Largest prehistoric animals

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Also see: Human timeline and Nature timeline The largest prehistoric organisms include both vertebrate and invertebrate species. and pikas (Lagomorpha) 1.13 Rodents (Rodentia) .1.4 Carnivores (Carnivora) 1. Generally the size of extinct species was subject to energetic[1] and biomechanical constraints.1. gymnures.1. Orange labels: known ice ages.1.1.10 Anteaters and sloths (Pilosa) 1. hares.1.6 Hedgehogs.1.1 Mammals (Mammalia) 1.11 Primates (Primata) 1.1.8 Cimolestids (Cimolesta) 1.1. Many are described below.5 Armadillos.2 Even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla) 1.12 Elephants. Their body mass.7 Rabbits.3 Marsupials (Marsupialia) 1. Many species mentioned might not actually be the largest representative of their clade due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and many of the sizes given are merely estimates since no complete specimen have been found. and mastodons (Proboscidea) 1.1 Whales (Cetacea) 1.[2] Contents 1 Vertebrates 1. see the link to each). is mostly conjecture because soft tissue was rarely fossilized.1. mammoths. shrews. along with their typical range of size (for the general dates of extinction.1. glyptodonts and pampatheres (Cingulata) 1.9 Odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyla) 1.1. and moles (Erinaceomorpha and Soricomorpha) 1.1. especially.P r o t e r o z o i c A r c h e a n H a d e a n PongolaHuronianCryogenianAndeanKarooQuaternaryAxis scale: millions of years.

2 Diadectomorpha 1.3.3.6 Amphibians (Amphibia) 1.5 Birds (Aves) 1.16 Arsinoitheres (Arsinoitheriidae) 1.2 Non-mammal synapsids (Synapsida) 1.6.7.4.5 Hesperornithines (Hesperornithes) 1.5.6.1 Mackerel sharks (Lamniformes) .21 Notoungulates (Notoungulata) 1.7.4.5.8 Phorusrhacids (Phorusrhacidae) 1.7 Teratorns (Teratornithidae) 1.4.3.1 Crocodiles and relatives (Crocodylomorpha) 1.1.1.3 Ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) 1.6 Pareiasaurs (Pareiasauridae) 1.6.3 Plesiosaurs 1.12 Cormorants and allies (Pelecaniformes) 1.1 Placoderms (Placodermi) 1.1.1.4 Ichthyodectid (Ichthyodectidae) 1.1.3 Storks and allies (Ciconiiformes) 1.17 Owls (Strigiformes) 1.5 Ornithopods (Ornithopoda) 1.2 Lizards and snakes (Squamata) 1.20 Litopterns (Litopterna) 1.5.11 Songbirds (Passeriformes) 1.5.2 Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) 1.4.4.1.5 Turtles and tortoises (Testudines) 1.8 Cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) 1.24 Mesonychids (Mesonychia) 1.5.1.3.4 Non-avian dinosaurs (Dinosauria) 1.1.4 Pigeons (Columbiformes) 1.2 Theropods (Theropoda) 1.1 Sauropods (Sauropoda) 1.6 Diatrymas (Gastornithiformes) 1.3 Armoured dinosaurs (Thyreophora) 1.13 Bony-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes) 1.5.1.5.4 Temnospondyli 1.22 Oxyaenids (Oxyaenidae) 1.15 Parrots (Psittaciformes) 1.16 Penguins (Sphenisciformes) 1.14 Woodpeckers and allies (Piciformes) 1.5.3.15 Sirenians (Sirenia) 1.7 Phytosaurs (Phytosauria) 1.4 Ceratopsians (Ceratopsia) 1.5.3.7.9 Accipitriforms (Accipitriformes) 1.5.3.1 Plesiosauroids (Plesiosauroidea) 1.1.5.1.3.5.3 Reptiles (Reptilia) 1.17 Condylarths (Condylarthra) 1.7 Bony fish (Osteichthyes) 1.2 Lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii) 1.1.5.5.2 Pliosauroids (Pliosauroidea) 1.5.1 Waterfowl (Anseriformes) 1.7.3.3.8 Pterosaurs (Pterosauria) 1.8.23 Hyaenodontids (Hyaenodontidae) 1.5.19 Desmostylians (Desmostylia) 1.1 Frogs (Anura) 1.3.14 Astrapotherians (Astrapotheria) 1.3.5.10 Gamebirds (Galliformes) 1.3 Anthracosauria 1.6.4 Ichthyosaurs (Ichthyosauria) 1.18 Dinoceratans (Dinocerata) 1.

5.1 Gastropods (Gastropoda) 3.3.2 Bivalves (Bivalvia) 3.3.1 Bivalves (Bivalvia) 3. Gigantocamelus and Titanotylopus from North America.4 Hybodontiform (Hybodontiformes) 2 Arthropods (Arthropoda) 2.3.2 Belemnites (Belemnoidea) 3. The largest extinct bovid is Aurochs (Bos primigenius) with an average height at the shoulders of 155�180 cm (61�71 in) in bulls and 135�155 cm (53�61 in) in cows.3 Cephalopods (Cephalopoda) 3.2.2 Symmoriid (Symmoriida) 1.8 feet) at the shoulder and 13 feet tall.[3][4] One notable feature of L.6 kg (5.1 Radiodont (Radiodonta) 2.3 Myriapoda 2.3.2 Chelicerata 2.2 Arachnids (Arachnida) 2. The largest known artiodactyl was Hippopotamus gorgops with a length of 4.5.4 Trilobitomorpha 2.6 feet).1 Eurypterids (Eurypterida) 2.1.2.1 metres (6.8. which likely rivaled the modern blue whale in size. both possibly reached 2.4 m (11 ft).1 Trilobites (Trilobita) 2. the largest known fossil whales were baleen whales from the Pliocene and Pleistocene Epochs.1 Dinocaridida 2. ants and allies (Hymenoptera) 2. at 12 ft long and 7 ft at .2 Protodonata 2.[6] A notable example is the bones of a Pliocene age baleen whale.480 lb) and a shoulder height of over 3.3 metres (14 feet) and a height of 2.3 Siphonaptera 2.485.5.5 and 17. melvillei was its teeth which could exceed 36 cm in length and were unmatched by any other animal.3 Nautiloids (Nautiloidea) 3. Bison latifrons reached a shoulder height of 2. extinct or alive. It was 3 meters (9.5.5.1 Ammonites (Ammonoidea) 3.[5] However. assigned the questionable name "Balaenoptera sibbaldina".8.1 Snails and slugs (Gastropoda) 3. and had horns that spanned over 2 meters (6.[8] The largest known camel that ever lived was the Syrian camel.4.8.1.5 meters in length.4 Neocoleoidea 4 See also 5 References Vertebrates[edit] Mammals (Mammalia)[edit] Reconstruction of Livyatan (left) and Cetotherium (right) Whales (Cetacea)[edit] The largest known fossil Odontocete ("toothed whale") was the Miocene physeteroid whale Livyatan melvillei which was estimated to be between 13.5 Insects (Insecta) 2. while aurochs populations in Hungary had bulls reaching 155�160 cm (61�63 in).[9][10] Daeodon was the largest known entelodont that ever lived.2 feet).[7] Even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla)[edit] The extinct Hippopotamus gorgops is the most massive of the fossil even-toed ungulates.3 Eugenedont (Eugeneodontida) 1.4 Palaeodictyoptera 2.1.5 Dictyoptera 3 Molluscs (Mollusca) 3.9 feet).1 Sawflies. bees.5 meters (8.2. wasps.

91 to 2.6 ft) tall and weighing up to 2.400 lb). significantly downgrade its size. at 4 meters long. it is larger than most (if not all) living mustelids.[22] The largest wolf is the dire wolf (Canis dirus) 1. which was around the size of a wolf or small leopard at 41 kg (90 lb).[25][26] There were other giant otters. although. about the size of a leopard and filling a similar ecological niche before big cats came to the continent. living or extinct. and would have weighed in at around 200 kg (440 lb). being around 2.94 meters) tall at the shoulder.[22][23] The largest canid of all time was Epicyon haydeni. Megalictis was thought to be around the size of a black bear according to old estimates. which stood 37 inches (0. which was larger than a modern-day Giant River Otter. A humerus of A.8 m) long and weighing 100�160 kilograms (220�350 lb). with a skull up to 20 cm long. The largest palorchestids Palorchestes was almost as large as a horse.1.[16] Carnivores (Carnivora)[edit] The largest terrestrial known carnivoran and the largest known bear as well as the largest known mammalian land-predator of all time was Arctotherium angustidens of the genus Arctotherium or the South American short-faced bears.8 ft) in length.[12] Cervalces latifrons was twice as heavy as the Irish elk but its antlers were smaller. The largest known wild suid to ever exist was Kubanochoerus gigas. which could grow to 3. The largest bear-dog was a species of Pseudocyon weighing around 773 kg.[11] The extinct Irish elk (Megaloceros giganteus) and the stag-moose (Cervalces scotti) were of similar or of slightly larger size than the Alaskan moose. angustidens from Buenos Aires indicate that the big males of this species would have weighed 1.3 m (4.786 kg (6. However.4 meters) tall on the hind-limbs. about 3 metres (9.[29] Armadillos.[14] The two largest known carnivorous marsupials were the marsupial lion and Thylacosmilus (larger than the Tasmanian tiger).[17][18] The largest viverrid known to have existed is Viverra leakeyi. gymnures. [15] Some species from the genus Sthenurus were similar in size as well. shrews.370 kilograms (1. like Siamogale. representing a very large individual.3 m (11 ft) and 2 tonnes (4.588. estimated at 190 kg (420 lb).[22] The closely related percrocutid feliform.the shoulder.142 lb). It occupied the same ecological . standing 2 metres (6.9 ft) in length and weighed between 50 and 110 kg (110 and 243 lb). however. and had four powerful legs.[28] Another large-bodied mustelid was the superficially cat-like Ekorus from Africa. 240 kg (530 lb). and moles (Erinaceomorpha and Soricomorpha)[edit] The largest known animal of this group was Deinogalerix. Dinocrocuta. Hedgehogs. glyptodonts and pampatheres (Cingulata)[edit] The largest cingulate known is Doedicurus. The largest known fossil hyena is the lion-sized Pachycrocuta.3 ft) tall at the shoulder. was even bigger. having measured up to 550 kg (1. It exceeded 3 m (9.910 to 2. The largest known kangaroo ever was Procoptodon.2 ft) in length with a weight of about 200 kilograms (440 lb).0 m (10 ft) and weigh 230 kilograms (510 lb). Enhydriodon.[31] measuring up to 60 cm in total length.[13] Marsupials (Marsupialia)[edit] The largest known extinct marsupial was Diprotodon.8 ft) long. about twice the maximum span for a moose's antlers.[19] The heaviest known felid ever was the Ngangdong tiger (Panthera tigris soloensis) with the largest specimen weighing up to 470 kg.040 lb).5 metres (8. at around 50 kg (110 lb)[27] and Megalenhydris. (13 ft) and reaching a mass of approximately 1.210 lb) and stood more than 1.5 m (4. much larger than any known mustelid.749 kg and standing at least 11 feet (3.3 m (14 ft) across. which would make it heavier than a Siberian tiger.[20][21] Also the extinct American lion (Panthera leo atrox).37 t)[30] Glyptodon easily topped 3. weighing up to 420 kg (930 lb)[22] and the saber-toothed cat Smilodon populator of which the largest males might have reached 470 kg (1. the Irish elk could have antlers spanning up to 4.[24] The largest known mustelid to ever exist was likely the giant otter. Newer estimates. both about 6 ft (1. at a maximum weight more than twice that of a wolverine.

the prehistoric baboon Dinopithecus grew even larger than modern Mandrills.7 ft)[35] which is close to the size of the African bush elephant. [42] Sirenians (Sirenia)[edit] .[32][33] Some prehistoric horned rhinos also grew to large sizes. Phoberomys insolita.3 short tons).[38][39] Some other enormous proboscideans include the southern mammoth (Mammuthus meridionalis).8 tonnes (4.8 feet) long and 1.8 ft) tall and weighing 540 kilograms (1.2 ft) in length from nose to rump. was found.3 ft) high at the shoulder and 2. Phoberomys pattersoni. of all time was Paraceratherium. 1 metre (3. a ground sloth with an estimated average weight of 3.5 metres (4.[citation needed] and Deinotherium.2 metres (17. standing 3 m (9. It grew over 8 ft (2.[36][37] The largest known old world monkey.5 meter long lemur that lived in Madagascar and weighed 200 kg. martiale).[40] Before the discovery of Josephoartigasia monesi.9 ft) in length.0 m (26. Several other sloths grew to large sizes as well. and was about 5.niche as dogs and cats today.5 m (4. Astrapotherians (Astrapotheria)[edit] The largest known astrapotherians weighed about 3-4 metric tonnes.2 tons)[35] and a height of 6 m (19. Rabbits.6�18. weighing as much as a grown man. and the second largest land mammal. such as Eremotherium. more than a silverback gorilla.4 tons) and 2 m (6. so its real size is unknown. hares. It was estimated to grow to more than 1250 kg (1. The largest beaver was the giant beaver of North America. 8.200 lb). mammoths.3 to 4. Some prehistoric prosimians grew to huge sizes as well.[34] Anteaters and sloths (Pilosa)[edit] The largest known pilosan ever was Megatherium.3 to 1. another giant rodent was known. The largest individual known was estimated at 4. but none as large as Megatherium. Mounted Deinotherium skeleton.7 ft) long and 2 m (6. Megaladapis is another large extinct lemur at 1.4 ft) long. Elephants. Archaeoindris was a 1. The giant woolly rhino Elasmotherium reached 6 m (19. and 16�17 t (17. also making it one of the largest rodents to ever exist.8 m (15. Primates (Primata)[edit] The largest known primate of all time was Gigantopithecus blackii. including the genus Granastrapotherium[41] and some species of Parastrapotherium (P. and pikas (Lagomorpha)[edit] The largest known prehistoric lagomorph is Minorcan giant lagomorph (Nuralagus rex) at 23 kg (50 lbs). Rodents (Rodentia)[edit] Josephoartigasia monesi was the largest known rodent of all time.8 short tons) in weight.9 feet) tall and weighing an estimated 1 tonne.6 ft) at the shoulders. The largest prehistoric horse was Equus giganteus of North America. which was 3 m (9.7 ft) tall at the shoulders. Odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyla)[edit] The largest known perissodactyl. but it was known from only a few fragments.[33] The largest individuals of the steppe mammoth of Eurasia (Mammuthus trogontherii) estimated to reach 4. A slightly smaller relative.7 tons) in weight.3 tonnes (15. approximately 3 metres (9.8 ft) long and weighed 320 kilograms (700 lb).6 ft) high. One of the largest land mammals of all time was Paraceratherium Cimolestids (Cimolesta)[edit] The largest known cimolestid is Coryphodon.25 metres (7.4 m) in length and weighed roughly 60 to 100 kg (130 to 220 lb).8 ft) at the shoulders and 14. and mastodons (Proboscidea)[edit] The largest known land mammal ever was a proboscidean called Palaeoloxodon namadicus which weighed about 22 tonnes (24.5 metres (14.1 feet) tall at the shoulder. the imperial mammoth (Mammuthus imperator).

and weighed 500�600 kg (1.[53] The largest terrestrial sebecid crocodylomorph is Barinasuchus. and about 1. from the Miocene of South America. which measured an estimated 8�10 meters.3�4. It was about twice the size as modern sirenians. It was a relatively large animal. at 4 meters (13 feet) and 2. This predator would have been 1. with a weight about 3.7�2. which reached 9 m (30 ft) long.[44] Notoungulates (Notoungulata)[edit] The largest notoungulate known of complete remains is Toxodon. It was 1.8 m (5. Another contender was Rytiodus which was 6 m (20 ft) long.8 ft). the preserved fossils suggests that Mixotoxodon were the most massive member of the group.9 feet) in body length. It was about 2. Lizards and snakes (Squamata)[edit] Giant mosasaurs are the largest known animals within this group.9 ft) tall at the shoulders.9�9. and the largest non-dinosaurian terrestrial predator ever discovered. Among the largest carnivorous synapsids was the therapsid Anteosaurus. it had a brain only about as large as an orange. Condylarths (Condylarthra)[edit] The largest known condylarth is Phenacodus. The largest known rauisuchian is Fasolasuchus tenax.[43] Litopterns (Litopterna)[edit] The largest known litoptern was Macrauchenia. Crocodiles and relatives (Crocodylomorpha)[edit] The largest known crocodylomorph is likely Sarcosuchus imperator at 12 metres (39 ft) long and weighing 8 tonnes.[52] Another large crocodilian is Rhamphosuchus.7 metres (8. When alive.The largest known prehistoric sirenian was Steller's sea cow at 8�9 m long (26�30 ft). which had three hoofs per foot.9 ft) long and weighted up to 56 kg. it would have been 1. It was about the size of a rhinoceros. Dinoceratans (Dinocerata)[edit] The largest known dinoceratan was Uintatherium.[45] Sarkastodon Oxyaenids (Oxyaenidae)[edit] The largest known oxyaenid was Sarkastodon weighing in at 800 kg. It is both the largest rauisuchian known to science.4 m (4. Despite its large size. Non-mammal synapsids (Synapsida)[edit] Anteosaurus overviewing the landscape The plant-eating dinocephalian Tapinocephalus probably was the largest known of all non-mammal synapsids.5 metres (4. with a body length of around 3 m (9.9 feet) high at the shoulder and resembled a heavy rhinoceros.[50] Some close contenders in size are Deinosuchus estimated at around 12 metres (39 ft).[22] Mesonychids (Mesonychia)[edit] The largest mesonychid was Mongolonyx robustus.8 tonnes. Arsinoitheres (Arsinoitheriidae)[edit] The largest known arsinoithere was Arsinoitherium.[51] and Purussaurus estimated at 11�13 metres (36�43 ft) in length.400 lb). estimated at 8�11 metres (26�36 ft) in length. Desmostylians (Desmostylia)[edit] The largest known desmostylian was a species comparable in size to the Steller's Sea Cow.5 m (4. and 3 m (9.8 ft) long.[46] Hyaenodontids (Hyaenodontidae)[edit] The largest hyaenodontid was Megistotherium at 500 kg.8 m (8. Although is not complete.3�1.000 kg (4. which was 5�6 meters (16�20 feet) long.100�1. The largest known .[47][48][49] Reptiles (Reptilia)[edit] Megalania skeletal reconstruction on Melbourne Museum steps.300 lb).6 ft) tall at the shoulders and 2.2 ft) long.

mosasaur is likely Mosasaurus hoffmanni. a close rival in size to Gigantophis is a fossil snake.[72] Turtles and tortoises (Testudines)[edit] The largest known turtle ever was Archelon ischyros at 4 m (13 ft) long. and a number of spikes decorating its skull. Palaeophis colossaeus. Pareiasaurs (Pareiasauridae)[edit] The largest known is Scutosaurus. Non-avian dinosaurs (Dinosauria)[edit] .999�5.3 m (11 ft) and weight of up to 1. with bony armor.9 m (16 ft) wide and 2. assuming the skull was about 17% of the total body length.2 meters.[58] but later estimates put it at around 12. Pliosauroids (Pliosauroidea)[edit] There is much controversy over the largest known of these reptiles.3�10.8 ft) long. and Colossochelys atlas at 8 to 9 ft. [61][62] However.[59] The largest known prehistoric snake is Titanoboa cerrejonensis. in 2002. Another close contender is Hatzegopteryx.[60] Another known very large fossil snake is Gigantophis garstini.814�2.019 lb).000 lb).[74] Carbonemys cofrinii has a shell that measures about 1. Pterosaurs (Pterosauria)[edit] The largest known pterosaur was Quetzalcoatlus northropi. Fossil remains of a pliosaur nicknamed as Predator X have been discovered and excavated from Norway in 2008. a team of paleontologists in Mexico discovered the remains of a pliosaur nicknamed as Monster of Aramberri. It was once estimated at 17[57] and 15 metres (49 ft) in length. up to 3 metres (9. Phytosaurs (Phytosauria)[edit] The largest known genus of this order is Rutiodon.8 m long incomplete mandible. estimated at 12. [65] However. estimated at 17. maximum size of this animal is subject to debate.7 metres (31�35 ft) in length.[55][56] Another large mosasaur is Hainosaurus bernardi (could be synonymous to Tylosaurus). long and well over a ton.[54] Another giant mosasaur is Tylosaurus.[71] Ichthyosaurs (Ichthyosauria)[edit] The largest known ichthyosaur was Shastasaurus sikanniensis at 21 metres (69 ft) in length. which had a 9-meter (30-foot) wingspan. which may have been around 9 metres (30 ft) in length. The next largest was Protostega at 3 m (9.200 kg (4. estimated at around 9. It may have reached 18 metres (59 ft).268 kg (3. [73] The second largest seems to be Stupendemys. with an estimated total carapace length of more than 3.900 lb). rivaled the aforementioned Styxosaurus in size. estimated at 10�14 metres (33�46 ft) in length. known from a single 2.[60] [63][64] The largest known land lizard is probably Megalania at 7 metres (23 ft) in length.8 ft). attaining a length of 8 metres (26 ft).[78] Yet another possible contender for the title is Tropeognathus.[69] Another very large pliosaur was Pliosaurus macromerus. such as Albertonectes and Thalassomedon.[75][76][77] Two tortoises share the title of largest known ever tortoise: Meiolania at 8 ft. also with a wingspan of 12 m.8 ft) in length.72 m (5. This pliosaur has been estimated at 15 metres (49 ft) in length and 45 metric tons (50 short tons) in weight.6 ft) and was estimated to weigh 916 kg (2. This estimate is based on a skull 3 m (9. Other elasmosaurs.6 metres (58 ft) in length. 4. at 127 kg (280 lb) and with a wingspan of 12 m (39 ft). which is also estimated at 15 metres (49 ft) in length.[citation needed]and weighing over half a ton.[66] Plesiosaurs[edit] Main article: Plesiosaur size Plesiosauroids (Plesiosauroidea)[edit] The longest known plesiosauroid was Styxosaurus at 12 metres (39 feet) long.[70] Some media sources claimed that Monster of Aramberri was a Liopleurodon but its species is unconfirmed thus far.[67][68] However.[69] This specimen is however claimed to be a juvenile and has been attacked by a larger pliosaur.8 m (42 ft) in length and 1135 kg in weight.

Size comparison of selected giant sauropod dinosaurs.400 kilograms (269. Main article: Dinosaur size Sauropods (Sauropoda)[edit] The largest ornithopods. a large brachiosaur that was discovered in 1930. Both .[84] Theropods (Theropoda)[edit] Size comparison of selected giant theropod dinosaurs The largest theropod as well as the largest terrestrial predator yet known is Spinosaurus aegyptiacus.[79] Many large sauropods are still unnamed and may rival the current record holders. The "Archbishop". Armoured dinosaurs (Thyreophora)[edit] The largest known thyreophoran was Ankylosaurus at 9 metres (30 ft) in length and 6 tonnes in weight. The remains have been lost.[79] Unfortunately. whose largest specimens known estimated at 13. and Diplodocus probably rivaled them in length but not weight. along with the closely related Eotriceratops xerinsularis both with estimated lengths of 9 metres (30 ft). with the largest specimen known estimated at 12. The animal may get a scientific paper published by the end of 2016.[79] Barosaurus lentus may have been the largest sauropod and largest dinosaur yet discovered. suggesting they got much larger. Acrocanthosaurus. the fossil remains of this dinosaur have been lost.9 metric tons (8�23 short tons) in weight. Originally thought to reach only 27 metres (89 ft). Alamosaurus and Puertasaurus with estimated lengths of 30�33 metres (98�108 ft) and weights of 50�80 metric tons (55�88 short tons). The femur suggests an animal that grew to immense sizes. and Tyrannosaurus rex. A mega-sauropod. It has been estimated at 58 metres (190 ft) in length and 122. is a contender for the largest known dinosaur in history. [91] Ornithopods (Ornithopoda)[edit] The very largest known ornithopods.6�18 metres (41�59 ft) in length and around 7�20.[85][86] Other large theropods were Giganotosaurus carolinii. Amphicoelias fragillimus. Carcharodontosaurus. but the sacrum drawing remains.[92] Birds (Aves)[edit] Aepyornis The largest known birds of all time might have been the elephant birds of Madagascar. The skeletons also belonged to sub-adults.2 metres (43 ft)[87] and 12.[81] Giant sauropods like Supersaurus. suggesting maximum length of 50 metres (160 ft) and masses of up to 100 metric tons (110 short tons).[citation needed] Ceratopsians (Ceratopsia)[edit] The largest ceratopsian known is Triceratops horridus. Sauroposeidon. the femur of a large sauropod was discovered in France. Some other notable giant theropods (e.[89][90] Stegosaurus was also 9 meters (30 feet) long but around 5 tonnes in weight. They suggest a sacrum of almost 5 feet long. a massive cervical vertebra has been recently attributed to this species.5 metres (54 ft) in length.800 lb) in weight. Of almost the same size was the Australian Dromornis stirtoni. the nearly complete skeletons of 7 titanosaurs were discovered. like Shantungosaurus were as heavy as medium- sized sauropods at up to 23 metric tons.[83] In 2014. and Mapusaurus) may also have rivaled them in size.3 metres (40 ft)[88] in length respectively.g.[82] "Brachiosaurus" nougaredi. (25 short tons)[92][93] The largest is probably Shantungosaurus at 16. In 2010. The skeletons were massive and possibly exceeded Argentinosaurus in size. is yet another large brachiosaur from Early Cretaceous North Africa.[80] Other huge sauropods include Argentinosaurus. making it the largest dinosaur sacrum discovered so far.

[97][98] If dodos were this light. with a wingspan of 2.8�10. attacking moa Gamebirds (Galliformes)[edit] The largest known in this group was a giant flightless Sylviornis.g. Songbirds (Passeriformes)[edit] The largest known songbird is the extinct giant grosbeak (Chloridops regiskongi) at 11 inches (28 cm) long.2 ft) above the ground and could have weighed as much as 400 kg (880 lb).[94] Shorebirds (Charadriiformes)[edit] The largest known shorebird of all time was the great auk (Pinguinus impennis) at 5 kg (11 lb) in weight and 75�85 cm (30�33 in) in length.2 m (9. a bird 1.8 ft) tall.[99][100] Hesperornithines (Hesperornithes)[edit] The largest known of the hesperornithines was Canadaga arctica at 5 ft long.5 m (8.7 feet) tall. which is about 2. which was about 175 cm tall at the shoulder. a brown. The tallest bird ever was the giant moa (Dinornis maximus) at 3. standing 1. could raise its head 2.6 to 3 m (8. The largest known flight-capable bird was Argentavis magnificens which a wingspan of 8. Diatrymas (Gastornithiformes)[edit] The largest known diatryma was Gastornis 1. with large individuals up to 2 m (6.8 ft). long-necked birds that were superficially ratite-like.6 ft) long and weighing up to about 30 kg (66 lb). flightless birds of South America) was Brontornis.were about 3 m (9. scarcely larger than a male turkey. Haast's eagle.70 m (5. The largest extinct Titanohierax was a giant hawk about 8 kilograms that lived in the Antilles.6 ft) tall. Some estimates claim tha solitaire was merely swan-sized but others estimate weights of up to 27. The dodo is the most frequently crowned as the largest known ever pigeon.2 kg (22 lb). had the largest head of any known bird. as it could have weighed as much as 28 kg (62 lb).3 m (27 ft) and a weight up to 110 kg (240 lb).6 m (12 ft) tall. Cormorants and allies (Pelecaniformes)[edit] .6 ft) in female and they weighed about 10 to 15 kg (22 to 33 Ib).2 ft) tall.9 ft) tall and weighing an estimated 16 kilograms (35 lb).5 to 9. Phorusrhacids (Phorusrhacidae)[edit] The largest known ever gruiform and largest phorusrhacid or "terror bird" (highly predatory. The immense bird had a wingspan estimated up to 8. Dromornis stirtoni). relatively short for their size. Teratorns (Teratornithidae)[edit] The largest known teratorn and the largest flying bird ever was Argentavis.4 m (4. the largest bird of prey. It was as high as an adult human when standing.3 ft) in height. and a body weight of 110 kg (240 lb). weighing 23 kg (51 lb) and standing 1 m (3. The elephant birds were up to 400 kg and Dromornis stirtoni was up to 500 kg in weight. the Rodrigues solitaire may have been larger. Storks and allies (Ciconiiformes)[edit] The largest known of Ciconiiformes was Leptoptilos robustus.[95][96] Pigeons (Columbiformes)[edit] The largest known pigeon ever was the dodo (Raphus cucullatus). All three species may have exceeded 1 m (3.5 ft) tall with a skull 28 inches (71 cm) long (18 inches of which was beak).3 m (27 ft).8 m (9. All were carelessly hunted into extinction by humans and introduced animals. Waterfowl (Anseriformes)[edit] The largest known waterfowl of all time belonged to the Dromornithidae (e. although recent estimates have indicated that an average wild dodo would have weighed around 10.75 metres (5. as tall as a forest elephant.[101] The immense phorushacid Kelenken stood 3�3.8 metres (5. Accipitriforms (Accipitriformes)[edit] The largest known bird of prey ever was the enormous Haast's eagle (Harpagornis moorei).3 ft) tall. The largest North American phorusrhacid is Titanis. Rodrigues solitaire (Pezophaps solitaria).8 kg (61 lb). Total length was probably up to 1. where it was among the top predators.

Cyphornis. Frogs (Anura)[edit] The largest known frog ever was the 16-inch-long (41 cm) Beelzebufo ampinga. weighing 10 pounds (4. was a heavily built animal.9 feet) tall.5 m (4. Another huge temnospondyli was Koolasuchus at 16 ft long.2 ft) and weighing around 80 to possibly over 100 kg. They had a wingspan of 5. Penguins (Sphenisciformes)[edit] The largest known penguin of all time was Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi of New Zealand and Antarctica. it was more lightly built. Eogyrinus commonly reached 4. light and fragile. Gigantornis and Osteodontornis. may have rivaled it in size. It is estimated to have weighed around 3.7 meters (5 feet 7 inches) in height and was 90 kilograms (200 pounds) in weight.3 inches tall probably exceeding 9 kg (20 lb).6 metres (15 ft). with thick vertebrae and ribs. It could reach up to 12 feet in length. Its relative. at around 16.9 ft) tall. Woodpeckers and allies (Piciformes)[edit] The largest known woodpecker is the possibly extinct imperial woodpecker (Campephilus imperialis) with a total length of about 22 inches (50 centimeters). but only 1 ft high. averaging around 6.4 to 1. Anthracosauria[edit] The largest known anthracosaur was Anthracosaurus. however.[103] Amphibians (Amphibia)[edit] Beelzebufo ampinga.[104] Temnospondyli[edit] The largest known temnospondyl amphibian is Prionosuchus. which grew to lengths of 9 meters (30 feet). It stood 1. was larger still. Exact size estimates and judging which one was largest are not yet possible for these birds. and thus most are only known from very incomplete remains. The largest known amphibian of all time was the 30 ft long temnospondyli Prionosuchus. Similar in size were the New Zealand giant penguin (Pachydyptes pondeorsus) with a height of 1. as their bones were extremely thin- walled. Lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii)[edit] The largest known of these was the 6�7 m (20�23 ft) long Rhizodus. Leedsichthys problematicus.2 meters (3.6 tonnes. Pelecaniformes and Anseriformes � and the largest flying birds of all time other than Argentavis were the huge Pelagornis.8 ft). Dasornis.5�6 m (18�20 ft) and stood about 1.6 to 5. Parrots (Psittaciformes)[edit] The largest known parrot is the extinct Norfolk Island kaka (Nestor productus).The largest known cormorant was the spectacled cormorant of the North Pacific (Phalacrocorax perspicillatus).4 kg (14 lb) and 1. Owls (Strigiformes)[edit] The largest known owl of all time was the Cuban Ornimegalonyx at 43. Ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii)[edit] The largest known bony fish of all time was the pachycormid. about 38 cm long.[102] Bony-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes)[edit] The largest known in this group � which has been variously allied with Procellariiformes.15 m (3.[105] Bony fish (Osteichthyes)[edit] Placoderms (Placodermi)[edit] The largest known placoderm was the 6 metres (20 ft) long Dunkleosteus.5 metres (54 ft) long. Diadectes.[106] Claims of larger . Titanichthys.5 kg) Diadectomorpha[edit] The largest known diacectid. 1.6 m (4. which became extinct around 1850. a predator. and Icadyptes salasi at 1.5 to 3 meters long. The largest woodpecker confirmed to be extant is the great slaty woodpecker (Mulleripicus pulverulentus).

with queens growing to 6 centimetres (2. Brontoscorpio is not to be confused with various Eurypterids: it was a true scorpion with a venomous stinger.1 meters) long. It had a wingspan of 15 centimetres (5. Like its modern-day relatives. ants and allies (Hymenoptera)[edit] The largest known of this group was the giant ant Titanomyrma giganteum at 3 centimetres (1. although its sheer size and tough exoskeleton protected it from attack. Measuring 2. wasps. Ichthyodectid (Ichthyodectidae)[edit] The largest known of ichthyodectid fish was the 6.[111] Another fairly large eugenedont is Parahelicoprion.9 in).[113] Chelicerata[edit] Eurypterids (Eurypterida)[edit] The largest known in this group was Jaekelopterus rhenaniae at 2. Arachnids (Arachnida)[edit] There are two contenders for largest known ever arachnid: Pulmonoscorpius kirktonensis and Brontoscorpio anglicus.[112] Hybodontiform (Hybodontiformes)[edit] The largest known hydontiformid is Ptychodus was about 32 feet (9. Trilobitomorpha[edit] Trilobites (Trilobita)[edit] Some of these extinct marine arthropods exceeded 60 centimetres (24 in) in length. [114] Insects (Insecta)[edit] Sawflies. An isolated pygidium of Hungioides bohemicus implies that the full animal was 90 centimetres (35 in) long. The biggest difference is that Brontoscorpio was aquatic. Mackerel sharks (Lamniformes)[edit] An extinct megatoothed shark.5 metres (8. megalodon may have approached a maximum of 20. it was the largest known terrestrial arthropod of all time.0 metres (19.2 in). and an Ogyginus forteyi from Portugal was almost as long. Fragments of trilobites suggest even larger record sizes.0 ft). and human (black) for scale.4 in).6 ft) long. A close contender was Pterygotus at 2. The specimens suggest an animal that grew to the same size (12 meters).5 ft) in length. Pulmonoscorpius was 70 centimetres (2.7 ft) long Xiphactinus . megalodon is by far the biggest shark known. Arthropleura would have likely sprayed hydrogen cyanide at potential predators. Myriapoda[edit] The largest known myriapod by far was the giant Arthropleura.[110] Symmoriid (Symmoriida)[edit] The largest known symmoriid was Stethacanthus at 2 metres (6.[115] Protodonata[edit] . bees.3 metres (67 ft) in total length and 103 metric tons (114 short tons) in mass.individuals persist. Arthropods (Arthropoda)[edit] Dinocaridida[edit] Radiodont (Radiodonta)[edit] The largest known is Aegirocassis at least 7 feet (2. great white shark (green). A nearly complete specimen of Isotelus rex from Manitoba attained a length over 70 centimetres (28 in).[107] This giant shark reached a total length of more than 16 metres (52 ft).3 metres (7.2 ft) in length. Eugenedont (Eugeneodontida)[edit] The largest known eugenedont is a yet unnamed species of Helicoprion discovered in Idaho. The specimens suggest an animal that possibly exceeded 12 metres (39 ft) in length.3 ft) Brontoscorpio was 90 centimetres (3. but was much less slender and overall less heavy.2 ft) and 45 centimetres (18 in) wide.[108][109] C. Cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes)[edit] Megalodon (grey/red) with the whale shark (purple).8 meters) long.5 metres (8. C. and Pulmonoscorpius was terrestrial.

Amber. but the living chamber was incomplete. 118 (4): 491�499.1371/journal. PLoS Biology.3 ft). but some individuals could reach an axial length of up to 3 metres (9. Palaeodictyoptera[edit] The largest known of this order was Mazothairos. PMC 1769424?Freely accessible. Ammonites (Ammonoidea)[edit] The largest known ammonite was Parapuzosia seppenradensis. PMID 3713220. University of Helsinki. Teacher. a giant that usually had an axial length of 1 metre (3.[116] Another enormous and possibly larger species was Meganeuropsis permiana. (21 February 1986). Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi. 5 (2): e22.E. so the estimated shell diameter was probably about 2.8 ft) long.95 metres (6. A specimen of Xenoblatta from Ohio was at least 70 mm long. J.55 metres (8. with a wingspan of up to 22 inches (56 cm). J (2007).[121] See also[edit] Dinosaur size Largest organisms Nature timeline References[edit] ^ Carbone. Jelle Reumer (1 July 2010).4 ft). Retrieved 2009-12-28. growing to 1 inch (2. Belemnites (Belemnoidea)[edit] The largest known belemnite was Megateuthis gigantea with a guard of 46 centimetres (18 in) in length and an estimated total length 3 metres (9. Elsevier Ltd.[120] Neocoleoidea[edit] Both Tusoteuthis and Yezoteuthis are estimated to be similar in size to the modern day giant squid.46 ft). "The giant bite of a new raptorial sperm whale from the Miocene epoch of Peru". A partial fossil specimen found in Germany had a shell diameter of 1. Retrieved 2 July 2010. Mario Urbina. Peru: Nature. Klaas Post.[117][118] Molluscs (Mollusca)[edit] Campanile giganteum shell. Siphonaptera[edit] The largest known in this group was probably Saurophthirus. Journal of Theoretical Biology. Dictyoptera[edit] Several cockroach-like stem dictyopterans from the Carboniferous Period grew to exceptional size. 466 (7302): 105�108. Christian de Muizon. "The Costs of Carnivory". Olivier. Department of Theoretical Physics. ^ Lambert.8 ft). Nature. .4 ft) when it was alive.1016/S0022-5193(86)80167-9. Gastropods (Gastropoda)[edit] Snails and slugs (Gastropoda)[edit] The largest known of this group were in the genus Campanile. Giovanni Bianucci. Rowcliffe. ^ Hokkanen.0050022.The largest known in this group was probably Meganeura with a wingspan of 75 centimetres (2. Chris. Nautiloids (Nautiloidea)[edit] The longest and largest known of this group was Cameroceras with a shell length of 9 metres (30 ft). It possibly sucked the blood of pterosaurs. with the extinct Campanile giganteum having shell lengths up to 90 centimetres (35 in). doi:10. [119] Bivalves (Bivalvia)[edit] Bivalves (Bivalvia)[edit] The largest known bivalve ever was Platyceramus platinus.5 cm) in length. doi:10. almost the size of the largest cockroach living today. PMID 20596020. Cephalopods (Cephalopoda)[edit] Main article: Cephalopod size Parapuzosia seppenradensis shell.I.1038/nature09067. doi:10. "The size of the largest land animal".pbio. PMID 17227145.

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