Q1. “Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organization together
so that the goals of each other are met”. Comment Discuss the operative function of HRM in
light of above statement, emphasizing the need for integration function

Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so
that the goals of each other are met. The role of HR manager is shifting from that of a
protector and screener to the role of a planner and change agent. Personnel directors are the
new corporate heroes. The name of the game today in business is personnel. Nowadays it is
not possible to show a good financial or operating report unless your personnel relations are
in order. Over the years, highly skilled and knowledge based! Jobs are increasing while low
skilled! jobs are decreasing. This calls for future skill mapping through proper HR"
initiatives. Indian organizations are also witnessing a change in systems, management
cultures and philosophy due to the global alignment of Indian organizations. There is a need
for multi skill development. Role of HR" is becoming all the more important.

Procurement – Procurement refers to a string of activities undertaken by the HR managers
for filling the present and future vacancies of the organization. The activities include job
analysis and designing, HR planning, recruitment and, finally, the selection of suitable
employees. Here, job analysis refers to both the determination of specific tasks and
responsibilities connected to a job and identifying the skills, knowledge and abilities required
for the job holder. HR planning involves choosing and placing the right person at the right
job and at the right time. Recruitment involves gathering a pool of applicants from which
suitable employees may be selected. Lastly, selection involves screening, testing,
interviewing and hiring the most suitable employees for the organization.

Development -Development here refers to both employees’ training and management
development. HR managers are accountable for conducting and supervising training and
development programmes for employees. The very purpose of a training and development
programme is to increase the employees’ competencies in their job by improving their
knowledge, skills and abilities. Training and development is widely accepted as a method for
enhancing the employee skills, increasing the individual and organizational performance,
improving the employee morale, and achieving the business growth and success.

Compensation - Compensation refers to the determination of the pay scale and other benefits
for the employees. Establishing and maintaining the pay system of an organization is one of
the principal jobs of the HR managers. They must devise ways to ensure fair and equitable
pay rates. In addition, HR managers should regularly manage the performance evaluation
system of the organization, and continuously design reward systems such as performance-
linked incentive plans and bonus and flexible work schedules.

Maintenance - The maintenance function aims at retaining efficient and experienced
employees in the organization. This calls for creative HR practices. In this regard, HR
managers are responsible for offering a wide range of HR programmes covering occupational
safety, health promotion and physical fitness, canteen facilities, recreation

This function is performed by all the managers throughout the organisation rather that by the personnel department only. People Centered: Human Resource Management is people centered and is relevant in all types of organisations. financial management. It is to be understood here that the functions of HRM can vary widely from one organization to another. a smaller organization may follow a shorter HRM process with a greater emphasis on functions like procurement and compensation and little or no priority for activities like training and development and industrial relations maintenance. The broad classification of personnel in an industrial enterprise may be as follows: (i) Blue-collar workers (i. and marketing management. 2. They should also counsel the employees and the management to prevent and. It is not a responsibility that a manager can leave completely to someone else. Differentiate between personal management and human resource management. Discuss the nature. he must undertake the basic responsibility of selecting people who will work under him. 3. working in any department has to perform the personnel functions. The nature of the human resource management has been highlighted in its following features: 1. those working on machines and .e.activities. large organizations may pursue a longer and more comprehensive HRM process to meet the requirements of both the management and the workforce. Integration . If a manager is to get the best of his people. However. when necessary. and career management processes. size. scope. On the contrary. For instance. he may secure advice and help in managing people from experts who have special competence in personnel management and industrial relations. employee suggestion schemes. career counselling and growth for creating a positive work environment. That is every manager from top to bottom. transportation programmes. Inherent Part of Management: Human resource management is inherent in the process of management. 4. Basic to all Functional Areas: Human Resource Management permeates all the functional area of management such as production management. resolve disputes over labour agreements or other labour relation issues.HR managers have to implement industrial relations programmes that would ensure ethical and fair treatment in disciplinary action. grievance redressal. Pervasive Function: Human Resource Management is a pervasive function of management. depending upon its nature. and objectives. objectives and importance of HRM.It consists mainly of industrial relations and aims at ensuring good relations between the management and the employees. Q2. It is concerned with all categories of personnel from top to the bottom of the organisation. It is performed by all managers at various levels in the organisation.

professional personnel. very vast and wide. (iii) Professionals (such as Chartered Accountant. maintenance/retention. Lawyer. They require human relations skills to deal with the people at work. For the performance of these activities efficiently. Every person has different needs. development. Human relations skills are also required in training performance appraisal. etc. The Labour or Personnel Aspect: . perceptions and expectations. indeed. and control of human resources in the organisation (see figure 1. Scope The scope of HRM is. The managers should give due attention to these factors. a separate department known as Personnel Department is created in most of the organisations. (ii) Managerial and non-managerial personnel. the scope of HRM consists of acquisition. The human beings can‘t be dealt with like physical factors of production. placement. The scope of HRM as follows: 1. transfer and promotion of subordinates. employment. The same forms the subject matter of HRM. It includes manpower planning. 5.1).e.) and non. Personnel Activities or Functions: Human Resource Management involves several functions concerned with the management of people at work. Based on Human Relations: Human Resource Management is concerned with the motivation of human resources in the organisation. 7. clerical employees). training.) and white-collar workers (i. appraisal and compensation of employees. Company Secretary. Continuous Process: Human Resource Management is not a one shot function. Accordingly. It must be performed continuously if the organisational objectives are to be achieved smoothly. engaged in loading. unloading etc. 6. It includes all activities starting from manpower planning till employee leaves the organisation.

To establish and maintain cordial relations between employees and management. 6. Objectives The primary objective of HRM is to ensure the availability of right people for right jobs so as the organisational goals are achieved effectively. 3. 2. housing. etc. medical assistance. transfer. promotion. rest and lunch rooms. incentives. lay-off and retrenchment. To help maintain ethical policies and behaviour inside and outside the organisation. To develop and maintain the quality of work life (QWL) which makes employment in the organisation a desirable personal and social situation. transport. joint consultation. placement. 2. 5. health and safety. To utilize the available human resources effectively. This primary objective can further be divided into the following sub-objectives: 1. grievance and disciplinary actions. Industrial Relations Aspects: This covers union-management relations. To help the organisation to attain its goals effectively and efficiently by providing competent and motivated employees. selection. etc. etc. productivity. To reconcile individual/group goals with organisational goals. 4. 3. settlement of disputes. collective bargaining. and amenities such as canteen. HRM Objectives and Supporting Functions: . Welfare Aspect: It deals with working conditions. recreation facilities.This is concerned with manpower planning. recruitment. 7. training and development. creches. education. remuneration. To increase to the fullest the employee’s job satisfaction and self-actualisation.

placement. orientation. e) Ensuring that the enterprise will have in future a term of competent and dedicated employees. development. recruitment. d) Utilizing effectively the available human resources. performance appraisal. selection. c) Securing willing co-operation of employees through motivation. etc. compensation and promotion policies. Importance of human resource management The significance of human resource management can be discussed at four level 1) Corporation 2) Professional 3) Social 4) National Significance 1) An enterprise: a) Attracting and retaining the required talent through effective human resource planning. grievance handling. b) Developing the necessary skills and right attitudes among the employees through training. etc. participation. .

b) Maintaining healthy relationships among individuals. Countries are underdeveloped because their people are backward. leads to higher standards of living and fuller employment. Effective management of human resources helps to speed up the process of economic growth which. The level of development in a country depends primarily on the skills. Management is primarily dealing with human beings and human problems are present everywhere. The effective exploitation and utilization of a nation’s natural. c) Allocating work properly. It contributes professional growth in the following ways: a) Providing maximum opportunities for personal development of each employee. qualifications. There are wide differences in development between countries in the quality of their people. According to Lawrence apply. c) Eliminating waste of human resources through conservation of physical and mental health. needs and aptitudes. The quality of people in all subsystems depends largely upon the policies. 2) Professional significance Effective management of human resource helps to improve the quality of work life. not the direction of things. attitudes and values of its human resources. in turn. “management is the development of people. physical and financial resources require an efficient and committed manpower. In the modern era of automation and competent people to run it. It permits term work among employees by providing a healthy working environment. programmes and practices of the HRM subsystem. b) Maintaining a balance between the jobs available and the jobseekers in terms of numbers. . HRM interacts closely and continuously with all other subsystems of an organization. As the central subsystem. and different work groups. 4) National significance: Human resources and their management plays a vital role in the development of a nation. It helps to enhance the dignity of labour in the following ways: a) Providing suitable employment that provides social and psychological satisfaction to people. The quality of human resources determines in turn the success of an organization. 3) Social significance Sound human resource management has a great significance for the society.

decentralization. decisions are made collectively after considering employee's participation. development. Human resource management assumes people as an important and valuable resource for achieving desired output. However. Under personnel management. culture.Personnel management v/s Human resource management Human resource management is the new version of personnel management. Human resource management focuses on effectiveness. There is no any watertight difference between human resource management and personnel management. motivation and maintenance of human resources in the organization. productivity and employee's participation. Human resource management is a modern approach of managing people and their strengths in the organization. job design is done on the basis of division of labour. Personnel management focuses on increased production and satisfied employees. Personnel management focuses on personnel administration. In human resource management. Under human resource management. authority. 1. 6. Under personnel management. there are some differences in the following matters. Personnel management is concerned with personnel manager. 10. employees are provided with more training and development opportunities. 4. 7. Under personnel management. Human resource management is concerned with all level of managers from top to bottom. employee welfare and labor relation. administrative function is undertaken for goal achievement. Under human resource management. job design function is done on the basis of group work/team work. Personnel management assumes people as an input for achieving desired output. decisions are made by the top management as per the rules and regulation of the organization. 5. In personnel management. personnel function is undertaken for employee's satisfaction. 3. Personnel management is a traditional approach of managing people in the organization. Under human resource management. Human resource management is a strategic function . competitive environment etc. 2. Human resource management focuses on acquisition. employees are provided with less training and development opportunities. 9. Personnel management is a routine function. 8.

the HR professionals must articulate their role in terms of creating value. This innovation has created opportunity for the HR professionals to play leadership role in assisting the organization to meet the competitive challenges. What are the challenges available for HR manager of today? What are the coping strategies? Challenges faced by HR Managers Because of continuous changing socio-economic. both HR or staff and line managers must be involved. faster and cheaper ways to reduce costs. HR professionals should become a partner with senior and line managers in strategy execution. understand the theory and practice of HR. Business Challenges and Globalization Due to globalization. HR Collaboration with Line Managers HRM function is a joint responsibility for all managers within the enterprise i. The Effect of Information Technology in Workplaces Information technology has made the world smaller and faster through internet. enterprise now face business challenges which require the organization to build new capabilities. HR Exhibition of Expertise in the Organization of Work As trained administrators. 1998). G. the quality of HR staff need to be improved. the HR professionals will have to explore and design means of carrying out HR functions in a better. The HR professionals will be held accountable for ensuring that employees show commitment and add value to the business of the organization irrespective of attending to their social needs. Upgrading the Skills of HR Professional to be able to cope with the global challenges and be relevant in the current century. E. technological and political conditions. The challenge for the HR Managers is to make good use of what information technology offers and to make it to be a viable productive part of work setting and tool. Beside cost reduction. reduce cycle time for innovation or implementing new technology. Ideas and large amount of information now move freely and constantly. HR as Vanguard of Employees’ Welfare. . They must measure their effectiveness in terms of business competitiveness and success rather than employee comfort or satisfaction. D. C. helping to move planning from the conference room to the market place (Ulrich. The enterprise need people who know the business. The human resource managers of today may find themselves obsolete in the future due to changes in environment if they do not update themselves some of the important challenges which might be faced by the managers in the management of people in business and industry. H. F.e. Some of the challenges are as follows: A. the human resource managers of the future shall have to face more problems in the management of labour. HR as an Innovative Agent The HR professionals must work towards initiating change that are focussed on creating high performing teams. B. HR Creating Value in the Organization to meet the increased expectations of the organisation. efficiency and quality have to be maintained in service delivery.Q3.

How can we expect others to change then? Bringing change in . human resource managers need to efficiently address following human resource challenges:  Handling Multicultural / Diverse Workforce: Dealing with people from different age. They may find themselves in dire consequences if they are not able to handle the human resource challenges efficiently. marital status and ancestry and work experience can be a challenging task for HR managers. income.  Managing Change: Who wants to change their ideology or way of working? Neither you nor I. retain the best talents of the industry. ethnicity. agility and positive attitude of HR managers can bind the diverse workforce and retain talents in the organization. location. views. lifestyles and psychology can be very risky. The exercise will usher in a lot of changes within the privatized organization and the HR professionals must brace up to the challenges posed by the exercise as it relates to HR planning and management. Effective communication. gender. plan out human resources needs and strike a balance between the organization and employers in order to increase organizational productivity and meet organizational goals. where it is still evolving.I. motivate them to perform better and handle diversity while maintaining unity simultaneously. Globalization has resulted in many positive developments but it has left many concerns for HR managers. HR and Political Process With the democratic changes occurring all the world over. To remain in business. Coping strategy Human Resource Management used to be considered as other conventional administrative jobs. educational background. managing people with different set of ideologies. religious beliefs. coordinating a multicultural or diverse workforce is a real challenge for HR department. It is really a huge challenge to understand the psychology of workforce. adaptability. Human resource managers are on their toes to strike a balance between employer and employees keeping in mind the recent trends in the market. Not to exaggerate but in today’s highly competitive world it has gradually become one of the most important functions of an organization. especially in countries like India. The Challenge of Privatization and Liberalization The privatization of government companies involves the divestment of public holdings in these enterprises for the benefit of single or multiple private shareholders or owners. parental status. Multi-Skilling Process The pace of change in the HR environment in this era of globalization will require the HR professionals to be multi-skilled. K. it has evolved as a strategic function to improve working environment. In today’s tough world and tight job market. They must devote more attention to core strategic issues in HR management and be facilitator or change initiators and internal consultant to the organization. With this. But over a period of time. race. J. the populace in which the work community is inclusive must internalize democracy and discharge their civic duties to the country.

technological. Contextual model of HRM: The contextual model of HRM emphasizes the importance of environmental factors by including variables such as the influence of social. it was pointed out by Keenoy that ‘hard and soft HRM are complementary rather than mutually exclusive practices’. It may be stated that the Human Resource function does not operate in vacuum. Although it is almost impossible to avoid conflicts among people still handling them tactfully can help HR managers to resolve the issues. They must be thorough with the basic functions of HR including planning. institutional and political forces that have . 2. and professional conditions. calculative and business-strategic aspects of managing human resources in as “rational” a way as for any other economic factor. Business environment is so volatile. Upgrading the existing technology and training people for them is a real headache for HR department. The hard and soft HRM models: Storey distinguished between the ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ versions of HRM. political. Maintaining harmonious relations with them. The success rate of technology change depends how well HRD can handle the change and manage people issues in the process. The Human Resource Management model contains all Human Resource activities. All thanks to globalization. 1. organizational. they will result in a competent and willing workforce who will help realize organizational goals. Technology keeps changing every now and then. HR professional must be proactive with all strategies and action plans in order to meet the changing needs of the organization. (a) Discuss the HRM models.  Conflict Management: HR managers should know how to handle employee- employer and employee-employee conflicts without hurting their feelings. He wrote that: ‘the hard one emphasizes the quantitative. leading and controlling human resources. organizational processes and procedures. decide and communicate to them in a convincing manner in order to avoid future conflicts. motivation and leadership. By contrast. the soft version traces its roots to the human-relations school. Now that they have endless lucrative opportunities to work. It is influenced by several internal and external forces like economic. (b) Explain the evolution of HRM. legal.’ However. organizing. Research in eight UK organizations by Truss indicated that the distinction between hard and soft HRM was not as precise as some commentators have implied. There is another variable in the model – environment. hiring and retaining the best industry talent is no joke. it emphasizes communication. When these activities are discharged effectively. implementing it and then managing it is one of the biggest concerns of HR managers. Q4.  Retaining the Talents: Globalization has given freedom to working professionals to work anywhere in the world. They should be able to listen to each party. providing excellent work environment and offering more remuneration and perks than your competitors can retain and motivate them.

The main distinction between this model and what Brewster referred to as ‘the prescribed model’ was that the latter involves deregulation (no legal framework). The contextual approach is broader. Policies establish guidelines for action on people related business issues and HR programs. ● Multicultural organizations. ● Continuous learning. These stakeholders may be external as well as internal and both influence and are influenced by strategic decisions. ● Participation in decision-making.’ A broader set of stakeholders is involved in the formulation and implementation of human resource strategies that is referred to by Schuler and Jackson as a ‘multiple stakeholder framework’.been underestimated in other models. 5. European model of HRM: Brewster described a European model of HRM as follows: ● Environment – established legal framework. no trade unions and a focus on organizational objectives but not on social concern. ● Emphasis on social responsibility. These coordinate efforts to facilitate change to address major people related business issues. tolerance. ● Objectives – organizational objectives and social concern – people as a key resource. also environment. This point was made in their classic statement that: ‘The critical management task is to align the formal structure and human resource systems so that they drive the strategic objectives of the organization’. consider the context as a contingency variable. ● Relationship with line managers – specialist/line liaison. flexibility. integrating the human resource management system in the environment in which it is developed. As set out by Maybe the characteristics of the European model are: ● Dialogue between social partners. which indicated that HR systems and the organization structure should be managed in a way that is congruent with organizational strategy. The matching model of HRM: Fombrun proposed the ‘matching model’. It expresses how to treat and value people. According to Martin- Alcázar: ‘Context both conditions and is conditioned by the HRM strategy. Thus they took the first steps towards the concept of strategic HRM. 4. The latter. . ● Role of HR specialist – specialist managers – ambiguity. at best. ● Focus – cost/benefit its analysis. 3.  Policies: Expressed as shared values and guidelines. The 5-p’s model of HRM:  Philosophy: Expressed in statements defining business values and culture.  Programs: Articulated as human resource strategy. ● Relationship with employees – union and non-union.

quality circles etc. Labour began to be considered a commodity to be bought and sold. d) The Humanitarian Concept: It is based on the belief that employees had certain inalienable rights as human beings and it is the duty of the employer to protect. e) The Behavioral Human Resource Concept: It aimed at analyzing and understanding human behavior in organization. 1997). materials. organizational climate. .  Processes: For the formulation and implementation of other activities these define how activities are carried out. Guild was a closely knit group concerned with selecting. role of informal groups. management by objectives. b) The Factor of Production Concept: Employees were considered a factor of production just like land. Modern concept of HRM has developed through the following stages (Gupta. became popular under this concept. Evolution and Development of Human Resource Management (HRM)! HRM activities have probably been performed since ancient times. training. machinery. Employers assured a fatherly and protective attitude towards their employees. a) The Commodity Concept: Before industrial revolution. Slowly and steadily. The pioneering work of Peter Drucker and Douglas McGregor in the 1950s laid its formal foundation. Focus shifted towards management practices like two way communication. Motivation. group dynamics. c) The Paternalistic Concept: Employees organized together on the basis of their common interest and formed trade unions to improve. They are given share in company’s stock membership. Hawthorne Experiments of Douglas McGregor also generated considerable interest in human problems of work place. Rather social and psychological satisfaction was equally important. the guild system was the beginning of personnel management. rewarding and maintaining workers. This is also known as human relations concept. Taylor’s scientific management stressed proper selection and training of employees so as to maximize productivity. Also employers began to provide schemes to workers. Employees began to be considered as valuable assets of an organization. HRM is emerging as a discipline. organizational conflict etc. f) The Emerging Concept: Now employers are considered as partners in industry.  Practices: For leadership managerial and operational role practices motivate needed role behaviours. Next slide discusses the differences between traditional personnel management and emerging HRM. Efforts were made to integrate employee with the organization so that organizational goals and employees aspirations could be achieved simultaneously.

2. Internal source includes promotion. Demand Forecasting HR forecasting is the process of estimating demand for and supply of HR in an organization. 3. under which the external (PEST) and internal (objectives. . “HR planning has 2 stages. it includes an inventory of the workers and skills already available within the organization and a comprehensive job analysis. HR planning is a continuous process which starts with identification of HR objectives. It is done to meet the future personnel requirements of the organization to achieve the desired level of output. Human resources planning assess the manpower requirement for future period of time. It is concerned with the estimation of supply of manpower given the analysis of current resource and future availability of human resource in the organization. Moreover. Following are the major steps involved in human resource planning: 1. After the analysis of external and internal forces of the organization. job enlargement and enrichment. It will be necessary to perform a year-by-year analysis for every significant level and type. Comment and explain the steps involved in process in light of above statement. it will be easier for HR manager to find out the internal strengths as well as weakness of the organization in one hand and opportunities and threats on the other. It attempts to provide sufficient manpower required to perform organizational activities. transfer. whereas external source includes recruitment of fresh candidates who are capable of performing well in the organization.planning for manpower requirement and planning to manpower supplier”. resources and structure) are analyzed to assess the currently available HR inventory level. Human resource planning is a process through which the company anticipates future business and environmental forces.Q5. Assessing Human Resources The assessment of HR begins with environmental analysis. Demand forecasting is a process of determining future needs for HR in terms of quantity and quality. Supply Forecasting Supply is another side of human resource assessment. Future human resource need can be estimated with the help of the organization's current human resource situation and analysis of organizational plans an procedures. move through analysis of manpower resources and ends at appraisal of HR planning. It estimates the future sources of HR that are likely to be available from within an outside the organization.

this step is followed by control and evaluation of performance of HR to check whether the HR planning matches the HR objectives and policies. It is concerned with bringing the forecast of future demand and supply of HR. Action Plan It is the last phase of human resource planning which is concerned with surplus and shortages of human resource. the personnel department become successful in their task of recruiting the right people for a specific job. What is Job analysis? Discuss the significance of Job analysis. it is very helpful in organizational planning by co-ordination the activities of the workforce and facilitating the recruitment and selection of personnel by matching the jobs with their qualities.evaluation and consequently evaluating the salary and wage administration on the basis of qualifications and the risks/hazards involved in a job. Matching Demand and Supply It is another step of human resource planning. job analysis aids not only in hiring personnel. The matching process refers to bring demand and supply in an equilibrium position so that shortages and over staffing position will be solved. Hence. Finally. the HR plan is executed through the designation of different HR activities. socialization etc. the process of job-analysis provides information enabling the management to transfer personnel from a job not matching with their qualities to a job more appropriate for their aptitude. Job- analysis lays the standards for job performance thereby aiding job. The major activities which are required to execute the HR plan are recruitment. In case of shortages an organization has to hire more required number of employees. It also facilitates transfer and promotion of personnel. By specifying the job requirements. This action plan should be updated according to change in time and conditions. interests and abilities. Job analysis is a process of collecting information regarding the nature. but also in their training and placement. it aids in the performance appraisal by comparing individual performance with clear cut performance standards for every job. it is concluded that this matching process gives knowledge about requirements and sources of HR. skill and experience that an individual prospective employee should possess in order to perform that particular job Armed with the knowledge gained from an accurate job analysis. selection. placement. training and development. . 5. Significance of Job-Analysis: Since job analysis clearly defines the labour needs of an organization. job analysis helps to develop the content for training and development programmes and the extent of training needed to be provided to a specific individual for a specific job. Prepare the job description of a manager working in a company of your chosen area. Conversely. in the case of over staffing it has to reduce the level of existing employment. By providing specifications about job requirements. Under it. operation and responsibilities of a specific job so that the personnel department become aware of the knowledge.4. Q6. By setting standards. By matching the requirements of a job with the worker’s aptitudes.

e. mathematics. brand.The job description of a manager working in a market research company Research Manager The Market Research Manager is responsible for selecting the appropriate research methodology and supporting techniques to meet a defined business objective. It aims at outlining and organising tasks. writing reports. PowerPoint. Upon completion. Responsibilities:  Communicating with clients to understand and document the business objectives  Selecting the most appropriate research methodology and techniques  Designing qualitative and quantitative research plans for products in all stages of the Product Life Cycle  Designing research questionnaires and moderator guides  Working with Project Directors to oversee the fieldwork initiative  Interpreting data. the Research Manager develops or assists in the development of the research instrument. The Research Manager works closely with vendors or Market Research Project Directors ensuring the successful execution of the fieldwork. and making actionable recommendations Requirements:  A minimum of 5 to 7 years within the custom Market Research industry  1 to 3 years of industry/sector experience  Academic and practical experience with a wide array of new product. duties and responsibilities into a single unit of work for the achievement of certain objectives. it is the next step after job analysis. Job design follows job analysis i. the Market Research Manager reviews the collected data. and SPSS/SAS  Bachelors or advanced degree in business. or the sciences Q7. Depending upon the selected methods. advertising and customer satisfaction research methodologies  Exceptional written and oral communication abilities  Strong analytic skills with experience in statistical modelling and analysis  Proficient with Excel. Define Job design. Discuss the behavioural and ergonomics consideration while designing jobs. It also outlines the methods and relationships that are essential for the . author’s reports and makes business-oriented recommendations to the sponsoring client.

by incorporating elements of variety in the job. In simpler terms it refers to the what. The data in question always pertain to departures from safety and health. Ergonomics considerations are: Safety and health There can be no disagreement about the desirability of safety and health objectives. Variety: Lack of variety. leads to fatigue. On the contrary. fatigue and mistakes can be avoided and the job can be done in more effective and efficient manner. The difficulty stems from the fact that neither is directly measurable: their achievement is assessed by their absence rather than their presence. Fatigue causes mistakes and accidents. boredom. or say doing the same work. Use of Abilities: Workers perform jobs effectively that offer them opportunity to make use of their abilities. But. Research studies report that jobs that give autonomy to workers also increase sense of responsibility and self-esteem. in turn. Job design essentially involves integrating job responsibilities or content and certain qualifications that are required to perform the same. absence or lack of autonomy can cause workers apathy to jobs and. how many and the order of the tasks for a job/s.success of a certain job. Behavioural considerations are: Behavioural factors are based on the premise that people are influenced to work to satisfy their needs. in turn. Further it also makes the job look interesting and specialised. Higher the need. Feedback helps workers improve their performance. It outlines the job responsibilities very clearly and also helps in attracting the right candidates to the right job. low and poor performance. . Workers find such jobs as interesting and challenging. One’s behaviour at work is governed by certain factors are: Autonomy: Autonomy means freedom to control one’s actions/responses to the environment. Feedback: Job design should be determined in such a way that workers receive meaningful feedback about what they did. more one finds job challenging. causes boredom which. how much.

vision. For example. In industrial situations. It is now accepted that such complex high-technology systems require a considerable and continuous ergonomics input from design to the assessment of any failures that occur. for example. particularly the ratio of output to input. It involves assumptions about equivalence of effort and other costs because it is based on the principle that the human operator will perform as well as is feasible in the circumstances. much of the evidence is long-term as it is based on populations rather than individuals. when an aircraft is taking off or a process system is being shut down. The controllers of such systems monitor performance and make their contribution to productivity and to safety by making tuning adjustments to ensure that the automatic machines stay on line and function within limits. and in human terms this requires the consideration of the penalties to the human operator. They become more dangerous when moving or being moved between equilibrium states. When or if something goes wrong human error is invariably a contributing cause. but it is not necessarily an error on the part of the controller: human errors can originate at the design stage and during setting up and maintenance. transport aircraft.In the case of health. productivity is relatively easy to measure: the amount produced can be counted and the time taken to produce it is simple to record. High reliability is the key characteristic not only for safety reasons but also because unplanned shut-down or stoppage is extremely expensive. It is. Reliability is straightforward to measure after performance but is extremely difficult to predict except by reference to the past performance of similar systems. . There is much to recommend this simple approach provided that it is used with due regard to the many possible complicating factors which can disguise what is really happening. Efficiency incorporates the cost of what is done in relation to achievement. oil refining and power generation). All these systems are in their safest states either when they are quiescent or when they are functioning steadily within the designed performance envelope. abilities and so on). from wrist problems to mental apathy. therefore. Productivity and efficiency Productivity is usually defined in terms of output per unit of time. The effects on health can be diverse. what should be the maximum hours per day or per year required of a worker at a computer workstation? It depends on the design of the workstation. reliability rather than productivity becomes the key measure in high technology systems (for instance. necessary to maintain careful records over long periods and to adopt an epidemiological approach through which risk factors can be identified and measured. the kind of work and the kind of person (age. Reliability and quality: As explained above. so it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies covering quite large populations while simultaneously keeping track of differences within the populations. Productivity data are often used in before/after comparisons of working methods. The best safeguard is to try to make sure that nothing has changed between the before and after situations except the aspects being studied. If the productivity is higher than the circumstances must be better. situations or conditions. whereas efficiency incorporates other variables.

Issues as diverse as allergies and cancer can take a toll on an employee’s energy level and ability to perform well at work. stress and chronic health issues are now known to be linked). – Family issues. But by far the most common health reasons for absenteeism centre on ergonomic issues such as hand. lack of motivation and other work-averse conditions. If the parents are shift-workers. An employee stuck in a boring job – or even an interesting job that is overly challenging – can easily slide into dis-engagement and then into absenteeism. – Stress. the possibility of absenteeism rises still further as caregivers struggle to supervise children or elders living under their roof. In this post. Here are some of the most common reasons why employees begin to be chronically absent from work: – Harassment. This can be an especially prominent cause of absenteeism in households where both parents work. newer research reveals it can also be a symptom of a much larger employer-based issue. If an employee is being singled out by co-workers or a supervisor in a way that is perceived as bullying or harassing. back and neck pain (to the tune of 100 million work days annually).Q8. Define absenteeism and turnover? Absenteeism Absenteeism is what happens when an employee begins to chronically miss work. High stress in the workplace is a major cause of absenteeism (not surprisingly. that employee is more likely to engage in absenteeism. – Lack of motivation. But while absenteeism is often perceived as an employee issue. Stress can take the form of burnout. – Chronic illness. bosses and co-workers and can cost repeat offenders their job. learn more about absenteeism. Absenteeism is expensive to employers. – Depression. – Job interviews. Yale researchers report that depression (whether work-related or not) makes an employee twice as likely to miss work. While less of a long-term cause of absenteeism. . Depression is still the reigning cause of absenteeism in the American workforce today. including the many reasons why it happens and what can be done to remedy the situation. employees that begin to become chronically absent or late due to job interviews disguised as “traffic jams” or “illness” are often soon gone for good as well.

turnover or labour turnover is the rate at which an employer gains and loses employees. mistakes. Employee oriented organizations solicit input and involvement from all employees and maintain a true "open-door" policy. One firm had a turnover rate of more than 120% per year! It cost the company $1. increased employee selection time. but 21% per year for computer companies. Turnover rates average about 16% per year for all companies. and not having knowledgeable employees in place are some of the frustrations associated with excessive turnover. Simple way to describe it are "how long employees tend to stay" or "the rate of traffic through the revolving door. additional overtime. one with a major impact on productivity. Employees believe they have a voice and are recognized for their contribution . Excessive turnover can be a very costly problem." Turnover is measured for individual companies and for their industry as a whole. Employees are given opportunities for advancement and are not micro-managed. lost work efficiency. High turnover may be harmful to a company's productivity if skilled workers are often leaving and the worker population contains a high percentage of novice workers. If an employer is said to have a high turnover relative to its competitors. interrupted schedules. it means that employees of that company have a shorter average tenure than those of other companies in the same industry. Lengthy training times.54 Computer Company’s average higher turnover because their employees have many opportunities to change jobs in a “hot” industry.5 million a year in lost productivity. Many studies show that companies with low turnover rates are very employee oriented. But cost is not the only reason turnover is important.TURNOVER In a human resources context. and other indirect costs. increased training time.