Example 14

EXAMPLE 14
FLOW OF A GAS THROUGH A POROUS MEDIA: THE DARCY LAW

DESCRIPTION

In the present example, we wish to simulate the flow of a gas through a porous media (Darcy
model). Let us consider the flow case as described in Fig. 1. The (planar) flow domain
consists of two non isotropic porous media. Their respective orientation are described by
means of an angle  (with respect to the X axis). It equals 30° for the lower material and 120°
for the upper one. For both materials, the permeabilities in the first and second principal
directions are 10-11 m2 and 0.1 10-11 m2, respectively.

Fig. 1 Flow through a porous media: description

The several material properties are described as follows. Both porous media have anisotropic
permeabilities. In a Cartesian reference frame (x,y), the permeabilities of both material layers
are described by means of a tensor K, respectively given as follows:

 .775 .389 
I,  = 30°, K=   10-11 m2
 .389 .325 
 .325 .389
II,  = 120°, K=  10-11 m2
.389 .775 

The void fraction  in both layers is:  = 0.3

January 2017 14.1 Release 18.0

while their common width is 5 m. KEYWORDS Porous medium. Several January 2017 14. darcy.mdf.dat. non-isotropic permeability. The flowing gas is characterised by its viscosity:  = 2 10-5 Pa s Fig.2 Release 18. The boundary conditions are described as follows. A pressure Pin = 1. Darcy model. while a vanishing pressure is specified at the exit on the top. darcy.5 105 Pa is imposed over a distance of 0. Interface boundary condition is specified along the intersection line between both material layers. an inlet (BS 2). the right-hand side wall (BS 3) and the exit (BS 4). Flow through a porous media: topology (left) and finite element mesh (right). Example 14 The heights of both media are 2 and 3 m respectively. NEW CONCEPTS The main new concept developed in this example is the use of the Darcy equation for describing the flow of a gas or a (low) viscosity fluid in a porous medium. darcy. one for each material layer.0 .cons. Also. The topology and the finite element mesh are given in Fig. four boundary sides are defined: successively the left-hand side wall (BS 1). FILENAMES darcy. Vanishing normal velocities are specified along the walls. 2.msh. We see that two subdomains are defined.5 m at the inlet on the bottom. 2. in order to ensure the continuity of the pressure field and of the normal velocity.

If a detailed analysis is needed for the velocity distribution within holes. whilst the dual quantity along the borders is the normal velocity.775 10-11 pxy: 0. from a mathematical point of view. In addition to this.325 10-11 pxy: -0.Create a sub-task: Darcy isothermal flow problem. we presently investigate a non-isotropic situation. Title: theta=120 Domain of the sub-task: S 2 Material data Porous media and fluid viscosity Switch to tensor mode fluid viscosity: 2 10-5 pxx: 0. In this case. steady-state (default) .389 10-11 pyy: 0. Indeed.325 10-11 void fraction: 0.Read a mesh: darcy.3 Release 18.Create a new task: 2D planar geometry. POLYDATA SESSION . See note 1 Title: theta=30 Domain of the sub-task: S 1 Material data Porous media and fluid viscosity See note 2 Switch to tensor mode See note 3 fluid viscosity: 2 10-5 pxx: 0.389 10-11 pyy: 0. whilst no assumption is made for the velocity field along the walls. as seen in other examples. BS3: Wall . In particular.3 Pressure boundary conditions See note 4 S2: Interface between porous media See note 5 BS1: Wall BS2: Pressure imposed: P = 1. it is a straightforward task to extend it to a non-isothermal situation.0 .5 105. the Darcy flow is modelled by means of a scalar equation: the primary unknown is the pressure. inertia effects are negligible. Example 14 assumptions are made behind the Darcy equation. It is important to realise that the results will provide information on the mean velocity. The present example deals with an isothermal case. a Newtonian or a viscoelastic model need to be applied.775 10-11 January 2017 14. where the material will flow in a preferred direction within each material layers. a coupling between the energy equations for the flowing fluid and the porous media is involved.Create a sub-task: Darcy isothermal flow problem.msh .

prefix: darcy_3 location: (2.res Note 1. 1. prefix: darcy_2 location: (2. Since our current subdomain is endowed with a non-isotropic permeability.4 Release 18. 0.3 Pressure boundary conditions S1: Interface between porous media BS1: Wall BS3: Wall BS 4: Pressure imposed: P = 0. prefix: darcy_1 location: (2.Outputs . Pressure boundary conditions Since the pressure is the primary variable of the Darcy equation. we use the Darcy law. These material data involve properties about the fluid (viscosity) and about the porous media (permeability.5. we select this option in order to introduce a tensor K.dat .5. prefix: darcy_4 location: (2. Note 4.5.mesh: darcy. January 2017 14.msh . .dat: darcy.CFD-Post: cfx. an isotropic permeability is assumed for the porous media. Note 3.0) 3.Default output : CFD-Post . 2.Save and Exit . Porous media and fluid viscosity This menu must be entered in order to specify all material data needed in the flow governing equation. we must specify essential (Dirichlet) and natural (Neumann) boundary conditions for this variable. Natural boundary conditions for the Darcy equation are specified in terms of velocity.0) 2.5) . The primary unknown is the pressure.System of units for CFD-Post: metric_MKSA+Celsius . The title of this sub-task "theta = 30".result: res .5. It will be used later for identification purpose.0 . Note 2. 3. The individual components of this tensor are introduced afterwards. void fraction).Probe (optional) 1. Switch to tensor mode By default.0) 4. Example 14 void fraction: 0. Darcy isothermal flow problem For solving the flow through a porous media.

the stream function and the velocity vectors over the entire computational domain.5 Release 18. we see that a significant pressure drop develops along a direction perpendicular to the preferred direction of 30° This is also visible when one considers the streamlines of Fig. we select the interface boundary condition along subdomain 2. For this. Example 14 Note 5. January 2017 14. along the intersection line of both subdomains 1 and 2. Porous media: pressure field. A similar action must be done when defining the pressure boundary conditions for subdomain 2. In particular. Porous media: streamlines. 3. POLYFLOW generates a result file for a possible restart and files for graphic post-processing cfx. 3. we respectively display the pressure field. Fig.dat. The data file is the standard input file. Interface condition along subdomain 2 A multi-domain calculation is involved in the present example. 4. The standard output file is the listing where all information regarding the calculation is reported.msh and the data file darcy. The pressure and its dual quantity. 4 and 5.. must be continuous across the intersection line of adjacent subdomains endowed with different material data. 4: the fluid flows along the direction of least resistance. GRAPHIC POST-PROCESSING Fig.e. in the lower subdomain.res. RUNNING POLYFLOW Input files for POLYFLOW here are the mesh file darcy. The orientation change in the permeability tensor significantly affects the pressure development and the velocity field as well.0 . In Figs. the normal velocity. i. The location of the interface between both porous media is clearly visible in the figures below: it coincides with the sudden change undergone by the field inspected.

Porous media: velocity vectors.6 Release 18. January 2017 14. 5.0 . Example 14 Fig.