For Official use only

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OF RAILWAYS
(Railway Board)

INDIAN RAILWAY STANDARD

CODE OF PRACTICE FOR
METAL ARC WELDING IN STRUCTURAL STEEL
BRIDGES CARRYING RAIL, RAIL-CUM-ROAD
OR PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC

(WELDED BRIDGE CODE)

ADOPTED –1972
FIRST REVISION - 2001
REPRINTED - 2004

ISSUED BY
RESEARCH DESIGNS AND STANDARDS ORGANISATION
LUCKNOW –226011

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CONTENTS
Page
1. Scope.....................................................................................................................................1
2. Terminology..........................................................................................................................2
3. Materials...............................................................................................................................2
4. Drawings and Procedure Sheets.........................................................................................2
5. Butt Welds............................................................................................................................2
6. Fillet Welds...........................................................................................................................4
7. Plug Welds............................................................................................................................7
8. Combination of Welds.........................................................................................................7
9. Cope Holes............................................................................................................................7
10. Preparation of Joint Faces..................................................................................................7
11. Fusion Faces........................................................................................................................7
12. Assembly for Welding..........................................................................................................8
13. Permissible Stresses in Welds.............................................................................................8
14. Reduction in Permissible Stresses......................................................................................9
15. Structural Details.................................................................................................................9
16. Welding in Solid Web Girders............................................................................................9
17. Strengthening of Existing Bridges....................................................................................10
18. Safety Precautions..............................................................................................................11
19. Approval and Testing of Welding Procedures.................................................................11
20. Approval and Testing of Welders.....................................................................................11
21. Welding Procedures...........................................................................................................11
22. Sequence of Welding..........................................................................................................12
23. Position of Welding............................................................................................................12
24. Tack Welds..........................................................................................................................13
25. Inter-Run Cleaning............................................................................................................13
26. Stray Arcing on Work........................................................................................................13
27. Inspection and Testing of Welded Joints..........................................................................13
28. Inspection Prior to Welding..............................................................................................14
29. Inspection During Welding...............................................................................................14
30. Inspection After Welding...................................................................................................14
31. Acceptance Levels for Quality of Welds..........................................................................15
32. Non-destructive Tests.........................................................................................................15
33. Marking of Defective Welds..............................................................................................15

Appendix –A Procedure for Providing Plug Welds 17
Appendix –B Fillet Weld Gauges and Their Application 18
Appendix –C Acceptance Levels for Welds 19
Figures 1-28 21

IVB-ii

INDIAN RAILWAY STANDARD CODE OF PRACTICE FOR METAL ARC WELDING
IN STRUCTURAL STEEL BRIDGES CARRYING RAIL, RAIL-CUM-ROAD OR
PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC

(Welded Bridge Code)

IVB-1

testing and existing structural steel bridges carrying rail. ii) M-28 Classification. construction and inspection of 1.3 Indian Standards Bridge Code and IRS Fabrication 812 Glossary of terms relating to Specification.5. testing and 7307 (Pt-1) Approval tests for approval of metal arc welding procedure. construction and inspection of structural steel bridges shall comply with IRS Steel 1. the design.2 The design and construction of welds in mild steel bars used in reinforced cement 813 Scheme of symbols for concrete.5 The Code makes reference to the welding quality). 1179 Equipment for eye and face No cognizance shall be given to any policy protection during welding.4 Any revision or addition or deletion of 822 Code of procedure for the provisions of this code shall be issued inspection of welds. welding and cutting of metals.1 Indian Railway Standard 4353 Recommendations for Specifications submerged arc welding of i) B-1 Fabrication and erection of mild steel and low alloy Steel Girder Bridges steels. 7310 (Pt-1) Approval tests for iii) M-39 Classification.2 RDSO/M&C/Specification welds made by Manual. 1. Scope welding wire. welding electrodes. welders. 1. 2062 Structural steel (fusion 1. automatic or semi automatic metal arc process in new and i) Classification. 817 Code of practice for training and testing of metal arc 1. directives issued through other means. construction and inspection of welds shall comply with the standard specifications and 818 Code of practice for safety code of practice for road bridges issued by and health requirements in the Indian Roads Congress. only through the correction slip to this Code. 1. The wires for use on Indian general requirements of design. are not covered by this code.5. the design.5.1.1 This Code of Practice shall apply to Indian Railways. following standards: 3016 Fire precautions in welding and cutting operations. testing and welders working to approved approval of submerged arc IVB-1 . and of welds in high tensile steel welding. approval of CO2 welding filler rail-cum-road or pedestrian traffic. electric and gas welding operations. Railways. flux combinations for use on 1.3 For road bridges.

4.All details of butt Specification M-28. welding sequence.4 Sealing or backing 4. the meaning assigned d) Welding procedure. accordance with IS: 813. Drawings and Procedure Sheets 5. 3. defined in this code. unless specially made in shop or field. This shall be governed as per relevant para of 5. sizes.1 The symbols for welding used on the 5. angle between fusion 2. The filler wire and flux welded joints shall be in accordance with IS: combinations for submerged arc welding 9595 and IS: 4353 as applicable. 1. b) Locations. If other symbols are used.2 The fabrication drawings and/or steel. U. form of joint. welders when welding procedure approval is not required – fusion welding of 4. shall conform to IRS Specification M-39. J bevel or square butt IVB-2 . used.e.2 Electrodes shall conform to IRS 5. etc.2 Unsealed butt welds of single V. like to them in IS: 812. a complete explanation of their 7318 (Pt-1) Approval tests for meaning shall be given. welding procedure sheets prepared for direction of the welding organisation shall 9595 Recommendations for metal include the following information: arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steel. 5. Butt Welds 3.3 All consumables shall be stored and different types of butt weld are given in handled with care and in accordance with Fig. post heating etc. and bevel types and incomplete penetration butt welds shall not be used.1 All terms relating arc-welded c) Whether welds are to be construction shall have. a) Specification of the parent NOTE: The latest version of IS Code metal. Materials e) Details of testing and 3.3 Intermittent butt welds shall not be IS: 9595. Sketches of 3. pre- heating. Wire for CO2 welding shall conform to 5. J RDSO/M&C/Specification.. lengths and details. of all welds. including wire-flux combinations.1 Single V. U.1 Forms and details. 2. 4. actual are to be followed. the manufacturers recommendations. and electrodes and/or /Specifications referred herein. welding procedure-fusion drawings and procedure sheets shall be in welding of steel. i. welding quality conforming to IS: 2062. gap between parts. Terminology faces. their amendments issued from time to time.1 Parent metal shall be of fusion inspection requirements.

7 Flange to web connection complete fusion of the parts to be joined. (see Fig.2 Where the reduction of the depositing a sealing run of weld metal on dimensions of the thicker part is the back of the joints. or where the difference in thickness ends of the weld shall be finished smooth of the parts exceeds 25% of the thickness of and flush with the edges of the abutting the thinner part or 3 mm whichever is parts.The ends of which are to be welded from both sides. affected zone. the slope avoid thermal stress as well as heat being not steeper than 1 in 5 (see Fig. and which are of unequal removed after completion of the welds. at-least 25% greater than those of the welded from one side only. 3). to the permitted. 2). by extending the ends of the butt welds past the edges of the parts joined by the use of 5. before in all cases of parent metal more than 20 welding is started on the gauged out side mm thick and preferably in other cases also. 5). 8) If run on and run off plates are dynamic forces.3 In all full penetration butt welds 5. Run on and run off plates are to be greater. 6). suitable means to clean sound metal.4. This shall be done. bevel or square butt welds. the ends of the butt welds of the thinner part or 3 mm whichever is may be chipped or cut back to sound metal greater. at an angle not steeper than 1 in 5.1 In butt welding steel parts in line with and of the length not less than 40 mm (see each other which are intended to withstand Fig. may be thinner part.5. 5. and/or where structures are not designed to withstand dynamic forces. will also fall under this category. strip is in contact with the back of the joint and the edges of the steel parts of the joint 5. the transition of thickness shall be and then filled up with welds having a width accomplished by sloping weld faces (see not less than one and half time the ‘V’ Fig.5. to ensure shown in Fig.Butt weld in T are prepared as specified in IS: 9595 or IS: joint shall be reinforced by welding as 4353. or alternatively. whichever is applicable. impracticable. provided that another steel part dimensions of the thicker member (see of the structure or a special steel backing Fig. (see Fig. junction with the thicker part to dimension then single V. Oxy-acetylene cut should not Where the difference in thickness of the be permitted. 5.welds shall generally be completed by 5.7 Ends of butt welds .6 Butt Welded T Joints .2 Where it is not practicable to deposit the weld metal shall be built up at the a run of weld metal on the back of the joint.To joints to those of the smaller part. the butt joint shall be welded so as to provide back of the first run shall be gauged out by the full throat thickness.4. the width. 9) IVB-3 . If the parent metal is not more parts does not exceed 25% of the thickness than 20 mm thick. the dimensions of the wider or removed after completion of welds by thicker parts shall be reduced at the butt abrasive cut off or by hacksaw blade . 4) by chamfering the thicker part or by opening and having the same reinforcement combination of the two methods (see as adopted for the faces of the butt weld Fig.5 Butt welding parts of unequal run-on and run-off plates with a similar joint cross-section preparation and of reasonable thickness not less than the thickness of the part joined 5.

The size of a deep Note: (1) When the minimum size of the penetration fillet weld shall be taken as the first run of fillet weld and /or minimum size minimum nominal leg length plus 2.1. and tests shall be agreed Over 36 mm upto and 10 mm between purchaser and contractor to verify including56 mm that the requisite route penetration is being Over 56 mm upto and 12 mm obtained. Thickness of thicker part Minimum size 6. pre-heated to prevent cracking of the weld.4 mm or more (see Fig. 10).A normal fillet Upto and including 6 mm 3 mm weld is one in which the depth of penetration beyond the root is less than 2.1. including 50 mm 6.A including 18 mm deep penetration fillet weld is one in which the depth of penetration beyond the root is Over 18 mm upto and 8 mm 2. ensure full cross sectional area at the joint. 10). 12 mm Over 12 mm upto and 6 mm 6. Table-I Minimum size of first run of a (2) Where the thicker part is more than fillet weld (Clause 6.8 Reinforcement of butt welds – 20 mm Sufficient convexity not exceeding 3 mm. the butt welds shall be first built up as specified Over 32 mm up to and 8 mm.1 Normal Fillet Weld .4 mm of the fillet weld as given in Table-I and (see Fig. It shall be including 36 mm used only by agreement between purchaser and contractor. The thicker part shall be adequately of cracking in the absence of pre-heating. 11). the minimum size of the weld given in table-I. above and then dressed flush.2 Size .4 Over 6 mm upto and including 4 mm mm (see Fig.The effective throat thickness of a fillet weld 6 mm up to and including 5 mm. Fillet Welds Table-II Minimum size of a fillet weld 6.3 Effective throat thickness . including 32 mm Where a flush surface is required. IVB-4 . 12) The minimum size of the first Table-II is greater than the thickness of the run or of a single run fillet welds shall be as thinner part. Minimum size of fillet weld shall be equal to the thickness of the thinner shall be as given in table II to avoid the risk part. including 150 mm 6. shall be provided as reinforcement to Over 20 mm up to and 6 mm.The size of normal fillet weld Over 150 mm 16 mm shall be taken as the minimum leg length (see Fig.5.2 Deep Penetration Fillet Weld .2) 50 mm in case of steel to IS: 2062 special precautions like pre-heating as per IS: 9595 shall be taken to ensure weld soundness.1 Types of fillet welds Thickness of thicker part Minimum size 6.

6. IVB-5 .1S + 0. whether the welds length of fillet weld shall be that length only. It shall be taken to be the thickness of the thinner part and shall in no actual length of the weld minus twice the case exceed 150 mm. 6. unless such preferred to stagger intermittent welding. 6.4 Angle between fusion faces . shall apply to both sides.1 Where a fillet weld is applied to the loading.shall be taken as ‘K’ times fillet size where 6.8 returned continuously around the corner for of IRS Steel Bridge Code.8. Fig.8. whose fusion faces form an angle of more 6. given by the formula 0.8. (see thickness of the parts joined.5 Effective length .6 Effective area .4 Chain intermittent welding is to be than 1200 or less than 600.The effective intermittent fillet welds.9 Fillet welds applied to the edge of a plate or section 6. for shall not be used in members subjected to different angles between fusion faces.The effective 6. except at the outside of a corner and girders.Fillet formation of rust pockets.2 Load carrying intermittent fillet welds ‘K’ is a constant.1 Intermittent fillet welds may be used in structures not subjected to dynamic 6.3.8 Intermittent fillet welds 6.3 Intermittent fillet welds shall not be used where they would result in the 6.7 Minimum length . 6.7 In built up members in whose parts length of a fillet weld designed to transmit are connected by intermittent filled welds. to transfer calculated stress across square edge of a part. 14). 6.76 mm.8. For staggered welds. 13.5 mm than that developed by a continuous fillet less than the edge thickness. this thickness multiplied by the effective length.8. weld shall not be used for connecting parts. shall not exceed 12 times the throat thickness. All dynamic loading. subject to minimum of 40 used at the end for a length not less than mm.4 and 6. except for connecting fillet welds shall have a flat or convex face. the width of the part concerned. where S is size of weld in mm. in order to weld of the smallest allowable size for the avoid melting down of the outer corner. welds are demonstrated by practical tests to develop the required strength. are in line or staggered on alternate sides of which is of the specified size and required the edge. subject to the provisions of joint shall the convexity exceed the value clause 16. the specified size of a joint when the strength required is less the weld shall generally be at-least 1. a minimum length of twice the weld size. given in as per Fig.6 In a line of intermittent fillet welds.5 The distance along an edge of a part between effective lengths of consecutive 6.The effective area of there shall be a weld at both ends of the a fillet weld shall be the effective throat parts connected. intermediate stiffeners to webs of beams In no case. This deduction need not be made shall not be taken into account in complying in the case of end and side fillets. This requirement weld size. 6.9.8.8. loading shall not be less than four times the continuous longitudinal fillet welds shall be size of the weld. which are with the requirements of clauses 6.

but the later shall not be the thickness of the thinner part. beam alone. 18). and is specially designated in the drawing. size of the weld shall generally not exceed (iii) The distance between the edge of 3/4 of the thickness of the section at the toe the part and edge of the slot or hole (see Fig. Fillet welds with weld metal in such a manner as to terminating at the ends or sides of parts or ensure full throat thickness.3 Where a fillet weld equal in size to thickness when measured along the the thickness of the section at the toe of a direction of stress and five times the rolled section or at the square edge of a thickness when measured normal to plate is required from design considerations the direction of stress.14. 6. The longitudinal slots to be rounded with a radius not fillet welds may be in slots in addition to IVB-6 . not exceed sixteen times the thickness of (ii) Corners at the enclosed ends of the thinner part connected.11 Fillet welds in slots or holes of the fillet (see Fig.2 Where a fillet welds is applied to the less than 1. size of the weld.12 End Returns .13 Bending about a single fillet . and this returned length shall be disregarded in calculating the 6. the which the slot or hole is formed.11. 17). 6.A strength of the joint.1 The minimum overlap of parts in may be used along the wall or walls of the stress carrying lap joints shall be four times slot or the hole. This provision shall apply particularly to side and 6. single fillet weld shall not be subjected to bending moment about the longitudinal axis 6.9.9. they such a manner as to form a direct weld shall be connected by at least two metal connection between opposite wall. The transverse spacing of longitudinal than three times the thickness or 25 fillet welds used in end connections shall mm whichever is greater.14.2 If longitudinal fillet welds are used terms of the thickness of the steel part in alone in lap joints of end connections. each fillet shall be returned as a side seatings and similar attachments at the fillet for a minimum length equal to twice the tension side of such connections.5 times the thickness or rounded toe of a rolled section.14 Lap Joints in a plate or other part. Unless filled with weld metal or partially filled in opening out of the parts is prevented.11. fillet welding 6. 14).6. or between adjacent slots and/ or holes not to be less than twice the 6. 6.1 When welding inside a slot or a hole. the specified 12 mm whichever is greater.When end fillets are used end fillet welds joining brackets. in order to join the same to an underlying part. length of each fillet weld shall be not less than the perpendicular distance between (i) The width or diameter to be not less them.10 End fillets . full fusion area members shall be returned continuously and no injury to the parent metal (see Fig. the toe or edge shall be specially built up 6. than twice the size of the weld. transverse or two longitudinal fillet welds (see Fig.2 The dimensions of the slot or hole shall comply with the following limits in 6. around the corner for a distance of not less 15 & 16).

For an automatic process. the allowable capacity of each bridged since this procedure often leads to shall be separately computed with reference cracking. both at top and bottom by grinding/machining and 11.1 If butt and fillet welds are combined in butt joint is excessive. When however.1 Cope hole is a semi circular notch in recommended that. the procedure laid down in 11. for manual welding. by suitable non-destructive tests that the fusion faces and adjacent surfaces shall be free IVB-7 . no appropriate 9. angle subjected to dynamic loading. it is 9. closer arc welding prior to assembling web limits are necessary and particular and flanges together.2 Butt welds in parts or members. The fusion faces of the joint shall to the axis of the group in order to be built-up with weld metal to give the determine the allowable capacity of the appropriate gap before the weld proper is combination. Plug Welds 10. provided and in any case shall not be designed to carry stresses.1 The preparation of fusion faces. requirements depend on the characteristics ii) Weld reinforcement is dressed flush of the process. the between web plate and flange plate to tolerances on limits of gap and root face disconnect junction of welds(see Fig. radiographic/ultrasonic method. commenced. 19). Where unavoidable. Combination of Welds of preparation root radius and root face shall be as specified in IS: 9595 and IS:4353.1 Plug welds shall not normally be done as per IS: 9595. the appropriate application standard can be achieved. Preparation of Joint Faces 7. the gap shall not be a single joint. 8. to comply with this iii) Weld is tested by provision. root radius and root face shall be supplemented by splice plates attached by such that the limits of accuracy required by fillet welds. angle 8. angle between the fusion faces of a V preparation is recommended to be ±5 i) Butt welds in flanges and web are degree and for U and J preparations + 10 made by automatic sub-merged degree. Fusion Faces Appendix A shall be followed. The tolerance on the included conditions are satisfied.3 It shall be ensured.1 Preparation of joint faces shall be 7. 10. should be ±1 mm on the specified dimensions for material upto and including 9.2 Provision of cope hole in welded 12 mm thick and ±2 mm for material over 12 girders is not required when the following mm thick. shall not be of bevel.2 The preparation of fusion faces. 11. Cope Holes application standard exists and this standard is itself to be used. Where the gap between the root faces of a 8. 11.those along the edges. if necessary.

1 of IRS Steel Bridge Code and 11. such coatings is not excluded by the requirements of this clause but shall be 13. Class ‘G’ Constructional details.3. 12.4. 14.2 kg/mm2).2 12.2 (b) there of should be ignored when moisture. fatigue.4 Fillet welds demonstrated by means of specimen welds that the coating complies with the above 13. the actual 12. stresses resulting from curvature and eccentricity of track. Permissible Stresses in Welds 13.2 Stresses due to dead load. Reduction in Permissible 13. designed such that the stress on the total Jigs shall maintain the alignment with the effective area of fillet welds does not exceed minimum restraint so as to reduce the the relevant values specified in Table for possibility of locked in-stress. The use of Bridge Code.4. Assembly for Welding kg/mm2) where a fillet weld is subjected to shear stress in two directions.4.2 Load carrying fillet welds in where practicable. size of members and weld sizes are determined. All other items mentioned in clause 3.4 Fusion faces and the surrounding secondary stresses as defined in clause surfaces shall be free from heavy scale. and 14.3 Butt welds . exceed 100 N/mm2 (10.2 kg/mm2).1 The permissible stresses for field welds of structural members shall be IVB-8 . paint or any other substance considering fatigue. which might affect the quality of the weld or impede the progress of welding. welds based on a thickness equal to the throat thickness shall be 100 N/mm2 (10. single lap permissible stresses and consequently the joints shall not be used). Appendix ‘G’ to IRS Steel Bridge Code. 13. oil.3. so that the welding can dynamically loaded structures shall be be carried out in the most suitable position.Stresses in butt welds proprietary protective coatings are specially shall not exceed the permissible stresses of formulated with the intention that they the parent metal as specified in IRS Steel should not interfere with welding.1 Since fatigue strength of welded dynamically loaded structures shall be structures depends upon the constructional designed so that secondary bending details. 13.2 Jigs and manipulators shall be used.1 Parts to be welded shall be stress shall be taken as the vector sum of assembled such that the joints are easily the separate shear stresses and shall not accessible and visible to the operator.from cracks. subject to a maximum of 100 N/mm2 (10. notches or other irregularities secondary stresses as defined in clause which might be the cause of defects or 3.1 The basic permissible stress in fillet requirements. live load Stresses and impact.2 (a) of IRS Steel Bridge Code. Certain 13. 3.g.3 Load carrying fillet welds in 13. this shall be decided before the stresses are not developed (e. shall would interfere with the deposition of the only be considered for effects due to weld.

ultrasonically or 16.4 and modified by clause 14. Field welds shall not be adopted for bridges carrying road/railway 15. 15.3 In structures subjected to dynamic loading. tensile or shear stresses in butt 15.1.1 Fillet welds at right angles to the lines of principal stresses in a plate 14.reduced to 80% of those specified in of the packing.2 as applicable.4 Where the flange consists of more the welds alone. those specified in clauses 13.1 and not be specified.3 Sizes or lengths of fillet welds shall welds shall not exceed 66% of the be sufficient to provide for better distribution permissible stresses as specified in clause of stress.3 and 13. Excessive sizes or lengths shall 13. except where the packing is too thin not be used. 14. when it shall be trimmed assembling.2 Accumulation of weld joints in a is involved. Welding in Solid Web Girders other non-destructive testing methods which are equally effective and present 16.1 if field welding 15. the butt joints shall be in size by an amount equal to the thickness IVB-9 . particularly in dynamically loaded structures. Structural Details consist of a single section rather than of two or more sections super-imposed. Joints in flange plates shall be to carry the load or permit the provision of butt welded and dressed flush before adequate welds.3 and 13. 15. 16.Where a packing is used between two parts.4 Arrangement of welds loading without the specific approval of the Board. subjected to tension shall be avoided in the stresses permitted shall be 80% of dynamically loaded structures.1 Changes in section shall be gradual section may comprise a series of sections and re-entrant notch-like corners shall be laid end to end and effectively welded at avoided. welds connecting it to each part shall be flange plates laid end to end shall be joined capable of transmitting the load between the by butt welds. the welds being increased than one section. their junctions. 15. single location shall be avoided (See Fig.4.1.1 Flange plates satisfactory evidence to the Engineer that welds are meeting the quality requirement. The single 15.3 Packings . unless the welds are examined radiographically.1 Each flange shall. be tapered in plane to a rounded end and welded continuously round the end.1. the packing and the 16.4.3 and as modified by clauses 14. flush with the edges of the narrower part and the load shall be transmitted through 16.2 If the use of curtailed flange plates openings at locations of severe fatigue can not be avoided the end of the plate shall stress shall preferably be avoided. 14.2 If over-head welds are unavoidable. clauses 13.3 In dynamically loaded structures. and welded cover plates shall parts. as far as possible.2 Attachment of fittings and making 16.4.1.4. 15. 20).

16.2 Where staggered intermittent fillet 17.3 Strengthening of existing bridges by welding shall not be done unless tests prove 16. splice (b) Large compression shrinkage plates may be used independently and not stresses are not induced in the to reinforce a butt-welded splice. Strengthening of Existing Bridges shall have enough welds on either side to develop the load 5% more than that of the 17. it is thickness of the stiffener.1. the permissible stress in the new material added for strengthening 16. one weld on either side of the stiffeners. where used in structures not subjected to dynamic loading. shall not be more than 50 mm thick when steel conforms to IS: 2062. in the case of dynamically (a) The least radius of gyration is loaded structures.2 to 17. and not subjected to dynamic loading. fatigue strength of the parent metal.3.6 In all cases where the dead load of the stiffener shall not be used.1 All provisions of this code.6 weld shall be not less than 10 times the N/mm2 (2. the effective length of each carrying dead load stress in excess of 19.4 The details of design for strengthening each weld shall be not less than four times shall be made taking into consideration the the thickness of the stiffeners. extreme fibres.3. to new welded bridge work. applicable element spliced. shall apply equally to strengthening of existing bridges 16. 17. 17.7.5 Welded cover plates. as that - beams shall be made by butt welds dressed flush on all faces.1. welds.7. stress is not relieved. 16.7 When welding is used for IVB-10 .4 Intermediate stiffeners carrying shall be the allowable unit stress in the cross bracings or diaphragms shall not be original member minus the dead load stress connected to the web by intermittent fillet in the original member.5 If material is added to a member welds are used. In the case of structures substantially increased. the effective length of 17.1 Where intermediate stiffeners are that the parent metal is suitable for the connected to the web by intermittent fillet purpose.3 Fillet welds placed on one side only 17. 16.2 Web plates . welded directly to except as modified by clauses 17. 17.Splices in the webs of the work shall be carried out in such a way plate girders and rolled sections used.2 Where a compression member is strengthened by welding while under load.3. the web plate.7.0 kg/mm2) for strengthening.6 The flange plate.3. 16.5 Intermediate stiffeners shall be located away from web splices. subject to the weakening effect of stress raisers on the provisions of clause 6. 16. 16.staggered.3. load stress. subject to the desirable to relieve the member of dead provisions of clause 6.3 Intermediate stiffeners 17. welds placed in pairs.

1 Welding procedure test shall be carried out in accordance with IS:7307(Part. as applicable. when the welding are overstressed even by dead load. The shall generally be followed. The contractor shall fabrication. correction of weld faults. In case the rivets or bolts requirements will be met. the latter shall be followed. so as to contractor who does produce satisfactory confirm that satisfactory weld is achievable evidence of his ability to handle the work in with the welding procedure to be used for a competent manner. provided they are mm to be welded with the wire.3 In addition to the provisions of IS: drawings nor shall they be substantially in 4353 the Inspector may.2 Provisions of IS: 9595 and IS: 4353. 21. 20. require a sample joint having the approval of the Engineer. where deemed excess of the requirements without prior necessary. The welds in such cases cross section of the welded joint prepared shall be designed to carry all loads other as a demonstration that the specified than dead load. arc voltage and speed of travel are strengthening is done after relieving the established by a test made in accordance dead load stress. Welding Procedures I) to demonstrate. also prove the ability of the operator/Welders employed by him to 19. painting. contractor shall employ a competent for welding procedure. The welders shall Procedures be subjected to appropriate qualifying tests specified in IS: 7310 (Pt-I).1 The welders shall be trained in 19. the weld shall be with requirements of this clause. 21. by means of a specimen weld of adequate length on a steel 21. Approval and Testing of Welders operations. Approval and Testing of Welding accordance with IS: 817. the rivets shall be assumed to in construction and a length of at least 300 carry the dead load. capable of carrying it without overstress and arc voltage and speed of travel that are welding is carried out without relieving the proposed to be used and a macroetched dead load stress.2 The sizes and length of welds shall not be less than those specified in the 19. flux current.1 Provisions of IS: 818.1 Welding work shall be given to a representative of that to be used. IS: 1179 and IS: 3016 shall generally apply for safety and health requirements during welding 20. variations Welding current ±10% 18.strengthening an existing riveted or bolted same cross-section as the joint to be used connection. materials and the standard of workmanship peening. details of welding supervisor to ensure that quality of workmanship. produce welds of the required strength. etc. Safety Precautions Arc Voltage ± 7% Speed of travel ±15% 18. provisions made on this code. The location of IVB-11 . In case any of the comply with the requirements laid down in provisions contained therein contravene the this code. 19. or the current. they shall designed to carry all loads including the be kept within the following limits of dead load.

amount of expansion or contraction in elements being welded.4 Splices in each component part of a welding shall be carried out with electrodes solid web girder or built-up member shall be having type 6 covering as per IRS:M-28 made before such component part is Specification.welds shall not be changed without prior metal deposited in each weld pass shall approval of the Engineer. position for welding done using manual metal Arc welding (MMAW) or 21. Position of Welding 21. the joints shall not be subjected to beams) shall be done prior to the welding of any external forces or shocks.6 In making welds under conditions of severe external shrinkage restraint. made. Carbon-di– adopted. (see Fig. No butt joint shall be welded shapes.5 Freedom of movement of one member of a joint shall be allowed wherever 22. pass.5 mm. welded to other component part of the member. maximum width in the cross section of weld IVB-12 .7 In case of welding using direct current. either by 22. the sequence and procedure of without allowing one component. 23. oxide (CO2) welding or manual metal arc welding may be done only for welds of very I) Flat and horizontal position for short runs or of minor importance or where Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) and access of the locations of weld does not II) Horizontal or horizontal-vertical permit automatic or semi-automatic welding.3 In case of welds in structures 22.8 All welds should be done by 23. 21. earthing on the work piece to be welded shall be connected carefully at more than one location with a view to avoid “Arc Blow” during welding.9 Neither the depth of fusion nor the CO2 welding. 21. Welds shall exceed the width of the face of the weld preferably be made in flat position. Sequence of Welding subjected to dynamic loading. the thicker elements (usually the flanges in case of beams). 21.4 During the entire welding of cooling a section (usually the web in case of cycle. freedom of welding shall take into account unequal movement of the order of 1.3 In making butt welded joints in rolled possible. 21 & 22) 21. provided to enable each weld to be traced which offer the greatest resistance to to the welding operator by whom it was compression.1 For fabrication of steel bridge girders submerged arc welding process either fully the following positions of welding shall be automatic or semi-automatic. are welded first.1 The sequence of welding shall be identification stamp or other records shall be such that when possible the members. 22. the 22.2 The welding in the thinnest element of 21. adequate means of identification.

purchaser shall ascertain that fabrication by welding is performed in accordance with the requirements of this code. For the provisions which are not incorporated in this 25.Note – Different positions have been shown sound metal before depositing subsequent diagrammatically in Fig. such as cracks. be thoroughly cleaned of slag. 24.3 He shall be furnished with complete welding. The inspection of welds. deposition faults. shall be removed to IVB-13 . and be checked by inspection depending upon the application. Visible 27.3 Tack welds shall not be made at 27. 24. Tack respective zonal railways.2 All butt welds by the submerged arc process shall be made in the flat position. 24. with particular reference to thorough cleaning of toes of the welds. each layer of weld should detailed drawings showing the size. cavities and other start of any welding operations. which are prone to cracking. spatters. if any. 23. before the subsequent bead is super-imposed during multi-pass 27.2 Where a tack weld is incorporated in a Accordingly. shall be triangulated welded girders shall continue to cut out and rewelded. Tack Welds 27. Inspection of welds shall also be carried out in 25. The length of the 27. 23. IS:822 “Code of procedure for thoroughly cleaned to remove particles of inspection of welds” shall be followed.1 Tack welds shall be not less than the Joints throat thickness or leg length of the root run to be used in the joint. 26. length.1 Stray arcing shall be avoided as this single pass fillet welds made in the can leave local hard spots or cracking which horizontal-vertical position shall not exceed are to be removed by mechanical means 8 mm. The size of the 26. be with RDSO. Inter-Run Cleaning accordance with this Code.2 The Inspector designated by the extreme ends of joints.4 He shall be notified in advance of the defects. slag. Inspection and Testing of Welded 24. run or layer of weld. which are before depositing subsequent layers of weld required to be made. etc. spatters. RDSO shall undertake welded joint. Stray Arcing on Work Fillet welds may be made in either flat or horizontal-vertical position. etc. Similarly. type and location of all welds. the shape. size and quality inspection for the first 1000 tonnes of shall be suitable for incorporation in the welded plate girders after which the finished weld and it shall be free from all inspection shall be taken over by the cracks and other welding defects.1 Each run of weld bead shall be Code.1 Inspection of the welded bridge tack weld shall not be less than four times girders carrying rail or rail-cum-road traffic the thickness of the thicker part or 50 mm whether of completely welded type or whichever is the smaller partially welded type except for foot over- bridges shall be entrusted to RDSO.

1 Parent metal 29. speed of weld deposit.27. the the relevant drawings and meet the weld surface shall be thoroughly cleaned of requirements of this code.2. the Inspector shall obscure the evidence of fine cracks. care shall 28. Inspection Prior to Welding applicable. The maintained. that the procedure prescribed is satisfactory. jagged or imperfect edges shall be manipulation of the electrode. improper edge Brushing with a stiff wire-brush or grit preparation and other features that might blasting shall normally be followed. oxide layers and adherent slag. details of work. Inspection After Welding 28. such as proper arc.1 Filler material . 28.2 Freedom from harmful defects such welding. cleaning of slag after each run in as cracks. arc length. if so required.2 After the parts are assembled in be taken to see that hammer marks do not position for welding. If chipping hammer is used to remove slag. electrode spattering. that during the course of welding he may be able to inspect any layer of weld metal.1. in accordance with the provisions of IS: 9595 and IS: 4353 as 28. Verification of the quality of be tested periodically to ensure that the parent metal shall be carried out by specified quality is being consistently reference to the relevant test certificate. check for incorrect root gap.2. employment verified by visual examination of the of proper current and voltage etc. 30.2 Welding profile . and multi-run welding.2 While welding is in progress. ask for spot checks to be made on the chemical 29. affect the quality of the welded joint.2 Edge preparation and set-up of parts.1 For visual inspection of defects. 30.3 Verification of operator’s shall be visually inspected and shall qualification . laminations.1.1 All plates and sections shall be inspected in the contractor’s works before 29. Dimensions of care shall be taken during the early stages parts shall be checked by measurement. sequence of 28. He 28.4 The Contractor shall.Welding shall be permitted IVB-14 .1 Edge preparation shall conform to 30. Before any welding on the actual code and to require any defective welds to job is allowed under the contract. of the work. at his discretion. Inspector may. the be removed and re-welded. Inspection During Welding 28. shall be at liberty to reject any material that prescribe the welding procedure to be does not conform to the provisions of this followed. Particular material prior to welding. surface flaws.The finished welds 28. rough. visual composition and physical properties of the examination shall be employed to check material.5 He shall have free access to the work to be performed only by welders and being done at all reasonable times by the welding operators who are qualified in contractor and facilities shall be provided so accordance with requirements of clause 20. 28. Inspector shall verify.Filler material shall fabrication.

IVB-15 .The weldment marking followed and understood by the shall be inspected for dimensional accuracy Inspector and shop personnel involved in (including warpage) and shall be within the making the repairs. liquid penetrant flaw detection method or by magnetic particle flaw detection method as 31. Non-destructive Tests to be evident until the repair is carried out and the inspection completed.conform to the size and contour specified in requirements.3 After the repair has been done.3 Welds shall also be examined by marked for correction. 32.Butt welds shall be examined by radiographic test which will 33. 33.1 The marking shall be positive and clear and in accordance with the method of 31. gauges (See Appendix ‘B’) Concavity and excessive convexity of fillet welds shall be 32. 24 to 28). tolerances specified. 33.2 Marking shall be permanent enough 32.2 Dimensional check . 32. Acceptance Levels for Quality of per IS:3658 and IS:3703. Marking of Defective Welds 31. Welds 33.1 Welds shall meet acceptance levels as per Appendix C. it shall present satisfactory evidence to the be inspected again and properly marked to Inspector that welds are meeting the quality indicate whether the repair is satisfactory or not.1 Radiographic tests . the drawings (Acceptable and defective weld profiles are illustrated in Fig.2 Other welds may be examined by Conformity of fillet welds as to size and radiographic or any other non-destructive contour shall be determined by the use of method which are equally effective.

********** IVB-1 .

and carried upwards along a zig zag path depositing a layer about 5 mm thick on the exposed face and fused to the side of the hole. Appendix-A (Ref. The arc shall then be carried to the periphery of the hole and the procedure repeated. A-7 All plug welds shall be finished with reinforcement of about 3 mm which shall then be dressed flush. This plate shall have a depression of about 3 mm at the center and in the line of the hole. If the arc is broken. except briefly for changing the electrodes. A-6 For welds to be made in the overhead position. A-4 For welds to be made in the flat position. at the lower side of the hole. A-3 Electrodes conforming to IRS M-28 with type-I covering shall be used. the slag must be allowed to cool and be completely removed before starting the weld. until the weld is finished. the arc shall be carried round the root of the joint and then carried along spiral path to the center of the hole fusing and depositing a layer of weld metal in the root and bottom of the joint. A-2 Welding shall generally be carried out in flat position using a copper block plate of 25 mm minimum thickness as a backing surface. Clause 7) Procedure for Providing Plug Welds A-1 The holes shall be tapered to ensure adequate root penetration. fusing and depositing successive layers to fill the hole. IVB-17 . or nearly so. After cleaning the slag from the weld. subsequent layers shall be similarly deposited to fill the hole. A-5 For welds to be made in the vertical position. the arc shall be started at the root of the joint. the procedure shall be the same as for the flat position except that the slag shall be allowed to cool and shall be completely removed after depositing each layer until the hole is filled. The slag covering the weld metal shall be kept molten.

IVB-18 .

Maximum 1) Planar defects a) Cracks and lamellar tears not permitted b) Root concavity 0.2 mm whichever is less c) Lack of root fusion not permitted d) Lack of side fusion not permitted e) Lack of inter-run fusion not permitted f) Lack of root penetration not permitted 2) Cavities a) Isolated pores t/4 and also less than (or individual pores in a group) (i) 1.0 mm for t over 25 mm upto and including 50 mm.5 mm for t over 50 mm upto and including 75 mm. Clause 31) Acceptance Levels for Welds Defect Type Permitted.5 mm 3) Solid Inclusions (Slag Inclusions) a) Individual and parallel to weld axis (as seen in the radiograph) IVB-19 . Appendix-C (Ref. isolated l6 mm w1. not permitted d) Worm holes. or (iii) 4. aligned same as for linear porosity f) Crater pipes l6 mm w1.1t or 1.0 mm for t over 75 mm b) Uniformly distributed or localized One percent by area (as seen in a radio porosity graph) for t25 mm and pro-rata for greater thicknesses c) Linear porosity Linear porosity parallel to the axis of the weld may indicate lack of fusion or lack of penetration and is. therefore. or (iv) 6.5 mm e) Worm holes.5 mm for t upto and including 25 mm. or (ii) 3.

2 Symbols: t = Thickness of parent metal. t l w i) 18 mm  t/2 and 6 mm 1.5 mm iii >75 mm  25 mm 1. all inclusions count towards the aggregate. depth should not exceed 1.5 mm ii) >18 mm and 75 mm  t/3 1.2 concavity mm c) Excess penetration h3 mm.4 mm b) Shrinkage grooves and root Same as for under cut. e) Overlap Not permitted f) Linear misalignment ht/10 and  3 mm g) Other profile defects As per Clause 30. which in turn should not exceed 12t in length c) Individual and randomly Maximum dimension in any direction: 6 mm oriented (Not parallel to weld axis) 4) Copper inclusions (Detected by visual examination or Not permitted by radiography) 5) Profile defects a) Undercut Slight intermittent undercut permitted. A linear group is defined as a number of inclusions in line and parallel to the weld axis where the spacing between their adjacent ends does not exceed 6 times the length of the longest inclusion within the group. depth should not exceed 0. With parallel groups. IVB-20 . Occasional local slight excess is allowable d) Reinforcement shape The reinforcement shall blend smoothly with the parent metal and dressing shall be as specified in drawing or required for NDT techniques. In the case of dissimilar thicknesses t applies to the thinner component w = Width of defect l = Length of defect h = Height of defect  = Diameter of defect  Individual inclusions within the group should not exceed the sizes in 3(a) above.5 mm b) Linear group* Aggregate length should not exceed 8 percent of length of group. provided it does not form a sharp notch .

IVB-21 .

IVB-22 .

IVB-23 .

IVB-24 .

IVB-25 .

IVB-26 .

IVB-27 .

IVB-28 .