1

Øekad 1% Kkunso’kd
Ekgkjk”Vªkar jkensojk; ;knoakP;k dkGakr
egkuqHkkokauh vkiY;k iaFkkph vksG[k d:u nsrkuk
ejkBharp xzaFk jpuk dsyh- ;k iUFkakrhy dfo
vkf.k ys[kdkauk egkjk”Vª o ejkBh Hkk”kk ;k fo”k;ha
vR;ar vkLFkk gksrh] vkReh;rk gksrh] izse gksrsa-

EkwGps xqtZj izkUrakrhy vlwufg Lor%
pØ/kjakuk egkjk”Vªkfo”k;ha fo’ks”k vfHkeku vlY;kpsa
fnlwu ;srsa- R;kaps gs mn~xkj igk] ^^dkuMkns’kk]
rsyax.kns’kk] u opkosa] egkjk”Vªh; vlkosa]** vlk
vkiY;k vuq;k;kauk xzaFk-ys[kuklaca/kha R;kapk naMd
gksrk- pØ/kjkaps f’k”; ukxnsokpk;Z ;kauh
^^czãfo|sl ekfÖk;k Lokehpk ifjok: ukxoSy dha]
Hk.kksuh gs ds’kok] laLÑr lw=c) izdj.k u djh
rwa** vlk vkiY;k f’k”;kauk mins’k dsyk vkgs-

;k iaFkkrhy dohauh o xzaFkdkjkauh
ejkBharp mPpntkZph vyksV ok³~e; fufeZrh dsyh-
egkjk”Vª ‘kkjnspas gas viwoZ nkyu m?kMs ÖkkY;kiklwu
ejkBh Hkk”ksyk iq”Vh vkyh] frpsa lkSan;Z ok<yas-
2

ejkBhps iMlkn R;kauh vklsrq-fgekpyki;ZUr
ikspfoys- R;akuh vkiY;k ijhusa egkjk”Vª Hkk”ksph Qkj
pakxyh lsok dsyh- x|-i|kps vusdfo/k uequs]
o.kZu izdkjkaph fofo/krk] jlkGi.kk] vks?korh ‘kSyh
v’kk fo’ks”kkauh egkuqHkkokauh ejkBh Hkk”kk ltfoyh-
brdsp uOgsa] rj egkjk”Vª Hkk”kspsa O;kdj.k vkf.k
dks’k bR;kfn ok³~e;fg fuekZ.k dsys- egkuqHkko
dfo vkf.k ys[kd ;kapsa ejkBhfo”k;hapsa gsa izse ikgwu
eu eksgwu tkrsa-

ek=]dkGkP;k vks?kakr ?kMr vlysY;k
;k Hkk”ksyk Kkunsoakuh varckZá mtGwu vf}rh;
izfr”Bk feGowu fnyh- ^^ekÖkk ejkBkfp cksyaw
dofrdsaA ijh ve`rkrasfg iStk ftadasA ,Slh v{kjsa
jfldsaA esGohuAA v’kh izfrKk d:u R;kauh rh
rMhl usyh- R;kauh ejkBh Hkk”kspsa v{kj’k% lksusa
dsysa- ;keqGsap laLÑr Hkk”kk dksfonkapk ejkBh
Hkk”kslaca/khpk iwoZxzg lewG cnyyk- ;kf’kok;
Kkunsokauh ejkBh Hkk”ksyk ,d Qkj osxGh izfr”Bk
izkIr d:u fnyh vkf.k R;kapsa gsa ejkBh Hkk”ksyk
Qkj eksBs ;ksxnku vkgsa-

- R;k dkGkar vkf.k gtkjks o”kkZiklwu oSfnd
3

/kekZpsa j{k.k dj.kkjk fo|klaié czkã.k oxZ gksrk-
dks.krkfg /keZiaFk vlyk rjh rks osnkP;k vfo:)
vlsy rjp ekU;rk ikorks v’kh fLFkrh gksrh-
^JqrsfjokFakZLe`frjUoxPNr~* gkp U;k; loZ ckcrhar
ykxw gksrk- ^^osnks∙f[kyks∙/keZewye~** Hkkjrh;kaph gh
thou-fu”Bk gtkjksa o”kkZiklwu pkyr vkysyh vlwu
rh v<G jkfgysyh vkgs- Hkkjrh; /keZ o rÙoKku
;kapsa Lo:i lokZFkkZusa vkf.k iw.kkZFkkZusa fo’kn dj.kkjs
izLFkku=;&Eg.kts n’kksifu”knsa] czãlw=sa] vkf.k Jh
Hkxor~ xhrk&;k Hkjr[k.Makr izek.kHkwr gksÅu
jkfgysysa vkgsa-

;keqGsa ,dknh O;fä vxnh egkekuokP;k
;ksX;rsph vlwufg tj rh izLFkku=;kfo”k;ha dkagha
fyghr ulsy rj fo}Ttukauk rh vknj.kh; gksr
ukgh- izLFkku=;akrhy ,d xzaFk tks xhrk rksp
Kkunsokauh Hkk”;klkBha&VhdslkBha&dka fuoMyk(
nqljk ,dknk xzaFk dka fuoMyk ukgh ;kpsa dkj.k
vkrak vkiY;k /;kuha ;sbZy- nqljsa vls dha] xhrkp
dka fuoMyh] czãlw=sa dak ?ksryh ukghr\ ;kpsa [kjs
dkj.k vls dha] Hkxor~xhrk gk nSuafnu O;ogkjkar
vl.kkÚ;k cgqtu lektkpk xzaFk vkgs- xhrk loZ
osnkapk vdZ vkgs ;keqGsap thoukpsa [kjs lkFkZd
dj.kkjk xzaFkjkt vkgs- ‘k³~djkpk;Z Eg.krkr]^^rfnna
4

xhrk’kkL=a leLr osnkFkZ lkjlaxzgHkwra nqfoZKs;kFkZe~A
rnFksZ foKkrs leLr iq:”kkFkZ flf)% vr% rf}oj.ks
;Ru% fØ;rs e;kA** xhrk-‘kk³~dj-miksn~?kkr-Hkk”;-

vkpk;kZuh izkekf.kdi.ksa vkf.k uezrkiwoZd oLrq-
fLFkrh fuosnu dsyh vkgs dha] xhrk nqfoZKs;kFkZ
vkgs- ^^vr% rr~ fooj.ks e;k ;Ru% fØ;rs A**
Eg.kwu R;kP;k fooj.kklkBha ekÖ;kdMwu iz;Ru
dsyk tkr vkgs- vlk deZf.k iz;ksx R;kauh ;ksftyk
vkgs- czãlw= Hkk”;kar ^o;a czwe%* v’kh xtZuk
dj.kkÚ;k vkpk;akZph xhrkHkk”;karhy vxfrdrsph
Hkk”kk xhrsph egkurkp n’kZfors- ew[kZ usgeh Bkei.ks
lkaxrks ek= izcq) tckcnkjhusa] tiwu cksyrks-
nqfoZKs;kFkZrk gh xhrslaca/kha oLrqfLFkrhp vkgs( i.k
vkpk;akZph rh uezrk R;kaP;k mÙkqax Kkukpk lgt
ifj.kke Eg.kwu ekukoh ykxsy- ;k lanHkkZr okeu
iafMrkaph ^;FkkFkZ nhfidk* igk- Li”V cksy.;kph
t:jh ukgha- dks.kkykfg frP;klaca/kha eukseu
tk.kosy-

Kkunso Eg.krkr] ,Úgoh eh ew[kZ vkgs]
rjhfg xhrkFkZ dj.;kpsa /kkMl djrkas vkgas] gsa
vkdk’kkyk xol.kh ?kky.;klkj[ks vkgs-
xhrkFkkZlaca/kha oLrqfLFkrh v{kj’k% v’khp vkgs-
5

vkpk;Z vFkok Kkunso ;kar dkMhbrdhfg
vfr’k;ksfä djhr ukghr( ;kcjkscj gsfg [kjs vkgs
dha] gh xks”V rs nks?ks eqäeukusa o fu%ladksp izdV
djrkr ;ko:u izrhr gks.kkjh R;kaP;k Kkukph
xxuk,o<h maph vkf.k lkxjk,o<h [kksyh vkEgka
ikejkauk d’kh dGkoh\ R;kapk xkSjo djrkuk R;kaph
fuank rj gks.kkj ukgh uk! v’khp Hkhfr okVrs-

;kl–‘k gsa ,d mnkgj.k igk] ^^l[k;k
rqÖksfu mís’ksaA HksVko;k tho mYglsA dh fl)fp
HksVh foldqlsA ,sfl;k fcgsAA ;klkBha] ekSukph v{kjsa
HkyhA jpksfu xksBh dsyh esfG;sphAA**

vkpk;Z vFkok Kkunso ;kaP;klaca/kha dakgha
cksy.ksa Qkj Qkj vo?kM vkgs- R;kaP;k
ok³~e;ksn/khar vkdaB cqMkos ;klkj[kk nqljk mik;
ukgh-

vkrak jkfgyk iz’u Hkk”kspk- ejkBh Hkk”kk
gh /keZ o rÙoKku ;kaP;k vFkkZph okgd gksÅa
‘kdrs dka\ /keZ-rÙoKkukpk xgu-xaHkhj vk’k;
ejkBhyk isyosy dka\ [kjsp ,dsdkGha gh Qkj
vo?kM leL;k gksrh- Eg.kwu rj iwoZlwjh
6

yksdHkk”ksarwu osnkFkZ fo’kn dj.;kyk dpjr gksrs-
cjkscjp vkgs rsa! gsa ,-;kxckG;kpsa dkep uOgrsa

ek=] egkjk”Vªakr vlk peRdkj ?kMyk-
osnkFkZ fo’kn dj.kkjk xzaFk ejkBh Hkk”ksar fuekZ.k
Ökkyk- ;kpsa dkj.k Kkunsokaph vlkekU; vkf.k
eguh; ;ksX;rk! EkjkBh Hkk”kspsa us=nhid lkeF;Z
Kkunsokauh izdV dsysa] gk ,d vR;n~Hkwr peRdkjp
?kMyk- vkiY;k vFkZokgd izHkkokusa] xakfHk;kZusa]
Hkk”ksP;k lkSan;kZusa] izlknkusa] vyadkj miekfn
Hkw”k.kkusa] ykfyR;kusa] ‘kkyhursusa vkf.k dkO;e;rsusa
Kkunsokaph fLuX/k-e/kqj ok.kh th ,dne izdV
Ökkyh vkf.k brdh foy{k.k izfr”Bk ikoyh dha]
fo|klaié oxkZph efrp daqfBr Ökkyh] R;kapsa us=
fniysa vkf.k frpk xq.kxkSjo dj.;klkBha
HkY;kHkY;kapsa ‘kCn-HkkaMkjfg viqjs iMaw ykxysa- ;k
egkjk”Vª Hkw-eaMGkar foÜokfe=kykfg yktohy v’kh
uwru l`f”V fuekZ.k Ökkyh- ^b;sa ejkBhfp;sa uxjha*
czãfo|spk lqdkG Ökkyk vkf.k ;kcjkscjp ejkBhusa
dhrhZpk xkSjh’kadj xkByk-

foÜokP;k ok³~e;kar KkusÜojhlkj[kk loakZxlaqnj
xzaFk Ökkykp ukgh-
7

Kkunsokapsa gsa _.k ejkBh Hkkf”kdakuk d/khfg
QsMrk ;s.kkj ukgh- R;kaps ,o<s vuar vkf.k
fpjdkyhu midkj vkgsr dha] R;kaP;k ;k
_.kklkBha gk mHkk egkjk”Vª R;kapk ikbd gksÅu
jkghy vkf.k R;kaP;k eksps-ogk.kk lnSo mjha-f’kjha
/kjsy- rsa _.k’ks”k okpk b;kA u QsMosfp ejksfu;kA
rsa ik;k iMksuh fe;k A lksMfo;ysa AA

vkrka egkjk”Vª fnunf’kZdsae/;sa eh 714 gk
Kkunso‘kd dka ekuyk rs lkaxrks-

rsFk egs’kkUo; laHkwrsA Jh fuo`fÙkukFk lqrsaA
-dsysa Kkunsosa xhrsA ns’khdkj ys.ksaAA

xhrsoj Kkunsokauh gk egkjk”Vª Hkk”kspk vyadkj
?kkryk vkgs- yksd Eg.krkr] Kkunsokauh xhrsoj
Hkk”; dsysa vkgsa] Vhdk dsyh vkgs- eyk ukgha rlas
okVr- ekÖ;k ersa Kkunso gs mitr dfo-izÑrhpas-
R;kapk fiaMp eqGh rlk- rs dkO;p cksyk;psa]
dkO;p txk;psa vls R;kapsa pfj=- R;kauk
yksd dY;k.kklkBha vkf.k izkphu ijaijsP;k
j{k.kklkBha xhrsoj cksy.ksa vko’;d okVyas-
fdacgquk R;klkBhap R;kapk vorkj gksrk- R;kapsa rsa
8

thou-dk;Z gksrsa- vkrka gsa /;kuha ?;k dha] T;kP;k
thoukar dkO; dkBksdkB Hkjysa vkgsa rks nqlÚ;k
osxG;k i)rhusa dls dk; cksy.kkj\

;keqGsap] R;k osGha] Kkunso xhrsoj tas
cksyyas R;kyk dkO; xk;ukpsap Lo:Ik izkIr Ökkysa-
uOgsa] rs mUeqäi.ksa xkrp jkfgys vls EgVY;kl rsa
pwd B:a u;as- R;kapk mÌs’k ,dp]

dkBksdkB Hk:a |k isyk] Qsl HkjkHkj mlGwa |k
izk’ku dfjrak jax txkps] {k.kks{k.kha rs cnywa |k

xhrkFksZfl foÜo Hk:aA-vkuankps vkok:a ekaMaw txkAA

;sFks iwokZ/kZ iw.kZ Ökkyk-
9

Kkunso’kd % mÙkjk/kZ
KkunsokaP;k O;fäRoakrhy dfo] rÙoKkuh vkf.k
vkRekuqHkoh gs rhufg iSyw xhrasojhy foospukP;k
vks?kakr t.kwa ,desdkoj ekr djrkr vls tk.koras-
;keqGsa dfo Kkunso Js”B vkgsr dka rÙoKkuh
vFkok vkRekuqHkoh Kkunso Js”B vkgsr] gk fu.kZ;
dj.ks [kjks[kj vo?kM vkgs- loakZxakuh gs O;fäeRo
brds ,dla/k vkgs dha] rha loZp vaxsa ,dleku
mPp dksVhph vkgsar- R;kar rj-re Hkko djrkp
;sr ukgh- letk cQhZlkj[kk inkFkZ vkgs]
frP;akrhy otu] vkdkj o xksMh rqEgakl osxosxGh
d:u nk[kfork ;srhy dk;\ dfo] rÙoKkuh]
vkRekuqHkoh bR;kfg vusdfo/k vaxkauh le`)
vl.kkjas gas vuqie O;faäÙo vkgsa- ;kp rksMhpsa i.k
O;kogkfjd Hkwfedsoj vlysysa f’kojk;kapsa O;fäÙo-
10

gha nksUgha O;fäÙosa vuqie vkgsr] vf}rh; vkgsr]
vkf.k yksdfoy{k.k vkgsr-

egkjk”Vªakr ,dkis{kkafg ,d vls fdrhrjh
Js”B iq:”k gksÅu xsys vkgsr- i.k Kkunso vkf.k
f’kojk; ;kapsa ;’k vksykaMwu v|ki dks.khfg xsys
ukgh- vkf.k ;kiq<sfg gh xks”V ?kM.;kph ‘kD;rk
v’kD; dksVharhy vkgs- ;k egkjk”Vªokfl;kauh
tUeksTkUeha cgq iq.; dsysza vlysa ikfgts vkf.k
;keqGsap dha dk;] ;k egkjk”Vªkyk gha egku~ ujjRusa
ykHkyha- gsa egkjk”Vªkpsa HkkX; [kjks[kj gsok
okV.;klkj[ks vkgas-

v’kk izdkjsa ;k vuU;lk/kkj.k O;fäÙokauk dsoG
iq:”kJs”B Eg.kkos] rjh viw.kZ oäO;kpk nks”k injha
;srks vkf.k R;kauk jke-Ñ”.kklkj[ks vorkjh iq:”k
Eg.kkosa] rj gsa rjh fdrir ;ksX; gksbZy] ghfg
‘kadk jgkrsp- eksBs tfVy xf.kr vkgs gsa! vxnh
rqt] lxq.k Eg.kks dha] fuxqZ.k js! v’kk- lkj[ks- ek=
;kp HktukP;k vFkkZusa gk isp funku ekÖ;kckcr
eh lksMfoyk vkgs-

rqt lxq.k Eg.kks dha fuxqZ.k js
11

rdZ’kkL= fopkjrsa] bZÜojkyk rqEgha dks.kR;k dksVhar
?kky.kkj\

Jqfr Eg.krs] dks.kR;kp dksVhar ?kky.kkj ukgh-
usfr usfr-

Hkä Eg.krkr] nksUgha dksVhar ?kkywa

Lkxq.k fuxqZ.k ,d xksfoanq jsA

Kkunso Eg.krkr] dksVhp ukghr vkf.k bZÜoj vkgs-
Eg.kwu rdkZpsa dkep ukgha-

Ckki j[kqeknsoho: foðyq jsA

Ekh ;kp rÙokyk vuqljyks vkgs- Kkunso vkf.k
f’kojk; ;k egkjk”VªkP;k ekrhar] ;sFkY;k Mksaxj
ioZrakr] ;sFkhy oujkbZr] b;sa ns’khaP;k tu-thoukar
Ik;kZ;kus txTthoukar v[kaM vkgsr- Eg.kwu rj
vkt ?kMhykfg ejkBh Hkk”kk m.ks KkusÜojh
-¾ 0 Eg.kts dkaghap f’kYyd jgkr ukgh- vkf.k
egkjk”Vª m.ks f’kojk; ¾ 0- v’kh fLFkrh vkgs-
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‘kds ckjk’krsa ckjksÙkjsaA rSa Vhdk dsyh KkunsosaAA
gsa egkjk”VªkP;k thoukarhy viwoZ ;ksx vlysysa
lqo.kZ-laoRlj vkgsa- ;k le;ha ;k egkdkUrakjke?;sa
Kkunsohpk vkfoHkkZo Ökkyk-

;kosGha ,d ;qxifjorZup Ökkysa-
v’kkizdkjs Kkunso egkjk”Vªkps ;qxiq:”k vlY;kps
izR;;kl ;srs- ;kp –“Vhusa R;kauk ‘kddrkZ
Eg.kko;kl dks.krk izR;ok; vkgs\

Kkunsokaph v”VkSizgj Le`fr jgkoh Eg.kwu vkeP;k
^egkjk”Vª iapkax fnunf’kZdsar* vkEgh ‘kkfyokgu
‘kd 12-12 gk Kkunso ’kdkpk izkjaHkdky
Eg.kwu Lohdkjyk vkgs- f’koLej.kklkBha
^^f’kojkT;kfHk”ksd fnu** ;k lkj[kk lq;ksx vU;
dks.krkfg B:a ‘kdr ukgh- dkj.k rks f’ko’kdkpk
izkjaHkdky vkgs- ;k nksu ujksÙkekaP;k dk;akZpsa ;ksX;
ewY;ekiu gks.;klkBha ;klkj[ks lq;ksX; izlax nqljsa
dks.krsp fnlr ukghr-

vkrak Kkunsoklaca/kha brdsp Eg.krak
;sbZy dha] Kkunsoh gsa Kkunsokapsa Lor%fl) Lo:Ik
vkgs- KkunsohP;k 9 gtkj vksO;kar Kkunso iw.kZr%
lkekoys vkgsr- rsFksp R;kapsa [kjs n’kZu gksbZy-
13

KkunsokaP;k thouklaca/kha] izR;{k leksj
vlysyh Kkunsoh] gsa p{kqoSZlR;a izR;{k izek.k vkgs-
ckdhP;k brj izkek.;akpk dkF;k dqV.;akr
dkMhbrdkfg yH;ak’k ukgh- dkj.k KkunsoakP;k
thouakrhy ,dfg ?kVuk ,sfrgkfld–“V;k
v|kiikosrksa fl) >kysyh ukgha vkf.k ;kiq<sfg
gks.ks lqrjke ‘kD; ukgh]

v’kk fLFkrhar fujFkZd HkksGkHkko
d’kklkBha gok\ rks dkagha miyC/kh d:u nsbZy gh
vk’kk O;FkZ vkgs-

LkeFkZ Eg.krkr]

Eg.kksuh ftrqdk HkksGk HkkoA frrqdk vKkukpk
BkoA vKkusa rjh nsokf/knsoA ikfotsy dSlkAA

‘kkfyokgu ‘kd 1212 iklwuKkunso
KkunsohP;k:iakr ?kjk?kjkar vkf.k izR;sdktoG
vkys( rs v|kifg rlsp vkgsr- Kkunsoh rqeP;k
toG vlyh Eg.kts Kkunsofg vfr fudV
vlrkr] gsa lR; lw;Z-izdk’kklkj[ks Li”V vkgsa-
Kkunso gksrs gk Hkze vkgs- rs lnSo vkgsr-
14

vktferhl 713 o”ksZ iw.kZ gksÅu 714 os o”kZ pkywa
vkgsa rjhfg rs lnSo rlsp vkgsr-

^^ns[kk foosdh ts gksrhA rs nksghrsfg u ikgrhA tsa
gks; tk; gsa HkzakfrA Eg.kwfu;kAA rSls ’kjhjkP;k
yksiha A loZFkk uk’kwa ukgh aLo:ihaA Eg.koquh raw gs
ukjksihA Hkzakfr ckikAA

;qxizorZd Kkunso egkjk”Vªkpsa thou vkgsr Eg.kwu
Kkunso’kd eh cqf)iqj%lj Lohdkjyk vkgs-
vktferhl Kkunso’kd 714 vkgs vkf.k f’ko’kd
330 vkgs-

egkjk”Vª EgVys dha] f’koN=irhapsa Lej.k gksrs-;kp
U;k;kusa egkjk”Vªkpsa varthZou Kkunsokauh ?kMfoyas
vkgsa( dkj.k Kkunso egk jk”Vªkpsa fir`rhFkZ vkgsr-
dYiuk d:a dha] egkjk”Vªakrwu KkusÜojhP;k lxG;k
izrh tIr ÖkkY;k- egkjk”VªkP;k dqBY;kfg xkokar o
?kjakr ,dfg izr feGr ukgh- KkusÜojh uqlrh
ikg.;klfg feGr ukgh] v’kh fLFkrh Ökkyh rj
dk; gksbZy\

dk; gksbZy Eg.kwu dk; fopkjrk! vkEgh
xGk dk<wu jMr claw- ,dk|k ek;psa ,dkns ysd:a!
15

R;kph ek; R;kyk lksMwu xsY;koj R;kph dk;
voLFkk gksbZy! vxnh rlsp vkeP;kfg ckcrhar
?kMsy-

KkusÜojh vkeph vkbZ vkgs- egkjk”Vªakrhy lqf’kf{kr-
vf’kf{kr] tk.krs-us.krs] lokZuk bpk yGk ykxyk
vkgs-

KkusÜojh gsa veksfyd jRu vkEgakl izkIr Ökkysa
vkgs-a

veksfyd jRu tksMys js rqtA dak js czã cht
uksG[klhaA Kkunso Eg.ks vfouk’k tksMysA vk.kwuh
Bsfoysa xq:-eq[khaAA

Kkunso Eg.krkr] vkReKku dk;epsa ekÖ;k
gkrakr vkysa vkgsa vkf.k xq:-eq[kkusa ykHkysY;k
‘kCnkar eh rsa lkBowu Bsoysa vkgsa- rh lkBo.k
Eg.kts Kkunsoh] KkusÜojh-

vkf.k rh izdV Ökkyh] R;k laoRljkiklwu eh
Kkunso’kdkpk izkjaHkdky /kjyk vkgs-
16

bfr ys[kulhek

ekxZ’kh”kZ oAA f}fr;k ‘kds 1925
fnuakd % 10@12@2003

Jh- Kkus‹oj nkHkkMs]
lizse ueLdkj-

Rkk:.;klkj[kh vöqr~ oLRkaw txkar nqljha
dks.krhp ukgh- ;kfgis{kak foLe; vlk dha] rk:.;
gh ,deso lqla/kh vkgs] gs useds vksG[kwu vkiys
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fnukad%& vknjiwoZd Lusgksik;u
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