1

vkrka] xhrk dks.kR;k dky[k.Makr fuekZ.k
>kyh\ Eg.kts xhrspk dkG dks.krk\ ;klkBha
izFke Hkkjrh; ;q)kpk dky BjfoY;kl rksp
xhrspkfg dky Bjsy- 'kkfyokgu 'kdkP;k
iapkaxkuqlkj Hkkjrh; ;q)kpk dky blohluiwoZ
3102 ;srks- Eg.kts 3102 $ 2006 = 5108
o"kkZiwohZ Hkkjrh; ;q) laiwu ;qf/kf"Bjkyk
jkT;kfHk"ksd >kyk( rsOgkaiklwu ;qf/kf"Bj'kd lq:a
gksrks- gk nkrs ;kaP;k iapkaxkr okij.;kr vkyk
vkgs- ;qf/kf"Bjkyk jkT;kfHk"ksd >kyk] R;kosGha —
".k}Sik;u O;kl mifLFkr gksr-s R;kauh] ;qf/kf"Bjkyk
;q)kar feGkysY;k t;kyk mn~ns'kwu ^t;* uked
xzaFk fyfgyk- R;kar xhrk lekfo"V gksrh gs iq<hy
'yksdko:u m?kM fnlrs- -

ukjk;.ka ueLÑR; ujapSo ujksŸkeeA~
nsoha ljLorha O;kla rrks t;e~ mnhj;sr~AA

ek=+ gk Hkkjrh; ;q)kpk dky iq"dGkauk
ekU; ukgh- dsljhps laiknd rkR;kjko djanhdj
^Hkkjrh; ;q)kpk dkyfu.kZ;* ;k vkiY;k
iqfLrdsar fyfgrkr] ^^Hkkjrh;q)kuarj ifjf{krkpk
tUe >kyk- rsFkiklwu egkuankP;k vfHk"ksdki;Zar
2

ckgZnzFk oa'kkph 1006 o"ksZ] iz|ksr oa'kkph 138
o"ksZ] 'kS'kqukx oa'kkph 360 o"ksZ feGwu 1504
o"ksZ >kyh- rsFkwu uankph dkjdhnZ 100 o"ksZ vkf.k
panzxqIrekS;kZpk jkT;kfHk"ksd bloh lu iwoZ 328
o"khZ >kyk- ;k lokZaph csjht dsY;kl 1932
;srs- ;ko:u QyT;ksfr"k'kkL=n`"V;k Bjfoysyk
Hkkjrh; ;q)kpk dky vkf.k iqjk.kakrhy o
bfrgklakrhy oa'kkoGho:u Bjfoysyk dky
vxnh lkj[ks ;srkr- vlk nqgsjh esG dqBY;kfg
o"kZfu.kZ;k'kha tqGr ukgha- Eg.kwu bloh lu iwoZ
1931 gk Hkkjrh; ;q)kpk dky la'k;krhr
letkok-** ;kar ,d o"kZ deh djkos ykxrsa-
;kpas Li"Vhdj.kkpk O;ki djhr ukgha- dkj.k gk
ys[k R;keqGsa e;kZnsckgsj ok<sy- vlks-

vkrka gas igk dha] iapkaxkrhy dky vkf.k
gk dky ;kar 3102 – 1931= 1171 Eg.kts
,d gtkj o"kkZis{kkfg tkLr varj iMrs-
yksdekU; fVGdkauh gk ;q)dky bloh lu iwoZ
1400 o"ksZ Eg.kts vk.k[kh 500 o"ksZ vfydMs
vk.kyk vkgs- rks fujk/kkj vkgs-

Hkkjrh; ;q)kP;k dkyfu.kZ;klaca/kh
3

fo}kukaP;ke/;sa ,o<k erHksn vkgs rj
osndkyfu.kZ; fdrh fook| fo"k; vlsy ;kph
lkekU; ek.klkyk dYiukfg djrk ;s.kkj ukgh-
;k loZ fo}kukapk lqo.kZe/; dk<wu eh ,d
pkVZ] ,d r‰k r;kj dsyk vkgs rks vlk&

1 osn] lafgrk& vkt T;k Lo:ikar miyC/k
vkgs r'kh rh 6]500 o"kkZiwohZ fu%la'k;
vfLrÙokr gksrh- gh lafgrk foHkkxkph mŸkje;kZnk
vxnh dferdeh /kjyh vkgs-;kar loZ i{kaakP;k
fopkjakph n[ky ?ksrysyh vkgs- gh mÙkj e;kZnk
dks.kh fdrhfg cqf) y<foyh rjh vfydMs
vk.krk ;s.ks 'kD; ukghs- vkrka jkfgyh
osnlafgrsph iwoZe;kZnk] frpk fu.kZ; dj.ks
vkt?kMhyk rjh ekuoh cq)hP;k vkokD;kckgsjps
vkgs- ;kps dkj.k]^^vukfn fu/kuk fuŸ;k
okxqRl`"Vk Lo;aHkqo%AA** gsp vkgs-

2 czk„.kxzaFkdky 5 gtkj 500 o"ksaZ- gh
mŸkje;kZnk

3 mifu"knsa& 5000 o"ksaZ- mŸkje;kZnk-
4

4 t;& Hkkjrh; ;q) >kys vkf.k 2@3 o"kkZar
^t;* xzaFk r;kj >kyk R;kyk vktferhyk
4000 o"ksaZ >kyh- gk ,d fuf'pr dky vkgs-
;sFks iwoksZŸkj e;kZnspk iz'u ukgh-

5 lw+=ok³~e;& ;kyk vkt 3 gtkj 500 o"kaZs
>kyh- ;kp dky[k.Makr ^t;* xzaFkkpas laLdj.k
gksÅu ^^Hkkjr** r;kj >kys vkf.k t;kUrxZr
xhrspsa laLdj.k gksÅu HkkjrkUrxZr ewG xhrk
r;kj >kyh-

6 cq) tUe bloh lu iwoZ 560 o"khZa >kyk-
;kuarj o;kP;k 60 O;k o"khZa cq) iw.kZ Kkuh o
izkS< gksr-s gk dky bloh lu iwoZ 500 ;srks
Eg.kts vMhp gtkj o"kkZiwohZ cq)akuh ;k Hkkjr
ns'kakr /keZpØizorZukpas dk;Z iw.kZ dsyas-

7 egkHkkjr& Hkkjrkpsa laLdj.k gksÅu egkHkkjr
r;kj >kys- vkf.k HkkjrakrxZr xhrspas laLdj.k
gksÅu gYyhph xhrk 18v/;k; 700 'yksd
vlysyh r;kj >kyh- egkHkkjr 2 gtkj 400
o"kkZiwohZ r;kj >kyas- egkHkkjrakr cq)
laiznk;akrhy Lrwikapk vkf.k fogkjkapk mYys[k
5

;srks- cq) fuokZ.k bloh lu iwoZ 480o"khZa >kys
;kuarj 70@80 o"kakZar cq)laiznk; fganqLFkkuHkj
iljyk vkf.k ;kposGha egkHkkjr o gYyhph
xhrk r;kj >kyh- vkt miyC/k vlysyk 18iosZ
vkf.k 24000 'yksdkapk egkHkkjr xzaFk 2 gtkj
400 o"kkZiwohZ r;kj >kyk- ;kpk ljG vFkZ
vlk dha] gYyhph xhrk f[zkLrtUekiwohZ Eg.kts
bloh lukiwohZ 400o"ksZ vfLrRoakr gksrh( brdh
rh izkphu vkgs- HkkjrkUrxZr ewG xhrk rj
vk.k[khup izkphu vkgs- dkj.k rh cq)iwoZ
1000 o"ksZ vfLrÙoakr gksrh- ;keqGsap rh r;kj
gksÅu vktferhl 3 gtkj 500-o"ksZ >kyh-
vkf.k rRiwohZP;k ^t;* xzaFkkrhy xhrsyk vkt
4000 o"ksZ >kyh iqjk.kxazFk ifgY;k vkf.k nqlÚ;k
'krdakrhy vkgsr-
6

vkuankusa d:a foKkuk rq>kp t;t;dkj
rq>hp lsok vH;qn;kpk ?kMoh lk{kkRdkj

1 varjkGkpk os/k

fuGsa fuGsa vkdk’k- gsa varjkG\ ukgha-
varjkG dkGsdqê vkgs- ,ojsLV 5eSy map- rsFksfg
vkdk’k fuGljp- varjkGakr tk.;klkBha ^ák*
vkdk’kkP;k iyhdMs tkos ykxsy-
i`Fohpsa oLrqeku eksBs Eg.kwu xq:Rokd”kZ.k
tkLr- rsa gosP;k Fkjakuk cak/kwu Bsorsa- Eg.kwu
vki.k txwa ‘kdrks- gosps fujfujkG;k ?kursps Fkj
i`FohHkksaorh vkf.k i`Foh iklwu 800eSyakpk
ifjlj O;kirkr- R;kuarj iq<s vuar ve;kZn
fuokZr iksdGh- gsap varjkG-
rhu eSykP;k ifjljakrhy gok nkV- gsa
ok;qeaMy Troposphiar. 8 rs
15eSyki;ZUr iêeaMy Stratosphiar. ;akr
gok cjhp fojG- cká d{ksar vks>ksu- lw;kZpsa
vfr uhyfdj.k rlsp oSf‹od fdj.k Cosmic
Rays vks>ksueqGsa vMfoys tkrkr- ifj.kkeh
7

lthoakpsa laj{k.k- 50eSykoj gok [kwip fojG-
vkdk’k cjplsa dkGsa- 250 eSy maphpk
okrkoj.kkpk Fkj fo|qUeaMy Ayanosphiar.
;akrhy gosps v.kw fo|qr~Hkkfjr- ;akP;keqGsa jsfMvks
ygjhapsa ifjorZu- ;kuarj ckáeaMy
Axosphiar. gsa 800eSyk i;ZUr iljys
vkgs- ;akrp OgWu vWyu iês vlk ,d Hkkx- gsa
iês bysDVªkWUlusa Hkjysysa- 800eSykuarj varjkG-
gsa varjkG Eg.kts vuar iksdGh- rh dkGhdqê
vkgs- ;akr ok;q ukghr- ygku-eksB;k mYdk rhoz
xrhus tkr vlrkr- ekuo ;k varjkGakr tkÅu
vkyk vkgs-
8