1

Hkkjrh; U;k; n’kZu
dkWystP;k Inter Arts ;k nqlÚ;k o”kkZyk Western
Logic gk fo”k; eyk Qkj fiz; Ökkyk gksrk- R;k
osGha dkGs-gqY;kGdj ;kapsa VsDVcqd&T;kyk
lksuksiar nkaMsdjkaph izLrkouk gksrh&rsa rj eh
ckjdkbZusa vH;klysp i.k ;kf’kok; okfM;k
dkWystps izkpk;Z n- ns- okMsdj ;kaphDeduction
vkf.k Induction gh nksUgha iqLrdas eyk Qkj
mi;ksxha iMyh- rlsp nksUgha Hkkx ,d= vlysysa
uk- lh- QMds ;kapsa ,dp eksBs iqLrd&tas R;kauh
euksjatd Ik)rhusa vkf.k yfyr Hkk”kk’kSyhar
fyfgysysa&R;kP;k okpukeqGsa eyk rdZ’kkL=kph
vf/kdp xksMh ykxyh-
ikfÜpekR; rdZ’kkL=karhy vxnh vk/kqfud
fopkj izokg&T;kyk Symbolic Logic EgVys tkrs
R;kP;kdMs eh laiw.kZ nqyZ{k dsys-R;k dkGkar ,d
xks”V eh izkeq[;kusa dsyh dha] ;k Westarn Logic
eqGsa Hkkjrh; U;k;’kkL=kfo”k;ha ekÖ;k euha
dqrqgy fuekZ.k Ökkys- iq.ks fo|kihBkarhy
xzaFkky;akr eh ;klkBha 15 fnol dehrdeh
3 rkl osG fnyk- vkf.k U;k;’kkL=kojhy loZ
2

ok³~e; ckjdkbZusa ikgwu ?ksrys- [kwi eksB;k uksV~l
dk<Y;k- R;k tiwu BsoysY;k uksV~Lkpk vkrka
eyk mi;ksx Ökkyk- 1958 uarj eh rdZ’kkL=kyk
nqjs?kh ekjyh vkf.k rÙoKku ;k Kku’kk[ksdMs
oGyks- vkrk eyk ^o`fÙkizHkkdj* vFkok /keZjkt
v/ofjUnzpk ^osnkUr ifjHkk”kk* vls xzaFk vo?kM
tkr ukghr- 59@60 ;k dkGkar ekÖ;k laxzgha
^Hkkjrh; rÙoKku* izk- Jhfuokl fnf{kr] Indian
philosophy , Hindu view of life. by
pro. Radhakrishan. v’kk Lo:ikph dakgha
iqLrdsa gksrh- uarjP;k dkGkar rÙoKku ;k
fo”k;kojhy rhu,d’kas xzaFk&vR;ar egRokps
vkf.k nqfeZG vlysys&eh tek dsys- R;kaP;k
okpu] fparu] euuakrwu ekÖ;k rÙoKku ;k
fo”k;kyk dekyhph iw.kZrk izkIr Ökkyh-
lw= ok³~e;
Jqfrok³~e; LQwfrZiz/kku vkgs- n’kZusa euuiz/kku
vkgsr- ckSf)d vkf.k oSpkfjd Hkwfedso:u JkSr-
fl)akrkapsa ijh{k.k dj.ksa gsa n’kZudkjkapsa /;s;
vkgs- rÙoKku Eg.kts vuqHkokph laxrh yko.kkjs
‘kkL=] izR;{k vuqHko uOgsa- Jqfr gk izR;{k
vuqHko vkgs- n’kZusa gh vuqHkokph ehekalk vkgs-
3

Science of Interpritention. ehekalsusp n’kZu
ok³~e;kl bloh lu iwoZ 1500 o”khZ izkjaHk
Ökkyk- Jqfr gs eU=-ok³~e; vkgs- rj n’kZusa gs
lw=-ok³~e; vkgs- lw=kph O;k[;k e/oHkk”;kar
v’kh vkgs] --
- vYik{kja vlafnX/ka lkjor~ foÜorkseq[ke~ A
vLrksHka vuo|a p lw=a lw=fonks fonq% AA
LrksHk ;kpk vFkZ Hkk”;kar vlk vkgs]^^vFkZ’kwU;ks
xkukfnLojifjiwj.kkFkZ% ‘kCnfo’ks”k%A**
lw=kar vFkZ’kwU; v’kh ,d ek=kfg vk<G.kkj
ukgh- rj ex fujFkZd ‘kCn vFkok okD;
;kfo”k;ha cksy.ksp udks- vYik{kjRo] lkjxzg.k]
vlafnX/krk] foÜorkseq[kRo Maltidiamentional
cgqvk;keh] vLrksHkRo Eg.kts fujFkZd ‘kCnkapk
vHkko] vuo|Ro Eg.kts nks”kjkfgR;- ^^ lw=a
lw=fonks fonq%A** ;k loZ xks”Vh vlrhy rj lw=k
laca/khaps tk.kdkj R;kykp lw= vlsa Eg.krkr-
;k lw=kapk mi;ksx iwokZpk;Z fVIi.khlkj[kk
djhr- R;k vkpk;akZuk] R;kaP;k f’k”;kauk] JksR;kauk
ts vFkZ vfHkizsr vlrhy rsp uarjP;k
Vhdkdkjkauk miyC/k gks.ks v’kD; Ökkys- Eg.kwup
cknjk;.kakP;k czãlw=akoj lgk fofo/k Hkk”;sa gksÅa
‘kdyh- lafnX/krk gk nks”k lw=ok³~e;akr
4

dkyizokgkusa fuf{kIr dsyk vkgs- jpukdkyha gh
lw=sa fu%lafnX/k gksrha- fdaok vlsfg Eg.krk ;sbZy
dha] ^foÜorkseq[kRo* gk xq.k czãlw=kar
vlY;keqGsa lgkp dk; lgLjko/kh Hkk”;sa Ökkyh
rjh rh lkgthdp vlwu vko’;dfg vkgsr-
fofo/k Hkk”;sa lw=kaP;k lafnX/krseqGsa fuekZ.k Ökkyh
ulwu R;ak;k loZLif’kZRokeqGsa fuekZ.k Ökkyh
vkgsr- fofo/kkFkZoÙkk gk xq.kfo’ks”k vkgs] nks”kLFky
uOgs-a
n’kZu ok³~e;kpk fodkl f’k”;izf’k”;kaP;k
ijaijsusa fl) Ökkyk vkgs- ewG n’kZukoj ,d
Hkk”;]uarjP;k dkGkar ;s.kkÚ;k vk{ksikaP;k fujluk
lkBha vFkok dkykuqlkj lqyHkrslkBha nqljsa Hkk”;
R;koj ;kp dkj.kkalkBha frljsa Hkk”; vlk
n’kZulw=kapk xa³~xk-izokg vfofPNéi.ksa o`f)axr
Ökkyk vkgs- Hkkjrh; rÙoK fo|kfouhr gksrs-
izR;sd Hkk”;dkj] Vhdkdkjkph izfrHkk Lo;aHkw o
Lo;aizHk vls-i.k vkiY;k ,o<;k Lora= Ñrhfg
rs vkiY;k ijaijsyk vkf.k vk| iz.ksR;kyk
fuosnu d:u] iwokZpk;akZph fc:nsa fejohr vlr-
;klkBha rs fo|kfouhr gksrs vls eh EgVys-
Lor% ‘k³~djkpk;Z gs O;klkaps Hkk”;dkj vkgsr
lqjsÜoj] e/kqlwnu] izdk’kkuUn gs Hkk”;dkjkaps Hkk”;
5

dkj vkgsr- ;k n’kZuHkk”;akph ikouh xaxk Eg.kts
Lora=] Lo;aizHk fopkjkaP;k vfu:) izokgkpsa ,d
ân;axe –‘; vkgs- ,dsdk Vhdkdkjkph ;ksX;rk
toG toG vk| iz.ksR;k,o<hp vkgs ek=
izR;sdkus vkiY;k mtZLoy izfrHksP;k izHkkrjy
T;ksrhph vkjrh R;k R;k vk| iz.ksR;kiq<sp
forjyh vkgs-
n’kZu ‘kCn rÙoKku] ;FkkFkZKku] n’kZu’kkL=
v’kk fofo/k vFkkZus mi;ksftyk tkrks-
n’kZu Eg.kts uÖkkjk] ns[kkok- n’kZu gsa oLrq
fu”B vlrsa- R;kp izek.ks rsa O;fäfu”Bfg vlrsa
O;fäfu”Bsoj n’kZukuqHkokar vf/kd Hkj vlrks-
Every system of thought is perspective . vls
EgVys tkrs- vkRedsanzkrp ija lR;kpk vuqHko
;sr vlrks- ;keqGsa rÙoKkukyk n’kZu gh laKk
vR;Ur leiZd vkgs-
IysVks]LisUlj]dkUV ;kaP;k ersa varhe oLrwpsa
Eg.kts lR;kpsa ewyLo:i vki.kkl d/khp
letr ukgh- IysVksph Ideal World dkUVph
Thing in Itself vkf.k LisUljps Unknowable
;k frUgh dYiuk varhe oLrwpsa [kjsa Lo:Ik
cq)hyk d/khp letr ukgh] ;k fl)kUrkoj
vf/kf”Br vkgsr- gk R;kapk fl)kUr vUrhe
6

oLrwfo”k;ha vkgs- lkekU; inkFkZ Kkukph fpfdRlk
R;kauh lw{ei.ksa vkf.k ‘kkL=h; –“Vhusa dsyh ukgh-
R;kaP;k ojhy fl)kUrkl lkekU; KkukP;k
Ik`Fk%dj.kkpsa vf/k”Bku ukgh- izFke loZlkekU;
oLrw izfrrhpsa ifjiw.kZ Ik`Fk%dj.k dsys ikfgts
vkf.k uarj miyC/k fl)kUrkP;k vk/kkjkoj varhe
oLrwfo”k;ha vuqeku dsys ikfgts- v’kh ;FkkuqØe
fpfdRlk ikfÜpekR; rÙoKakuh dsyh ukgh-
KkukP;k ;FkkFkZrsph izek.ksa izFke fufÜpr dsyh
ikfgtsr rjp varhe oLrwpsa Kku ;FkkFkZ dha
v;FkkFkZ ákpk fu.kZ; ?ksrk ;sbZy- ;FkkFkZ Kkukph
dlksVh&fud”kp&vki.kktoG ulsy rj Hkze o
izek ;akrhy Hksn dG.kkj dlk\ Hkkjrh;
n’kZudkjkaP;k ;k ‘kkL=’kq) Hkwfedsfo”k;ha
eWDlewyj ;kauhSix system of Indian philosophy
;k R;akP;k xzaFkkr /kU;ksn~xkj dk<ys vkgsr-
^^ Such an examination of the
authorities of human knowledge, pramanas
ought, of cours, to form the introduction of
every system of philosophy and to have
clearly seen this is, as it seems to me, a
every high distinction of Indian philosophy.
How much useless controversy would have
been avoided particularly among Jewish,
7

Mohammedan & Christian philosophers, if a
proper place had been assigned in limine
to the question of what constitutes our
legitimate or our only possible channels
of knowledge, whether perception, inference,
revelation or anything else ! Supported by
these inquiries into the evidences of truth,
Hindu philosophers have built up their
various systems to philosophy, or their
conceptions of the world, telling us
clearly what they take for granted, and
then advancing step by step, from the
foundations to the highest pinnacles of
their systems** eWDlewyjus Hkkjrh; n’kZudkjkaps
oSf’k”B; ojhy mrkÚ;kar fo’kn dsys vkgs-
izek.kppkZ gk izR;sd rÙoi)rhpk ik;kp vkgs-
izR;{k] vuqeku] Jqfr bR;kfn Kkulk/kukaps
izkek.; izFke ifjf{kysa ikfgts- fganw rÙoKkauh
vkiY;k rÙoKkukpk lqo.kZegky ‘kkL=iwr
vf/k”Bkukoj mHkkjyk vkgs-txrkP;k vR;Urk
Hkkokph flf) vuqiyfC/k izek.kkus d:u nk’kZfu
dakuh czãkuqHkwrhyk cqf)izkek.;kpsa vf/k”Bku fnys
vkgs- izek.kfpfdRlk dj.;kar vxziwtspk eku
U;k; n’kZukpk vkgs- U;k; n’kZukar Ik)rhpsa Qkj
egRo vkgs- fl)kUr dks.krk vkgs ;k izÜukis{kak
8

fl)kUrkph izek.ksa dks.krha vkgsr] rks dlk fl)
dsyk vkgs] gh xks”V uS;kf;dkauk vf/kd egRokph
okVrs- loZ n’kZudkjkauh U;k;n’kZukph Ik)fr]
izfØ;k vkRelkr dsyh vkgs- vk| ‘kadjkpk;Z]
lqjsÜoj] e/kqlwnu] izdk’kkuan] fpRlq[kkpk;Z ;kaP;k
lkj[;k osnkUrnk’kZfudkauh vkiys loZ fl)kUr
U;k;?kfVr Ik)rhusa foosfpys vkgsr- Hkkjrh;
laLÑrhar osnkUrn’kZukyk yk/kysyk LFkk;hHkko
U;k;?kfVr izfØ;susa miyC/k dsyk vkgs-
U;k;n’kZukusa vkiyh izek.ki)fr izpk:u loZ
nk’kZfudkauk miÑr dsys vkgs-
1958 ;k o”khZ Inter Arts ;k dWkystP;k
f}rh; o”kkZyk ekÖkk Logic gk fo”k; gksrk]
T;kyk rdZ’kkL= EgVys tkrs- 1960 iklwu eh
rÙoKku ;k fo”k;kpk vH;kl lq: dsyk- R;kpk
ik;k etcwr gks.;kyk eyk ;k rdZ’kkL=kpk Qkj
mi;ksx Ökkyk- ,su rk:.;akr vlys ‘kq)
cqf)izkek.;oknh vuqie ‘kkL= gkrha vkys(
;kfo”k;ha eh f’k{k.k [kkR;kpk lnSo _.kh vkgs-
rlsp ifgY;k o”khZ ^es?knwr* gsa vizrhe lkaSn;Z-
dkO; gksrs vkf.k rsa fg laLÑre/;sa] Eg.kts nq/kkar
lk[kj iMyh-S. S. C.i;ZUr ekÖkh ekufld ikrGh
vxnh loZlkekU;klkj[kh gksrh- ek= dWkystP;k
9

izFke vkf.k f}rh; o”kkZusa tkf.kosph {kerk
KnowingCapacity rlsp mP;fo”k;klaca/khaph
vfHk:ph dekyhph le`) vkf.k [kÚ;kvFkhZ
fodflr Ökkyh- T;k dWkyst thoukusa ekÖkk
rÙoKkukP;k izkUrkar vHkkfori.ksa izos’k djfoyk
R;k thouk’kha eh lnSo ÑrK jkfgyks vkgs-
dWkystP;k R;k nksUgh fo|k eafnjkauk f=okj oanu!
T;k osGha 1 :Ik;k fdyks lk[kj gksrh
R;k 1958 lkyha 10 :Ik;kl ?ksrysyk
rdZ’kkL=kpk eksBk xzaFk vtwu eh O;ofLFkr
Bsoyk vkgs- Syllogism ps 151 izdkj] R;kP;k
uksV~l vtwufg eh tiwu BsoY;k vkgsr- vkiY;k
dMhy U;k;‘kkL=kP;k fDy”Vrsizek.ksa Deductive
Logic gk fDy”V fo”k; vkgs-R;kekukusa Inductive
Logic gk fo”k; lqyHk-lksik vkgs- ek= dk;
vlsy rs vlks Deductive Logic gkp fo”k;
eyk Qkj vkoMyk- ;akrhy fdR;sd Concepts
eyk eq[kksn~xr gksrs- ;sFks cq)hpk [kjk dl
ykxrks- FkksMs d”V djk;ph r;kjh vlY;kl
cqf) rstLoh gksrs] gk ekÖkk vuqHko vkgs- -

xf.krklkj[ks ‘kkL= ukgha-
jlksbZlkj[kh dyk ukgh-
10

vkf.k osnkUrklkj[kk vuqHko ukgh-

ifgysa Logic yk ykxw gksrs- ekÖks
gk;Ldwye/;sa xf.kr vkf.k Hkwfefr gs vxnh
vkoMrs fo”k; gksrs- Hkwferhph 65 izes;sa vkf.k
100 jk;MlZ ekÖkh lnSo r;kj gksrh- xf.krakr
vadxf.kr vkf.k chtxf.kr gs nksUgha ekÖks Qkj
ftOgkG;kps fo”k; gksrs- 80 iklwu vxnh
90@95 i;ZUr ekd~Zl eyk R;kosGha feGr
vlr- lkaxk;psa rkRi;Z vls dha] ifgY;kiklwup
v’kk izdkjP;k fo”k;kapk vH;kl vlY;keqGsa
eyk rdZ’kkL= gk fo”k; eqGhp vo?kM okVyk
ukgh-
dWkystP;k ifgY;k o”kkZyk ^es?knwr* ;k
dkfynklkP;k [kaMdkO;kpk eyk vlkp ykHk
Ökkyk- dkfynkl Eg.kts es?knwr vkf.k es?knwr
Eg.kts dkfynkl vlsa lehdj.kp Ökkys vkgs-
dkfynklkus uSlfxZd dkO;’kähyk mnaM
O;klaxkph tksM nsÅu vkiyh vtksM dkO;laink
fuekZ.k dsyh vkgs- ‘kkL=h; vkf.k yfyr
lkfgR;kpk vH;kl dkfynklkP;k vksfGvksGharwu
izrhr gksrks- rkRi;Z] rRdkyhu lqlaLÑr
ek.klkyk vko’;d R;k loZ fo|k] ‘kkL=sa]
11

vkf.k dyk ;kapk O;klax o izR;{k Kku ;kaP;k
lgk¸;kusa dkfynklkus vkiyh izfrHkk laié
dssysyh gksrh- dkfynklkP;k ;k loZ xks”Vhapk
;ksxk;ksxkus ekÖ;k LoHkkok’kha rarksrar esG clrks-
;keqGsap dha] dk;] dkfynkl gk ekÖkk Qkj
vkoMrk dfo vkgs-

Hkkjrh; rdZ’kkL=
U;k;n’kZu
XkkSrekP;k U;k; lw=koj izFke okRL;k;ukus^^Hkk”;*
fyfgys-R;koj m|ksrdkjkus^^Hkk”; okfrZd**fyfgys-
uarj okpLifr feJkus^^okfrZd rkRi;Z Vhdk**
fyfgyh- iqu% mn;ukpk;kZus^^okfrZd rkRi;Z Vhdk
ifj’kqf)** fyfgyh- rnqÙkj ifj’kq)hoj o/kZekukus
^^U;k; fuca/k izdk’k** fyfgyk- iq<s izdk’kkoj
^^o/kZekusUnq** gh Vhdk iùukHk feJkus fyfgyh-
R;koj ^^U;k; rkRi;Z eaMG** gsa Hkk”; ‘kadj
feJkus fyfgys- izR;sd Vhdsoj izfrif{k;kdMwu
vk{ksi mRié gksr o R;k vk{ksiakps fujlu
12

dj.;kdfjrk iqu% ,dknk lkaiznkf;d ewG Vhdspk
vfHkizk; fo’kn dj.;kdfjrk uohu Hkk”; fygh-
okRL;k;u Hkk”;kP;k fn³~ukx uked ckS)
rkfdZdkus fpa/kM;k mMfoY;k vkf.k fn³~ukxkyk
izR;qÙkj Eg.kwu m|ksrdkjkauh vkiys ^^Hkk”;
okfrZd** fyfgys- izR;sd n’kZukyk laié izfrHksps
vls mnaM Hkk”;dkj ykHkys- bloh lu iwoZ 500
rs bloh lukuarj 700 Eg.kts 1200 o”kakZpk
dky[kaM lw=ok³~e;kus vkf.k VhdkxzaFkakuh le`)
vkgs- 17 O;k ‘krdki;ZUr gh n’kZu eankfduh
vO;kgr vfu:) izokgkus ogkr vkyh vkgs-
vkrak ;k U;k; n’kZukpk ri’khyakrhy foLrkj
igk- dks.kR;kfg fo”k;k’kh ftrdk ifjp; vf/kd
frrds R;kps egRo deh Hkklkos gk ekuoh
LoHkkop vkgs- izdk’k]gok]ik.kh ;kapk thouk’kh
fdrh fuxfMr laca/k vkgs- ekuoh O;ogkjk’kha
Hkk”kspk laca/kfg ;kp izdkjpk vkgs- Hkk”ksP;k
mérhdMs lkekU; eu”;kps y{k tkr ukgha- ;kpsa
dkj.k frpsa egRo R;kl dGysysa ulrsa gsp gks;-
Hkk”ksis{kkfg vR;Ur egRokph oLrwa Eg.kts Kku-
iapsafnz;kl izfr{k.k ;kizek.ks 12 efgusvBjk dkG
gks.kkjsa Kku- Hkk”ksf’kok; lca/k fnol tkÅ ‘kdsy
i.k Kkukf’kok; ,d iGfg] ,d {k.kfg tk.ks
13

dBh.k vkgs- tksi;ZUr euq”; ftoar vkgs rksi;ZUr
{k.kks{k.kha R;kP;k euakr fdR;sd fopkj ?kksGr
vlrkr- i.k ;k fopkjkaph fdaok Kkukph
fop{k.kk dj.kkjs rdZ’kkL= vH;klkos vls
dks.kkP;k y{kakr ;sr ukgh- Kkuk’kha vFkok
fopkjk’kha vfrifjp; gsp ;k mis{kspas dkj.k
vkgs- Kkukpk [kjs [kksVsi.kk nk[kfo.kkjs rdZ’kkL=
tk.kwu u ?ksrk] brj fdrhfg ‘kkL=akpsa v/;;u
dsys rjh rsa O;FkZp letkos-;k rdZ’kkL=kpsa o.kZu
djrakuk loZ fo|koj ikM.kkjk t.kwa iznhi] loZ
deakZpk mik;] loZ /keakZpsa vkJ;LFkku vlsa gsa
rdZ’kkL= vkgs vls U;k;Hkk”;akr EgVys vkgs-
iznhi% loZfo|kuak mik;% loZdeZ.kke~A
vkJ;% loZ/kekZ.kaak fo|ksís’ks izdhfrZrkAA
lR;klR;kph dlksVh nk[kowu ns.ks gsap ;k
‘kkL=kpsa mfí”V vkgs-^^izek.kS%vFkZijh{k.ka U;k;%**
&U;k;Hkk”;- i.k ;k uqlR;k dlksVhpk mi;ksx
dk;\ Eg.kwu ;k ‘kkL=koj izFke izFke xzaFk gksÅ
‘kdys ukghr-v/;kRe fo|soj izkphu dkGkiklwu
vusd xzaFk Ökkysys vkgsr-izR;sd xzaFkdkjkus vFkok
n’kZudkjkus vkikiyh rdZi)fr Lohdkjyh vkgs-
;k loZxzaFkakr vkf.k n’kZuakr lR;Kkukph lk/kus
dks.krh ;k izÜukpkfg fopkj dsysyk vlrks i.k
14

rks izkeq[;kus uOgsa] vkuq’kafxd Eg.kwu vlrks-
izek.kakpk izkeq[;kus fopkj dj.kkjs n’kZu
^U;k;n’kZu* gsap vkgs- n’kZu ‘kCnkph O;kIrh
fopkjakr ?ksryh rj U;k;n’kZu ,d n’kZu vkgs-
R;keqGsa Western Logic ‘kha ;k ‘kkL=kph ,d:irk
ukgh gs /;kuha ;srs- Eg.kwu R;k –f”Vdksuakrwu
ikg.ks Eg.kts Hkkjrh; U;k;’kkL= vusd fo”k;kapk
xksa/kG vkgs vlsp okV.;kpk laHko vkgs-
Hkkjrh; rdZ’kkL= gsa loZizdkjP;k Kkulk/kuakpk
lkdY;kus fopkj dj.kkjs vlY;keqGsa dsoG
vuqeku fopkjakr xdZ vl.kkÚ;k Logic‘kha rsa
,d:Ik ukgh U;k;’kkL=kar loZ Kkulk/kusa] vkRek]
iqutZUe bR;kfn izes;s vkf.k oknfo|k vls rhu
fo”k; izkeq[;kus ;srkr-
ekxs U;k;n’kZukpk =ksVd bfrgkl fnyk-
vkrak rks ri’khyakr nsrks- U;k;’kkL=kojhy lokZr
izkphu xzaFk xkSrekph U;k; lw=sa gkp gks;- ek=
egf”kZ xkSre gk R;kpk vk| izorZd Bjr ukgh-
R;kP;kp xzaFkko:u R;kP;kiwohZ fdR;sd ‘krds gsa
‘kkL= ifj.kr gksrs vls fnlwu ;srs- NkUnksX;
mifu”knakr 7( 1]2- ^okdksokD;e~* vls ,dk
‘kkL=kpsa uako vkysys vlwu vkpk;akZuh R;kpk
vFkZ^^rdZ’kkL=e~**vlk dsysyk vkgs-;k‘kCnkis{kkfg
15

^^vkfUof{kdh** ;k ’kCnkpk iz;ksx ek= foiqy
vk<Gwu ;srks- U;k; lw=kojhy okRL;k;uÑr
Hkk”;akr ;k n’kZukl vkfUof{kdh vls Li”Vi.ks
EgVys vkgs-izR;{k o vkxe ;kaP;k lgk¸;kus Kku
ÖkkY;koj R;k Kkukph fop{k.kk d’kh djkoh gsa
lkax.kkjs ‘kkL= rh vkfUof{kdh gks; vls Eg.kwu
;k ‘kCnkph O;qRifÙkfg rsFks fnyh vkgs- dkSfVY;h;
vFkZ’kkL=karfg ^vkfUof{kdh* vlkp ‘kCn ;k
‘kkL=kyk okijyk vkgs- Eg.kwu xkSrekiwohZ
^okdksokD;e~* fdaok ^vkfUof{kdh* ;k uakokus gsa
’kkL= izpfyr gksrs vls ekuko;kl tkxk vkgs-
Hkkjrh; fo|k o ;K ;kapk laca/k izfl)p vkgs-
T;ksfr”k] Hkwfefr] laxhr ;kaph ok<fg ;KlaLFksP;k
vk/kkjkusp Ökkyh gksrh- izLrqr rdZ’kkL=kpsa ewGfg
;KlaLFksrp lkiMrs- ;KkP;kosGha lnL; o izs{kd
;kauh mifLFkr dsysY;k izÜukapsa mÙkj ns.;klkBha
vlysyk ^czãk* uakokpk ^_fRot* LokHkkfodp
rdZ’kkL=kpk voyac djhr vls- ;k –“Vhus vkt
ts czkã.k uakokps xzaFk miyC/k vkgsr] R;kaps
fujh{k.k dsY;kl R;kar R;k osGsP;k czãk uakokP;k
_fRotkus dsysY;k dksVhØekpk laxzg fnlwu ;sbZy
iwoZehekalsph iz.kkyh rdZ’kkL=kuarjph vkgs]Eg.kts
rdZ’kkL=h; ijaijsP;k uarjph vkgs-iwoZehekalk T;k
16

izdkjps dksVhØe djrs rlys dksVhØe osnxzaFkkr
Qkjls vk<Gr ukghr-ek= uS;kf;d FkkVkps dksVh
Øe tkxkstkx vk<Grkr-czkã.k xzaFkkuarj rSfÙkjh;
vkj.;dakr izR;{k o vuqeku ;k nksu izek.kkapk
mYys[k lkiMrks- ^^Jqfr% izR;{ka ,sfrá vuqeku
prq”V;e~A** rSfÙk- vkj.;d 1( 2-jkek;.k vkf.k
egkHkkjr ;k xzaFkkr ^^gsrqfo|k**vlk ;k ‘kkL=kpk
okpd ‘kCn izkeq[;kus fnlwu ;srks-
^^U;k; lw=sa** xzaFkkpk drkZ vusd uakokauh
izfl) vkgs-xkSre] v{kikn] v{kpj.k oxSjs- U;k;
lw=kapk dkG dks.kkykfg fufÜpr Bjfork vkyk
ukgh- ;k lw=koj okRL;k;ukpsa foLr`r Hkk”;
vkgs- ewG lw=karhy fo”k; ;k Hkk”;kar pkaxykp
fo’kn dsysyk fnlwu ;srks-;kpk dkG bloh luk
uarjpsa 4 Fks ‘krd vlk eku.;akr vkyk vkgs-
;k Hkk”;kuarj m|ksr~dkjkpsa U;k;okfrZd iq<s vkys-
R;kus ewG lw=sa vkf.k okRL;k;ukpsa Hkk”; ;k
nksUghapk ;ksX; ijke”kZ ?ksÅu U;k;’kkL=h;
foospukar pkaxyhp Hkj ?kkryh vkgs-ckS) o tSu
xzaFkdkjkauh ?ksrysY;k vk{ksiakP;k fujlukFkZ gsa
okfrZd fyfgys xsys vkgs- ;kpk dky bloh lu
635 vlk vkgs- m|ksr~dkjkuarj nksu ‘krdkauh
bloh lu 841] okpLifrfeJ iq<s vkys- R;kauh
17

U;k;okfrZdkoj ^^rkRi;ZVhdk** ;k uakokph mRєV
Vhdk fyfgyh vkgs-R;akuh^^U;k;lwfpfuca/k**uakokpk
xzaFk fygwu ewG lw=akpk ’kq) ikB vkf.k R;kph
vokUrj izdj.kas Li”V d:u nk[kfoyh- ;k
xzaFkkP;k ‘ksoVha^^dqfuca/k:i fp[kykar :rysyh
U;k;lw=sa eh oj dk<hr vkgs-**vls R;akuh
Lor%p EgVys vkgs- ;ko:u U;k;n’kZukP;k
[kÚ;k ijaijspk R;kosGha fdrh yksi Ökkyk gksrk rs
fnlwu ;srs- ;kuarj t;UrHkÍkus ewG lw=koj
^^U;k;eaftjh** uakokph Vhdk fyfgyh- ;kyk
^o`fÙk* Eg.krka ;s.kkj ukgh- frps egRo o foLrkj
/;kuha ?ksÅu R;kl Hkk”; vlsp uako |kos ykxsy-
t;UrHkÍkus ;k xzaFkkar dsoG R;k dkGki;ZUrP;k
U;k;n’kZukojhy xzaFkdkjkaP;k erakpkp uOgsa]rj
osnkUr] lka[;] tSu] ckS)] eheaklk bR;kfn brj
‘kkL=karhy ererakrjkpkfg Hkjiwj mgkiksg dsyk
vkgs- v’kk vusd fDy”V fo”k;koj ppkZ dj.kkjk
xzaFk ok³~e;–“V;k fouksniw.kZ o euksjatd fyfgyk
xsY;keqGsa nq/kkar lk[kj iMkoh R;kizek.ksa Ökkys
vkgs-T;kl Hkkjrh; rÙoKkukph ykach]:nh][kksyh
,dkp xzaFkkr igk;ph vlsy R;kus gk xzaFk
vo’; igkok- t;UrHkÍkuarj lqekjs ’kaHkj o”kakZuh
mn;ukpk;Z bloh lu 984 e/;sa mn;kl vkyk-
18

R;kus okpLifr feJkP;k rkRi;Z Vhdsoj Lor%ph
foLr`r Vhdk rj fyfgyhp vkgs i.k ;kf’kok;
R;kps Lora= xzaFkfg izfl) vkgsr-U;k;dqlqekåtfy
vkf.k^^ckS) f/kDdkj** gs R;kps nksUgha xzaFk vktfg
fo}r~oxakZr fo}Ùksps |ksrd Eg.kwu letys
tkrkr- ckS/nerkuq;k;k’kha dBksj o rdZdZ’k
okX;q/nsa [ksG.;kar rks iVkbZr gksrk- iqjhP;k
txékFkkfo”k;hP;k vk[;kf;dasr rks Eg.krks]^^tj
iqUgk ckS)kapk gYyk Ökkyk rj rqÖks thou ekÖ;k
gkrkr vkgs-**,sÜo;ZeneÙkks∙fl ekeoKk; orZlsA
laizkIrs rq iquckSZ)s en/khuk ro fLFkfr%AA
;ko:u fujhÜojokn [kaMukFkZ mn;ukus dsysys
iz;Ru fdrh fudjkps gksrs gs dGwu vkY;kokpwu
jgkr ukgh- mn;ukuarj o/kZekuksik/;k;] HkkloZK
:fpnÙkfeJ]oYyHk bR;kfn xzaFkdkj fuekZ.k Ökkys-
bloh lukP;k 12 O;k ‘krdkP;k ‘ksoVh ‘ksoVh
ek= U;k;’kkL=h; xzaFkjpuk i)rhr ØkfUr fnlwu
;sÅa ykxyh- ;k ØkUrhpk ik;k xaxs’kksik/;k;kus
?kkryk- ewG U;k;lw=kar fnysY;k vkRek] iqutZUe]
rÙoKku] eks{k bR;kfn v/;kRefo”k;d izes;kapk
fopkj] oknfo|srhy vokUrj fu;e ;kl xaxs’kkus
vkiY;k xzaFkkar Qkjls LFkku fnys ukgh- xaxs’kkP;k
;k iz;RukeqGsa Hkkjrh; rdZ’kkL=kpsa lqLi”V osxGs
19

:i –“VksRiÙkhl ;sÅ ykxys-xaxs’kkus izek.k fopkj
o izes; fopkj ;kapk osxGsi.kk Li”V d:u ,d
izdkjs Hkkjrh; rdZ’kkL=kl mToy Lo:i izkIr
d:u fnys ;kar ‘kadk ukgh- bloh lukP;k 15
O;k ‘krdkP;k e/;ki;ZUr ;k xzaFkkpsa opZLo
fefFkysrhy loZ iafMroxkZoj clwu xsys- gk
loZJs”B xzaFk eSfFky iafMr fefFkysckgsj tkÅ nsr
uOgrs- ijarq oklqnso lkoZHkkSekus eksB;k d”Vkus rks
oaxizns’kakrhy uo}hi uakokP;k izakrkr vk.kyk-
uo}hiakr ;kp oklqnsokus fo|kihB LFkkiwu R;kar
;k xzaFkkps v/;kiufg lq: dsys-;k oklqnsokps nksu
iz[;kr f’k”; >kys- ,d j?kqukFk rkfdZd
f’kjkse.kh vlwu nqljk caxkye/khy oS”.ko
laiznk;kpk laLFkkid pSrU; egkizHkw gk gks;-
fefFkysizek.ks caxkkye/;safg gk xzaFk fo}UekU;
>kyk- R;kuarj R;kpk enzkl] egkjk”Vª] dk’ehj
bR;kfn ykacykacP;k izakrkrfg izlkj >kyk- xsY;k
iakp’ksa o”kkZrhy laLÑr xzaFk ikfgys rj izR;sd
‘kkL=koj ;k xzaFkkpk ifj.kke vlY;kps fnlwu
;sbZy- ;keqGsap ;k xzaFkkoj Vhdk miVhdkfg Qkj
>kysY;k vkgsr- ewG xzaFk lqekjs 300 ikuakpk
vlyk rjh R;kP;kojhy Vhdakph ikusa ekstY;kl
rh ,d yk[k Hkjrhy vls ,dk vk/kqfud rKkpsa
20

Eg.k.ksa vkgs- ;k xzaFkkrhy fo/kku vR;ar dkVsdksj
Hkk”ksar dsysysa vlwu izR;sd dYiuspk ‘kD;
frrdk ckjhd dhl dk<yk vkgs- xaxs’kkpk gk
^rŸofaparkef.k* xzaFk U;k;’kkL=h; bfrgklakrfg
ØkfUrdkjd Bjyk- rh ØkfUr Eg.kts ;k xzaFkkP;k
izHkkokiq<sa izkphu lw= Hkk”;kaps rst fQds iMwu
R;kaps v/;;u v/;kiu can iMwa ykxys- ;keqGsa
xaxs’kkP;k izFksarhy foospukl o xzaFkkl
^^uO;U;k;** vls uako iMysa- xaxs’kksik/;k;kuarj
uO;U;k;kar fo’ks”k izHkko’kkyh Bjysyh O;fä
Eg.kts j?kqukFk rkfdZd f’kjksef.k gh gks;- uo}hi
fo|kihBkar oklqnso lkoZHkkSektoG ;kus ewG
vH;kl dsyk- R;kuarj R;kus fefFkyk fo|kihBakr
tkÅu rsFkhy o`) uS;kf;d i{k/kj feJkpk
ijkHko d:u Lor%P;k cq)hpsa oPkZLo LFkkfir
dsysa- ;kiq<s yksd U;k;fo|slkBha fefFkysis{kak
caxkydMsp ikgaw ykxys- R;kus rÙofparke.khoj
nf/kfr&frpsp nqljsa uako f’kjksef.k&gh Vhdk
fyfgyh- tsFks rŸo–“V;k ijaijk pwd fnlyh rsFks
R;kus uo-er iqjLdkjys vkgs- R;kus ijaijsps
ulrs Lrkse ektfoys ukgh- ^^fu;qZfädLrq izoknks
u J)s;%**Eg.kts ;qfäjfgr uqlR;k izoknkoj
J)k Bsowa u;s- vls ,d egRoiw.kZ okD; R;kP;k
21

xzaFkkr vk<Grs- oS’ksf”kdakP;k inkFkZ foHkkx.khph
vkewykxz iqu?kZVuk dj.kkjk inkFkZ[kaMu uakokpk
Lora= xzaFkfg ;kus fyfgyk vkgs- U;k;’kkL=kP;k
bfrgklakr j?kqukFk rkfdZd f’kjkse.khpsa uako
oSf’k”B;kus pedwu fnlrs- dkj.k uo fopkjkaph
fufeZrh ;k xzaFkdkjkcjkscjp u”V >kyh- ;kuarj
iq<hy dkGkarhy xzaFkdkjkl vkf.k fo}kukl uohu
inkFkZ ‘kks/kukis{kka R;kP;k ekaM.kharhy dkVsdksj-
i.kkpsp egRo okVwa ykxys gksr-s ;k izFkspk
fodkl x/kk/kjkuas dsyk vls Eg.k.;kl izR;ok;
ukgh- ;k xnk/kj vFkok xnk/kj HkÍkpk;kZuarj
U;k;n’kZukph ok< eqGhp >kyh ukgh vls EgVys
rjh pkysy- xnk/kjkus ikafMR;kP;k vfHk:phl tas
oG.k fnys R;keqGsa ewG ^fparkef.k* vkf.k
^f’kjksef.k* ;k xzaFkkapsa v/;;ufg laiq”Vkar vkys-
vkt Hkkjrh; iafMr oxkZe/;sa fparke.khojhy
Vhdkapk vH;kl izpfyr vlyk rjh ^ewG
fparkef.k* vH;klysyk ,dfg iafMr miyC/k
ukgh- rlsp ;k ØkfUrdkjd ewG xzaFkkpsa
dks.kR;kfg Hkk”ksar Hkk”kkarj miyC/k gksr ukgh- ;k
loZ nqjoLFkspsa ewG txnh’k vkf.k xnk/kjkauh
vkiY;k ‘kkfCnd voMacjkeqGsa jksoys- U;k;
‘kkL=kojhy xzaFkdkjkapk xnk/kjkcjkscjp ‘ksoV
22

>kyk vls EgVY;kl Qkjls fc?kM.kkj ukgh-
xnk/kjkuarj Qkjls xzaFkdkj ;k ‘kkL=kar izfl)hl
vkys ukghr- dakgha fdjdksG xzaFkdkj vxnh
lkekU; vH;kldklkBha fuekZ.k >kys-U;k;iapkuu
bloh lu 1634 vkf.k véaHkê bloh lu
1623 gs nksup xzaFkdkj >kys-fo‹oukFk iapkuukus
^Hkk”kkifjPNsn* fygwu R;koj R;kus Lor%p^fl)kar
eqäkofy* ukaokph Vhdk fyfgyh vkgs- véaHkÍkus
^rdZlaxzg* uakokpk ckycks/k izkFkfed xzaFk fygwu
R;koj R;kus Lor%p ^nhfidk* uakokph Vhdk
fyfgyh vkgs-
^^U;k;’kkL=h; fo”k;kapk vkf.k dYiuakpk
fodkl**;k fn’ksus fo}kuakuh v|ki Qkjlk iz;Ru
dsysyk ukgh- gh ,d eksBh m.kho jkgwu xsyh
vkgs-

vkIik Bksacjs-
fnuakd % 6@4@2007