Example 7



In this example, we wish to predict the extrudate shape and the interface location for the
annular coextrusion flow of a viscoelastic liquid with a Newtonian liquid, at various flow

For the viscoelastic liquid, we select the Oldroyd-B constitutive model. The fluid material
parameters are

1 + 2 = 10 000 poises
= 0.1 s
2 / ( 1 + 2 ) = 0.11

The viscosity of the Newtonian fluid is:  = 10 000 poises.

The flow geometry and the boundary conditions are displayed in Fig. 1. Several boundary
conditions types will be considered here. In particular, we introduce the new concept of
moving interface. Indeed, the position of the line separating both fluids is a priori unknown.
Along this line, a kinematic equation imposing a vanishing normal velocity must be satisfied.
The finite element mesh will be deformed on both sides of this mobile interface. In addition,
we also impose a free surface boundary condition at the die exit. We assume that both fluids
do not slip along the rigid walls. They enter the domain with equal flow rates: fully
developed velocity profiles are imposed at the inlets, together with a fully developed stress
profile for the viscoelastic liquid. At the common outlet, we impose vanishing surface forces
in the normal and tangential directions.


multi-domain calculation, moving interface, free surface, coextrusion,
evolution, remeshing technique: spines.


coext.mdf, coext.msh, coext.dat, res, coext.lst, coext.cons, cfx.res

January 2017 7.1 Release 18.0

we display the finite element mesh and the topology. while subdomain 4 is the moving subdomain for the Newtonian liquid. Coextrusion of viscoelastic and Newtonian liquids: flow geometry and boundary conditions MESH GENERATION Our problem involves two fluids. 1. For our subdomains. This means that the task is of the evolutionary type. Example 7 NEW CONCEPTS In view of the non-linearities arising from the viscoelastic constitutive equation and from the boundary conditions (moving interface and free surface). January 2017 7. zero traction free surface free surface viscoelastic liquid Newtonian liquid z mobile interface r wall wall wall inflow 1 inflow 2 Q imposed Q imposed 1 2 Fig.0 . In Fig. subdomain 3 is the fixed subdomain for the Newtonian liquid. we define four domains at the level of the mesh generation to be able to describe the problem completely. we apply an evolution scheme on both flow rates. we select the following specifications: subdomain 1 is the fixed subdomain for the viscoelastic liquid.2 Release 18. parts of the mesh will be remeshed whereas other parts will be fixed. Moreover. As this is true for each fluid. The computation is performed by successive incrementations of the total flow rate while the ratio between Q1 and Q2 is kept constant. due to the presence of an interface and of a free surface. while subdomain 2 is the moving subdomain for the viscoelastic liquid. 2.

Example 7 BS 6 BS 7 BS 5 S2 S4 BS 8 BS 4 S1 S3 BS 2 BS 1. no volume forces Flow boundary conditions S4: moving interface see note 1 Boundary conditions Position of free surface imposed on BS2 BS1: inflow: Q = 2 (automatic. Finite element mesh.msh . evolution. 2].Create a new task: 2D axisymmetric. volumetric). with EVOL on Q: f(S) = S see note 2 BS2: vn = vs = 0. y=[-1.11 no density. BS 3 Fig.1 s visc = 10000 poises ratio = 0. no inertia. 2.0 January 2017 7.Read a mesh: coext. The initial mesh is included in the box x=[1. .Create a sub-task: Differential Viscoelastic Isothermal Domain: S1+S2 Material data Oldroyd-B model trelax = 0. and topology.3 Release 18. 1.0 .25]. POLYDATA SESSION .

volumetric).0 BS5: free surface Boundary conditions Position of free surface imposed on BS4 BS6: fn = fs = 0.1.Default output : CFD-Post .2. 2) probe 2: prefix: coext_2 location: (1.01 Final value of S = 0. Inlet: intersection with S1 Outlet: intersection with BS6 .0 Remeshing see note 3 Domain: S4 Method of spines.0 . Example 7 BS6: fn = fs = 0.Probe (optional) probe 1: prefix: coext_1 location: (1. 2) probe 3: prefix: coext_3 location: (1.Create a sub-task: Generalized Newtonian Isothermal Domain: S3+S4 Material data Constant Viscosity: fac = 10000 poises no density.0 BS3: inflow: Q = 2 (automatic. with EVOL on Q: f(S) = S see note 2 BS4: vn = vs = 0. no inertia.System of units for CFD-Post: metric_cm/g/s/A+Celsius . Inlet: intersection with S3 Outlet: intersection with BS6 .Numerical parameters Evolution parameters see note 2 0-Order Method Initial value of S = 0. 2) January 2017 7.2 .4 Release 18. no volume forces Flow boundary conditions S2: moving interface see note 1 Boundary conditions Position of free surface imposed on BS2 BS2: vn = vs = 0.Outputs .0 BS7: free surface Boundary conditions Position of free surface imposed on BS8 BS 8: vn = vs = 0.0 Remeshing see note 3 Domain: S2 Method of spines.

The fluid leaves the remeshing domain along boundary set 6: this line will be the outlet of the system of spines. A system of spines is a set of lines connecting nodes along which remeshing occurs with a proportionality law. The fluid enters the remeshing domain at its intersection with subdomain 1: this line will be the inlet of the system of spines. in order to ensure that the elements maintain a proper shape. the position of the interface is adjusted so as to satisfy the additional kinematic condition.Result file: res . 0.01 as initial value for S and 0. Note 2: evolution on the flow rate The evolution scheme is applied simultaneously on the flow rate for both fluids.msh . During the computation.res Note 1: moving interface The intersection of subdomain 2 with subdomain 4 is the moving interface. Note 3: remeshing techniques The current flow boundary conditions involve an interface and a free surface.0 . The January 2017 7.2 as final value for S. Strictly speaking. the computational domain for the viscoelastic liquid covers subdomains 1 and 2. an intelligent algorithm selects the successive values for S.dat . However. In the present situation. The computational domain for the Newtonian liquid covers subdomains 3 and 4. The kinematic condition (which is of hyperbolic type) requires an initial condition at the starting point. in the "numerical parameters" menu. the position of which is unknown. the most efficient remeshing technique is the spines method. Spines should be as far as possible orthogonal to the flow direction.CFD-Post: cfx. The finite element mesh should be deformed accordingly. only subdomain 4 should be affected by the relocation of the interface and free surface. However. Initial flow rates are the product of the nominal flow rate by this initial value of S. This is the standard type of boundary condition between two adjacent fluids. the constraint being that the normal velocity must vanish along the interface. we select a 0-Order Method. an interface condition for the momentum equation means that the velocity and surface force vectors are continuous.Mesh file: coext. As specified earlier. In particular.Save and Exit . only subdomain 2 should be affected by the relocation of the interface and free surface. In many situations. We can modify several parameters related to the evolution scheme itself.Data file: coext. The position of the interface is included in the variables. In the case of a moving interface. Example 7 . the interface starts at the intersection of the current interface with boundary set 2.5 Release 18. The independent evolution parameter is S.

DAT. val.6 Release 18. nb. Let's note that viscoelastic stresses are computed only in the viscoelastic region.333 106.res. Free surface position and interface location at various flow rates. 3. After every successful step in S. Fig. and files for graphic post-processing: cfx.0 . together with the isobars. The latter is the standard input for POLYFLOW. information on S is displayed at every step. GRAPHIC POST-PROCESSING In Fig. we display the free surface position and the location of the interface for several flow rates.MSH and COEXT. while it leaves the remeshing domain along boundary set 6 (outlet of the system of spines). = 5. RUNNING POLYFLOW The two input files for POLYFLOW are COEXT.LST. together with isobars (init. 3. Example 7 Newtonian fluid enters the remeshing domain at its intersection with subdomain 3 (inlet of the system of spines).0 106. = -0. January 2017 7. The listing is named COEXT. lines = 16). In the listing file. and that distinct pressure fields are defined for each fluid. Coextrusion. the current value for S is indicated. POLYFLOW generates a result file RES for a potential restart. incr.