1

Øeakd%3
Ekgkjk”Vª fnu
Ekgkjk”Vªakrhy ifgyk fnu& ^Kkus‹ojh izdV
fnu* nqljk& ^f’kojkT;kfHk”ksd fnu* vkf.k
frljk& ^egkjk”Vª fnu* gk vkgs-

Lak;q‰ egkjk”VªklkBha T;akuh rq:axokl
Hkksxyk] gkyvis”Vk lkslY;k] ts gqrkRek
>kys] R;akuk gk egkjk”Vª d/kharjh folj.ks
‘kD; vkgs dk\

iwohZ eqacbZ byk[kk gksrk- ¼Bombay
province ½- R;kosGha ^eqacbZ ejkB;akph* vls
uqlrs Eg.kk;ps- frP;koj [kjk gô
xqtjkFkh lakxr gksr-s rh xqtjkFkyk tksMkoh
Eg.kwu rs vkdk’k-ikrkG ,d djhr gksrs-
2

eqacbZ byk[;akrhy ejkBh Hkkf”kd
ijkdk”Bsph ftÌ BsÅu izk.ki.kkusa y<ys-
f’koN=irhizek.ksa R;akuk Lodh; Eg.kts
jkT;’kklu vkf.k ijdh; Eg.kts fnYyharhy
e/;orhZ lŸkk ;k ‘k=aw’kha lrr iakp o”ksZ
fpoVi.kkusa >aqt |koh ykxyh-

;k jkT;kyk izkphu ijaijs’kha fuxfMr vls
Lor%psa uako uOgrsa- Lor%ph vksG[k
¼Identity½ uOgrh- xksijk”Vª] uyjk”Vª]
ik.Mqjk”Vª] vijkUr] fonHkZ vkf.k v’ed
feGwu egkjk”Vª gksrks ;kph tk.kho uOgrh-
egkdkUrkjkiklwu egkjk”Vª gk ‘kCn :< >kyk
gksrk] gsa /;kuha ?;kosa- ;k egkjk”Vªkyk bloh
lu iwoZ 1 gtkj o”kakZph izkphu ijaijk vkgs-

^Ekgkjk”Vª fnu* ;k fno’kha] vkpk;Z izYgkn
ds’ko v=s ;akph u pqdrak vkBo.k gksrs-
la;q‰ egkjk”Vª fufeZrhar R;akpk flOgkpk okVk
gksrk- ;k pGoGhph lxGh /kqjk R;akuhp
okfgyh gksrh- ;k y<;kyk ,d leFkZ usr`Ÿo
3

feGkys gksrs] gh xks”V R;akP;k dÍj ‘k=awuhfg
ekU; dsyh gksrh-

Kkunsoakph LQwfrZ vkf.k f’koN=irhaph
nhIrh ;k egkjk”Vªakr vej] v[kaM vkgs- rhp
LQwfrZ o nhIrh egkjk”Vªkus v=s ;akP;k:ikusa
iqUgk vuqHkfoyh- vkiY;k Nkrhpk cak/k ?kkywu
ikouf[akM y<fo.kkjk ckthizHkw fdaok
iqjanjlkBha izy;adkjh laxzke dj.kkjk eqjkjckth
;k ujjRuakph vkBo.k d:u ns.kkjh vkpk;Z
v=s ;akph rh f/kIIkkM ewfrZ leksj mHkh Bkdrs-

vkpk;Z v=s ;akps ys[k vkf.k Hkk”k.ksa
Eg.kts ^ftoar vkx* gksrh- ^^vatu daktu
djoanhP;k dkVsjh ns’kk** v’kh R;akph Hkk”kk
‘k=qi{kkyk u[kkxzakuh j‰cackG dj.kkjh
gksrh- lrr 5 o”ksZ ru-eu-/kukusa >qat nsÅu
R;akuh egkjk”Vª-‘k=waP;k vczwph y‰jsa ;kp
egkjk”VªkP;k os’khoj Vakxyh- R;akps vls
f/kaMoMs dk<ys dha] yksdakuk vkiys rksaM
nk[kok;ph R;akuk lks; jkfgyh ukgh-
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;akr usg:lfgr dakWxzslph lxGh cMh
cMh /ksaMs gksrh- ;akpk >kysyk rek’kk lxG;k
Hkkjrkus ikfgyk- ;akr usg:auh Lor%ph fdaer
?kkyfoyh- Hkkjrakrhy vusd jkT;kiSdh
egkjk”Vª ,d jkT;- R;kps izÜu lksMo.ksa
cktwykp jkfgys ek= usg:auh rsFks ghu ntkZpsa
jktdkj.k d:u yksdakps f’kO;k’kki [kkYysa-
gsa igk vf[ky Hkkjrh; usr`Ro! f’kokth dk;
,d okV pqdysyk ns’kHk‰ gksrk- ¿ gh
f’koN=irhfo”k;ha usg:aph ,dsdkGph
eq‰kQGsa vkgsr-À

xqykefxjharwu eq‰ >kysY;k ;k
Lokra«;kP;k dkGakr vkiY;kp yksdakuh
xfyPN jktdkj.k [ksGwu ujlagkjki;ZUr ghu
ikrGh xkBkoh! vls vlsy rj fczVh’klŸkk
dk; okbZV gksrh\ fryk d’kklkBha okbZV
Eg.kk;ps\ dakWxzslokY;akuh Lora= HkkjrkP;k
rksaMkyk dkGa Qklya!!!
5

dk; vlsy rs vlks( e?;orhZ lŸksus
egkjk”Vªk- fo”k;ha usgeh nqtkHkko /kjyk vkgs-
R;kpk nqLokl dsyk vkgs- vkf.k
f’kodkykiklwu gs vls vO;kgr pkyw vkgs-
R;keqGsa egkjk”Vªkyk njosGha vkiysa vfLrRo
>xMwu HkakMwu fl) djkos ykxys vkgs-
e/;orhZ lŸkk egkjk”Vªkph iksdG Lrqrh djsy
i.k d/khfg ;k lŸksus egkjk”VªkP;k ikBho:u
ek;spk gkr fQjfoyk ukgh- vktP;k ,o<;k
lqf’kf{kr vkf.k fo|klaié dkGakrfg fLFkrh
vxnh t’khP;k r’khp vkgs ;kps uoy
okVrs- f’kodky[kaMkiklwu egkjk”Vªkps vkrys
vkf.k ckgsjps fgr’k=w R;kosGha tls gksrs
rlsp] ;kfgosGha] ;kfgifjfLFkrhar vlY;kps
vxnh Li”Vi.ksa fun’kZukl vkys- ;klkBha
vkpk;Z v=s ;akpk ^dÚgspsa ik.kh* ;k
vkRepfj=kpk 5 ok [kaM igk- egkjk”Vª
R;kP;k varckZá ‘k=wauh lnSo loZdkGha
iks[kjysyk vkgs vkf.k njosGha egkjk”Vªkyk
R;klkBha izk.kakfrd y<r |koh ykxyh vkgs-
6

ek= la;q‰ egkjk”Vªkpk eaxy dy’k
vk.k.;klkBha gsp ?kjHksns lw;kZth filkG
yxkyxk iq<s vkys vkf.k R;kpsa Js; vkiY;k
injakr ikMwu ?ks.;klkBha /kMiMys-

iq.;L; QyfePNfUr iq.;usPNfUr ekuo%A
;k yksdakuk iq.;kpsa QG gos vlrs i.k iq.;
udks vlrs- e/;orhZ lŸksps ykpkj vkf.k
dksMxs >kysysa gs lekt daVd] ;akuk iq.;
Eg.kts dk; vkf.k rs d’kk’kh [kkrkr ;kpk
rjh iŸkk vkgs dk;\ iS’kkyk] lŸksyk
vkf.k pSuckthyk pVkoysysa gs ujk/ke vkgsr
dkj.k ;akuh ek.kqdhyk dkfGek vk.k.kkjh
fu?k`Z.k ÑR;sa dsyh- naxy mlGyh rj iksyhl
‘kD;rksa gosar xksGhckj djrkr- vkf.k
rso<;kus naxy vkVksD;akr u vkyh rj
izR;{k xksGhckj dsY;koj ,[kkn nqljk Bkj
>kY;kpsa fun’kZukl ;srs- la;q‰ egkjk”VªkP;k
R;k pGoGhP;k dkGakr ;kp gjke[kksjakuh
ljG xksfGckjkP;k vkWMZlZ fnY;k- R;akr
‘kaHkjkis{kakfg tkLr lR;kxzgh Bkj >kys-
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;akrhy f’korhFkkZoj e`r >kysY;akph la[;k
loakZr tkLr vkgs- ;kosGha csNwV >kysY;k
xksG;akP;k ;k o”kkZoakr ygku eqysafg lqVyh
ukghr- MksD;kyk xksG;k ykxwu dakghaps
v{kj’k% esanw ckgsj vkys- brds Hk;kud
gŸ;kdakM >kysa- yksdekU; fVGd Eg.kkys
gksrs] ^LojkT; gk ek>k tUefl) gô vkgs-*
ek= ;k LojkT;akr eksjkjth vkf.k usg: ;k
gjke[kksj xak/khok|akuh egkjk”Vªakr nqljsa
tkfy;uckx gŸ;kdakM dsys- uarj ;k
xksGhckjkph pkSd’kh\ uako lq)ak dk<wa udk-
Lora= Hkkjrakrhy gs i{kJs”Bh] egkjk”VªkP;k
naMdkj.;akrhy gs jk{kl] ;akuk fnYyhP;k
yadsrhy jko.kkpk m?kMi.ksa ikfBack gksrk- gs
lxGs vkSjaxtsckph vkSjl larku vlysys
ujk/ke vkgsr-

;kuarj [kjh fB.kxh iMyh- v«;akuh
j.kf’kax Qqadysa- ejkBh Hkkf”kd vkf.k jkT;drsZ
;akP;akr Hk;kud >xMk lq:a >kyk- dakgha
[kMs o xMax oxGrak >kMwu loZ i{k vkf.k
8

loZ ejkBh Hkkf”kd ,d= vkys- jktdkj.kakr
,desdakps gkMoSjh vlysysa] dE;qfuLV]
lektoknh] jk”Vªny] fganqŸooknh bR;kfn loZ
i{k vkikiys erHksn fol:u ejkBh Hkk”ksP;k
>saM;k[kkyh [kak|kyk [kaknk ykowu ,d= mHks
jkfgys- ,d Hkyh eksBh QGh fuekZ.k >kyh-
frusa vf[ky egkjk”Vª <oGwu dk<yk-
ejxGysysa] vkGlakr yksG.kkjs x;koG fg
[kMcMwu tkxs >kys- vkf.k loakZuh ,dp
dYyksG mBoyk- ftadwa fdaok e:a v’kk
fu/kkZjkusa y{kko/kh ckgw vkiY;k eqBh vkoGwu
;k Lokra«;-laxzkekyk lTt >kys- egkjk”Vªkpsa
gsa ,sD; gsa rst Hkkjro”kkZP;k vkf.k txkP;k
iqUgk ,dnak izR;;kl vkys- Lokra«;koj
vk?kkr gksrk{k.kha egkjk”Vª dlk mxz o
nhIrheku gksrks ;kpk izR;; fnYyhÜojkP;k
flOgklukyk iqUgk ,dnak vkyk vkf.k ejkBk
eksMsy i.k okd.kkj ukgha ;kph R;kyk [kk=h
iVyh-
9

f’koN=irhauh R;akP;k dkGakr Lodh;
vkf.k ijdh; v’kk ‘k=waP;k ik’kakrwu egkjk”Vª
Hkwfe eq‰ dsyh- vxnh rsap dk;Z vkpk;Z v=s
;akuh ,dk osxG;kp Lo:iakr dsysa- dso<k
>xMk! gtkjksaP;k la[;sus lŸ;kxzghaauh
rq:axokl Lohdkjyk- tsye/;sa tkxk iqjsuk’kh
>kyh] ,o<s lŸ;kxzgh ;sr jkfgys- ‘ksoVh
lŸ;kxzgh dS|akP;k iFkkÚ;k rq:axakrhy
eksdG;k tkxsar vkY;k- eqacbZlg egkjk”VªkP;k
ftYº;akrwu vkf.k vla[; rkyqD;akrwu
vxf.kr ekspsZ fu?kw ykxys-‘kgjak’kgjakrwu vkf.k
xkoakxkoakrwu Hkk”k.ksa vkf.k O;k[;kuakuk t.kwa
m/kk.k vkys- v«;akP;k ^ejkBk* o ^uo;qx*
;akP;k xxuHksnh xtZususa egkjk”Vªakrhy ‘kgjsa
vkf.k [ksMhikMhfg n.kk.kwu lksMyh- ^ejkBk*
izpaM izek.kakr [kiwa ykxyk- ldkG >kyh
dha] yksd ejkBk ph izrh{kk d:a ykxys-
yksd nqljh orZekui=sa okpsukls >kys- ldkG]
yksdlŸkk dkWxzslP;k rkVk[kkyph eaktja gksrh-
^ejkBh ck.;kpsa ,deso eq[ki=* v’kh
^ejkBk* ph dhrhZ fnxar iljyh-
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;k ejkBh Hkkf”kdakP;k y<;akr dfo]
lkfgfŸ;d ‘kkghj] xksa/kGh] oklqnso] HkjkMh]
brdsp uOgsa rj reklxhjfg ;akr lkehy
>kys- gs lxGs egkjk”Vªkph xkSjoxhrsa xkÅa
ykxys vkf.k la;q‰ egkjk”VªklkBha pkyysY;k
;k y<;kpsa egRo vkikiY;k ijhus yksdakuk
lakxwa ykxys- ‘kkghj MQkoj Fkki ek:u Eg.kwa
ykxys]

^vgks] ejkBs xMh rqEgh dk gks futyk A
dk; esY;k vkbZpa nq/k I;kyk\ oklqnso
ldkGP;k izgjakr ejkBh ek.klakuk tkxowa
ykxys rj xksa/kGh jk=hyk xksa/kG ?kkywu
lxG;k nsoakuk vkokgu d:a ykxys dha]
vkepsa gsa vkanksyu ;’kLoh dj.;klkBha rqEgh
lxGs enrhyk /kkowu ;k- vlk vo?kk
egkjk”Vª isVwu mByk- vls gsa tu-vaknksyukps
rstLoh ioZ ikgwu dkWxzslokY;akrhy vusdakpsa
us= ik.kkoys-a lqjokrhyk ;k vaknksyukyk
11

fojks/k dj.kkÚ;k l-dk- ikVyakuh uarj R;akrwu
vax dk<wu ?ksrys-

jkt/kkuh fnYyhoj ejkBh Hkkf”kdakps izpaM
ekspsZ xsys- [kqÌ jkt/kkuhar usg:auh Lor%ph
fdaer ?kkyfoyh- rCcy 5 o”ksZ gk laxzke
pkywa gksrk- 1957 P;k lkoZf=d fuoM.kqdhar
la;q‰ egkjk”Vª lferhus vHkwriwoZ fot;
feGfoyk- [kqÌ vkpk;Z v=s fxjxako ernkj
la?kkrwu cgqerkusa fuoMwu vkys- R;kuarj eqacbZ
egkikfydsP;k fuoM.kqdkfg lferhusa ftadY;k-
19 uksOgsacjyk ,d eSy yakchpk nqljk ekspkZ
fnYyhP;k jLR;ko:u xtZuk djhr
yksdlHksP;k nkjki;;ZUr iksgkspyk-

la;q‰ egkjk”VªkP;k vaknksyukpsa ok<rs mxz
Lo:Ik ikgwu v[ksj dkWxszl ljdkjus f}Hkkf”kd
jkT; eksMwu xqtjkFk o egkjk”Vª gh nksu Lora=
jkT;sa djko;kpk vkf.k eqacbZ egkjk”Vªkyk
|ko;kpk fu.kZ; tkghj dsyk- v[ksj usg:auh
gkj ekuwu fnYyhe/;sa eqacbZlg la;q‰
12

egkjk”Vªkph vf/kÑr ?kks”k.kk dsyh- R;kuqlkj
v[ksj 1 es 1960 yk egkjk”Vª ;k uakokus
Lora= ejkBh jkT; fuekZ.k >kys-

egkjk”Vªakr vkuandYyksG >kyk- ,rÌs’kh;
Eg.kts jkT;’kklu vkf.k ijdh; Eg.kts
e/;orhZ lŸkk ;k jkgw-dsrwaP;k xzg.kakrwu gk
egkjk”Vª eq‰ >kyk vkf.k vkiY;k iw.kZ rstkusa
iqUgk rGiwa ykxyk- vkrak eqacbZlg la;q‰
egkjk”Vªkph fufeZrh >kyh- dso<k HkkX;kpk
fnol rks ! ejkBh eukyk uo-lathouh ns.kkjh
dso<h viwoZ ?kVuk ?kMyh ! ejkBh eusa iqUgk
,dnak Qqyyh- vkepsa [kjs Lo:i vkEgakl
izkIr >kys- vkEgh f’koN=irhaps okjl vkgksr
;kpsa Hkku vkys-

ek= fnYyhokY;akpsa iwohZiklwu er vkgs
dha] egkjk”Vª HkakM[kksj vkf.k jakxMk vkgs-
Eg.kts dk; dha] ^^mldks jgulgudh vkSj
ckrs djusdh reht ugha gSA** gs gjke[kksj
vkEgkl dls okxkoas ;kph vôy f’kdforkr-
13

^lkrlkSS pwgs [kkds fcYyh pyh gtdksA*
vkf.k rh nqlÚ;kl mins’k djrs vkgs- rlkp
gk izdkj vkgs-

egkjk”Vª jakxMk vkgs- dcwy- R;kP;k
okx.;kyk bL=h ukgh- rks jakxMk vkgs i.k
R;kpsa var%dj.k ljG vkgs] R;akr oØrk
ukgh dkj.k R;kP;kik’kha dksMxsi.kk ukgh-
ykpkjh ukgh- ^^jkdV ns’kk] d.k[kj ns’kk]
nxMakP;k ns’kk**vlk gk egkjk”Vª vkgs- R;kyk
oSHkokph] pSuckthph] ,s’k-vkjkekph eqGh-
lq)k vfHkyk”kk ukgh- R;kyk gos rsa Lokra«;!
Lokra«;kpk nqnZE; vfHkfuos’k vl.kkjk vkf.k
R;klkBha izk.ki.kkusa y<.kkjk vlk gk ns’k
vkgs-

;k egkjk”Vªkyk bloh lu iwoZ 1 gtkj
o”kakZph izkphu ijaijk vkgs- ;k ijaijsuqlkj
vkEgh vkepsa thou cny.kkj vkgksr- Eg.kts
R;akr ifjorZu dj.kkj vkgksr- Qkj izkphu
dkGakr uOgsa rj vxnh uthdP;k lkMsrhu’ksa
14

o”kkZiwohZP;k f’kodky[k.Makr gk ns’k Lora=
gksrkp uk! R;kosGha dqBs bloh lu gksrk\
vkrak vlk dks.krk ewyksRikVh cny >kyk
dha] baxztkP;k 150o”kakZP;k xqykefxjhpsa izrhd
vl.kkÚ;k bloh luke/;sa vkEgh xqarwu jgkos\
vkEgh vkeP;k ;k egkjk”Vª Hkwehph vfLerk
lakHkkGyh ukgh rj vkepsa vfLrRop
f’kYyd jgk.kkj ukgh- lokZxakuh gh vfLerk
lakHkkG.ksa gk vkepk Lo/keZ vkgs vkf.k rks
vifjgk;Z vkgs- Eg.kts VkGrak u ;s.kkjk vlk
vkgs- ^^ ^Lo*ykp VkG.ksa rsa gksrs fut/keZ
VkG.;akekthaA R;kP;kp vkJ;kusa izxrh fLFkrh
lk/; b”V vkEgak thAA-**

izFkepk ^egkjk”Vª fnu* dks.krk\ 1es
1960 eqGhp ukgh- vkEgh rks fol:u xsyks
vkgksr- ;k fno’kha eqacbZr iksyhl lapyu
dsys tkrs- ckdh dakgha ukgh- vktfg eqacbZ
byk[;kP;k dkWxzsl ljdkjpsa ekul fnYyhP;k
xqykehP;k fopkjkoj ikslys tkr vkgs gsa
ikgwu uoy okVrs- ;akuk egkjk”Vªkph pkM
15

ukgha Eg.kwu eh eqacbZ byk[kk eqÌke Eg.kkyks-
dkWxszlps] ^dkWxzsl xorklkj[ks* ;k Hkkjrakr
?kk.ksjMs ihd vkgs-

vkeP;k egkjk”Vª iapakx fnunf’kZdsarhy
izFkepk egkjk”Vª fnu vlk&

oS’kk[k ekls mŸkjk;.ks iapE;ak frFkkS
jfookljs vknzkZ fnol u{k=s ‘kkfyokgu ‘kds
1882 ,oaxq.k fo’ks”ks.k fof’k”Bk;ak
‘kqHkiq.;frFkkS Jh f’koN=irh Lej.ksu la;qä
egkjk”Vª jkT;-laLFkkiuk fnuksRloL; ‘kqHkkjaHka
dfj”;s bfr ;kosGha f’ko’kd 287 gksrk-

1 es 1960 psa R;kosGspsa iapakx ikgwu eh gk
frFkh-fuÜp; dsyk vkgs-

vkEgh 3 fnol gk fnuksRlo lktjk djrks-
16

oS’kk[k ‘kq) r`rh;k&v{k¸; r`rh;k& gk
ifgyk fnol- oS’kk[k ‘kq) prqFkhZ&gk nqljk
fnol- vkf.k
oS’kk[k ‘kq) iapeh
egkjk”Vª fnu
gk eq[; fnuksRlo
;k o”khZ Eg.kts ‘kds 1925 yk 44 ok
fnuksRlo gksÅu xsyk vkgs- iq<hy o”khZ
Eg.kts ‘kds 1926 e/;sa oS’kk[k ‘kq)
iapehl 45ok fnuksRlo vkgs-

Ekgkjk”Vª fnu oS’kk[k ‘kq05
f’kojkT;kfHk”ksd-fnu
--T;s”B ‘kq013 =;ksn’kh
;k o”khZ f’ko’kd 330 vkgs- ‘kds 1926
yk 331 ;srks-
17

la;q‰ egkjk”Vª fnu &rhu fnolakP;k
mRlokpk tks dk;ZØe vkgs] R;kpk ri’khy
fnunf’kZdsP;k ,dk ys[kakr eh rks laiw.kZi.ksa
fnyk vkgs-

la;q‰ egkjk”VªkP;k ;k izFke fnukusa ejkBh
ek.kwl o ejkBh eu ;akuk lqizfrf”Br dsys-
vkeP;k ys[kha ;k fnolkpsa eksy Qkj Qkj
eksBs vkgs- ;k fno’kha Kkunso vkf.k
f’koN=irhP;k ;k egkjk”Vªkyk foy{k.k
lathouh izkIr >kyh- dkO;] lkfgR; vkfn
ejkBh {ks=s iqUgk <oGwu fu?kkyh- egkjk”Vª
xkFksyk vkf.k egkjk”Vª xhrakuk iqUgk ,dnak
cgj vkyk-
cgq vlksr lqanj laié dh egkA
fiz; veqpk ,d egkjk”Vª ns’k gkAA
vkIik Bksacjs
ekxZ’kh”kZ vekoL;k ‘kds 1925
fnuakd % 22@12@2003
18

egkjk”VªkP;k bfrgklakrhy la;qä egkjk”Vª
vaknksyukpk dkG gsa ,d rstLoh ioZ gksrs-
egkjk”VªkP;k vfHkekukusa izR;sd ejkBh ek.kwl
R;k dkGakr isVwu mByk gksrk-^eqacbZlg la;q‰
egkjk”V >kykp ikfgts]* gh ,dp xtZuk
lkÚ;k ejkBh eqy[kakr n.kk.kr gksrh- ;k
y<;kph rqyuk f’kodkyhu LojkT;kP;k
vfHkekukP;k Hkkous’khp dsoG djrk ;sbZy-
eqc
a bZlg la;q‰ egkjk”Vªkph LFkkiuk gksÅu
vkt 45 o”ksZ gksÅu xsyh vkgsr- R;kvk/kh 5
o”ksZ la;q‰ egkjk”Vª LFkkiusP;k ekx.khpk y<k
egkjk”Vªakr pkywa gksrk-

vktP;k r:.k fi<hyk ;k y<;kph
iz[kjrk ekghrfg ulsy- vktP;k egkjk”Vªakr
la;qä egkjk”Vª y<;kph vkBo.k iqu%iqUgk
tkxoyh ikfgts] rjp lkjk ejkBh ek.kwl ;k
y<;akr dlk ,d >kyk gksrk] ,deq[kkusa
xtZuk djhr gksrk vkf.k ,dkp Hkkoususa
19

jk=afnol rGeGr gksrk] ;kph tk.kho
vktP;k r:.k fi<hyk gksbZy-
‘kds 1927 b-lu 2005
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Ekgkjk”Vª–HkwikGh
izHkko’kkyh ije eaxyk egkjk”Vª ns’kk A
rqyk izHkkrha izlé ân;sa iz.kke ijes’kk AA /k`0

lº;knzhP;k lglzf’k[kjh mér >kysyk
xksnk] Ñ”.kk] Hkhek ;akuh iquhr dsysyk
ifÜpe fla/kw ca/kq ikfB’kha iwoksZnf/k tkekr
foa/;knzhph maph y{kh lkriqMk izakr
vyadkj t;kps iSB.k] ia<jiqj
vkGanh] pkQG] nsgw] rqGtkiqj
dh iq.ks] jk;xM] f’kousjh] lqanj
20

jt%d.kkyk ykoquh Hkkyha egkjk”Vª ns’kk
rqyk izHkkrha izlé ân;sa iz.kke ijes’kk AA 1AA

ojh] ukp.kh] Hkkr fidforks dksd.kpk izakr
xgw] cktjh] dkiql] ‘kkGq ns’kkoj gksr
dakcG [kaknh] ogk.k ik;ha] Mksbl eqaMkls
‘kkeyo.khZ lku:i ro lksToG et Hkkls
rs foGs dks;rs ‘kL=sa gh gkfrph
rh cVs Bsax.kh HkhesP;k dkfBph
feGforh /kqGhyk dhfrZ ckn’kkfgph
ohjakuk R;k oanu vkeqpsa egkjk”Vª ns’kk
rqyk izHkkrha izlé ân;sa iz.kke ijes’kk AA2AA

ohj izrkih jk; f’kokth N=irh vkeqpk
/keZ jf{k.;k ,dfp dsyk ?kks”k LojkT;kpk
Hkxok >saMk /kU; djh gsa vkuanouHkqou
Lokra«;kP;k tfjiVD;kyk y{kosG ueu
iq.;kbZ iqjyh f’koHkwikph iq<s
is’kos iq.;kps oGys vVdsdMs
lkezkT; ejkBh iljs pksghdMs
Lej.ksa LQqjrsa ân; okdrsa egkjk”Vª ns’kk
21

Rqyk izHkkrha izlé ân;sa iz.kke ijes’kk AA3AA

Hkhek okgh frP;k lqjkoj xkbZ th xhr
rhp ejkBh Hkk”kk vkeqph Blyh ân;akr
Kkus’kakph vksoh] vHkax ok.kh rqd;kph
Üyksd okeuh ftyk Hkw”koh vk;kZ e;qjkph
,dukFk] pks[kk] xksjk] KkusÜoj
jkenkl] rqd;k] ukek] eqäsÜoj
up tkr ikgrks Hkäakph bZÜoj
lareaMGk yoowa ekFkk egkjk”Vª ns’kk
rqyk izHkkrha izlé ân;sa iz.kke ijes’kk AA4AA

eqäkckbZ r’kh tukbZ vkGfors nsok
l˜kokyk lgt ykHkrks eks{kkpk Bsok
xrohjakph iq.; pfj=sa xkÅfu vaxkbZ
ckGk dfjrs egkjk”Vªkph tuuh ok vkbZ
‘kksHkoh vfgY;k gksGdjkph iqjh
rh lrh jek HkV oa’kkyk m)jh
Lokra«; y{eh izpaM laxj djh
izf.kikr vlks ák nsohauk egkjk”Vª ns’kk
22

rqyk izHkkrha izlé ân;sa iz.kke ijes’kk AA5AA