiev) A straight sword with a blunt point. tri-bladed spear with a normal spearhead on the other end of the staff. up to three Chinese darts may be thrown at once. The split head grants a +1 bonus on the 93 user’s opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an oppo- nent. If using in conjunction with a sneak 95 attack. exaggerated quillions. including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. but was adapted as a parry- ing blade in the Wudan movement. Attacks which fall into this range on a to hit roll will do damage to the sword as per the optional weapon damage rules. throughout the world. and any attempt to disguise or hide this weapon is subject to a -4 penalty on any concealment attempt relating to the knife. this item is a Unfortunately. this weapon may be weapon is an elaborate Chinese version of the more popular Sai. this weapon may be used as a charging weapon. this pole arm has a rack with nine sharpened teeth jutting from it.

like the flute. This weapon is incapable of performing disarms or trips. Weapons with tassels or other distracting mission. Imagine a dance where the shield shifts from arm to Tassels on Weapons arm. heavy whip. this style favors tunity. Used to block and to attack. someone with Iron Sleeves may add an additional +1 armor bonus. and deals no dam- age to any creature wearing armor of at least +1 armor bonus. with the entire knife. Shield proficiency is required to perform effective embellishments can be used by those with the right expertise. to distract a foe in combat. pushing away an attacker. not a serious weapon. one or two handed. 96 It should be noted that another important reason tassels were added to weapons was to soak up blood that might otherwise make the weapon slippery and dangerous to the wielder. the disarm attempt does not provoke an attack of oppor- Wudan period. and confer the same penalty on one specific For campaigns where cinematic battle scenes or swashbuckling enemy through using the tassels in a distracting manner. from the tail of a horse. 97. 98 and does no damage to a creature with a +1 natural armor bonus. A single Full Moon grants a +1 bonus on the can bear a hidden knife. The GM is the final arbiter of whether or not a weapon edge sharpened. Use a a character’s Dexterity modifier instead of the diversions. to avoid accidents Whip. Iron Sleeves. blocking blows. Characters who wish to purchase a hidden knife must spend 10 more gold than the item costs. Iron Sleeves A defensive item. blows. and striking with stunning Strength modifier on attack rolls with a Full Moon. Beheading Sword 143 . unsurprisingly. When fighting defensively or using the Expertise skill with an 97 unarmed weapon or attack. to allow an unarmed man parry weapon strikes. consider the below feat. and then Many of the weapons listings so far have noted if a weapon being used. to buffet an attacker into sub- can have tassels. and then they must spec- ify where the knife is hidden. both foes use their tassels in this fashion on each other. and no range penalties. and always make sure your weapons are never left bloody. The Far East Full Moon blade. The hidden knife stats given are for a generic steel of the crescent blades completes a full circle. user’s opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an oppo- nent using a sword. deflecting attacks. A person with the appropriate weapon proficiency and the feat Expertise can take a -1 to Improvised Weapon Training their to hit rolls. but otherwise may be secreted in most portions of a This weapon is similar to the Deer Antler Knife. made. The weapon does a minimum of subdual damage. 98. Hidden Knives. The Hidden Knife Knives could be hidden in the stock. Using this weapon to defeat a foe would be the height of embarrassment and shame for that foe. it is treated as a ranged weapon with a maximum range of 10 feet. or base of any weapon. iron sleeves were often sewn into the lining of a martial outfit. Although kept in the hand. except that one weapon. The Knife cannot be part of a 96. this item was. This bonus does not stack with armors that already have sleeves. including the roll to keep from being dis- armed if they fail their disarm attempt. If using a pair of Full Shield Combat The shield was often used as a primary weapon during the Moon. these penalties overlap (thus both would have a cumulative -2 to their hit rolls). If style is preferred. Horse Hair Tassel A wide. scabbard. Take this lesson very seriously. but one to illustrate a technique and focus on elegance and form. Shield combat.

and put great restrictions on Buddhism. spectacles. dense. as hard as many plated as such. where possible. In this manner a candelabra might be used like a trident. or a person with martial weapons know about this armor is speculation by modern armor crafters. increasing their power through offers of offices and to silverware. Perhaps the • If a person with Improvised Weapon Training comes across a blade with Tiger’s Claw in fine calligraphy turns out to have a keen edge. although generally it will range eunuchs actually consolidated their power and were able to from 1d4 to 1d6 in damage. and heavy. but never used on the battlefield or sickle). but at the cost of mobility and flexibility. At one point a purge of Buddhist temples was or only inflicting subdual damage. like a spiked chain would only ties and earn their pay by cutting off the heads of those sentenced be available at a -1 penalty if that person already had profi. it is very unlikely size step lower than the weapon emulated. This pattern made a non-weapon as a weapon. Obviously more damaging items. Base Chinese Enchantment Much of Chinese folklore connects the written word with Attack bonus of +3 or higher magic. The cost of this mace. or a flaming brazier The Tang Period like a flail. the Beheading Sword was a true exe- would be able to use a Kama at a -1 penalty (since they are cutioners blade. consider the possibility of enchanted objects vides a number of bonuses: being ornately inscribed with beautiful calligraphy. If running a Chinese-themed campaign.000 temples were closed and 40. Damage for these items should be based on wealth. A copy may be found at the end of this book. proficiency will experience the same penalty when trying to The name of the armor comes from the fact that the scales of this use a whip. for example a fireplace poker used as a sword or armors. weapons will do considerably less damage). with a -4 penalty on attack rolls. Certain fictional wizards used written characters to cast Benefit: Any person with the Improvised Weapon Training feat spells. armor were shaped like the character for the word mountain. Alertness. Late in the Tang Period the counterparts. a popular but for- arbiter of damage. remember to consult the weapon size and You are trained to be able to use any object in your environment damage chart. Rebellions became more common. and the object can easily be used tightly interlocking plates of scale. although certain they would be able to wear it. Should a charac- the item does damage determined by the DM (usually one ter come across a suit of this armor in a game. From Stone to Steel New Feat: Whenever there is a question of the damage of an improvised Improvised Weapon Training: [General] weapon due to its size. in as a weapon. magical glows. Note that in this instance fire damage may be The Tang period is often noted as one of the high points in Chi- appropriate. and • Finally. Prerequisites: INT 13+. Tang Emperors ruled by Confucian standards. and may even deem an item non-damaging eign religion. rather than can use any object in their environment as a weapon. Generals refused to answer Imperial 144 . and made on commission. which is used in a similar fash. These the- weapon they are not proficient with. nese culture. weapon. and more than 14. Thus a person with simple An incredibly hard. Beheading like a sword with a -1 penalty (since it is used a lot like a club Developed during this period.000 Buddhist Monks and Nuns were killed. Really unusual weapons. But events conspired to muddy this reputation. that they already have proficiency with. they may wield that weapon with only a -1 penalty on attack rolls. • If a person with Improvised Weapon Training comes across a weapon they are not proficient with. and each suit was painstakingly experiences a -3 penalty on attack rolls with that weapon. and then were held as public ciency with other similar weapons like the lariat or whip. Executioners would often travel between municipali- ion). and a person with Martial Weapons Proficiency or the Martial community. and its use is unlike any weapon they are trained with. Combat Reflexes. choose successors and even assassinate emperors with impunity. authorized. The DM is the final dards. criminals. by the local lord. two handed sword used to execute already familiar with the pick. and sized to the wearer. and much of what we experience the -2 penalty. Chinese Mountain Pattern a -2 penalty on attack rolls. or a curtain rod as a staff or sword. This pro. These objects are First the eunuchs plotted and eventually took control of the myriad. as well as assassination. Thus a person with Simple Weapons Proficiency could use a martial weapon Sword. Chinese Mountain Pattern weapons proficiency who attempts to use a longbow will Armor was worn exclusively by the officers of the military. then the person kind of armor was incredible. Executions were actually saved until an execu- tioner passed through the area. like a statue being wielded by a magically strong character These later emperors began to move away from Confucian stan- might do considerably more damage. they may use that weapon with Scale Armor. No copy of this armor is in existence today. but similar to weapons matic touches can really bring a campaign world alive. • If a person with Improvised Weapon Training attempts to use which looks something like an inverted Y. from things like chairs to beer steins to crystal balls Dynasty. a person with Improvised Weapon Training may use the examination system was often the way to the most presti- any object deemed solid enough to inflict damage as a gious offices. or one with Rose’s Thorn is wounding. a heavy.

n the north five dynasties rose in fell in fifty years. but in the process he also killed the Emperor. and in Chinese incredible holy war. In other lands this would bring about an very interesting. Although a popular rebellion attempted to take control of the government. Allying with various states against their ene- Besides venturing against barbarians in the borderlands. and certain European History. a northern dynasty established in the Shaolin Monks may either be common or rare. 145 . the Song conquered the southern Kingdoms. fending off rampag- consolidate power. or nate the southern kingdoms. 100. but gradually the Song dynasty con- perhaps working for a military regent trying to establish an quered and ruled all of civilized China. Eunuchs control the palace. the south of China. It took decades for the Song to finally domi- ing spirits or monsters in the wild lands of the far south. depending on ashes of another failed empire. General Zhu Quanzong invaded the palace and killed all Empire before it is too tarnished to last. but in the East this was just business. of the eunuchs. Chinese Mountain Pattern Scale Armor—closeup. The Far East 99b 99a 100 99a. General Zhu Quanzong claimed power and estab. would arise with aspirations to the exact time you set the campaign. but did so with a independent state from the Sorcerer-controlled Empire. Arabia. often taking adventures might include raiding Qin burial sites filled with advantage of Tibetan raids to arrive in a devastated region and stone golems painted like living soldiers. 99b. And the tension of a game set in this period could be mercantile families. mies. Even- fantasy many Eunuchs were Sorcerers. In the Tang as Campaign Setting I south the various states became ten kingdoms. Barbarians took advantage to reclaim the Silk Road. Conquest lished a short lived Liang dynasty. Chinese Mountain Pattern Scale Armor—full suit. and consolidated their power in border provinces. tually the Song Dynasty. which was again quite The Tang period is one of the most robust periods of Chinese profitable with trade to Persia. The Song built up an effective army and invaded bers of the military. Chinese Steel Scalemail summonses. perhaps your campaign centers on freeing the Empire from the Eventually a General attempted to free the Palace from eunuch control of the Eunuchs and restoring the glory of the Tang control. Or different focus. or members of the Wudan schools. Fighters might be mem- greater control. controlling dark magic.

Military developments of this period were few but unique. and the was the use of brigandine. The development of better armor technology sometimes even scales. and preventing the power of the military from grow. The aristocracy no rectangles or squares of metal forming plates over vital areas. this would A less restrictive scale mail was developed. the general drawback of being a professional army. In addition. improving roads and trans. This kind of armor would be developed by Scalemail. 102. Breastplate armor included arm. Chinese portation. military officers were restricted Scale. For those lords who could afford it. and many soldiers were tattooed to Mirror Plated Armor was generally studded leather with large prevent them from leaving military service. Brigandine consists of metal plates. Chinese Banded Armor. that are riveted to a layer of leather on also lead to improvements in military efficiency. This lead to the army body encased and protected. and expect long-term employment. longer automatically held officer status in the military. and the The densest armor used at this time was Banded Armor. Chinese Brigandine 146 . India developed studded cloth armor. while the south was more and more dominated by The Chola Kingdom. or horse-bound lancer. Chinese Steel many cultures. Chinese One attempt to improve this while still retaining better protection most of the army. In the South the Katar was experimented 101b 102 101a 101a. This creates a flexible body mesh that still affords significant defense. and was worn by soldiers whose lords As the Song Dynasty began to establish itself. the crossbow. from entering public service. backed by the halberd. and were generally only ing. the north influenced by the Silk Road and the West. 101b. Of course. Chinese metal armors were expensive. The Dao became the standard armament of Brigandine. and civilians could enter the military armor was a lack of mobility. India remained a land of kingdoms. and Mirror Plated Armor. head and neck covering. cities and promoting urbanization. tective as the mountain scale version. brewing. refined steel making techniques improved the strength and flexibility of their weapons and armor. building up Banded. either side. in India war was could afford the cost. which Song Dynasty went a long way towards awarding rank to those had overlapping plates and bands of metal that kept much of the soldiers whose skills and talents merited it. Mirror Plated Armor. light enough for summer heat but more durable than their heavy padded armor. this one was easier to make and mass-produce. Having learned from previous dynasties that a strong worn by those officers who didn’t wear the traditional Mountain military might eventually rebel. Breastplate. eventually replace Scalemail as standard troop armor. Although not as pro. From Stone to Steel The Song dynasty worked heavily on infrastructure.

One devel- be considered the rough equivalent of padded armor from the opment was the closed hilted version of the Katar. stifling. 105. facing left and to remove the spear. and the barbed head Another departure from the standard Katar included two similar made the wound even more massive when someone attempted triangular blades on either side of the weapon. but tolerable. Heavy and Studded weapon is used in much the same way. Unfortunately these developments were not enough to combat the Persians. this Indian Cloth Armors. blade included a locked gauntlet. Any weapon with a locked gauntlet is much harder to disarm. The metal smiths of India used in Malaysia. This also 147 . called the Tampuling. Closed Hilted Early Steel Katar. The wide blade Katar. 106. and new variants were created. which is otherwise were beginning to perfect woozt steel. the famed Damascus steel. Three Bladed Early Steel Katar with. Early Steel Tschehouta. Early Steel Handbook. This spear was not a throwable weapon. which would see active use in the Crusades. Peasants and poor militia often wore heavy cloth. A heavy. ated with fighting with two weapons as if you were using a one- ing when going into battle. This is a double weapon. as per the rules in the Player’s Ballam. clothing. The katar player’s handbook. identical in stats. 104. The hotter climate of India made heavy armor oppressive during and if used as a double weapon. The Far East 104 105 103 106 107 103. right. you incur all penalties associ- the summers. barbed steel spear. Early Steel Ballam. Closed Hilted Early Steel although the benefit was only slight. A similar spear was either side equally as well as they could strike forward. Heavy cloth armor should The Katar saw some development during this period. Three Bladed Early Steel made it perfect for countering a charge. 107. Katar. Tschehouta. Studded Cloth Armor. Some kinds of cloth armor attempted to augment cloth armor with metal studs. Usually made of many layers of handed weapon and a light weapon. Early Steel A two headed spear similar to the double spear. they were itchy. This allowed the Katar wielder to strike at opponents to and was difficult to use when not braced. this weapon was more of use against horses and elephants than against men.

mystics and wandering mendicants who shared and taught left distinctive marks on the blade of such a weapon. this is powerful axe is demanding. Damascened Armor was rarely made of Damascus steel. using an ox mace around them will only worsen that modifier Arrow. When gp above the normal price for the weapon type. to meld different Sufi Islam came to India during this invasion. even more anxious as the screaming maces struck at them. craft incredibly durable blades. This often Fakirs. Damascened Ox The Ox mace is a stylized mace. The horns are Damascus steel is made from Woozt Steel. and new peoples began the Fakir’s cane sometimes came to a sharp point. This Indian men as easy targets. for this suit of armor was formidable. used in the same manner as the nium. on the other that could be passed off as normal implements but could be used hand. Empire. for slicing through ropes. Laws in India. The wooden cane of the Wudan movement. the Maru also mounts two steel tipped than regular iron or steel weapons (10 Hardness and +3 to Hit horns at either end. and it must be assumed attempting to make it more flexible. The Persians Cane. mainly due to the The End of an Era cost. through nearly infinite patience. Besides bludgeoning or stabbing. If a foe already has a negative morale modifier do to any effect. made entirely of steel. and this lead to a number of experiments. the Fakir’s cane can also be used to trip opponents. Pro- made of Damascus steel is significantly more wear resistant tecting like a small shield. and sought a solution. India and Japan would proceed with this kind of steel not see fit to change local laws. the handle of Persians dominated all of Northern India. From Stone to Steel conferred a slight deflection bonus. The Fakirs found themselves in two different directions. This effect lasts as long as blow. forbade holy men to carry weapons. This was used to make horses formidable weapon. under constant threat from bandits and robbers who saw holy and use it to create potent patterned steel weapons. ern Asia and China. The Maru is a double weapon. in all respects similar to their steel equivalents. China would not find an that only great soldiers and nobles ever wore this armor. Weapons made Maru of Damascus steel gain a +1 damage bonus. This cane is. and. although usually this cap- combining various hardnesses of steel together with minute ping process attracts attention. heavy double axe. China Islamic mysticism. The scale and plate armor of Persia. items would be known as Damascus steel. a shield with weapons attached. Fakir’s The Persians invaded not long after the end of the first millen. and is made by sharp. the Maru does not confer any defensive bonuses. notably the Sikhs and Punjabs. used as a weapon. established during the Gupta would never take this practice to its ultimate conclusion. Often these maces had holes in the head to make it The Tabar is a large. in most respects. inflicting cuts in narrow spaces. A whistle when it was swung. Axeblade A wide bladed arrow. and sometimes capped in iron. be used like a pick weapon. and any item The Maru is a rare object. quantities of other material to create a strong and flexible material able to deal with the rigors of battle. and with it came strengths of steel together to form a stronger alloy. but the Persians faced more 148 . Muslim tribes except for materials aspects. New inlayed or Not Weapons mixed steel techniques would be created. remained in control of the North. whose head is shaped like that Tabar of an ox. They are. but a few suits did exist. grasped and used to stab. much like a spear would be used. rather than an impaling strike. It was through this invasion that Islam would first reach southeast. and unsteady (-1 to all Ride checks) and to make demoralized troops requires great strength to use effectively. would develop their unique folding technique. so that it could to settle more widely in the north. adding a +1 armor bonus to Plate Armor and Damascened Scale defense for a wielder fighting in a defensive stance. and it would be through Persia that Damascus steel would become the favored steel of the Islamic nations. However. and driving animals to fear and flight. easy way to maintain the hard edge while keeping steel flexi- ble. This arrow was very useful that foe is within hearing distance of the ox mace. Two such were the Fakir’s Cane and Fakir’s Horns. The Japanese. was rarely Advanced Chinese Steel converted to Damascus steel. Mace. Items made of Damascus Steel cost an additional 400 sive stabbing weapon. The Persians did not remain in India long. During this time the Maru came into more common use. Their best solution style of smithing would migrate to Muslim lands. which had been adopted by Rome and carried on in the heavy horsemen of Persia. This allows the shield to be used as an offen- Points). The cost The Chinese began to experiment with the early hard steel. offensively. Scale and Banded Armors. where it was the development of weapons that weren’t weapons. and the Persians did Instead. India would develop woozt steel. and with them they brought Persian culture and Islam. Fakir’s Horns Material Properties: Damascus Steel This is a hand weapon. the axe blade delivers a potent slicing (Will save DC 12 or add an extra -1).

Temujin. and so left India to its own devices. Before the Delhi Sultanate was formed the Song dynasty found The Great Ride itself in trouble. 110. giving up control of the North to the Liao and Jurchen. Period. and of vision. a descendant tribe of the Xianpei. Eventu. The Mongo- worse. and those unfit to do so were often between lords and peasants. the print of Islam on India would last until the modern day. and eventually the Ghengis Khan. a firm middle class a horse by the age of three. establish new trade routes with their neighbors. the man who would one day be known in the west as military was hard pressed to defeat the Liao. Maru. During this Life in Mongolia was harsh. China and the Liao people. but this was not guaranteed. The Far East conflict in the West. embraced Chinese culture and gave favored. Fakir's Cane. was a man of strength. Strength was region and now inhabiting it. Hedged in on all sides between the steppes of the north and the mountains of the west. Most tribes required a child to ride period the merchant class began to develop. which would rule India for most of the Medieval Liao and the Song when their next enemy was to arrive. which makes its way ders. Axeblade Arrow 149 . to join them in their beginning a war of conquest. and declared themselves the Western Xia. Even Before Temujin there was no Mongolian identity. by enemies. demanding of them preserving blood strains of the Huns. Song dynasty had to retreat to the South. And the Song Dynasties plan appeared to work. Damascened Ox Mace. It was a land tribute for access to southern trade routes. up their nomadic ways. in exchange for peace. though. Held off only by strong kingdoms in the South. 111. where it meets the Herlen and Amur rivers. but not the absolute measure of a man. If they found a way to survive anyway they might be despite the restrictions. this would work against the Sultanate. adopting the language and customs of ally Turkish and Afghani chieftains would establish the Delhi their conquered people. Fakir's Horns. Tabar. A strong man 111 108 109 112 113 110 108. The Liao. the Song tried to stave off invasion and worked to pressed firmly against the Great Wall and the armies of China. 112. but now the Temujin. Steppe tribes were causing trouble along the bor- From Lake Bajkal runs the river Onan. 109. or the Oceanic Khan. the Tibetans finally established a firm stronghold along the lian region was a place where various Turkic tribes lived. with the Jurchen of Korea threatening the Eastern border of through wild lands. 113. between hills and down into the flatlands. Ironically. Along the bank of the Onan was born had kept the nation from a homegrown military coup. and the economy of China flourished left to die. The lessened power of the military voyage to the Pacific. some Silk Road. having lived near the Chinese readmitted to the tribe.

Mongol Recurve Bow. and and consolidated the Tartars. Primitive Chinese Gun might be feared.000 men to face the Mongols. Persia. in order to learn the art of effect of the killing and bloodshed made what was left of war. a Northeast China and Korea. And then Temujin struck back at his enemies. Khwarazm was an empire situated in Afghanistan. The Shah fled the battle. but to them it was the only prac- symbolize the ubiquity of his intended rule. with Temujin’s armies did not stop in Persia. and down into the Middle East. Jin.000 horsemen split in two groups. and Turk golian merchants drew Temujin from the conquered land of the stood beside Kereyit stood beside Merkit stood beside Naiman. and records say whole areas tribe sought. Many war. Though the Shah of Each new tribe gave up autonomy and joined forces with Temu. Chinese Rocket. lia. Spear Gun. We do not have diaries or records written by Temujin him.000 Mongolian Warriors. Under Toghrul’s tutelage Temujin learned the art of negotiation. and portions of Central Asia. On the way back. but not empire like any other northern through different portions of Persia. possibly killing as many as 180. and trade. First he struck at the Jin. Various thought. 116. Then he turned his gaze to tribal leader given tribute by the Jin to protect their borders. including modern day and the value of organization. The demoralizing ing exile to China after a failed battle. Once dominated by the Sejulk Turks. conquering had become independent and was a flourishing center for Islamic neighboring tribes and bringing them under his control. 117. But news of an attack upon Mon- Mongolian tribes became part of Temujin’s horde. and Temujin followed with 40. Temujin put these lessons. and defeated the self. Temujin spent time studying warfare. And he set about to tical existence when life was hostile and death was near. 118. however. men in the battle. Eastern Europe. but a man cunning in weapon craft was But Temujin continued.000 saw in Temujin was destiny. and then 150 . but they Temujin killing the opposing lord and taking power over all of skirted the Caspian Sea and raided deep into Russia. Each group traveled Temujin sought Empire. Khwarazm brought 400. even accept- of Persia were depopulated by their passage. ancient enemies of both China and within a year Khwarazm fell to the Mongols. but one can only suppose that besides strength what many numerically superior force. By this time Temujin and Toghrul had a parting of ways. Mongol Lacquered Leather. agriculture. gols attacked with 90. and they eventually waged war against each other. and Uzbekistan. and crushed their hold on Temujin rose to power through apprenticeship to Toghrul. the Mon- jin. looting por- Mongolia and portions of Central Asia for himself. respected. From Stone to Steel 114 115 117 118 116 114. 115. and crushed Khwarazm’s army too weak to face the Mongol forces. make it true. the Mongols conquered Georgia. Some would say the tribes-people of Mongolia were He took the title of Ghengis Khan at this time. choosing water to inherently warlike and barbaric. Khwarazm those of a life in conflict and hardship to good use. tions of southern Russia before turning back to return to Mongo- lords would end their conquest there. Khwarazm.

which detonates the propellant. with a combustible mixture and an explosive head. Hordesmen. Usually most people opt to drop a jammed gun the rocket forward and explode. Light enough to maneuver in. • 19—Major Failure: A major mechanism on the gun breaks. lamellar. Their horses were also barded lost. fireworks did not function as expected. Any 151 . for stability and fitted with a priming pan. Because of this natural mighty bow. and powder usage can easy to repair. and requires 3d6 rounds to and would hold on until the fuel created enough force to propel remove. and incorporates much of their innovations. it is struck by 1d2 spears. Eventually some ingenious soul noticed that when certain the wielder may attempt to fire it again the next round. reloading times. People at five feet may lit. Roll an unmodi- fied d20 attack for each such target. iron. and the range of the Mongol upon any failure: the urn explodes. Once lit. the • 16–18—Jam: the projectile lodges in the gun barrel. Arrows spectacular failure. the thrust of the fuel pro. inflicting max- Effectively an urn packed with explosives and lined with spears. If the target is Gun Damage and Armor (Optional) struck. as the powder charge time. and ages. This wielder would attempt to aim it where they intended to strike. This may be fixed as shot weapon. But sometimes guns fail. which ranged from pots stuffed with gunpowder and short spears to true guns with stone or iron shots. and is in the first range increment. chance to be struck by 1 of the remaining spears. the Mongol Recurve bow had fearsome guns have a reliability rating. with the treat armor differently. scale. and cannot be repaired. They carried axes. Mongol Recurve Guns are designed to take incredible punishment from the The Mongol Recurve bow descends from both the Hun and internal explosions necessary to propel their ammunition Scythian designs. and 3d6 to all beings within 5 feet. Essentially a long length of bamboo tightly wrapped and banded dine. hit. Once on every person within five feet. Any spears not accounted for are considered and carried small leather shields. this gun was the extent of the development of the gun in Chinese history. ity rating. bility rating for the spear gun is 5. Chinese rockets are destroyed and fix it after combat. scimitars. added damage bonus conferred by the Spear gun. and their own version of the recurve bow. Spear Gun • 20—Spectacular Failure: The gun explodes. and manufactured fireworks for trade and celebration for does not catch. and the gun cannot be used again until it has been repaired. But Temujin died unexpectedly in of the added damage bonus conferred by the spear gun. Both the Mongols and the Chinese the wielder. until there are no more spears Mongol Warriors of this period wore lacquered leather armor. If the target is apply damage to the armor as normal. Roll 1d20 (or use the effect die) to determine what kind: Rockets. and Pistols. with half same damage roll. Platemail. of the barrel. Chinese The Chinese had the technology of explosives from an early • 1–10—Misfire: the gun does not fire. guns struck by 1d3 spears (use the stats for the Steel Qiang). A towards a target. and information on reliability. All shots are at a -1 to nology was eventually adapted into the Chinese Rocket. When the d20 is rolled to determine to- Recurve bows act as Mighty Composite Shortbows (usually +2). Roll to hit on the target aimed at. However. When the Spear gun fires. brigan. Later Mongol horsemen Gun. during the explosion. and various kinds of plate and mail. All Mongol failure of the weapon. a fuse descends into the urn. take that in the second range increment. imum damage on the wielder and standard rolled damage this was a dangerous weapon to everyone on the battlefield. Primitive rockets were also in use. the gun experiences a failure. Lac- China. Any tar- battle against the Western Xia. Ignore the chart and apply the following result were poisoned as often as were not. since they splinter against the ground on impact. of this period used guns. this remained the common armor of most Mongol be found in the chapter Pageantry. • 11–15—Internal Scoring: the projectile scrapes the inside pelled the firework a fair distance before an explosion. banded armor. The relia- with similar lacquered leather. and inflicts 6d6 damage on recurve bow was exceptional. to be accounted for. This tech. Primitive Chinese would adapt chainmail. and subtract the armor bonus from it. Neo Confucian thought would prevent new developments in firearms. There is nothing wrong with the gun. Lacquered would mean firearms in Europe would eventually outstrip those in A weather treated leather worn by the early Mongol forces. the target is actually Due to the incredible velocity a gun's projectile travels at. should the number rolled be equal to or below the reliabil- and may be used from horseback. and succession was thorny. creating a natural skew. This gun is equivalent to the Primitive Handcannon. the Chinese rocket was a length of bamboo filled per rules for repair. Spear guns can only have a lances. When guns miss and strike armor. causes scoring (see above). Guns and Reliability Bow. attempt to avoid this damage by attempting a reflex save. which Leather. A one hit. Each such result is cumulative. That rating indicates the rate of range and propelled arrows with exceptional force. lariats. it propels a half dozen short spears the listed range. and and was often a leather lamellar. with get in a five foot wide path in the third range increment has a multiple sons of Temujin vying for approval as the next Khan. The Far East prepared for battle in China. The Primitive Chinese Gun fired shot of both stone and quered Leather is only slightly more durable than regular leather. A barding version of this armor was also common.

Benefit: You can make attack rolls with any firearm as normal. Helm and chain coifs are standard with this kind of plated mail armor. and will be unable to appro- priately maintain powder and a weapon. As with all plated mail armors. Persia. 119 120 119. Kolontar You are trained to be able to use any firearms. developed after the Mongols moved south into damage resistance). as the impact causes bruising (if not broken A coat layered with hexagonal metal plates. these afford impressive protec- Normal: Firearms are not inherently more difficult to fire than tion. From Stone to Steel damage left over from this subtraction should be applied to the Scaled Jack armor's wearer. Any untrained person can fire a loaded gun with a -2 to hit. Exotic Weapon Proficiency (Firearms): [General] Plated mail. This armor was surprisingly flexible and protective. armor still acts as a buffer (an impromptu armored jacket. Kolontar Plated Mail 152 . In this way. and twice as much powder is used per shot. A chainmail and plate armor combination consisting of rectan- Prerequisites: Base attack bonus of +1 or higher gles of plate covering much of the chest and mid-section. The reliability rating of a gun being handled by an untrained person is doubled. the Scaled Jack is an bones). but are quite heavy. a crossbow. However. without training. a person will not know the proper reloading techniques. 120. Scaled Jack.

or be killed. and the most fearsome footmen of their time. Hit Die: d10 Requirements To qualify to become an Elite Mongol Horseman. Turks and foreigners of great mettle were often invited to join the Hordes. They practically invented modern cav- alry tactics. If the child could survive and catch up with the tribe they would be given a second chance to rejoin. And the membership was not closed. Ride (Dex). which are used even today in tank war- fare. Swim (Str) Skill Points at Each Level: 2 + Int Modifier Table 5-1:Elite Mongol Horsemen. but anyone who could fill them would be called brother. a character must fulfill all the following criteria. Basic Attack Bonus: +6 Skills: Ride 6 ranks Feats: Mounted Combat. and though much of their lifestyle might see barbaric and cruel to the modern reader. The harsh land they came from demanded a people who could move on a moment’s notice. The Far East Elite Mongol Horsemen (Prestige Class) The Dread of the World. Class Skills The Elite Mongol Horseman’s class skills (and the key ability for each skill) are Climb (Str). From the age of three a child who could not ride a horse was left by the tribe to die. Craft (Int). Jump (Str). The Wolves of the Steppes. The Force which humbled China and Europe. horse archers. this was the only life they knew Any Mongol warrior wanted to be one of the elite horsemen. Intimidate (Cha). and the greatest war- riors of their time. The require- ments were challenging. Class Base Fort Ref Will Level Attack Bonus Save Save Save Special 1st +1 +2 +0 +0 Advanced Horsemanship 2nd +2 +3 +0 +0 Shoot on the Move 3rd +3 +3 +1 +1 Brutal Attack 4th +4 +4 +1 +1 Battle Cry 5th +5 +4 +1 +1 Streaking Shot 6th +6 +5 +2 +2 Brutal Flurry 7th +7 +5 +2 +2 Horse Brother 8th +8 +6 +2 +2 Last Ditch Strike 9th +9 +6 +3 +3 Second Wind 10th +10 +7 +3 +3 Penetrating Shot 153 . Any 2 other Mounted Feats. The Mongols were respected and feared as the best horsemen.

but maneuvers are at a +2 to perform. would retreat to Lake Bajkal to resolve their dispute. The Successors Weapon and Armor Proficiency: Mongol Horsemen are profi- Eventually succession would be decided. A Mongol Warrior may sacrifice 1 temporary point of constitution to In the aftermath of the retreat of the Mongols. Thus an Elite Mongol Warrior who attacks with Slowly the greater empire would crumble. for one round. He would also attack the Champa and Annam. Khans death. Escape Artist. the Mongol forces and be incorporated into the Golden Horde. and the Jin would be cient with all simple weapons and martial weapons. disease. they are given one more tribute would be Russia. They would eventually march on Austria. Con- quered in stages. This ability All of the following are class features of the Elite Mongol Horse. Brutal Attack: An Elite Mongol Horseman may take a standard The next few Khans would be unable to retain their holdings in action to make a melee attack at their standard attack bonus. China. But already the Mongol Empire was in Battle Cry: All allies within 30 feet of an Elite Mongol Horse. Move Silently. concentrated on controlling China. This ability may only be used once per day. ful. medium. They are finally crushed. had it not been for Ogedei horse. The Mongols returned home to fight over the next succes- Shoot on the Move: The Elite Mongol Horseman takes no sor. would not be until the late medieval period that Russia would Advanced Horsemanship: The Elite Mongol Horseman lives finally gain freedom from the Mongols again. and also proficient with light. Having finally unified their strength bonus). and lasts a number of rounds equal to their total character warriors. they likely would have. as they favored non-Han peoples. Generally this round is used to make a final strike. The remnants of the Yuan dynastic families bonus to the Horse for resisting Fear effects. former Buddhist monk would establish the Ming Dynasty. A later raid on Java Brutal Flurry: At 6th level the Elite Mongol Horseman gains would fail for lack of supplies. communicate with their mount as if through an Empathic Link. can only be used once per day. Another attack receive a -1 moral penalty. Then the Mongols would turn west again. the Elite Mongol Horseman will be dazed nese domination. Pick Pocket. In Europe Russia with their mount. ther. They eat would invade Poland and Hungary. they return to China and finally topple the Liao and Sung Dynasties inflict the maximum critical damage for that weapon (including after a failed attempt to conquer Japan. and promoted a great deal and cannot be used in conjunction with a Brutal Attack. And the Mongol Empire would end up combat round to perform any task before succumbing to their only a short distance from where it began. This ability can be used only once per day. never seamen. From Stone to Steel Class Features such as poison. regions levels. The Mongols. and find only marginal success. They were largely unsuccess- +10/+10/+5/+5/-0/-0. had the ability to double their attacks for one round. of Vietnam. This ability can only be used once per day. It is strongly suspected that the Mongols were intent on penalty for firing from horseback. The It takes one month to establish an Empathic Link with a mount. of non-traditional practices. Hide. All ride and sacking cities. Eventually it would be Kublai Khan who would (including their strength bonus). This ability can only be used once per on Japan would fail. The Ming Dynasty mon deep reserves of strength to push on in battle. Kublai Khan would establish himself the first Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.000 Mongol Horsemen into Russia and Eastern shields. The Ming Dynasty would attempt to reconcile 154 . taking great portions of land while riding and touch ground only to make camp. unable to resolve disputes give more complex commands and provides a +2 willpower over succession. Second Wind: At 9th level the Elite Mongol Warrior may sum. and in the end it would be the Mongolians who for 1d8 rounds. foiled by the weather as well as Japanese day. after briefly becoming wounds. and Tumble. decline. albeit at a -2 found their limit. a Han peasant and remove any negative non-magical physical effects inflicting him. Over the span of a little more than a cen- Last Ditch Strike: If an Elite Mongol Warrior with this ability is tury and a half the only land that would still pay the Mongols reduced to zero hit points or below. but the largest land empire in history. and heavy armors and send 150. Russia and all the provinces of the region would fall to leather apply to the skills Balance. various Islamic states to control what land they could. but would strengthen their grip on Russia they hit. If Hungary and Poland. prowess of the Mongolian Warriors would decline under Chi- and if that mount dies. regardless of the speed of the conquering the whole of Europe and. they inflict the maximum damage for the weapon and Persia. Note that armor check penalties for armor heavier than Europe. penalty. but would never return to China. and must care for it night and day. man prestige class. fatigue. If the hit is a critical hit. and all enemies field after his establishment of the Yuan Dynasty. This Link allows the Elite Mongol Warrior to would drive themselves from China. and any mounted combat Temujin’s heir would die before the Mongols could move far- maneuver gains a +2 bonus. Kublai Khan would see mediocre results in the battle- man using this ability gain a +1 morale bonus. any action may be taken that occurs within the time-span of the round. or moral penalties. It Jump. Climb. In the other lands the Mongols con- Horse Brother: At 7th level the Elite Mongol Horseman may quered Turkic and Mongolian tribes would establish Khanates. as the Yuan Mongols +12/+7/+2 normally would have.

striking at the forces of law and taking what they want. while others were evil. To be in the Guang Hu meant to be distrusted by society. 155 . and adventurers are constantly seeking to improve their own rep- utation by taking down more powerful adventurers. and To qualify to become a Guang Hu Adventurer. developments suggest contact between China and Mesoamerican Basic Attack Bonus: +4 cultures. Some were soldiers who left the military but could no leave a life of conflict. where reputation and status is everything. with nowhere else to go. or using their martial prowess for their own ends. Scholars cite many reasons for the Feats: Expertise. this fictitious campaign setting might just be perfect for your players. tracking down criminals and safeguarding shipments. Many sought to join the Guang Hu. but there is no definitive answer for this change in policy. If the chance to explore a wild world and then return to a highly cultured society appeals to your gaming group. this would leave China ripe for exploitation during the Opium Trade. a character must possibly even crossing the Pacific. after China has returned to self-rulership. Some were forces for good. with Chinese sailors traveling as far as Africa. For the first century of its exis- tence the Ming Dynasty was the most maritime Chinese Dynasty Requirements in history. Once you entered the Guang Hu. The Far East changes established by the Yuan with the Neo-Confucian Hit Die: d10 thought of the Song Dynasty. while others found themselves destitute. and the rise of a disenfranchised wandering adventurers culture called the Guang Hu. The Guang Hu culture is not unlike a criminal underworld. as certain unique parallel fulfill all the following criteria. This inter- nal competition is heightened by rivalries between different schools. Some sought to leave family obligations. This is the backdrop of many Wuxia movies and fiction. Guang Hu Adventurer (Prestige Class) The Guang Hu was an underworld of so-called lawless adventur- ers who wandered China perfecting their skills in combat against each other. The Guang Hu Setting The Guang Hu Setting is a fictitious time period sometime in the early Ming Dynasty. it often became more diffi- cult to completely leave it. Ironically. It involves something of an extension to the Wudan period. 1 other combat related Feat change. But after this first century of expansion China suddenly ceased sending ships so far. but to be free from its strictures as well. and the con- trasted freedom of the Guang Hu adventurers with the stratification of Chinese culture make for an interesting contrast. from moral dilemmas to financial reasons. Others were those who sought spiritual enlightenment in the martial disci- pline and meditation.

including Proficiency with 1 More Exotic Weapon of their school vertical walls. At 6th Level there is a 50% Skill Points at Each Level: 4 + Int Modifier chance that another Guang Hu Adventurer will recognize you. At 10th Level the known techniques a number of times equal to their Guang Hu Guang Hu Adventurer may Meditate to neutralize any spell or class level/2 plus Cha bonus per day. greater fee because of your fame. At becomes a full member of their school. or you may be watched by the Note that armor check penalties for armor heavier than leather police while in the city. and a 50% chance that a person turer prestige class. Pick Pocket. Heal (Wis). Climb. Perform (Cha). Adventurer will recognize you. their repu- date (Cha). Knowledge (Philosophy) tation grows and spreads. they may ignore certain normal physical limitations. Full Membership: At 5th Level a Guang Hu Adventurer Meditation: Guang Hu Adventurers are trained to Meditate. from civilized culture will recognize you. under their effects of fatigue. At 7th Level the Guang Hu Adventurer may Meditate to place their body in a state of suspended animation. and a 25% that a person from civilized culture will recognize Class Features you. If they wish. hours equal to the Adventurer’s total levels divided by two. Escape Artist. This delays poison or Guang Hu Martial Techniques: prevents hit point loss due to bleeding for a number of hours A Guang Hu martial artist may perform any combination of equal to the Adventurer’s current levels. At 4th level a Guang Hu Adventurer may protection. Meditation 156 . Training: Guang Hu Adventurers may pick one of the following Body Like Wind—The movement of Heaven is powerful…strong and untiring: This ability allows a Guang Hu Adventurer to Proficiency with 4 More Martial Weapons of their school move at their full movement rate over any surface. At 3rd level there is a 25% chance that (Int). Reputation 7th +7 +2 +5 +2 Meditation 8th +8 +2 +6 +2 Training 9th +9 +3 +6 +3 Reputation 10th +10 +3 +7 +3 Training. as listed in the Player’s halve the damage of a bludgeoning attack once per day per level Handbook of Guang Hu Adventurer. At 9th Level there is a 75% chance that another Guang Hu All of the following are class features of the Guang Hu Adven. bodies of water. Climb (Str). Reputation: As the Guang Hu Adventurer journeys. they may invite guests to stay. or they may their first level with proficiency in all simple weapons. depending on you actions. spells affecting them. Meditate for Clarity. Meditation 5th +5 +1 +4 +1 Full Membership 6th +6 +2 +5 +2 Training. which gives a +1 to strike for a number of and share in the fees collected. From Stone to Steel Class Skills Improvised Weapon Training—This is as per the Feat in this The Guang Hu’s class skills (and the key ability for each skill) chapter. This last form of meditation requires one Body Like Water—Under heaven nothing is more soft and yield- hour to take effect. ing than water: This ability allows the Guang Hu Adventurer to Two Weapon Fighting: This is the Feat. and Tumble. Intimi. Jump (Str). or branches of trees. are Balance (Dex). Jump. they can participate in training classes. Meditation. Two Weapon Fighting 2nd +2 +0 +3 +0 Training 3rd +3 +1 +3 +1 Reputation 4th +4 +1 +4 +1 Training. 1 Guang Hu Martial Technique As soon as the Adventurer moves less than their full movement Table 5-2:Guang Hu Adventurer Class Base Fort Ref Will Level Attack Bonus Save Save Save Special 1st +1 +0 +2 +0 Starting Proficiencies. Hide. Weapon and Armor Proficiency: Guang Hu Adventurers start You may earn respect from your fellow adventurers. Craft (Int). and 1 exotic weapon of their school. and may have a private 1st level a Guang Hu Adventurer may meditate to remove the room. You may be paid a weapons of their school. Swim (Str) a Guang Hu Adventurer will be recognized on sight or by name by another Guang Hu Adventurer. due to their knowing you’re a member of apply to the skills Balance. Move Silently. Moreover. Recognition may have positive or negative consequences. 4 martial wish to prove themselves by challenging you. the Guang Hu. As long as Weapon Focus with one known Weapon the Adventurer continues to move at their full movement rate Weapon Specialization with one known Weapon each round.

making the now famed 157 . Crossbow. cultural combat. (This emulates the eerie almost flying it came into contact with the Portuguese. and buoyancy. Two Handed Chi- add a +4 dexterity bonus to their AC once per day per 2 charac- nese ter levels. The meditation and centering techniques of the Guang restrictions made it difficult to imitate this process. and does huge chopping weapons. suits were pur- fire: This ability allows a Guang Hu Adventurer to gain an extra chased and adapted for Chinese tastes. and make your school more attractive to adventurers. The Far East in a turn. chopping 121a. Thus if a plant mountain pattern armor as the armor of choice for military Guang Hu Adventurer has Attack Bonuses +9/+4. Though the armor was expensive. 122. Still. Knife. which allowed importation of European goods and items. Trade with Japan was light. and a number of long sabers. Tachi. although this can be paid in installments. including European Body Like Fire—That which is bright rises twice…the image of plate armor. Use the following as a guide: Select 2–4 Pole weapons or Spears Select 3–5 one-handed weapons Select 3–5 weapons used in pairs Select 3–5 common Chinese weapons—Jian. Two-Handed Chinese broadswords. This fee is usually 100 gp per level. This will give your school a good range of weapons. and the Chinese soon understood spell or ability that imposes a negative morale penalty while in that this steel technique was superior to their own. they can make officers. vulnera- bility is a matter of attack: The Guang Hu with this ability may Saber. Both not try to control them… The Master resides in the center of the weapons require substantial strength to wield appropriately. but circle: The Guang Hu with this ability may add a +8 bonus to do devastating damage in the right hands. Bow Select 1–3 throwing weapons 121a 121b Select up to three exotic items not previously selected. Japanese blades coveted. they are again subject to normal laws such as gravity. their Balance Skill for a number of rounds equal to their charac- ter level once per day. Mace. and food a common 122 meal. To design a Guang Hu School you should select 18 weapons from the Wudan weapons of the Weapons list. Imitation Chinese Tachi defense. Shortly before China gave up seafaring mass. Developments in Armor & Weapons The Ming suffered extensive piracy from Korea and Japan. European armors. Let the mind be at The Tachi of the Japanese swords makers was the first sword to peace: The Guang Hu Adventurer cannot be effected by any be traded with other nations. Long and Broadsword. Staff. style Tachis did not measure up to the original. New Adventurers who join this school must pay a fee for their training (up to 5th level. Dao. Student Membership also warrants a Guang Hu adventurer a bed in a common barracks. Two-Handed Chinese Saber. Fu. stressing developing expertise in one or a few.) pean traders would be given access to Shang Hai. and trains members with a certain number. 121b. and it will be discussed in later chapters dealing with three attacks +9/+9/+4. Such armor would sup- attack at their highest Attack Bonus once per combat. and two-handed swords became popular in coastal Broadsword. The Long Saber and the two Handed Chinese Broadsword are Body at Peace—The Master sees things as they are. Japanese developments in armor and weapons were often mim- icked in China. Imitation Chinese Combat Calm—Empty yourself of everything. Refined Defense—Invincibility is a matter of defense. and Chinese Hu make him immune while in battle. when they become full members). and gradually Euro- scenes from Wuxia movies and fantasy. Each Guang Hu school chooses its own assortment. with blades roughly a yard across. Creating your Guang Hu School A Guang Hu School trains its students in a subset of the Wudan weapons.

Persian. Weapons perform the sword break maneuver. 124a. available. From Stone to Steel Zhuge Nu Woozt steel and regular steel. pear shaped head and strike the target! Unless the Repeater Zhuge Nu is braced on a a guarded hilt. This multishot weapon only requires a was just one of a number of new styles of mace. and Tangut influences. A Mace. the bladed picks of India were usually embellished and solidly made. If a character may normally only make two attacks during a combat round. A two-headed flail variant of the Quoit mace was also ing a combat round. 123 124a 124b 124c 126 125a 125b 123. Even when the Mongols sacked Fashioned in a stylized pattern. the Quoit mace fired two bolts at once. 124b. The Repeater Zhuge Nu can fire 3 shots per were constructed in steel. usually being con- Indian Contributions structed entirely from steel. with a flanged. Steel Fish Spine Islamic. There is no record that a of the period were excellent and elegant in design. Straight spiked blades or curved. Sikh. called the Cumber-Jung. Cumber-Jung variant of the Zhuge Nu did not fire automatically. Sickle. and firing made. Indian Bladed Pick. In the south the Sultanate of Delhi was now a rich and vibrant culture. but instead A stylized mace with a head like the Quoit coin. 125b. Afghan. placing rock. Ghargaz. the Zhuge Nu was the last word in defense along the Great Wall and in fortified cities. Quoit Mace. Sabar. Ghargaz Mace. The Ghargaz single to hit roll. a -1 to hit modifier must be a sickle blade on the end of a mace haft and hilt. If a character may normally only make a single attack dur. Ranged Combat Bonus -5. Steel Fish Spine Sword 158 . wall. the Fish Spine Sword was a wide the bulk of Persia. the Sultanate of Delhi was a flourishing exam. they can still make a Binnol. 124c. Multi-shot Zhuge Nu. and Hoolurge third shot at their Lowest Ranged Combat Bonus -5. automatically. although damascened versions were turn. they can still make a second shot at their common. Sickle Mace. Quoit. or other stable surface. Able to Indian versions of European weapons and armor were being hold up to a dozen quarrels in its ammunition box. and a successful hit indicates that both bolts was another common style. The Zhuge India experimented with the bladed pick. 125a. 126. like the Chu Ko Nu. els. including early forms of plated mail armor. Made of both damascened version of this blade ever existed. and unwieldy weapon whose main advantage was being able to ple of the kind of cultural fusion found in Eastern Islam. designing various mod- Nu’s ammunition box can hold up to 12 bolts at a time. they were durable and artistic. adapting Hindu. The Sickle mace was a strange departure. Buddhist. Indian Bladed Pick. Sword. The Zhuge Nu was the ultimate in crossbow technology. All three maces added for each shot.

to three. knife. A version with two A very small knife. Dual Bladed Katar. and sword sports a blade nearly 6 feet in length. about the same weapon). up nasty surprise. Great A strange experiment. was a thrusting only weapon. 129. The Far East 131 130 129 132 127a 127b 128 133 127a. reveal. although the gauntlet usually fit most users. 159 . a longsword with a locked gauntlet grip. 127b. Steel Bow. called the tri-bladed Katar was developed. Santie Any weapon with a locked gauntlet is much harder to disarm. as An all steel spear with a handgrip at the center. But variants of the Bagh Nakh sport multiple blades. This katar appeared to be a single bladed katar until the hilt was squeezed in a specific manner. however. Steel Longsword. Pata The Bagh Nakh listed here sports a single blade and a spiked The Pata is a Sikh weapon. Bagh Nakh. and some also feature significant spikes on the grip. the buhj was a thin blades was produced. weapon is known to exist. 133. on the hilt. with a secret weapon. Bow. Complete with a its draw is not particularly spectacular. The extra blades. this halfspear per the rules in the Player’s Handbook. Tri-Bladed Katar. Great Longsword Katar. The Bagh Nakh is a strange hand weapon. And a more complex version. it still bow makes it hard to break. Pata. only make the weapon more complex. 132. Buhj. The steel bow is actually a short bow. and made an excellent spaces. this incredibly long two handed steel bow in existence. and is an Indian alternate version of the hidden mechanism in the hilt. No damascened version of this requires great strength to wield well. This tri-bladed katar could merely a knife blade with a spiked hilt that had individual finger cause fearsome damage when opened. but the material of the handhold on the blade and incredible balance for its size. often hidden in a boot or belt. 128. and was not thrown. Santie. This weapon was expensive and usually custom made for the user. This triggered a mechanism in the Bagh Nakh blade to split the main Katar blade into two side blades. 130. Certain versions were ing a smaller Katar blade within. 131. Dual Bladed and Tri-Bladed Buhj The Katar went through a few more designs. the Steel Bow of India is the only entirely Called the Mel Puhah Bemol.

Sikkim Plated Mail Shortsword armor bonus. they take damage as normal (unless their armor prevents this). Often these blades were single edged. and it confers an extra -4 Patisa. Urumi. Should this roll hit the wielder. All three types of mail were stifling and heavy to maximum range of 15 feet and no range penalties. Because it can wrap around a leg or other limb. although the elephant barding required many men to carry and fit. developed during the medieval period to showcase the Plated Mail. 136b. had split tips. its user must remain in near con. if this attack is successful. and Sikkim mobility focus of the Kalari Payatt school of Indian martial arts. A girdle of steel finished the most melee weapons do. with flat you are tripped during your own trip attempt. you can drop the points. it has an exceptional chance of backlash. Some of them. It is treated as a ranged weapon with a ensemble. and sported hand guards or elaborate decoration of the hilt. with When the Urumi is uncoiled. The Urumi is exception- ally difficult to use without training. If Some swords in the north of India were straighter. from head to toe. and two motion. like the Sapola. Sapola penalty to all attacks made with it by one without Exotic Various medium length swords were constructed. Urumi Often refered to as the Whip Sword. the Urumi is an exotic weapon. Sosun Pattah. The Urumi wear. Khanda. a new attack roll gave the weapon a sinister appearance and tended to cause wider must be made against the wielder. and a more extensive coif and conical paper thin steel. The thinness of the ing. it also inflicts damage as normal. adding 10 to the wielder's wounds. 135a. the Urumi does not benefit from the strength bonus. Should the total The Nagan was an interesting variant with a wavy blade. Sikkim plated mail focussed around a mir- blade makes it very sharp. but since it must constantly stay in rored round plate in the center of the chest and back. Bakhteretz Plated Mail. and does no damage to a creature with a +4 natural Various short swords like the Zafar Takieh were smithed during armor bonus. 135c. 160 . Short Sword. Bakhteretz. as smaller plates under the arms. it this time period as well. which attack roll for the user of an Urumi be 4 or less. resembling the machete. Sind. A barded version of the generic plated mail was also made deals no damage to any creature wearing armor of at least +2 for both horses and elephants. most of them weapons proficiency for the Urumi. Dexterity bonus as factored after armor penalties. The Bakhteretz form of Plated mail consisted of rows of thin. nearly every portion of the chainmail covered in extensive plat- stant motion to keep the blade in the air. which is often worn as a belt when not in use. may also be used to make trip attacks. The Urumi consists of a sword hilt attached to roughly 15 feet of tight plate over the chest. Urumi in order to avoid being tripped. Patisa. Due to the nature of the chopping blades. helmet than Kolontar. 135b. The Urumi is a shield bypass weapon. Unlike most trip attacks. Sind Armor was extremely elaborate. 136a. From Stone to Steel 134 135a 135b 135c 136a 136b 134.

139 Urumi Though most peasants saw no change in their treatment. the Moghul Empire. Trade. Chakram were generally spun up The Kora is the national weapon of Nepal. and would keep them from the highest offices. The Manchu attacked and sacked Beijing. would be the last Empire of China. the social and scholarly projects. a blade that would see Chakram extensive use in the Middle East in the 18th Century. notably the that the Chakram would become a common weapon in India. sionaries. Kora ple who invented this weapon. or before being cast at one’s opponent. 137 European Colonialism The Moghul Empire would retain control of most of India into 136c the 18th century. called the Qing. for a time. and would lead to the eventual fall of the Qing Dynasty. a decadent and inattentive 139 aristocracy. the peasants accepted them as having the Mandate of Heaven. and defeated the sovereign. 138. Manchu forces massed on the Chinese border. Kora. and an alliance of Jurchen and Northern non-Chi. a Prince of Persia. until an attack from Persia would destroy Delhi and weaken the Empire. This would leave India prey to growing European Colonialism. It was during this time period central to Nepalese culture in the medieval period. and the maintenance of the Great Wall. but not for ages to come. ject to the fortunes and misfortunes of India. a curved chopping to speed somewhat like a frisbee on the finger of a wielder sword without a thrusting point. Later. 138 nese forces would put the Empire in peril. and the Moghuls would be the last major empire born on Indian soil. giving Muslim and non-Muslim citizens nearly to Nepal during the late medieval period. taking con- trol of the whole Sultanate. The Manchurian Dynasty. developments would influence Nepal. Used to hack at legs. The Qing would maintain the same structures that had become a facet of China’s government: the examination system. The Qing would be too worried As Persia recovered from its devastation at the hands of the about internal revolt to see the true nature of the danger that con- Mongols certain royals eyed the Sultanate of Delhi with envy. Sind Plated Mail. and despite the Manchurians being non-Chinese. allowing kingdoms to split off again. mis- attacked the Sultanate together. The Han would be prevented from joining the military. Increased pirate raids. India’s history. the peo. 136c. the Persians would regain and hold control of Northern India during this period. Late in the 17th Century the Ming Dynasty would find its own fortunes failing. after the colonial powers were usually used by the Sikhs. Kora and the Ram Da’o. and Opium would destroy Imperial China from with- Babur. and Chinese forces. which were often worn on the hat on the head of a Sikh. But the Qing did not trust the Han Chinese. it would be the West that Eventually one family allied with chieftains in Afghanistan. Though the Afghans would eventually wrest control from the Persian Other Notables Emperor for a while. eventually challenged Ibrahim. could not hold them back. Many of India’s and would go a long distance towards becoming a true multicul. The Chakram’s flight was similar to that of the frisbee. and steelcraft would come tural nation. Chakram. the mid- 161 . the Ghurkas would claim control of Nepal and bring with them the kukri. Shah of Delhi. As history would show. Two weapons were equal protections under the law. The Far East The Moghuls dle classes. and aristocracy would know their government for what it was: an occupation. in battle. and would become a very Nepal progressive Muslim nation. and it had a tendency to embed itself like a barbed weapon. having stag- nated after a growing sentiment that China had already achieved its greatest glory and height of culture. or from intermarriage with the Qing. fronted them. which has often been sub- Moghuls would come to dominate all of India through Mysore. shi. arms. joint forces in joint conquest. the out. taking control of India. Through marriage and war the Nepal is a small nation north of India. Chakram were metal rings about 12 to 14 inches in diameter. Babur established his separate empire in Northern India. 137. would not be her own.

The Nunchuku is a shield bypass weapon. which is essentially used in the same Escrima manner. Ji-Kuwa. including the roll to keep knife blade is needed. 143. Bo the influences of China and India often but never having been The weapons of Okinawa had to be made from inconspicuous conquered by them. Butterfly Unlike the modern knife of the same name. Ram Da'o. A variant of this weapon is the Bull’s Ear sword. Head Axe. Most notable of these were the Nunchuku. Head generally used in brief flurries. with the blade on the outside of the weapon. Ji-Kuwa. the Butterfly Knife of china is a squat looking blade with a guard over one side of the hilt. Eku. In the Philippines the natives used Chinese weapons almost exclu- sively. These weapons are usually used paired. Kuwa. common kind of hairpin for women. so many of the weapons of these islands were similar to Chinese make. Sai. the Head Axe is often planted in the ground when a attempting to disarm an opponent. and Tonfa. their general use is to bludgeon an oppo. and was actually a for the Butterfly Knife. except by priests. 142 Knife. A Malaysian variant of the Sai is the Tjabang. where they entered society in different facets. Sai. Ji- over the exposed blade. tool before it became the formidable disarming weapon it is Kuanto. 141 Kukri The Ghurkas invented the Kukri. leaf-bladed one handed chopping sword. a variant quarterstaff. and then the item needing to be cut is run from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. 144. the Sai grants a +2 bonus on the user’s opposed attack roll when day cutting. As a note: The head axe is a large axe with a broad head. another martial art. All of these items were used extensively in Okinawa and imported to Japan and Axe. curved in a sort of sickle 143 shape. but attacks from pirates forced them to adapt certain martial practices of the Chinese mainland to defend themselves. until your enemy cannot defend themselves any more. this weapon is highly damaging and easy to use in a sin- gle hand. Head China. Its use became almost universal among native troops during the British Imperial period. Tonfa. developed a great variety of weapons and items so as not to arouse the suspicions of occupying forces. 140 Okinawa Many of the islands of the Pacific traded with China. The Tonfa was a rice-beat- ing club. 141. which is often mistaken today. nent with quick and rhythmic strikes. Used prima- rily to slaughter animals. attempting to slash the enemy a Axe. Used for day-to. The Ji-Kuwa resembles a short tonfa. having felt Nunchuku. And the Bo was a common staff. Kama. Kukri. These Okinawan weapons were later adopted by adopted by the Chinese and Japanese. Pentjak Silat is a collection of highly aggres- Nunchuku was designed from the grain flail. The Eku was an sive martial arts native to this region. and Tonfa are often used paired. with a Nunchuku. Ram Da’o The Ram Da’o is a sacrificial axe. used in a native martial terity modifier instead of the Strength modifier to attack rolls art. except for the Butterfly Knife. Use the Weapon Finesse feat to apply a character’s Dex- Escrima are essentially lacquered sticks. as well as the Bo staff. The Sai was a furrowing decisive attacks to disable a foe before they can become a threat. From Stone to Steel horses. The unique martial arts. this weapon was not used in warfare. which stress swift and oar. turned to a bludgeoning weapon. 144 On Okinawa a fertile farming culture flourished. Butterfly Knife. Wielded in pairs. and Escrima. 142. Malaysia & Indonesia The nations of Malaysia and modern day Indonesia. Sai. Escrima number of times before a solid killing thrust is made. a bent. stressed careful preparation and 162 . Eku. and they are 140. Kama.

Bo. Paku The Paku is a short spike or cylindrical knife. 147. Sjang Sutai very easy to conceal (+4 to any conceal attempts). 153. Pedang. you incur all penalties the sickle blade seems to extend from the end of the hand along associated with fighting with two weapons as if you were using the back of the arm. 148. Hwa- Kek. Tjaluk Sickle. flanged. and stress physical control. 158. looks pared for melee. forward curving with a sharpened and it fully earns its fearsome reputation. 155b. 157. The Sjang Sutai. with random metal hooks or points. Kama. Both weapons are used to inflict painful a one-handed weapon and a light weapon. 151. primitive origins and tribal customs of the region. Arit Sickle. Tonfa. which has a sickle blade. so that weapon. on the other hand. 145 152 147 154a 154b 156 153 151 146 148 155a 155b 159 149 158 150 157 145. like a chopping sword-headed polearm. 146. Eku. Tombak. usually thrown at a foe as a surprise attack. so that the weapon can be used at range. and generally dangerous mal form of some of their older weapons. Kujungi variations. Pendjepit 163 . Paku. Sjang Sutai. Weapons Used in Kuanto and Pentjak Laingtjat The Laingtjat looks like two dear antler razors mounted on either Sickle. 156. often headhunting and cannibalism. Kujungi oped with obvious influence from their neighbors. This is a double inner edge. but it is attached to a rope. 154a. which include Most of them are like the Kujungi. Both weapons require substantial strength to use effectively. 150. The Arit is a standard sickle. This allows require blinding speed. 155a. A variant of this is the Hui-Tho. asymmetrical. and if used as a double weapon. The Hwa-Kek resembles nothing so the wielder to carry and throw a weapon while still being pre- much as a solid trident. The Tjaluk is a sickle on a reversed handle. 149. but the more The knives of Malaysia are rarely as symmetrical as the Tombak. looking. This double weapon is a fearsome slashing tool. The miniscule size of the Paku makes it Hwa-Kek. Laingtjat. wounds. Nunchuku. 152. Arit and Tjaluk end of a staff. can often show through in the pri. Ji-Kuwa. 159. 154b. Sai. Tombak. The weapons of Malaysia and Indonesia devel. The Far East power strikes. and a Paku Both polearms show that not all of Malaysia’s martial arts can be held in a hand along with a readied weapon.

the Luris Finesse feat to apply a character’s Dexterity modifier instead of Pedang. 164b. A variant. 162. effectively a pair short spear. 165. called the Sabit. 166. Siangkam. The weapon Siangham weapon in the Player’s Handbook. Essentially three 2-foot poles attached by short 162 160 163 164a 164b 164c 161 169 165 168a 170 168b 167 166 160. Kapak. Should a per. Rante (star and spike) 164 . is actually two edged. Siangkam Pendjepit The Siangkam is a one handed weapon that looks like a very The Pendjepit is a particularly exotic weapon. they are effective when of combat tongs. 169. statistic-wise. Kapak son armed with the Pendjepit have the Advanced Unarmed The Kapak is a small. identical to the regular Pedang. Eastern World. iron throwing axe. 161. 168b. 164a. Kris scabbard. The Luris is. Kris. 170. hooked dagger usually used for Known as the three part staff. This most swords of this region is the one edge variety. Karambit (Sabit) Sa Tjat Koen The Karambit is a very short. deals no damage to any creature wearing armor of at least +1 armor bonus. Karambit. Attacking with the Pendjepit prompts an attack of opportunity. Piau. From Stone to Steel Pedang (variant Luris) chains. tear. weapon is a shield bypass weapon. A variant. although it generally has longer reach. These are identical to the hold of free flesh in order to pull. Latok Parang. the Sa Tjat Koen is used in a similar manner to the Nun- The Pedang is a machete like blade. they can use them without attracting an attack of was usually flung preceding a full-scale assault. Light and short. and is indicative of the gen. Kingfisher Kris. chaku. Mancatcher. this weapon is suspected to have skinning or butchering. however the general shape of the Strength modifier to attack rolls with a Sa Tjat Koen. and grind it. Use the Weapon eral make of swords from this region. Paralyser. this Strike Feat. opportunity. Gina Parang. Lad- ing. 168a. has a reversed originated in Malaysia before being introduced to the rest of the hook but is in all other ways identical. in every other aspect. These spiked grippers are intended to grab a used in quick thrusting maneuvers. Generally wielded in pairs. Sa Tjat Koen. 167. just like any other unarmed weapon. and does no damage to a creature with a +1 natural Tribal and Civil weapons armor bonus. 163. 164c.

while the second spear head would pre- others might be particularly powerful against animals. imposed penalty. Should they push forward to close on the wielder. This concept could make touch attack. and foreign explorers who sought to enter the depths of the usually temporarily. A large rattan loop by trapping it in the form of a knife. they will newly commissioned blade was fated to take only your rela. the lading’s handle is ample cord to reattach the Lading to Kris Blades and Black Magic a pole to create a spear. Many pre-metal cultures find the art of smithing metal to be something disturbing and unwholesome. and is decorated specifically for the wielder Mancatcher loop when performing the Strength Check. for the important spiritual conno. limit the movement of the entangled foe by the length of the pole (10 feet). two- or magic was trapped inside the blade. When spears became broken or use. the victim should be considered impaled on the weapon. so that you could avoid discovering your Should they attempt to retreat off of the Paralyser. the Kris is an old which can be extended to make things more difficult for the cap- weapon. use the lading to create a new spear. and a similar belief was held in Malaysia The Mancatcher is one of those rare instances of co-evolution of and its surrounding regions for a time. If playing a primitive cul. serrated. where it attaches to the pole. death magic made physical weapon that is not designed to inflict damage. The shape of each Kris is unique. A successful hit means that the person is now weapons very dangerous to own. murderous weapons that attack them. hoping to chop the Paralyser against a specific type of foe. One could never know what fate used on opponents within 10 feet. Latok) The Parang is a heavier bladed sword. since a cloudkill mace might caught within the loop of the Mancatcher. For each round that sive enchantments or requirements. making a blade more effective likely opt to attack the weapon. The Paralyser is a reach weapon. a long. The nature of that spirit headed spear. this is used much like a net. Thus the Kris blade was similar weapons concepts. will inflict the same damage on themselves by impaling them- Fated Weapons make an interesting twist on magical weapons. If the by the smith. and cannot be used on foes Kris within 10 feet. and the victim is still alive after the to receive a Kris as a gift from someone who knew how the attack. causing an automatic additional 1d6 of world where metal weapons are rare or scarce. The ture at the advent of smithing. seated at the base of the loop. But vent an impaled opponent from running up to the wielder to some Kris blades were foul things. An asymmetrical long knife with a wavy blade. Some Kris that the serrations made it difficult for a person impaled on the blades were highly effective at killing one’s opponents. it was preferred inflict critical damage. apart and give themselves an easier freedom. The Mancatcher. these weapons were used by natives less. although using the blade would and about a foot away from the first spearhead. or magic was unknowable. on the end of a wooden pole. metal weapons fated weapons adds a definite amount of dan- ger and prestige to carrying on of them. The concept was reveal what kind of magic the Kris possessed. like those that require reg. the wielder can jostle the ular sacrifice or that doom you to kill your companions. similar in design to the Lading Pedang. like the lariat. Most such victims will Some Fates act as banes. Weapon histories began to be kept so as to keep selves. Should a Paralyser wielder a Kris might bear until it was first used. to accept the automatic damage and make the Check without the tations the weapon conjures. Parang (Gina. perhaps metal weapons really loop is dropped around the target by succeeding with a ranged are death spells given physical form. The lading is a double-edged knife with a fascinating origin: it which has many variations. it was believed that a spirit The Paralyser is a gruesome weapon. Fated Items Paralyser When a Kris blade was first forged. The people of impaling damage from the spike. although sometimes it was not practical to native jungles. Some versions of the Mancatcher have a spike The Kris blade is perhaps the best known weapon of Malaysia. The captured person may elect the region often fear this blade. while spear to back off of it. and the history of person in the Mancatcher succeeds he takes an automatic 1d6 the Kris blade is often remembered by the owner. with great heritage in Malaysia. Every Kris blade is tured person. the person wielding the Mancatcher can make a powerful throwing weapon. In a weapon in the wound. they track of the weapon fate. This is a reach weapon. selves again on the second spearhead. is a automatically seen as dark sorcery. Parang. But some may have more exten. The second head is set slightly below the shaft. inflict the same damage to themselves again extricating them- tive’s blood. The spike imposes a -4 penalty on the person in the made commission. The Far East found. Should a suitable shaft be 165 . the heads were often removed and fashioned into lading. or a fireball knife might Check is successful. making all damage per round. such as the Gina Parang or the Latok was originally a spearhead. a victim is trapped on the Paralyser. blade was fated. Parang is actually a generic term for this kind of blade. If an opposed Strength be very deadly in an enclosed space. Many sub-Saharan tribes believes that blacksmiths worked dark magic to fashion Mancatcher (variant with Spike) metal into blades. and cannot be killed relatives or innocents. Solid and reliable. Thus.

The 166 . All of these armors were made of iron. If you are tripped during your own trip attempt. bludgeoning weapon. the Yoroi Rante. Make sure to specify which variant you forms of leather and padded armor. head. shaped somewhat like an axe weapon is a shield bypass weapon. You may use the The three early Japanese armors. Attacking with the Piau as a hand weapon prompts an automatic attack of opportunity. But Japan. Keiko armor Piau instead of the Strength modifier on attack rolls with a Rante. It would not be until the are purchasing so that your DM will know. including the roll to keep from Yoroi. you can ent sizes of scale. From Stone to Steel 171 172 173 171. There is archaeological evidence that supports a Stone Age culture (The Rante Jomon) in Japan before the Korean settlers (Yayoi) arrived. and The Rante is an exotic chain weapon that is commonly used in their intermarriage bred the unique culture that is Japan. 173. which makes the damage identical but slashing. has a serrated star at one end of the chain. as well as identical but impaling. These saw use for two hundred years. has a sharp spike on the other end. One vari. If a person is caught in melee. Iron being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. Another. the Keiko armors are essentially a very com- drop the weapon in order to avoid being tripped. the Dart The first armors of Japan were lamellars and cuirasses. other nations than land-bound nations like India and China. Keiko. The Yayoi Malaysia as a weapon. Japan Should a person armed with the Piau have the Advanced No examination of the Far East would be complete without a look Unarmed Strike Feat. Those using this plex kind of scale work. they can attack with the Piau. they are least like the armor Weapon Finess feat to apply a character’s Dexterity modifier stereotypical of Japan. and they also brought a clan-centric cultural system that would ant. weapon gain a +2 bonus on their opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. Made up at least 7 differ- attacks. it may also be used to make trip resemble the familiar armor of Japan. Yoroi armor. they can use them without provoking an at Japan. just like any other unarmed weapon. has far less interaction with attack of opportunity. the Star Rante. which left the arms and legs free to move. grasping it so that they inflict damage as a slashing attack. however there are two variants. Because it can wrap development of the Keiko that Japanese armor would begin to around a leg or other limb. eventually develop into the prominent uji system. Normally this weapon inflicts damage as a brought with them a fledgling religion that would become Shinto. Tanko. The Yoroi armor was a kind of iron lamel- lar breastplate. 172. making the damage and Tanko. Tanko armor. This The Piau is a short throwing knife. an island nation.

and temples would be estab. If you are tripped during Early Japanese swords were straight edged. avoid being tripped. Tetsubo. given ments showed that a slightly curved blade was easier to remove to nearly every Bushi. The rings allow the user to perform sword- Ken. from its scabbard. Extreme strength is needed to wield the Feruzue spears and could be used as a stabbing weapon. With plates and scales of 6 different sizes. the staff is a normal polearm. called servants three feet in length. designed as a noble’s weapon. was used for tem. The Yari was a longspear. it becomes a dangerous reach flail weapon. martial arts. the blades. and was not adapted for battle. and it was a complex form of In the early period of Japan’s warfare development. you can drop the weapon in order to also had a native staff. may also be used to make trip attacks. very well protected. Naginata tional looking Japanese armor. who were traditionally left to guard the Outside Influences castle. the Naginata was relatively light for a polearm. the Ama Goi Ken. this is an exotic double weapon. and if used as a The Ken was the first sword of Japan. Buddhism attached to a chain within. weapons. The Keiko was the first step towards more tradi. metal bladed variant of the Yari. Later polearms would Kongo-Zue include the Bisento. Kama-Yari. The aristocrats. The first such blades were straight. adopting a more Chinese Imperial culture. Firstly. Those using this weapon gain a +2 bonus on Spears. shorter than the quarterstaff. A staff with iron rings at either end. and Uichi-ne were darts that looked like short disarm attempt. so smiths began to developed curved sion of the Yari. A little less than Samurai system. During this period the fold- Yari ing process came into practice. The Naginata was first developed in the 700’s and was used by Bushi (soldiers) and monks alike. this weapon was used like a club. and similar art. who were As power devolved to the landed aristocracy. (in Japanese. and the Uichi-ne was see common use. The crossbow. and a light weapon. which created ultra-strong Yari is the Japanese word for spear. a heavy. Secondly. who generally didn’t see battle. When the Feruzue head is released. but were spread through the various provinces. ple defense. This is a double weapon. called the oyumi in Japan. The Feruzue Japanese practiced spirit worship as well as ancestor reverence at A staff weapon resembling the Wolf Tooth Staff. but which kept the torso lar to the staff. Uichi-ne. The Jumonki-Yari was a tri. certain more pros- also trained to use them like the Siangkam. including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail their ing equivalent. and Because it can wrap around a leg or other limb in this state. The Kama-Yari was a perous families made alliances and eventually ousted the tri-bladed yari with two rearward swept blades and one forward Emperor. Professional mounted soldiers. While the Flail head is locked at the would merge with Shinto thought. this dart weapon was the defensive weapon of choice by nobles. who Yari. two-edged double weapon. you incur all penalties associated with fighting sword. end of the staff. Kongo-Zue. but later develop- most commonly used weapon in the early Japanese military. The rest of the body was likely covered by leather armor. Feruzue. usually by monks. The Samurai System Jo During the Heinan period. Where Japan effectively as a flail weapon. But when the flail lished. the Feruzue has this time. where monks practiced meditation and a unique form of head is released. like the Jian. But the Keiko was time-consuming to make and expensive. (Yari) were simple. the Naginata interlocking lamellar. The Nageyari was a shorter throwing ver. Used to trip opponents and attack horse’s legs. was shameful to fight with for men. also began to were still expected to make an appearance. Resembling a short spear. The Kongo-Zue is a weapon favored by the warrior monks of Jumonki-Yari. The Far East Tanko was an extension of this same concept. really began to vary with mainland nations was in their early the Feruzue is a shield bypass weapon. A straight. Ama Goi Ken (Short sword) breaking maneuvers. this Yari was result was the re-establishment of the Imperial line and the a vicious weapon in the right hands. The Naginata became known as a women’s weapon. and was eventu- ally relegated to women. They your own trip attempt. whose side tines extended perpendicu- cuirass without any shoulder protection. like the Dao. called the Jo. the next major development was the The Jo stick was Japan’s native staff weapon. Nageyari. Kama-Yari. as Japanese culture began to absorb a great deal of Chinese culture. A smaller version. Japan. During the a nasty surprise. making it easier for the wielder to hit a foe. except in practice. Over time these Samurai become loyal to the local aristocracy. polearms. Steel would be developed in Japan. Samurai) were under the direct authority of the Emperor. War broke out among the many families and the end blade. it with it new techniques of forging. although tassels were added later on their opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. development of a military dictatorship in the form of the Shogu- 167 . this weapon was used like most European with two weapons as if you were using a one-handed weapon swords. adopting similar views on aesthetics and good governance. Nageyari were the throw. Jumonki- supported and funded their activities. style polearm was as common as the Yari on the battlefield. and Shinto was still in its fledgling stages. The haft is hollow and contains a striking head Nara period two key changes would occur. for distraction and decorative purposes.

Japanese Early Folded their own soldiers too weary from the sea travel to effectively The folding techniques developed in Japan made the sword a establish a beachhead. fighting indoors. the O-yoroi looks well enough to fight the Samurai. As the samurai became a ruling Samurai might brag of. 178. and calligraphy. as well. were only worn by prominent warriors. Jumonki-Yari. Nageyari. and the rest. From Stone to Steel nate. 177. Large plates. again. it is not so sur. 175. and within a short period The samurai were also encouraged to become cultured. a shorter weapon intended for close practice meditation and spiritual exercises. after Kublai Khan had established the Japan by Samurai until the invention of the Katana. Kongo-Zue 168 . Samurai warriors and conscripts drove the more durable weapon. As a result. and gave it more effectiveness. flower arranging. and was used universally in to land. ceremony and culture was stressed every cultured and refined. Uichi-ne. aged to learn the ways of the sword. and gardening were all talents an accomplished hand-to-hand fighting. 179. the tea ceremony. The Tachi Mongols into the sea. The Samurai caste prided itself on being class in their own right. although the more fantastic Kab- power of the Shogunate. archery. The katana was developed. Yari. or helmets. the Samurai class was a fixture in Japan- utos. poetry. Yuan dynasty. on the Do-Maru style armor began to develop The Mongols attacked twice during this time. more like traditional Samurai armor. and sailors kept them from finding a place was the first curved Japanese blade. 176. Eventually the more ornamental o-yoroi By the time Shogun Ashikaga Takauji sought to strengthen the armors came into common use. and their first landing on Japanese soil saw Ken and Tachi. ese society. Naginata. being unable to recover A more ornamental armor than the Keiko. not the rough and crude blood spillers main- bit as much as military prowess. the mainland. horsemanship. all variants here and there among the samurai. 181. Feruzue. and layered heavily over the body created fine pro- 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 174. And weapons were developed lander soldiers were. Kama-Yari. or way of the Warrior. They were encour. Emboldened. 182. Ken. was an equal failure. Zen. During this period the Samurai began to develop codes of prising that eventually a Shogun would look to take holdings in conduct that would eventually become published in the Bushido. a variety of armors. bound in cord and leather. and to the Wakazashi followed. The second attack. 183. with more than half of his boats sinking during a terrible tempest (Kamikaze or Divine O-yoroi Wind in Japanese). The Mongols were never great at sea. Jo. 180.

Armor Piercing and Forked Bokken These arrows are unique designs. this weapon was Dai-Kyu designed. effectively in their heavy armor. Solid enough to cause bruises and break against armored foes. including the roll to tripped. 187. The Far East 185 187 186 184 189a 190 189b 189c 188 184. for use during sea combat. the Chijiriki could wrap around a leg or other at a straight angle. 189c. 186. Kumade A polearm with a three pronged grappling head. If you are tripped during your own trip weapon gain a +2 bonus on their opposed attack roll when attempt. asymmetrical bow used by the Samurai. this weapon is A solid weapon used to grab objects or people and pull them to nearly six feet long. the Bokken could duplicate any maneuver a Tachi could. The Jitte looks a lot like a Sai with a single tine. Samurai trained to act and react weapon to be fired from horseback. such as ropes. 188. it does minimal damage. the person wielding the 169 . including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. but was often used to cut things. this The Jitte is a parrying weapon designed to capture and disarm double weapon performed a variety of tasks. O-yoroi armor. but this kind of armor never and is often a specialty weapon for certain Samurai. The Dai-Kyu is powerful. you can drop the weapon in order to avoid being attempting to disarm an opponent’s sword. Forked Arrowhead. caught on in the mainland. Ornamental Arrowhead. Tachi. Those using this limb to make trip attacks. rather than a curved one. swords. Piercing Arrow- head. much like the first tridents. Bokken. A successful hit allows a grapple check. age. the Bokken was used to train students specially made impaling arrow that adds +1 to attack rolls in sword technique. If successful. allowing this where you need them. A large. The grip of this bow is low. Those using this weapon gain a +2 bonus on their keep from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. Dai-Kyu. 190. The Forked arrow inflicts slashing dam- bones. The Armor piercing arrow is a A wooden practice sword. 185. The opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. Besides the stan. Arrows. Jitte was often used as an off-hand weapon. usually dard thrusting. Jitte tection at the cost of mobility. 189b. 189a. Chijirki. Chijiriki Jitte A yari with a chain mounted to the opposite end of the staff.

if it hits the target (even on the armor). the social stigma of its forebear. No-Dachi A katana-like weapon with a blade six feet long. it was designed to allow Nagegama. Those using a whip gain a +2 bonus on their opposed Sode Garami attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. like a Rante. 195. or it can be used like a pick to do impal- ing damage. Nagimaki. Kumade. 192. An entan. you can also use it against an adjacent foe. Those using this weapon gain a +2 bonus on their opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. 194 191 Nagegama The Nagegama is a Kama-like sickle on the end of a Manriki- type chain. Dexterity. The entangled creature can only move at half speed and cannot charge or run. 198. the O-no was a long- reach weapons. the Masakari is a weapon made to be used against armored and unarmored foes alike. 192 Masakari With a regular axe blade on one side and a tapered spike on the other. Usually Manriki-gusari worn on the back and drawn over the shoulder. This weapon is a shield bypass weapon. Used to apprehend thieves or fleeing When thrown. you can drop the weapon in order to avoid being tripped. this blade does not have 191. it can also be thrown. you can also use it against an adjacent foe. If successful. the No-Dachi The Manriki-gusari started out as a simple chain. fearsome in the hands of a master. Masakari. to apply a character’s Dexterity modifier instead of the Strength 170 . 196. including the roll to keep 195 from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. it may also be used to make 199 trip attacks. the Manriki-gusari can be used as whip-like weapon. 199. the O-no was not very popular. the Sode Garami is a long pole roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. the manriki-gusari has reach. unlike other A six foot staff topped with an axe blade. including the Also known as the sleeve tangler. unlike other reach weapons. Indeed. 194. When throwing the Kama portion and retaining the chain. it was often a side weapon be unable to cast the spell. . This is one of the few axes used in Japan. If an entangled creature attempts to Tonto cast a spell. there is a criminals. made with folded steel. it may also be strike at enemies from afar. the No-Dachi is the quintessential two-handed Japanese longsword. and a -4 penalty on effective length of the pole (5 feet). Swung in the hand as a Kama. Used to attack foes from a wall or to Because it can wrap around a leg or other limb. The Masakari can be used like an axe 196 197 198 to do slashing damage. the person wielding the Sode the attack roll to increase the entangle chance to 50%. it must succeed at a Concentration check (DC 15) or A short knife. You can 193 strike opponents 10 feet away with it but. No-Dachi. heavier cousin of the naginata. it has reach. If you are tripped during your own trip attempt. 193. you can drop the weapon in order to avoid being tripped. Sode Garami. before the invention of the Wakazashi. When using it as a melee weapon. a successful hit allows you to make an immediate 25% chance the target is entangled. Manriki-gusari. Garami can limit the movement of the entangled foe by the gled creature is a -2 on attack rolls. 197. If you are tripped during your own trip to its unwieldy nature. From Stone to Steel modifier on attack rolls with a Manriki-gusari. You can use the Weapon Finesse feat to the Tachi. attempt. Tonto Kumade can limit the movement of the entangled foe by the length of the pole (5 feet). men to use the popular women’s weapon without ridicule. Designed by a samurai to allow him to disable a foe without killing him. O-No You can strike opponents 10 feet away with it but. range chopping weapon. to injure an opponent at range. but was two blunt weights were added to give it better throwing range. Because it can wrap around a leg or other limb. due used to make trip attacks. O-No. Nagimaki A longer. and eventually was a very difficult weapon to manipulate effectively. A -2 penalty can be taken to grapple check. with many jagged barbs.

The Tatami Do had a cloth backing for the plates. with thicker plates and a leather covering. and many blades were folded more. Masamune’s revolution Masamune was a legendary smith. The companion blade to the Katana.] and claim that they were everything from people ‘with the right skills’ to isolated death cultists. Haramaki Do was a variant identical except for lacing strategy. single edged blade used by the Ninja. Masamune is also credited with crafting the first No-Dachi. all Samurai are trained to use Ninja-to the Katana in one hand. making it more protective. Ninja During this time the Ninja became a private force for espionage and assassination. the Shuriken is too light to allow below the katana. the man who took the prac- tice of folding steel and made it an art. Any weapon made in this advanced folding manner is automatically a masterwork weapon. they could access. a rare few up to 20 times. for fear of Wakazashi repercussions.and receives the traditional +1 combat bonus. the Katana is the Japanese armor was ever used. so disguising body wear was Katana adopted to hide their identities. and is a required weapon for the Samurai. Although too large to be used in one hand without special training. Ninja trained in became the standard armor worn by most Samurai. The the addition of the strength modifier to its damage. A smith belonging of Masamune. straight. Masamune would fold no blade less than 10 times. from the 600’s to the 1200’s. has a hardness of 11. equivalent of the bastard sword. where the Shuriken Katana might be too unwieldy. The Ninja were generally stigmatized in society. Due to the popularization of Nin- 200. The Wakazashi is worn slightly The traditional throwing star. The Do-Maru tion on their enemies and assassinate them. and was intended for indoor use. and nothing heavier than padded The signature weapon of the Samurai. since no regular smith would knowingly make a ninja weapon. the Do-Maru provides slightly the Ninja became a way for aristocratic families to gain informa- less protection but has more flexible plating. since it interfered with stealth. up to three Shuriken may be thrown at once. although slightly more protective than the Do-Maru in the short run. the and each Katana was made with the advanced folding techniques Ninja-to is an efficient assassination device. which made it inherently less durable. Haramaki Do Some experimentation was made on the Do-Maru. this weapon is shorter than the Katana or Tachi. Do_Maru armor jas in modern culture and the great wealth of literature by so- called Ninja experts. there is little modern historical information Do-Maru that can clear up the exact origin of the Ninja. Various histories propose that the ninja were in Japan from the earliest times. Grasped between fingers. Suffice it to say A lighter armor than the O-yoroi. A short. although hand-to-hand martial arts. to the Ninja Dojo would be the one to craft the Ninja-to. for their protection. and had a wide variety of weapons some chose heavier armors. The Tsuzumi 200 Do was a heavier suit. This folded steel was highly superior. The Far East Wakazashi is made with the advanced folding techniques of Masamune. Most smiths would fold steel perhaps 3–5 times before being satisfied with the temper. The katana was always custom made. and weapons made with steel folded this often were far superior to just about anything they would ever come in contact with. but not as flexible. 171 . depending on their training.

Garrote. 205. 211. usually split into 1 foot portions. Ninja had access to all manner be reconnected. Shuriken. From Stone to Steel 202 208 207 213 201 203 212 204 209 210 205 211 206 214 201. 207. Fukidake. Wrapped about the hands or wrists. Besides the rolled damage. and made to could not be approached easily. Kawanaga. Ninja-to. Teppo. The to-hit roll is given a -4 modifier for hit a +1 armor bonus in the round it is used in this manner. any imum range of 10 feet. to prevent damage to the hands. and can be used Garrote while hiding and not reveal its source. still necessary to determine if critical damage should be applied. 214. causing terrible damage to the throat. the Han-Kyu was used by the Ninja when a target A small blowgun. A ing damage. the Garrote Kyoketsu-Shogi required that the wielder get up behind an opponent and slip the A weapon with a rope attached to the haft and an iron or wooden loop over their head swiftly. Fukidake A short bow. Instead. If any actions as if grappled and fatigued. they only take damage from being attacked. and is best used when trips. to strangle the victim. it may also be used to make trip 172 . When location. although a die roll is should be considered a sneak attack. Because it can victim of this attack also suffers from suffocation. and performs wrap around a leg or other limb. Then the reversed loop would be ring on the other end of the rope. only the first Shuriken by the Garrote dealer automatically hits. and carried in a reverse loop. Every subsequent attack using in conjunction with a sneak attack. unlike other weapons. Fukidake do not take damage from attacking. and a foe wearing any kind of armor other than soft or throwing either end. the Fukidake is used to fire small needles. 202. Nunti-Sai. 212. Kusari-gama although at a -1 to hit penalty for each dart being thrown. 209. 204. Katana. The Fukidake is nearly silent. Nekode. in order to make certain a target was eliminated. And the ring can be used as a defensive object. arrow. 210. Wire versions also cut into the a surprising number of uses. Kyoketsu-Shogi. A long wire or cord used for strangling. 206. it is treated as a ranged weapon with a max- none is immune to this attack. or the like-like weapon can be thrown for slash- Garrote had wooden handles. Han-Kyu. this exotic double weapon has tightened. Nageteppo. and no range penalties. Wakazashi. usu- of arrows (any previously mentioned). conferring a foe is surprised. 208. and often poisoned an ally poison tipped. The ring can be thrown for bludg- flesh. Han-Kyu. Some variants of the eoning damage. 213. 203. The rope itself can be used to attempt disarms or Garrote is only useful as a flanking attack.

Those using a Kyoketsu-Shogi gain a +2 bonus on their opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. Nekode A grappling hook on a rope. Attacking with the Kawanaga prompts an automatic attack of opportunity. they can use them without provoking an attack of opportunity. including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. This weapon is a shield bypass weapon. which grant a +2 bonus to climbing while worn. just like any other unarmed attack. You can use the Weapon Finesse feat to apply a charac- ter’s Dexterity modifier instead of the Strength modi- fier on attack rolls with a Nekode. including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. you can drop the weapon in order to avoid being tripped. Those using this weapon gain a +2 bonus on their opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. Should a person armed with the Kawanaga have the Advanced Unarmed Strike Feat. Kawanaga Climbing hooks. The Ninja were feared and reviled for their secretive ways and their rejec- tion of the code of Bushido. Because it can wrap around a leg or other limb. for a cost. Those who walk in the Night. this weapon was used much like the Rante as a bludgeoning weapon by the Ninja. Ninja (Prestige Class) Those without Honor. Table 5-3:Ninja Class Base Fort Ref Will Level Attack Bonus Save Save Save Special 1st +0 +0 +2 +0 Training 2nd +1 +0 +3 +0 Sneak Attack +1d6 3rd +2 +1 +3 +1 Training 4th +3 +1 +4 +1 Sneak Attack +2d6 5th +3 +1 +4 +1 Training 6th +4 +2 +5 +2 Sneak Attack +3d6 7th +5 +2 +5 +2 Training 8th +6 +2 +6 +2 Sneak Attack +4d6 9th +6 +3 +6 +3 Training 10th +7 +3 +7 +3 Sneak Attack +5d6 173 . these weapons make unarmed strikes normal piercing attacks. although many ninja clans claimed they also per- formed their duties out of religious conviction. The Ninja were assassins and spies. If you are tripped during your own trip attempt. you can drop the whip in order to avoid being tripped. If you are tripped during your own trip attempt. The Kawanaga does not change the normal hand attack damage. it may also be used to make trip attacks. The Far East attacks.

Hide rank 7 1d6 rounds. Escape Artist (Dex). Some were Ronin. the target is blinded for 1d3 turns. Climb (Str). warriors who believed that per- with a blowhole and pinhole exit point. Move Silently. Craft (Int). but This ability may be taken multiple times. Intimidate (Cha). Anyone checking the Ninja for (Dex). or foods. Extend the blinding duration to Skills: Move Silently rank 7. which the Chinese Fumiki Bari: This is the art of spitting poisoned needles. and is subject to the appropriate Requirements secondary penalty: To qualify to become a Ninja. Perform (Cha). The central government col- Improved Unarmed Strike (If not already possessed) lapsed. moners who could not legally carry weapons or wield power. turned to a Ninja clan to give them purpose. leading to a 32 year long war for supremacy. a character must fulfill all the fol- lowing criteria. or possibly poison. Tumble (Dex) Iron Sleeve Proficiency: The Ninja has learned how to use Iron Skill Points at Each Level: 4 + Int Modifier Sleeves. If hit. Various generals Ninja learns how to carry and safely place poisoned needles in would rise to power. masterless samurai who costume and movements to their advantage while in the dark. The Ninja class skills (and the key ability for each skill) are Bal. Open Lock (Dex). inflicting a further - 2 to any physical skill rolls or attack rolls. of the three should be designated in advance when a Ninja intends to use a Metsubishi. Once per day per Ninja Level. diately becomes a class skill. Range increment for a needle land. should be determined. it would revolutionize warfare in Japan. Pick Pocket. and Tumble. When using this ability Jump. Listen signs of life must make a Heal roll at DC 20 or a Spot Roll at DC (Wis). and has them sewn into their costume. pepper. ally filled with powdered glass. One And some… Some just did it for the money. In addition. Renamed the Teppo by the Japanese. Trackless Running: The Ninja has learned how to run while Class Features leaving little sign of their passage. and bonuses will stack. a leather apply to the skills Balance. 25 to notice the Ninja is still alive. Ninja may double their Jump distance. Climb. If any damage is done to the target the poison’s effect peace: Tokugawa Ieyasu. 174 . Note that armor check penalties for armor heavier than maneuvers to leap far distances. This grants a +4 Hide bonus for any attempt to hide in shadow. but at half strength. The form of the stable society did not support well. Hide. Then a Por- Weapon Focus (Martial Ninja Weapon) tuguese ship crashed along Japans coast. The subject is affected by the poison designated. Anyone attempting to track a All of the following are class features of the Ninja prestige class. Alchemy imme- Sneak Attack: This is the Feat.(Ref DC 15 to avert eyes) Special: Must complete one mission successfully to join clan and become a Ninja Poison: Mild Poisoning. Metsubishi: The Metsubishi is a small ceramic or shell container Some truly were death monks. First Level Selection: At first level the new Ninja must select Poisoning: The Ninja has learned the art of making poison and one of the three options given. bringing instability and change. the size limit does not apply. book The Edo Shogunate Training: A Ninja may take one option from the following list: Peril came to Japan in three ways. Swim (Str). Pepper: Sneezing fits for the next 1d6 turns. The range of the Metsubishi is five Hit Die: d8 feet. Many were com. (Ref DC 15 to avoid Basic Attack Bonus: +4 inhaling pepper) Feats: Expertise Ground Glass: Intense Irritation. bringing with it the Exotic Weapon Proficiency (Exotic Ninja Weapon) 1 Ninja Ability matchlock arquebus. Christianity Ninja Abilities are the following: would come. Move Silently (Dex). If a 20 is rolled. Play Dead: The Ninja has learned how to slow their autonomic ance (Dex). Hide functions so as to simulate death. Ninja with this ability must treat the track as if it was carefully Weapon and Armor Proficiency: Ninja start their first level hidden (+5 to DC) with proficiency in all simple weapons and martial ninja Great Leap: The Ninja has practiced using sudden explosive weapons. applying poison to objects. Jump (Str). weapons. but it would take one man to unite Japan under a lasting is 5 feet. This container was usu- fection of death dealing would give them final enlightenment. as listed in the Player’s Hand. the blinding effect is per- manent. who trained to give themselves the power society denied them. some seeking to conquer land on the main- their mouth to spit at an opponent. A successful fortitude save Class Skills negates this entirely. Escape Artist. but it is rolled as a ranged touch attack to strike. Roll 1d20. From Stone to Steel The Ninja were made up of those who did not have a place in the Pass In the Shadows: The Ninja learns how to use their dark Samurai Hierarchy.

armor to Half-plate. and as con- tact with the mainland continued. Because it can wrap around a leg or other limb. 215c. and as an effective dis- 215c arming weapon. 215b. The result. The Nunti-Sai grants a +2 bonus on the user’s opposed attack roll when attempting to disarm an opponent. it has reach. the Nunti-Sai was invented by 215a combining the Sabu’s tines with the Sai weapon concept. while Hotoke Do forces attacking them from the outside. Flower Arraigning—The art of careful choice and arrange- ment of flowers for aesthetic and social reasons. Okegawa lished practices. and rituals that Samurai had come to Do (and the variant Tatahagi Do) is a form of Samurai armor that embody. the Nageteppo ance of the Tea Drinking Ceremony was used as a last ditch weapon by the Ninja. 215b Nunti-Sai As the Okinawan weapons were imported to Japan. Tokugawa would establish trade with their island nations and the mainland. is a closer modern equivalent Teppo to Tatami Do. You can strike opponents 10 215d feet away with it but. or the chain may be used to strike like a Rante. the Teppo was mass-produced from a few original weapons. Nuinobe Do is a more elegant looking version of Maru Century. Platemail. this weapon can be used forward or reversed. If you are tripped during your own trip attempt. 215d. The blade may be used as a Kama. The careful placement of plants and objects in a garden to achieve explosion causes 2d6 fire damage in the square that it lands in. or the Way of the Warrior. unlike other reach weapons. Between this code and the body of laws Tokugawa sports a riveted breastplate. it may also be used to make trip attacks. but was decorated with the starved chest of a Bud- The Teppo is a converted Portuguese Common Arbequis. and with armoring being was a seamless metal cuirass. a collection of estab. you can drop the weapon in order to avoid being tripped. the Nunti-Sai. The Far East and people in the blast radius must make a Reflex Save (DC20) to avoid taking half damage. so much less important with the introduction of the firearm. A single New Perform Subskills: shot weapon firing iron shot. but would limit mainlanders and Europeans to trading Tôsei gusoku (Modern Armors) with Japan only at Nagasaki. is a Sai with no handle. This would introduce a number of Tosei Gusoku is the term for modern armors: armors made after new weapons into the Japanese arsenal. which stresses must be lit before being thrown. similar to that of European Half- would create a lasting peace that would endure into the 19th plate. Used in pairs. including the roll to keep from being disarmed if they fail their disarm attempt. with less embellishment than most Samurai armor. When using the chain as a melee weapon. and is slightly less reliable than the origi. During this time the Samurai would only ever face Do. a +2 bonus on their opposed attack roll when attempting to dis- Yokinoshita Do arm an opponent. Maru Do is a slightly improved version of Do- code of Bushido. A number of Japanese cultural skills might fall into the Per- nal version. the greatest harmony. you can also use it against an adjacent foe. Yokinoshita Do is also an equivalent incredible armors of Japan would progress no farther. on the other hand. with a slightly better range of movement. and Pistols. a single tine blade with an s-shaped tine blade intersecting it. Maru armor. made in a more efficient modern fashion. Nio Do. Hotoke Do. Those using a kusari-gama gain 215a. the except for its hardness. He would establish the the Edo Peace. Information on reload. including the roll to keep from being disarmed The Edo Shogunate would be an end to wars. Nageteppo Tea Ceremony—The art of precise and formulaic perform- A grenade-like weapon filled with gunpowder. having a reliability rating of 3. Kusari-gama The Kusari-gama is a Kama blade with a Manriki-gusari chain attached to the head. nearly identical to Okegawa Do. The Nageteppo Gardening—This is the art of the Zen Garden. Tatami Do. During this time if they fail their disarm attempt. beliefs. form Skill category— ing times and powder usage can be found in the chapter Calligraphy—The art of careful and precise painting of words Pageantry. as a standard round action. Mogame Do. 175 .

To break the code would be worse than death. although those with honor and dedication could join their ranks if they impressed a lord. This is not to say that those who sought their own power could not be Samurai. But the most unusual version was Hatomune Do. and that lord must be willing to accept the oath. the liege lord can rescind the oath. and those that perceive they have failed their code are honor bound to commit suicide. Mogame Do was a variant of Okegawa Do that substituted laces for rivets. Combat Reflexes Skills: Perform: 5 ranks Special: Must be willing to take an oath with a lord. Most had to belong to a Samurai family in order to join. If the Samurai ever openly disobeys their liege lord. The Samurai code is one of dedication to Honor. Honor 5th +5 +4 +1 +4 Training 6th +6 +5 +2 +5 Honor 7th +7 +5 +2 +5 Training 8th +8 +6 +2 +6 Honor 9th +9 +6 +3 +6 Training 10th +10 +7 +3 +7 Honor 176 . Hit Die: d10 Requirements To qualify to become a Samurai. a character must fulfill all the following criteria. and the Samurai becomes Ronin. Samurai (Prestige Class) Samurai are those Bushi who take an oath of fealty to a lord in exchange for elevation to the rank of Samurai. a masterless warrior. The role of the Samurai is of preserver of the peace and loyal servant of his liege lord. which made the armor less structurally sound. The Samurai were fearless war- riors. Alignment: Any Lawful Basic Attack Bonus: +5 Feats: Expertise. Duty. Those who sought to become samurai were those drawn to the power and the rigor of the life of a Samurai. From Stone to Steel dha. trained in fighting and taught to consider their lives already forfeit. and Warcraft. Table 5-4:Samurai Class Base Fort Ref Will Level Attack Bonus Save Save Save Special 1st +1 +2 +0 +2 Training 2nd +2 +3 +0 +3 Honor 3rd +3 +3 +1 +3 Training 4th +4 +4 +1 +4 Leadership. with notable success. which incorpo- rated imported Portuguese Plate armor. They just had to be exceptionally good at obey- ing their liege lord in the letter of their command. so that they won their lives back every battle they won.

gains the power range while outside. Move Silently. non-mag- ical morale penalty. as long as they have detected that opponent with another Skill Points at Each Level: 2 + Int Modifier sense. They are required to adjudicate disputes and meet out appro. under normal sunlight. Jump (Str). him immune while in battle. Jump. Hide. This ability may be used once per day. commanded to commit seppuku (ritual suicide). Tracking: The Samurai gains the feat of this same name. Heavy Armor. If a Samurai is unencumbered (a light load). Swim (Str) Blind Shot: The Samurai may fire at any opponent they cannot see. and are hunted by their former fellow than their actual load. The Samurai class skills (and the key ability for each skill) are Blind Fight: The Samurai gains the Feat of this same name. Honor: A Samurai accrues honor for loyal service. ability damage through non-magical poison. the Samurai may be to maneuver more effectively. they may move at 10 feet faster than their normal movement Class Skills speed. this may be grounds for becoming Ronin. Perform (Cha). Pick Pocket. They are also proficient with Light. All of the following are class features of the Samurai prestige Advanced Alertness: The Samurai has improved their senses to class. and ability that imposes a negative morale penalty while in combat. and add +4 to their to-hit roll. and the Honor pool is restored to full points each day. priate justice. one of the three options given. Should a lord disagree with the decision. Training: A Samurai may take one option from the following list: Improved Unarmed Strike (If not already possessed) Weapon Focus (Martial Samurai Weapon) Exotic Weapon Proficiency (Exotic Samurai Weapon) 1 Zen Awareness 177 . but cannot gain another Zen Awareness: level of Samurai until taken into the patronage of another Lord. a nearly supernatural level. their current load. This does not allow the Samurai to carry Samurai. Escape Artist. regardless of his encumbrance. The penalty to do so is half the normal penalty. Spot (Wis). but merely allows them to move more effectively under caste. Craft (Int). of life and death over all peasants in the region they are assigned to. Leadership: This is as per the feat of the same name. Climb (Str). if an Class Features enemy is known to be inside. Intimidate (Cha). Body Awareness: The Samurai who learns this awareness is able If the disobedience is sufficiently grievous. Climb. Listen (Wis). Each level of Honor allows a Samurai to negate one point of fatigue. or ability damage through non-magical disease. This bonus supercedes the bonus granted by Alertness. The Far East Ronin will retain any gained abilities. This can be used to fire through thin materials like paper walls. The Samurai moves as if encumbered by a load one level lighter they become Ronin. Eagle’s Vision: The Samurai may double their normal vision Low Justice: The Samurai. the character must belong to the upper more. If they refuse. as part of their oath. Envisioned Shot: The Samurai can take a full round to fire a sin- First Level Selection: At first level the new Samurai must select gle shot. and Tumble. Medium. and gains a +4 to all spot and listen Weapon and Armor Proficiency: Samurai start their first level checks. Note that armor check penalties for armor heavier The meditation and centering techniques of the Samurai make than leather apply to the skills Balance. with proficiency in all simple weapons and martial Samurai Combat Calm: The Samurai cannot be affected by any spell or weapons. Optionally.

5gp 1d4 x3 2. Iron (Note that cost is for two Tamo knives)*‡ 4gp 1d4 19–20/x2 1. Punching Bronze 1.5lbs S MW 6/8 Dagger. Quoit Steel 8gp 1d8 x2 8lbs B M 10/16 Mace. Punching Damascened 402gp 1d4+1 x3 2lbs P M 10/9 Dagger.5lbs S M 6/5 Kujungi 1.5lbs S M 6/2 Phurbu* 6gp 1d4 x2 1.5lbs P M 6/5 Paku* 1gp 1d3 x3 10 ft.5lbs S M 9/2 Kris 4gp 1d4 19–20/x2 1.5lbs P MW 5/8 Dagger. Damascened 402gp 1d4+1 19–20/x2 1lbs P M 10/6 Buhj. Nine Teeth* 15gp 1d8 x2 14lbs S M 9/28 G 178 . Steel 12gp 1d8 x2 12lbs B M 9/24 Mace. Ox Steel 8gp 1d8 x2 8lbs B M 10/16 Mace. Steel 2gp 1d4 19–20/x2 1lbs P M 9/3 Dagger. Chinese Iron 3gp 1d4 x2 1. Steel 8gp 1d6 x3 5lbs S M 9/15 Bagh Nakh. Sickle Steel 12gp 1d6 x2 10lbs S M 10/18 Rake. Punching Steel 2gp 1d4 x3 2lbs P M 9/6 Fakir's Horns 5sp 1d6 x3 1. Fakir's* 6gp 1d6 or 1d4 x2 or x3 4lbs B or P W 6/8 Cane. Chinese Steel 5gp 1d4 x2 1lbs S M 9/3 G Knife.5lbs S M 6/5 Knife.5lbs P M 7/7 Tamo. Punching Iron 1. .5lbs P M 6/11 Whip.5lbs S M 6/11 Bagh Nakh. Hidden Steel 1gp 1d3 x3 . Quoit Damascened 408gp 1d8+1 x2 8lbs B M 10/19 Mace. P M 9/3 N/S Small Arit Sickle 5gp 1d6 x2 3.5gp 1d4 x3 1.5gp 1d4 19–20/x2 1. Sickle Damascened 412gp 1d6+1 x2 10lbs S M 10/21 Mace. Head 12gp 1d10 x3 14lbs S MW 6/28 Cane.5lbs P M 6/5 Piercers.5lbs B&S M 9/15 G Jo 2gp 1d6 x2 2lbs B W 5/8 N/S Tamo. Damascened 412gp 1d8+1 x2 12lbs B M 10/27 Ghargaz. Hard 5gp 1d6 x2 4lbs B M 9/12 G Medium-Size Axe.3gp 1d4 x3 2.5lbs P B 3/5 Hora* 4sp 1d3+1 x2 . Ox Damascened* 408gp 1d8+1 x2 8lbs B M 10/19 Mace.5lbs B B 3/2 Karambit 6sp 1d3 x3 . Steel (Note that cost is for two Tamo Knives)*‡ 6gp 1d4 19–20/x2 1lbs P M 9/5 G Tjaluk* 5gp 1d6 x2 10ft 3. Chinese Bronze 2gp 1d4 x2 1lbs S M 5/3 Knife. Wooden 2gp 1d4 x2 2lbs B W 5/6 G Ghargaz.8gp 1d4 19–20/x2 1 lb.5lbs S M 6/2 Knife. From Stone to Steel Table 5-5: Far East Weapons Simple Weapons-Melee Weapon Cost Damage Critical Range Weight Type M H/HP Subset Tiny Buhj. Steel Greater 10gp 2d3 x3 7lbs S M 9/21 Escrima 2gp 1d4 x2 2lbs B W 5/6 Iron Claw 7gp 1d6 x2 5. Steel 8gp 1d6 x2 4lbs B M 9/8 G Cane. Emi* 1gp 1d3 x3 .5lbs P M 9/2 G Tombak 2gp 1d4 19–20/x2 5lbs P M 6/15 Tonto 1.5lbs S M 6/5 Lading 1.

Two Teetha 10gp 1d8 x2 10lbs S M 9/18 Naginata† 10 gp 1d10 x3 14lbs S WM 5/28 S Simple Weapons-Ranged Tiny Ball. Mace Iron 10gp 1d8 x2 13lbs B M 6/26 Staff. Light Modern Chinese 40gp 1d8 19–20/x2 80ft 6lbs As per Quarrel MW 9/18 Crossbow. Short Iron 6gp 1d6 x2 5lbs B M 6/10 Staff. Steel 7gp 1d6 19–20/x2 10lbs P&S M 9/30 Bokken 3gp 1d4 x2 6lbs B W 5/10 S Broadsword. Damascened 410gp 1d6+1 19–20/x2 3lbs S M 10/9 Shortsword. Steel 10gp 1d6 19–20/x2 3lbs S M 9/9 Wakazashi 300gp 1d6 19–20/x2 3lbs S M 11/11 S Medium-Size Axe. Iron 6sp 1d3 x2 10ft . Steel 6gp 1d6 x3 5lbs S MW 9/15 G Hatchet 5gp 1d6 x3 7lbs S MW 6/21 Kapak 6gp 1d6 x2 10ft 4lbs S M 6/12 Shortsword. Short Steel 8gp 1d6 x2 4lbs B M 9/8 G Veecharoval.5lbs S MW 6/21 Axe. Steela 6gp 1d6 x3 7lbs P M 9/14 Staff. Bullova 8gp 1d8 x3 11lbs S MW 6/22 Axe. Iron 5sp 1d2 x2 15ft .5lbs S MW 6/17 Fu. Short Bronze 5gp 1d6 x2 4lbs B M 4/8 Staff. Damascened 407gp 1d6+1 19–20/x2 10lbs P&S M 10/33 Binnol. Bronze 3gp 1d6 x3 5. Iron 8gp 1d8 x3 8lbs S MW 6/16 Large Bo*‡ 2gp 1d6/1d6 x2 4lbs B W 6/8 G/N/S Cudgel. Monk's Iron 10gp 1d10 x2 14lbs B MW 7/28 Cudgel. Mace Bronze 9gp 1d8 x2 12lbs B M 4/24 Staff. Light Steel 35gp 1d8 19–20/x2 80ft 6lbs As per Quarrel MW 9/16 Medium-Size Crossbow. Iron 4gp 1d6 x3 5. Chinese 75gp 1d8 18–20/x2 6lbs S M 9/32 G 179 . Light Bronze 29gp 1d8 19–20/x2 80ft 8lbs As per Quarrel MW 4/22 Crossbow. Bronze 7gp 1d8 x3 9lbs S MW 5/18 Veecharoval.1lbs B 10M 9/1 G Small Crossbow. Damasceneda 406gp 1d6+1 x3 7lbs P M 10/17 Santie. Kritant 8gp 1d8 x3 10lbs S MW 6/20 Binnol.5lbs S MW 4/17 Fu. Light Iron 32gp 1d8 19–20/x2 80ft 7lbs As per Quarrel MW 6/19 Crossbow. Mace Steel 12gp 1d8 x2 12lbs B M 9/24 G Staff. Heavy Modern Chinese 50gp 1d10 19–20/x2 120ft 8lbs As per Quarrel MW 9/24 Martial Weapons-Melee Small Ama Goi Ken 4gp 1d4 19–20/x2 3lbs S M 6/9 Fu. Monk's Steel 12gp 1d10 x2 13lbs B M 9/26 G Fork. The Far East Table 5-5: Far East Weapons Simple Weapons-Melee Weapon Cost Damage Critical Range Weight Type M H/HP Subset Medium-Size Santie. Khond 8gp 1d8 x3 10.5lbs B 10M 9/2 G Rings.

Fong Ting*†a 20gp 1d8 or 1d10 x3 14lbs P or S WM 5/24 G Longsword. Early Folded 15gp 1d8 19–20/x2 4lbs S M 9/8 S Tachi. Early Steel†a 8gp 2d4 x3 9lbs P WM 5/18 Broadsword. Steel 15gp 2d4 x3 15lbs P&S M 9/30 Knife. Two Handed Chinese 55gp 2d6 19–20/x2 16lbs S M 9/32 G Dung. Steel 15gp 1d8 19–20/x2 4lbs S M 9/8 G Katar. Japanese Early Folded 10gp 1d6 19–20/x2 4lbs S M 9/12 S Knife. Iron 12gp 1d6 18–20/x2 6lbs S M 6/12 Dao. Iron†a 4gp 1d8 x3 11lbs P MW 6/22 Dung. Bronze 5gp 1d6 x3 4.5lbs P MW 6/14 Katar. Golden Coin Long†a 15gp 1d10 19–20/x2 13lbs S MW 9/28 G Lance. Damascened 415gp 2d4+1 x3 15lbs P&S M 10/33 Hoolurge. Steel 10gp 1d8 19–20/x2 10lbs S M 9/30 Sapola 20gp 1d8 x3 4lbs P M 9/8 Scimitar. Executioner* 9gp 1d8 x2 4lbs S M 9/8 G Sword. Bronze 12gp 1d8 19–20/x2 6lbs S M 4/12 Jian. Imitation Chinese 13gp 1d8 19–20/x2 4lbs S M 9/6 Tan-Kiev* 7gp 1d6 x2 3lbs S M 9/6 G Tulwar. Butterfly 25gp 1d6 x3 4lbs S MW 6/28 Kora 8gp 1d6 x2 4lbs S M 9/18 Lance. Iron Indian 13gp 1d6 18–20/x2 6lbs S M 6/12 Sword. Iron 13gp 1d8 19–20/x2 5lbs S M 6/10 Jian. Damascened 412gp 1d6+1 18–20/x2 4lbs S M 10/8 Tulwar. Iron 5gp 1d8 x3 10lbs S MW 6/20 Jian. Steel 8gp 1d6 x3 4lbs P M 9/12 Ken 8gp 1d6 19–20/x2 5lbs S M 6/10 Ken. Steel 14gp 1d6 18–20/x2 5lbs S M 9/10 G Ge. Steel Fish Spine* 12gp 1d6 x2 5lbs S M 9/10 Sword. Early Iron 12gp 1d6 18–20/x2 5lbs S M 6/10 Large Axe.5gp 1d8 19–20/x2 6lbs S M 7/14 Sword. Iron 6gp 1d6 x3 4. Bronze 11gp 1d6 18–20/x2 7lbs S M 4/14 Dao. Steel†a 6gp 1d8 x3 10lbs P MW 9/20 Flail. Damascened 415gp 1d6+1 18–20/x2 5lbs S M 10/10 Scimitar. Damascened 410gp 1d8+1 19–20/x2 10lbs S M 10/33 Sabar. Long bar*† 15gp 1d10 19–20/x2 20lbs B WM 5/38 G Hoolurge. Damascened 408gp 1d6+1 x3 4lbs P M 10/15 Katar. From Stone to Steel Table 5-5: Far East Weapons Martial Weapons-Melee Weapon Cost Damage Critical Range Weight Type M H/HP Subset Medium-Size Dao. Seven Star 13. Naga War† 20gp 1d10 x3 15lbs S WM 5/30 Ballam. Unicorn Horn 8gp 1d6 x2 3lbs S M 9/6 G Tachi. Chinese†a 12gp 1d8 x3 9lbs P WM 5/18 G Nagan 20gp 1d8 18–20/x2 5lbs S M 9/10 Parang 14gp 2d3 19–20/x2 5lbs P M 6/10 Patisa 15gp 1d8 19–20/x2 4lbs S M 9/8 Pedang 7gp 1d6 x2 4lbs S M 6/8 Sabar. Great Damascened 450gp 2d6+1 19–20/x2 16lbs S M 10/32 180 .5lbs P MW 5/14 Katar.

Deer Antler* 6gp 1d6 19–20/x2 2lbs S M 9/6 G Knife. 1d4* x4 . Short Hinged* 60gp 1d6 x3 55ft 2lbs As per Arrow WM 4/6 Large Bow. Wire* -.5lb B W 3/2 G Full Moon* 6gp 1d6 19–20/x2 2.5lbs S M 9/8 G Jitte* 5 sp 1d4 x3 1. 1d3* x3 1lb S* C 3/3 N Garrote. Bronze†a 2gp 1d8 x3 11lbs P MW 4/22 Qiang. Closed Hilted Early Steel* 23gp 1d6 x3 7lbs P MW 8/21 Katar. Tri-Bladed Steel* 20gp 1d6 or 3d3 x3 5lbs P M 9/15 Knife. Iron†a 3gp 1d8 x3 10lbs P MW 6/20 Qiang. Dual Bladed Damascened* 412gp 2d3+1 x3 5lbs P M 10/15 Katar. Mandarin Coin* 3gp 1d6 x2 3lbs S M 9/9 G Blade. Lacquered* 1. Steel†a 5gp 1d8 x3 9lbs P MW 9/18 G Saber. Swallow Trident Long* 3gp 1d6 x2 1lbs P M 9/3 G Kusari-gama*†# 10gp 1d6/1d6 x2/x2 3lbs S/B M 9/9 N/S 181 .5lbs P M 9/5 N/S Kama 2gp 1d6 x2 2lbs B WM 5/6 G/N Katar.5lbs P M 9/2 Kukri 8gp 1d4 18–20/x2 1lb S M 9/5 Strangler's Belt -. Great Steel 50gp 2d6 19–20/x2 16lbs S M 9/32 Nageyari†a 5gp 1d8 x3 10ft 9lbs P WM 5/18 Nagimaki†a 8 gp 2d4 x3 15lbs S MW 5/30 S No-Dachi 55gp 2d6 19–20/x2 16lbs S M 9/34 S Qiang. Long Hinged* 150gp 1d8 x3 90ft 3lbs As per Arrow WM 4/9 Exotic Weapons-Melee Tiny Fan. 1d2§ x2 1lbs B F 2/3 Small Kawanaga (cost per hand)* 1gp 1lb P M 9/3 N Nekode* 6gp 1d6 x2 10ft 7lbs B M 9/19 N Blade.5lbs S W 6/2 G/S/N Garrote. Snake†a 5gp 1d8 x3 11lbs P MW 5/22 G Steel Fang†a 7gp 1d8 19–20/x2 10lbs P&S MW 9/20 G Yari†a 6gp 1d8 x3 11lbs P WM 5/20 S Martial Weapons-Ranged Medium-Size Bow. Cord* -. Long 20gp 1d10 19–20/x2 16lbs S M 9/32 G Sabu*†a 12gp 1d8 x3 14lbs P M 9/28 G Spear.5lbs S M 9/11 G Cane.5lbs S* M 9/2 N Ji-Kuwa* 1gp 1d2 x3 . Dual Bladed Steel* 12gp 2d3 x3 5lbs P M 9/15 Katar. Three Bladed Steel* 18gp 1d6 x3 6lbs P M 9/18 Katar.5gp 1d3 x2 5ft . The Far East Table 5-5: Far East Weapons Martial Weapons-Melee Weapon Cost Damage Critical Range Weight Type M H/HP Subset Large Longsword. Iron* 2gp 1d4 x2 5ft 1lbs S M 6/3 G/S/N Fan. Hidden Sword (damage as cane or sword)* 10gp 1d4 or 1d6 x2 Or 19–20/x2 3lbs B or P M 9/9 G/N Flute* 1gp 1d3 x2 . Three Bladed Damascened* 417gp 1d6+1 x3 6lbs P M 10/18 Katar. Sun and Moon Spear* 4gp 1d6 x3 3. Three Bladed Early Steel* 17gp 1d6 x3 9lbs P MW 8/25 Katar.

Segmented*† 20gp 1d6 x2 4. Wood 16gp 1d10 x2 13lbs B W 6/26 Halberd. Nine Teeth*‡ 12gp 1d8 x2 4lbs P or S M 9/12 G Katana 400 gp 1d10 19–20/x2 6lbs S M 11/18 S Kyoketsu-Shogi*‡ 12gp 1d6/1d4 19–20/x2 / x2 10ft 8lbs S/B M 9/16 N Maru*‡ 7gp 1d6 x2 9lbs P WBM 5/18 Masakari 16gp 1d8 or 1d4 x3 or x4 5lbs P or S M 9/10 Nagegama*† 14gp 1d6/1d6 19–20/x2 8lbs S/B M 9/16 N/S Pata. Damascened* 465gp 1d8+1 19–20/x2 16lbs S M 10/35 Pata. Great*# 25gp 1d12 x2 20lbs B WM 5/40 G Gadha. Horse Chopping†‡a 75gp 1d6/1d10 x2 16lbs S M 9/32 G Chijiriki*‡ 40gp 1d8/1d6 x3/x2 15lbs P/B MW 9/30 S Feruzue (staff or flail damage)*†# 20gp 1d8 or 1d10 x2 or 19–20/x2 15lbs B&P M 6/30 Flail. Tigerhead Hook*‡ 12gp 1d8 x2 4lbs S M 9/8 G Tiger Fork. Wind and Fire* 4gp 1d6 x3 3. Iron 18gp 1d10 x2 15lbs B M 6/30 Gadha.5lbs S M 9/11 G Medium-Size Broadsword.5lbs S M 6/20 Razor. Heaven and Earth† 60gp 1d8/1d8 x2 13lbs S M 9/26 G Blade.5lbs P M 6/11 Tian-chi Fay Shorta 15gp 1d6 x3 4lbs P or S M 4/12 G Tonfa 1gp 1d6 x2 1. Iron*‡a 12gp 1d8 x2 7lbs P MW 7/14 Tiger Fork. Damascened 425gp 2d4+1 X2 15lbs B 10M 15/22 Cumber-Jung. Yuen Yang* 15gp 1d6 x3 4lbs P or S M 9/12 G Sai* 3 gp 1d4 x3 2lbs P M 9/4 G/N Siangkam* 3gp 1d6 x2 3. Double*‡a 60gp 1d10 x3 15lbs P/S MW 9/30 G Hwa-Keka 20gp 2d4 x2 10lbs S MW 6/22 Jumonki-Yari*†a 10gp 1d8 x3 12lbs P or S WM 5/24 182 . Steel* 20gp 1d8 18–20/x2 6lbs S M 9/12 G Hammer. Iron* 16gp 1d8 18–20/x2 7lbs S M 6/14 Grain Sword. Nine Ring* 80gp 2d4 18–20/x2 16lbs S M 9/32 G Chain. Chinese* 35gp 2d4 x3 14lbs B M 9/28 G Hook. From Stone to Steel Table 5-5: Far East Weapons Exotic Weapons-Melee Weapon Cost Damage Critical Range Weight Type M H/HP Subset Small Manriki-gusari*†# 8gp 1d6 x2 5lbs B M 9/15 N/S Ninja-to 10gp 1d6 18–20/x2 4lbs S M 9/12 N Nunchuku*# 2gp 1d6 x2 2lbs B WC 5/6 G/N Nunti-Sai* 5gp 1d4 x3 2lbs P M 9/6 N Pendjepit* 4gp 1d4 x3 1lb P M 6/3 Rante*# 8gp 1d6 x2 10ft 6.5lbs B W 5/5 Wheel. Steel Quoit 25gp 2d4 x2 15lbs B M 9/30 Eku 2gp 1d8 x2 5lbs B W 5/10 Grain Sword. Steel* 65gp 1d8 19–20/x2 16lbs S M 9/32 Sa Tjat Koen*# 11gp 1d8 x2 4lbs B WM 5/8 G/N/S Sword. Steel*‡a 13gp 1d8 x2 5lbs P MW 9/10 G Urumi*†*# 30gp 1d6 19–20/x3 15ft 8lbs S M 9/16 Large Blade.5lbs S M 9/10 G Chain Sword*‡ 20gp 1d4/1d4 19–20/x2 5lbs S M 9/15 G Cumber-Jung.

Beheading 40gp 2d4 18–20/x2 18lbs S M 9/34 Sword.5lbs P MW 6/2 S Small Chakram. Iron* 65gp 2d6 x3 16lbs S MW 7/32 Pudao. Double Bronze‡ 49gp 1d8/1d8 x2/x2 16lbs B M 4/32 Mace. Long-Handle Nine Ring† 75gp 3d3 19–20/x2 20lbs S M 9/40 G Tabar.1lbs P M 9/1 N Uichi-ne 6gp 1d4 x2 20ft . Double Iron‡ 51gp 1d8/1d8 x2/x2 15lbs B M 6/30 Mace. Steel 25gp 1d12 x3 22lbs S M 9/44 Tschehouta. Golden Coin 20gp 1d8 x3 10lbs S M 9/20 G Shovel. Steel* 10gp 1d4 x3 30ft 2lbs S M 9/6 Fukidake* 1gp 1 x2 10ft 2lbs As per Needle W 3/6 N Nageteppo* 50gp 2d6 x2 10ft 1lb N/A M 9/3 N Whip. Chay Yang†‡a 50gp 1d8/1d6 x3 15lbs P&S MW 9/30 G Mace. The Far East Table 5-5: Far East Weapons Exotic Weapons-Melee Weapon Cost Damage Critical Range Weight Type M H/HP Subset Large Kama-Yari*†a 10gp 1d8 x3 12lbs P or S WM 5/24 Knife. Iron‡ 13gp 1d8/1d8 x2/x2 22lbs S MW 7/44 Monk's Spade. Chinese Throwing* 6sp 1d3 x3 10ft . Steel*†‡a 50gp 1d8/1d6 x3 15lbs P&S MW 9/30 G Laingtjat‡ 25gp 1d6/1d6 x3 13lb S M 6/26 Longsword. Iron*†‡a 44gp 1d8/1d6 x3 18lbs P&S MW 7/36 Kwandao. Double Headed†‡a 12gp 1d8/1d8 x3/x3 10lbs P/P MW 9/20 G Staff. Horse Hair Tassel* 3gp 1§ x2 10ft 3lbs S FW 2/9 G Whip. Yeung Guen Long*†‡a 55gp 1d8/1d6 x3 16lbs P&S MW 9/32 G Kongo-Zue*‡ 15gp 1d6/1d6 x2 9lbs B WM 5/18 Kumade*† 14gp 1d4 x2 11lbs P WM 5/22 S Kwandao. Damascened 425gp 1d12+1 x3 22lbs S M 10/47 Tabar. Steel* 70gp 2d6 x3 15lbs S MW 9/30 G Ram Da'o 13gp 1d8 x2 6lbs S M 9/12 Shovel. Steel‡ 15gp 1d8/1d8 x2/x2 20lbs S/S MW 9/40 G O-No† 20gp 2d4 x3 14lbs B M 9/28 Paralyser*†a 15gp 2d4 x3 11lbs P W 5/22 Pudao. Damascened* 410gp 1d4+1 x3 30ft 2lbs S M 10/9 Chakram. Moonteeth‡a 30gp 1d8/1d6 x3 16lbs P&S MW 9/32 G Sjang Sutai†a 25gp 2d4 19–20/x2 11lbs S MW 6/22 Sode Garami*a 14gp 1d4 x2 13lbs P M 9/26 Spear. Early Steel*†‡a 12gp 1d8/1d8 x3/x3 10lbs P/P MW 8/20 Exotic Weapons-Ranged Tiny Darts. Wolf's Teeth* 16gp 1d8 x2 12lbs B&P M 9/24 G Sword. Steel Barbed Chinese* 6gp 1d4 x2 10ft 3lbs S LM 4/9 183 . Double Steel‡ 55gp 1d8/1d8 x2/x2 14lbs B M 9/28 G Mancatcher*† 6gp 10lbs W 5/18 Mancatcher w/ Spike*† 11gp 1d4 x2 11lbs P WM 5/20 Meteor Hammer*†‡# 65gp 1d8/1d8 x2 14lbs B MC 9/28 G Monk's Spade.5lbs P 10M 9/2 G Piau* 3gp 1d3 x3 10ft 1lbs S M 6/3 Shuriken* 2gp 1d2 x2 10ft .

From Stone to Steel Table 5-5: Far East Weapons Exotic Weapons-Ranged Weapon Cost Damage Critical Range Weight Type D/M H/HP Subset Medium-Size Bow. Iron (weight per 10) 8sp 1. Heavy (Padded) 5gp +1 +8 0 5% 30ft/20ft 10lbs F 2/20 Cloth Armor.5lbs P MW 6/2 Quarrel. Steel 75gp 1d6 x3 60ft 5lbs As Per Arrow M 9/15 Chu Ko Nu* 60gp 1d6 19–20/x2 60ft 7lbs As per Quarrel WM 5/21 Chu Ko Nu. Improved* 75gp 1d6 19–20/x2 70ft 7lbs As per Quarrel WM 5/23 Flying Weight* 12gp 1d6 x2 10ft 3lbs B MC 9/6 G Han-Kyu 35gp 1d6 x3 60ft 2lbs As per arrow W 5/6 N Javelin. ‡ Double Weapon † Reach Weapon a If you ready an action to set this weapon against a charge you deal double damage. Bronze (weight per 10) 7sp 1.5lb P MW 4/2 Quarrel. Stone (weight per 10) 2gp 2lbs P S 4/2 G Indicates a weapon is part of the Guang Hu subset N Indicates a weapon is part of the Ninja subset S Indicates a weapon is part of the Samurai subset * See the description in the text for special rules. Silk 12gp +1 +9 0 5% 30ft/20ft 8lbs F 3/18 Paper Armor. Iron 3gp 2. Pellet 25sp 1d4 19–20/x2 60ft 7lbs As per Pellet WM 5/21 Pellet. # Shield Bypass Weapon § Subdual damage Table 5-6: Far East Armor Armor Max Dex Armor Check Arcane Speed30ft/ Armor Cost Bonus Bonus Penalty Spell 20ft Weight‡ M H/HP Light Armor Bezainted Leather 75gp +3 +5 -3 20% 30ft/20ft 23lbs LM 5/46 Cloth Armor. Whistling* 2gp 3lbs P WM 5/3 Bow. Clay (weight per 30) 3gp 2lbs B§ S 1/2 Quarrel. Steel Armor Piercing* 3gp 3lbs P WM 5/3 Arrow. Forked 2gp 4lbs S WM 5/4 Arrow. Mongol Recurve* 90gp 1d6 x3 110ft 4lbs Per Arrow W 5/12 Bow. Rope* 12gp 1d6 x2 10ft 2. Lacquered 45gp +3 +5 -1 10% 30ft/20ft 16lbs L 5/32 Padded Armor.5lbs P M 6/3 Shot. Multishot* 150gp 1d6/1d6 19–20/x2 80ft 7lbs As per Quarrel WM 5/21 Zhuge Nu. Axeblade 2gp 3lbs S WM 5/3 Arrow. Steel (weight per 10) 1gp 1lbs P MW 9/1 Shot. Studded 13gp +2 +5 0 15% 30ft/20ft 15lbs FM 2/30 Corded Armor 25gp +2 +6 -1 15% 30ft/20ft 14lbs C 3/28 Jigap 15gp +2 +7 0 10% 30ft/20ft 12lbs F 3/24 Leather. Chinese* 200gp 2d6 x2 150ft 8lbs N/A W 3/24 Weapons Ranged-Ammunition Arrow. Pellet 20gp 1d4 x2 40ft 2lbs As per Pellet W 4/2 Crossbow.5lbs P MC 9/8 G Spear Gun* 100gp +5* As Steel Qiang 120ft 36lbs As Steel Qiang 2S 2/36 Teppo 300gp 1d12 x3 150ft 10lbs As per Shot MW 9/30 Zhuge Nu. Chinese Pirate 8gp +1 +7 0 5% 30ft/20ft 7lbs F 2/12 Scaled Jack 85gp +4 +4 -3 20% 30ft/20ft 22lbs MF 9/44 . Primitive Chinese 200gp 1d10 x3 70ft 9lbs As per shot MW 9/27 Rockets. Repeater* 175gp 1d8 19–20/x2 80ft 7lbs As per Quarrel WM 5/21 Large Dai-Kyu 80gp 1d8 x3 90ft 3lbs Per Arrow WC 5/11 S Gun.

Bakhteretz 205gp +6 +0 -7 40% 20ft*/15ft* 49lbs M 9/98 Plated Mail. Lacquered Leather Horse 180gp +3 +5 -1 N/A 40ft/50ft/60ft 32lbs L 5/64 Barding. * When running in heavy armor you move only triple your speed. Leather Elephant 80gp +2 +6 0 N/A 40ft/50ft/60ft 45lbs L 3/90 Barding. Chinese (Mirrors) 230gp +5 +3 -4 35% 20ft/15ft 40lbs M 9/80 Scale Armor. Chinese Steel 55gp +4 +3 -4 25% 20ft/15ft 30lbs M 9/60 Tanko 230gp +5 +3 -4 25% 20ft/15ft 31lbs M 6/62 Tatami Do 195gp +5 +3 -5 30% 20ft/15ft 35lbs MF 9/70 Yoroi 45gp +4 +4 -3 25% 20ft/15ft 28lbs M 6/56 Heavy Armor Banded Armor. The Far East Table 5-6: Far East Armor Armor Max Dex Armor Check Spell Armor Cost Bonus Bonus Penalty Failure Speed30ft/20ft Weight‡ M H/HP Medium Armor Breastplate Armor. Bezainted Leather Horse 300gp +3 +5 -3 N/A 40ft/50ft/60ft 46lbs LM 5/92 Barding. Rhino 40gp +4 +3 -4 25% 20ft/15ft 27lbs L 5/54 Keiko. ** The tower shields grants you cover. not quadruple. . Iron Lamellar Elephant 362gp +4 +3 -5 N/A 30ft/35ft/40ft 93lbs M 6/186 Heavy Barding. Chinese 265gp +6 +1 -6 35% 20ft*/15ft* 35lbs M 9/70 Banded Armor. Chinese 340gp +5 +3 -5 30% 20ft/15ft 41lbs ML 9/82 Hide Armor. Damascened 750gp +6 +1 -6 35% 20ft*/15ft* 35lbs M 10/73 Do-Maru 255gp +6 +1 -6 35% 20ft*/15ft* 45lbs M 9/90 Hatomune Do 850gp +8 +0 -7 40% 20ft*/15ft* 52lbs M 9/104 Hotoke Do 506gp +7 +0 -7 40% 20ft*/15ft* 51lbs M 9/102 Maru Do 260gp +6 +1 -6 35% 20ft*/15ft* 44lbs M 9/88 Mogame Do 640gp +7 +1 -7 35% 20ft*/15ft* 47lbs M 9/94 Nuinobe Do 335gp +6 +2 -5 30% 20ft*/15ft* 42lbs M 9/84 Okegawa Do 510gp +7 +0 -7 40% 20ft*/15ft* 53lbs M 9/106 O-yoroi 505gp +7 +0 -7 40% 20ft*/15ft* 50lbs M 9/100 Plate and Scale Armor. Sind 510gp +7 +0 -7 40% 20ft*/15ft* 50lbs M 9/102 Scale Armor. Iron 180gp +5 +3 -5 30% 20ft/15ft 33lbs M 6/66 Nio Do 205gp +5 +3 -4 30% 20ft/15ft 34lbs M 9/68 Plated Armor. Damascened 450gp +4 +3 -4 25% 20ft/15ft 30lbs M 10/63 Scalemail. Studded Leather Elephant 200gp +3 +5 -1 N/A 40ft/50ft/60ft 60lbs LM 4/120 Medium Barding. Chinese Mountain Pattern 225gp +6 +0 -6 40% 20ft*/15ft* 45lbs M 9/90 Tsuzumi Do 250gp +6 +1 -7 35% 20ft*/15ft* 46lbs M 9/92 Yokinoshita Do 650gp +7 +1 -6 35% 20ft*/15ft* 49lbs M 9/98 Mount's Gear Light Barding. Plated Mail Elephant 1600gp +6 +0 -7 N/A 30ft*/35ft*/40ft* 135lbs M 9/270 Barding. Kolontar 225gp +6 +1 -7 35% 20ft*/15ft* 47lbs M 9/94 Plated Mail. Plated Mail Horse 800gp +6 +0 -7 N/A 30ft*/35ft*/40ft* 90lbs M 9/180 # See the text for special rules. † Hand not free to cast spells. ‡ Armor fitted for small characters weighs half as much. See the description. Bezainted Leather Elephant 600gp +3 +5 -3 N/A 40ft/50ft/60ft 69lbs LM 5/138 Barding. Chinese 210gp +5 +3 -4 25% 20ft/15ft 30lbs M 9/60 Brigandine. Damascened 560gp +7 +0 -8 40% 20ft*/15ft* 52lbs M 10/107 Plated Mail.

Arthur. A Golden Age Barbarians and the Remnants of Rome 188 Goths 189 Vandals 190 Franks 190 Christianity 190 Byzantium 190 The Rise of Islam 192 Lances on Foot 192 Conflict 194 More on Greek Fire 194 Of the British Isles. and the Saxon invasion 196 Feudal Europe 197 Charlemagne 201 The Vikings. A Dark Age. 202 The Fragmentation of Islam 204 Sources of the Crusades 205 End of an Age 207 The Crusades 208 The First Crusade 208 The Second Crusade 209 Flaming Clothing 211 The Third Crusade 211 The Fourth Crusade 213 The Fifth Crusade 217 The Sixth Crusade 217 A Storm Rises in the East 218 The Seventh Crusade 219 Table 6-1: Dark Age Weapons 221 Table 6-2: Dark Age Armor 224 186 .

so that those who read it may be better prepared for the next attack. something we can both eat. I will return to Damascus. and remnants of the Huns sought dominion. All the talk. and try to explain to them how the loss of a city is a vic- driving another tribe of barbarians. flushed and shaky. all things happen as Allah wills. if I let it. prosperity. to see that we and various minor kingdoms. sons. the Goths were a relatively stable force out- have to return to those for whom this battlefield is a far away side the borders of Rome until the Huns entered the region. I will offer he cannot afford to refuse. I can only hope that brother in his homeland. allowed to believe our faith. Acre will remain in their hands. His task is impos. and he cannot take it barians. place. This lead to cus. I will not be able to reclaim Acre. so I will have him meet with me in my own closer to his goal than when he arrived here. followed fight and die for this land of blood. the invasion of the Huns set into motion the great roaming barbarian Gothic nations. on account of his honor. Vandals. yet to capture. in the eyes of my Kur- dish generals. Richard is a would batter down the walls of Jerusalem by himself. I almost do not wish to return to Damas- the Danube and moved south. I will tion of Gothic tribes. he will accept my offer. the Gothic tribes raided across still occupy our land. I do not wish to be known as anything but an instru- and the barbarians seeking to establish a greater dominion. Two waves of that. I understand their concepts of honor and generosity. I believe he There will be no need for silks. Actually a conglomera- With a truce signed. His forces have withered like leave it to other Sultans. weakening an cannot help to feel the burden of the death I have wrought already decaying border defense force. And this victory is not the end of my work. I have killed their fathers. even before he accepts my offer. myself? Yet I am here. and they would 187 . His victory at Acre. I have studied There is a mighty spirit in him. brothers so as to secure a tenuous peace with the Franji that a stable home-front. The holy men among them cry for blood. and a worthy foe should As to the particulars. if they truly wish to come as pilgrims. A Dark Age. The fever that access to Jerusalem. some seed of our return home to. I a favorable settlement and tribute from Rome. And who am I to question them? The prophet himself said that Franks. Before Rome fell. and tell my people descended from the Scythians). after all. sible. were it merely a matter of willpower. He has seen thousands of men die. and he would not appreciate such things as my him fall under a horse in battle and come up with sword Emirs feel the need to see. other faithful men to grapes left too long on the vine. but Those tribes that agreed to defend the borders of Rome would be Jerusalem will remain in mine. which I have seen in battle. all the admiration can of the western world entered a Dark Age. a stronghold of civilization from us. to our sense of right. sacking Roman cities. and yet he could not destroy us. straddling portions of the Balkans and Asia Minor. other generals. and make him another offer. way for certain Gothic tribes to be approached with an offer. Yet the honor is mine. knowing that I will take a meal with him in my Let this victory be permanent. There will be peace. Visigoths. not have to gild it to impress someone. With those larger powers doing do as Allah desires. much ment of Allah’s will. An field again to claim that which I should already own. A Golden Age I will treat with the Franji King tomorrow. and he is no will impress him. and security. I am even willing to give them the ones to receive the tribute and distribute it. and eventually paving the upon my own people. With the split in the Imperial battle. They look at me as an instrument It is the Will of Allah. And even I have heard of the doings of his their best warriors still rally to spill it. And yet it is humbling to see their admi- everything they could to merely maintain what power they had. In the major- ity of Europe. steps had been taken to preserve a portion of the my faithful warriors. his pride preceeds him like an honor guard. before them. There are the seeds of civilization even telling himself he cannot take them. When I have brought him to sit with me under the my servants and my enemies that I can feel most free to be pavilion. their customs as best I can. I will have one of my stewards find be treasured. in the eyes of the Mameluke slaves who are not Inshallah. If he wishes to have a country to this journal may convey some of my insight. Eastern Rome remained. and though we have failed in Rome’s collapse was not total. show him my hospitality. by those few Franji who I was able and I cannot help but picture him. would not want to deny them access to Him. His great horses bore down on rulership. gold. ration. of Allah. and I aides tell me hfe all but rejected my gifts of snow and fruit. I’ve seen warrior born. tent. was upon him appears to have abated at last. in the giving. deflect my eyes and heart. by the Will of Allah. barbarian tribes like the Ostrogoths. although my Though they will not accept it. and yet. craving my gifts but so similar to our own. and I will. for once. and for its populace. victory. We have victory. I do not think this will be by the martyrdom of thousands. I have brought this army against his best and worst. we share a God. we have also succeeded. and attack put the Goths in a precarious position. the Alans (who were tory for Islam. will leave him a city too large the last Crusade. I do not think a show of opulence I feel for him. I have fought the Franji king. There is a look in the eyes of the Emirs. within their barbaric culture. lacking fertile land. Though I know they have been received into paradise. and women. We have Roman Empire from collapse. May I never have to take the tent. We need only look to our The Middle East was divided between the Sassanids of Persia. mighty-maned and fierce as a lion. When Western Rome fell to bar- reclaimed the holy city of Jerusalem. Should I laugh that it is only among swinging. to our very lives.

although certain disputes lead A thick knife about a foot in length. the battleaxe was a practical weapon. to the Pyrennes. The later throwing clubs were 188 . From here the three tribes would draw straws to divide Scramsax. Other minor tribes would split the with Martial Weapons proficiency may also throw it without northern territories. although sometimes these veil. Club. and Moesia. The blade itself is at resulted in skirmishes along the joint borders from time to time. con. broadswords. and it does most of its damage from the weight of the blade. and francisca. Those southern Gaul and through most of Iberia. Most warriors wore leather or chain. trolling all of Asia Minor and Anatolia (modern day Turkey). The barbarians tended to fight Huns. Commonly used by German tribes. The Vandals. took control of most of the Gallic region. spears. and most other tribes from the land and forcing the Sueves into only were better for thrusting with. Battleaxe. They would never return. a crescent blade. and the Sueves would take the lands closest penalty. Alans. goths. and matian coast. the Vandals. but a perfect angle The western world was in chaos. forces that had been in the region and were themselves trying to hold back an invasion of the barbarian Picts at Hadrian’s Wall. whose tenacious refusal to fall to Byzantium still The francisca is a substantial throwing axe. or lost homeland. axes. Early Steel their holdings among themselves. Most of those tribes that agreed from Roman designs. scramsaxes. most related to the lands dagger by those with only Simple Weapon proficiency. Other barbarian tribes. Many early broadwords were formed a German Kingdom there. The Franks. with large rectangular or oval shields most to this offer would eventually become known as the Visigoths. The Vandals utensil. to strike a target the francisca is thrown at. Adapted from tree-cutting axes. western portion where the Bretons. The Visigoths spread over tapered. the Visigoths on the side of Rome. and they and more fertile than it is today. the scramsax was an eating to duel by champion to determine the outcome. Their neighbors to the west were Francisca. common. Her holdings in Asia were even more impressive. eventually driving that grew thinner towards the point had a very wide base. the broadsword is characteristi- oths would split. but those Carthage had dominated. The Francisca is a practical weapon for the Germans. the Ostrogoths and Visig- Not as long as the longsword. holding all of Greece. Wooden and Early Steel Throwing ity in their warfare tactics. vertical manner. the Ostrogoths with the poorly in sieges. Shields were taken would be lit before being thrown. Early Steel the Persians. since its par- Thracia. the Palestinian coast. wooden throwing clubs were mail. an awkward angle to use as a chopping axe. trained with its use as children. The scramsax may be used as a sess the Iberian lands in the South East. and wore the spangenhelm. training. and their unwillingness to fight in a skirmish line as the Romans did. although without quite the same reach. a Celtic tribe. were of uniform width nearly to the point. except the small north- and were used in much the same style as the longsword. and Sueves. through a lack of good siege weaponry and Huns. you warred in Northern Germany and Southern Denmark. either getting wider or thinner towards the point. held dominion. The Saxons take would be allotted Northern Africa. Those wider at the tip were heav- the northwesternmost point of Spain. and Egypt. A throwing axe might not travel far. and a backup weapon. would travel across Gaul and into Iberia. the battleaxe is not the perfect weapon for combat. an iron helmet with a chain little better than very heavy sticks. The Ostrogoths invaded the Italic peninsula and cally two to three inches in width. the blade was more likely to avoid damage than an arrowhead. Such a decision should be made The British themselves absorbed the last remnants of the Roman on purchase. Both of these forces would stand in the battle with the throwing clubs. clinging to the hope that they might regain their it may either have a half-moon shaped blade. bows. descendant ier in the front and did more chopping damage. The Alans would come to pos. Most German tribes of those who had often sought to invade Gaul. javelins. Early Steel The remnants of the Western Empire encamped along the Dal. a skinning tool. which sometimes also had a faceguard. who were used to fighting in dense forests. where the superior range of other missle weapons was moot. which at this time was cooler their name from this weapon. and if it struck a tree. while the Angles and Saxons Optional: Should you opt to have a tapered broadsword. three provinces south of the modern day rying surface is poor. though. which they invented. flat-topped with a curving blade. The battleaxe is a generally single edged chopping weapon. but it did so in a Barbarians and straight. Early Steel As the Western Roman Empire folded. establishing themselves in Spain. From Stone to Steel be considered citizens of Rome. Broadsword. Ukraine. The general weapons of the barbarian tribes were Many of those that did not would eventually become the Ostro. chopping (slashing) weapons. darts. Byzantium herself was powerful still. Still. at this point. and made may elect to make the weapon solely a thrusting (piercing) or war together against the Celtic British people in the British Isles. the Remnants of Rome The major barbarian tribes of Europe had a great deal of similar. controlled most of the North African lands that Carthage had controlled. broadswords.

and most of the Slavic peoples of Eastern tribes were considered honorable by those more civilized. of Attila and the new strength of the Visigoths. and remarriage was forbidden. there were differences. Byzantine Padded Armor short and metal. Francisca. this was a particularly cruel pun- ishment. Wooden Club. and some Goth Wagons historians claim that the women often fought bare-chested to dis. Then they would move on their target. Steel Throwing Club. 2b. Byzantine Chainshirt. Magyar legends attest to rarely broke treaties and insisted that those they made treaties the relationship between the Slavs and the Huns. they would draw the wagons into as perfect a circle as they ical evidence and other historic accounts suggest this to be a fan. and someone throwing a throwing club may opt to make the damage subdual rather than normal at only After their defeat by Roman forces. When Goths were traveling or embarking on a Goth men fought armored with only a cloak. usually a caravan or encampment. Battleaxe variation. Battleaxe. 4. Goth wagons were large. 8. 3a. 2a. the Huns became marginalized. was the wagon ring. and Slavic with held to their word. could. 3b. One fascinating (and factual) tactic the Goths employed. blending into local eastern civilized nations. but losing as often as they won. When they married. 6. The sneak attack bonus of rogues can be Eastern Europe. Since status came from family. and attack from cover. With the questionable wedding night death added to this attack as well. fighting skirmishes for tribute with Goths both halves of the Empire. canopied and tract their opponents. enemies unexpectedly. A Dark Age. Tapered Broadsword. 5a. These precursors to maces were thrown with the ciful fiction intended to make the Goths seem fearsome and bar- intention of being recovered. In fact. Byzantine Breastplate and Mail. 5b. those who were tures like the Turks and Mongols in later periods. At the first sign of a 189 . although archaelog. raid. 3c. 7. These same historians also claimed that the drawn in trains. Generally the Gothic populations. Broadsword. known to be unchaste were excluded from being able to marry. the Huns retreated to a –2 to attack penalty. Although the barbarians were often grouped together by more Eventually they would disappear. Being a ranged bludgeoning baric. Scramsax. weapon. Both Goth men and women fought in battle. they married for culture would see re-infusions from later warlike eastern cul- life. the throwing club was very effective at knocking out though. They Europe would inherit their heritage. Battleaxe variation. leather-sided affairs. A Golden Age 5a 5b 3a 4 1 2a 2b 3b 8 7 3c 6 1.

From Stone to Steel
counter attack from their foes, the Goths would retreat into the to the whims of the German rulers, and popes and priests were
circle of wagons, which acted as a makeshift fortress, blocking often killed for not conforming to the desires of those who ruled
arrows, spears, and sling stones. The Goths could stand in the their region. In the former Roman provinces heresies, beliefs that
breaches and attack from relative safety, throwing their missile varied strongly from what was considered the universal norm,
weapons until they were exhausted. This tactic was especially prospered, like that of the Arians. This lead to various regional
effective against the Romans, since the Romans often attacked in churches. The Roman Church maintained communications
a rigid line, men shoulder to shoulder with shields locked, shar- between itself and the provinces, and used the old Roman system
ing their protection, often carrying an extra shield above their of dividing the empire into parishes and diocese to establish their
head to protect from missiles. This formation, the Tetsudo or tor- own internal hierarchy.
toise formation, was extremely effective, and made it impossible
Roman Catholic Christianity would receive its first major boost
for the light Goth forces to make a successful hit. But if the
when Clovis, King of the Franks, converted to Roman Catholi-
Goths were within their wagon ring, the Roman’s were forced to
cism, and mandated that his Kingdom become Christian. This
fight in a skirmish order. Siege weapons like the catapult were
not only made the largest contiguous Kingdom in Europe at the
very effective at breaking up wagon rings, but since patrols often
time an overlty Christian nation, but it also lent a lot of implied
didn’t have any siege weapons to speak of, this tactic was only
power to the Roman Church. In areas where lesser kingdoms or
effective in a limited capacity.
no one lord ruled, monasteries gradually grew in social power,
taking on the spiritual care, and sometimes physical care, of the
Vandals general populace. This also aided the Roman Church in fighting
The Vandals, on the other hand, were considered impassive and heresies or reabsorbing groups that had strayed from Church
devout. Where the Goths resisted Christianity, the Vandals teachings. It should be noted that not all heresies were perse-
embraced it. However, the Vandals did not embrace Roman cuted, and that some heresies lead to dialog and change within
Catholicism, but rather Arian Christianity, a sect that preached the Roman Church.
the non-divinity of Jesus. As the Vandals conquered lands they
imposed their religion on the populace, and treated Roman In Byzantium the Orthodox Church held sway. A doctrinal split
Catholics harshly. They also rejected the celebrations common to early in the history of the Christian church separated the Roman
other barbarian peoples, like the Goths. Stern, serious con- Catholic and Orthodox Churches. The Patriarchy of the Ortho-
querors, they established not only a land empire that spread dox Church was based in Constantinople, and the Orthodox
through most of Northern Africa, but a powerful navy that church absorbed a great deal of the rich culture of the Eastern
ranged throughout the Mediterranean. Carthage, Sicily, and most Empire. The tense relations between both religions was often
of the western Mediterranean islands were eventually conquered lost on the peasantry, but it would lead to a split between most of
by the Vandals, and this aggression would eventually lead the Europe and those nations that would eventually adopt Ortho-
forces of Byzantium against them. doxy, most notably Russia.

Franks Byzantium
The Franks, whose land often faced the threat of outside Byzantium had been fighting Persia for hundreds of years before
invaders, fought off waves of barbarian tribes, who generally Western Rome fell. The Fall of Western Rome left Byzantium
made the crossing over the Danube and into Central and South- without much defense from barbarian tribes, and the Dalmatian
ern France. The Frankish King allied himself with a number of Roman forces were entreated to accept Byzantine hegemony, in
friendly tribes and brought war to the invaders, driving the Visig- order to bolster Byzantine defenses. As it was, armies had to be
oths out of Central and Southern Gaul, and establishing the transferred from the Persian front and relegated to Syria,
Frankish state. The king of the Franks, in order to defray the cost Lebanon, Palestine, and Asia Minor. But the Persians, under the
of having to defend the whole of Gaul, divided his nation into rule of the Sassanids, were implacable. Relying heavily on their
fiefs, and offered major tribes and families jurisdiction over cer- Cataphracts and Archers, the Persians were nearly impossible for
tain portions of land in exchange for their fealty to himself. This the archery light Byzantine armies to defeat, but their siege craft
system decentralized power and military control, but made it was not perfect. Byzantium established forts and fortified cities,
possible for a number of allied lords to control larger portions of and preferred to fight their wars from behind high walls, sallying
land. This was the beginning of the Feudal system that would forth with their horsemen during lulls in combat. The Byzantine
dominate Europe during the Medieval period. army was made up of heavy cavalry similar to the Cataphracts of
Persia, which wore breastplate armor and bore lance and sword
(Spathion), Lighter Horse archers garbed in chain shirts and car-
rying composite bows, soldiers in scale armor and bearing
Christianity spears, maces, swords (Xiphos or Spathions) and shields, and
Christianity, despite being the religion of Rome at the end of the light troops in either padded or leather armor with spears, slings,
Empire, was very weak at the beginning of the Dark Ages. With- bows, and shortswords (Xiphos).
out the Roman infrastructure the Church became very vulnerable

190

A Dark Age, A Golden Age
Breastplate and Mail, Byzantine Early Steel ished a military reorganization. One of the most interesting
The Breastplate and Mail armor of the Byzantines is a historical results of this reorganization was not its new formations of war-
oddity. Breastplates were phased out of use by the Persians, and band, brigade, and division, but its careful attention to a non-
the western warriors of the Crusades would only wear chainmail. standard division of forces.
The basis for this armor came from the lorica segmentata, which
became too expensive to produce in the late Roman period, but Comitatus and the Optimati
which, simplified, survived in Byzantium, which also had many The Germans used a kind of military unit called the Comitatus
Greek roots. The similarity between the Byzantine breastplate during the years that lead to the fall of the Roman Empire. The
and the Greek cuirass was often evident in the design. Comitatus was a gathering of soldiers-at-arms who pledged
themselves to a particular tribal chieftain or leader because of
their affection or respect for that leader. The Comitatus system
Chain shirt, Byzantine Early Steel
established bodyguards of irregular soldiers for major chief-
The Byzantines gave professional archers mail shirts, and usu-
tains. The bonds that men formed in the Comitatus were often
ally one size fit all. On some the fit was tight, on others the chain
as strong or stronger than family bonds, since the men in a
hung loose and far down on the chest. This meant that the armor
Comitatus ate, slept, fought, and died together. Later, in the
was often less than fully effective, no matter how well made it
Dark Ages, these groups would attach themselves to beloved
was. If you wish to simulate this with chain shirts or chain armor
nobles, calling themselves Frater Comitatus, Brothers in Com-
in general, consider rolling a d10. On a roll of 1, the mail is too
mitment. This is the basis for legendary groups of knights like
tight, and the armor bonus is –1 versus bludgeoning strikes. On a
the mythical Round Table of Arthur.
roll of 10, the mail is too loose, and the armor bonus is –1 versus
piercing attacks. European chainmail was used in a similar fash- The Optimati were a German military force elected by their
ion, although chainmail barding was fitted. tribes. Each Optimati warrior was determined by their clans to
be the best warriors they had. Optimati received the tribe’s sup-
Padded Armor, Byzantine port and were often assigned assistants, called armati, who were
Byzantine padded armor evolved from the heavy quilted cloth- sent to attend to the Optimati’s needs and tend to his armor and
ing worn with heavier armors. Usually given to militia and con- weapons. The Optimati tradition appears to be a direct progeni-
scripts, padded armor wasn’t much to look at or to defend with, tor to the later knightly traditions that would become popular
but it was better than nothing. A slashing weapon might draw with the Feudal System and the Chivalric Movement.
more stuffing than flesh in a quick strike, and in a battle that
could mean the difference between disembowlment and living to The scouting of an enemy’s army to determine their numbers
fight another day. was an ancient and established practice. Techniques like count-
ing campfires and torchlights had often been used, although this
Lance, Byzantine Early Steel was exploited by Hannibal to great effect. The most common
The Byzantine lance was often eight feet in length. The lance is scouting method involved counting marching units. Since most
considered a reach weapon. The lance can be used in a charge, armies were organized in a specific number, knowing how many
doing doublee damage (triple with the Spirited Charge feat). formations there were and simple arithmetic could determine a
Critical damage on a charge would triple that lance damage yet roughly accurate number of soldiers. The Byzantine forces, how-
again, often with deadly consequences. ever, were not organized by strict number, and scouts found it
much more difficult to get an accurate count of men in the field.
Without accurate numbers, their foes often over or underesti-
Xiphos, Single and Double Edged Early Steel and Spathion,
mated Byzantine forces, and would either fall back too early or
Early Steel stand at a defense that was untenable.
The xiphos descended from the kopis, akinakes, and falcata.
There were two kinds of xiphos. One was a full length slightly Belisarius fell upon the Vandals like an avenging angel. His
curved thick sword, reminiscent of the scimitar and falchion, troops, tempered in battle against Persia and hardened by long
without any embellishments. The double-edged xiphos was a marches through Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, easily over-
shorter sidearm, often carried by those whose main weapon was whelmed the Vandal forces in Numidia, and then marched
not a sword. Someone who favored a longer double-edged blade straight into Carthage. During their time in Carthage, and espe-
would favor the spathion, which descended from the Roman cially after the sack of Rome, the rich living of the Vandals, as
spatha. well as their poor treatment of the local people made them ripe
for slaughter. There was no need to march on Mauritani